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BasicProperties

of Feedback

APerspective on the Properties of Feedback

A major goal of control design is to use the tools available to keep the error

small for any input and in the face of expected parameter changes. Al-

though in this book we will focus on the selection of the controller transfer

function, the control engineer must be aware that changes to the plant may

be possible that will greatly help control of the process. It is also the case

that the selection and location of a sensor can be very important. These

considerations illustrate the fact that control is a collaborative enterprise

and control objectives need to be considered at every step of the way from

concept to nished product. However, in this book, we consider mainly

the case of control of dynamic processes and begin with models that

can be approximated as linear, time-invariant, and described by transfer

functions. Discussion of the theoretical justication of this assumption is

deferred until Chapter 9, in which the theories of Lyapunov are introduced.

Given a model, the next step in the design is formulation of speci-

cations of what it is that the control is required to do. While maintaining

the essential property of stability, the control specications include both

static and dynamic requirements such as the following:

The permissible steady-state error in the presence of a constant or

bias disturbance signal.

The permissible steady-state error while tracking a polynomial refer-

ence signal such as a step or a ramp.

The sensitivity of the system transfer function to changes in model

parameters.

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166

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

The permissible transient error in response to a step in either the ref-

erence or the disturbance input.

The two fundamental structures for realizing controls are open-loop

control (Fig. 4.1) and closed-loop control, also known as feedback con- Open-loop and closed-loop

control

trol (Fig. 4.3). Open-loop control is generally simpler, does not require a

sensor to measure the output, and does not, of itself, introduce stabil-

ity problems. Feedback control is more complex and may cause stabil-

ity problems but also has the potential to give much better performance

than is possible with open-loop control. If the process is naturally (open-

loop) unstable, feedback control is the only possibility to obtain a stable

system and meet any performance specications at all. Before specic

design techniques such as the root locus are described, it is useful to

develop the equations of systems in general terms and to derive expres-

sions for the several specications in order to have a language describing

the objectives toward which the design is directed. As part of this activity,

a comparison of open-loop to closed-loop control will expose both the

advantages and the challenges of feedback control.

Chapter Overview

This chapter begins with consideration of the basic equations of feed-

back and the comparison of a feedback structure with open-loop control.

In Section 4.1 the equations are presented rst in general form and used

to discuss the effects of feedback on disturbance rejection, parame-

ter sensitivity, and command tracking. In Section 4.2 the steady-state

errors in response to polynomial inputs are analyzed in more detail. As

part of the language of steady-state performance, control systems are

frequently classied by type according to the maximum degree of the

input polynomial for which the steady-state error is a nite constant. In

Section 4.3 the issue of dynamic tracking errors is introduced by con-

sidering a modication of the closed-loop characteristic equation using a

classical structure of proportional, integral, and differential control, the

PID controller. This study will illustrate the interaction of steady-state with

transient performance and will set the tone for the more sophisticated de-

sign techniques to be described in later chapters. Finally, in Section 4.4,

several extensions of the material of the chapter are presented that are

interesting and important, but something of a distraction from the main

issues of the chapter. Issues discussed there are digital controllers, tuning

PIDcontrollers, Truxels formula for error constants, and time-domain sen-

sitivity. The most important of these is the implementation of controllers

in digital form, introduced in Section 4.4.1. If time permits, consideration

of this section is highly recommended because almost all modern con-

trollers are realized by digital logic. A more complete discussion of this

important issue is given in Chapter 8.

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by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

168 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.1

Open-loop control system

y

Controller

D

ol

Plant

G

Input shaping

H

r

U

W

R

4.1 The Basic Equations of Control

We begin by collecting the basic equations and transfer functions that will be

used throughout the rest of the text. For the open-loop system of Fig. 4.1, if we

take the disturbance to be at the input of the plant, the output is given by

Y

ol

= H

r

D

ol

GR +GW (4.1)

and the error, the difference between reference input and system output, is

given by

E

ol

= R Y

ol

(4.2)

= R [H

r

D

ol

GR +GW] (4.3)

= [1 H

r

D

ol

G]R GW (4.4)

= [1 T

ol

]R GW. (4.5)

The open-loop transfer function in this case is H

r

D

ol

G, for which we will use

the generic notation T

ol

(s).

For feedback control, Figure 4.2 gives the basic structure of interest, but

with the disturbance and the sensor noise entering in unspecic ways. We will

take these signals to be at the inputs of the process and the sensor, respectively,

as shown in Figure 4.3. The sensor transfer function is H

y

and may show im-

portant dynamics. However, the sensor can often be selected to be fast and

accurate. If this is the case, its transfer function can be taken to be a constant

H

y

, with units of volts/unit-of-output. The reference input r has the same units

Figure 4.2

Feedback control system

Y

Controller

D

cl

Plant

G

Sensor

H

y

Input shaping

H

r

W

V

R

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by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Section 4.1 The Basic Equations of Control 169

Figure 4.3

Basic feedback control

block diagram

Y

V

Controller

D

cl

Plant

G

Sensor

H

y

Input shaping

H

r

R

W

u

as the output, of course, and the input lters transfer function is H

r

, also with

units of volts/unit-of-output. An equivalent block diagram is drawn in Fig. 4.4,

with controller transfer function D(s) = H

r

D

cl

and with the feedback transfer

function as the ratio H =

H

y

H

r

. It is standard practice, especially if H

y

is con-

stant, to select equal scale factors so that H

r

= H

y

and the block diagramcan be

drawn as a unity feedback structure as shown in Figure 4.5. We will develop the

equations and transfer functions for this standard structure. When we use these

equations later, it will be important to be sure that the preceding assumptions

actually apply. If the sensor has dynamics that cannot be ignored, for example,

then the equations will need to be modied accordingly.

For the feedback block diagram of Figure 4.5, the equations for the output

and the control are

Y

cl

=

DG

1 +DG

R +

G

1 +DG

W

DG

1 +DG

V, (4.6)

U =

D

1 +DG

R

DG

1 +DG

W

D

1 +DG

V. (4.7)

Perhaps more important than these is the equation of the error, E

cl

= R Y

cl

:

E

cl

= R

_

DG

1 +DG

R +

G

1 +DG

W

DG

1 +DG

V

_

(4.8)

=

1

1 +DG

R

G

1 +DG

W +

DG

1 +DG

V. (4.9)

Figure 4.4

Equivalent feedback block

diagram with H

r

included

inside the loop

H

r

D

cl

D G

W

R

Y

V

H

H

r

H

y

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by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

170 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.5

Unity feedback system

when H

r

= H

y

and

letting D = H

r

D

cl

W

R

Y

V

u Controller

D

Plant

G

This equation is simplied by the denition of the sensitivity function

1

and

the complementary sensitivity function T as

=

1

1 +DG

(4.10)

and

T = 1 =

DG

1 +DG

. (4.11)

In terms of these denitions, the equation for the closed-loop error is

E

cl

= R GW +TV. (4.12)

For future reference, it is standard to dene the transfer function around a loop

as the loop gain, L(s). In the case of Fig. 4.4, we have L = DGH, for example.

4.1.1 Watts Problem of Disturbance Rejection

One of the early uses of the steam engine in Britain was in mining, to pump

water out of mines and to haul wagons loaded with coal. In carrying out these

tasks, the steady-state speed of early engines would change substantially when

presented with added torque caused by a new load. To correct the problem,

Watts company introduced the ying ball governor shown in Fig. 1.11, whereby

the speed of the engine was fed back to the steam chest to change the torque

of the engine. We will illustrate the principles of operation of this feedback

innovation through study of the simple equations of motion of an engine with

speed

e

and external load torque

.

Equation (4.13) describes the dynamics of an engine with inertia J , viscous

friction b, control u, and load torque

(t ):

J

e

+b

e

= A

1

u +A

2

. (4.13)

1

The reason for the name, coined by H. W. Bode, will be given shortly.

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Section 4.1 The Basic Equations of Control 171

If we take the Laplace transform of Eq. (4.13), let the velocity transform be

e

(s) and the transformof the load torque be T

equations of open-loop speed control as

sJ

e

(s) +b

e

(s) = A

1

U(s) +A

2

T

(s), (4.14)

sJ

e

(s) +b

e

(s) = A

1

[U(s) +

A

2

A

1

T

(s)], (4.15)

s

e

(s) +

e

(s) = A[U +W]. (4.16)

In deriving Eq. (4.16), we have dened the parameters = J/b, A = A

1

/b,

and the disturbance variable to be W =

A

2

A

1

T

equation is

e

(s) =

A

(s +1)

U(s) +

A

(s +1)

W(s) (4.17)

= G(s)[U(s) +W(s)] (4.18)

= G(s)W(s) if U(s) = 0. (4.19)

In the feedback case, with no reference input and with control proportional to

error as U = K

cl

e

, the equations of proportional feedback control are

s

e

(s) +

e

(s) = A[K

cl

e

+W], (4.20)

e

(s) = G(s)K

cl

e

(s) +G(s)W, (4.21)

[1 +GK

cl

]

e

(s) = GW, (4.22)

e

(s) =

G

1 +GK

cl

W. (4.23)

In the open-loop case, if the control input is U(s) = 0 and W =

w

o

s

, the nal

value theorem gives

2

ss

= G(0)w

o

= Aw

o

. (4.24)

To make the comparison with the closed-loop case, suppose that G(0) = 1,

w

o

= 1, and just for fun, we take the controller gain to be K

cl

= 99. The steady-

state output in the open-loop case is

ss

= 1, and in the closed-loop case it is

ss

=

1

1+GK

cl

s0

=

1

1+99

= 0.01. Thus the feedback system will have an error

to disturbance that is 100 times smaller than in the open-loop case. No wonder

Watts engine was a success!

2

We assume for the moment that G(0) is nite.

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172 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

This result is a particular case of application of the error equations. From

Eq. (4.4) the error in the open-loop case is E

ol

= GW, and from Eq. (4.12)

in the feedback case the error is E

cl

= GW = E

ol

.Thus, in every case,

the error due to disturbances is smaller by a factor in the closed-loop case

compared with the open-loop case.

Major advantage of feedback

System errors to constant disturbances can be made smaller with feedback

than they are in open-loop systems by a factor of =

1

1+DG(0)

, where DG(0)

is the loop gain at s = 0.

4.1.2 Blacks Problem: Sensitivity of System

Gain to Parameter Changes

During the 1920s, H. S. Black was working at Bell Laboratories to nd a design

for an electronic amplier suitable for use as a repeater on the long lines of the

telephone company. The basic problem was that electronic components drifted

and he needed a design that maintained a gain with great precision in the face of

these drifts. His solution was a feedback amplier. To illustrate the advantages

he found, we compare the sensitivity of open-loop control with that of closed-

loop control when a parameter changes. The change might come about because

of external effects such as temperature changes, because of aging, or simply

from an error in the value used for the parameter from the start. Suppose that

the plant gain in operation differs from its original design value of A to be

A +A, which represents a fractional change of

A

A

. The open-loop controller

gain is taken to be xed at D

ol

(0) = K

ol

. In the open-loop case the nominal

overall gain is T

ol

= K

ol

A,

3

and the perturbed gain would be

T

ol

+T

ol

= K

ol

(A +A) = K

ol

A +K

ol

A = T

ol

+K

ol

A.

Thus, T

ol

= K

ol

A. To give a fair comparison, we compute the fractional

change in T

ol

, denedas T

ol

/T

ol

for a givenfractional change in A. Substituting

the values, we nd that

T

ol

T

ol

=

K

ol

A

K

ol

A

=

A

A

. (4.25)

This means that a 10% error in A would yield a 10% error in T

ol

. H. W. Bode Sensitivity

called the ratio of T/T to A/A the sensitivity of the gain with respect to

the parameter A. In the open-loop case, therefore, = 1.

The same change in A in the feedback case (Eq. (4.23)) yields the new

steady-state feedback gain

T

cl

+T

cl

=

(A +A)K

cl

1 +(A +A)K

cl

,

3

We use T

ol

and T

cl

for the open-loop and closed-loop transfer functions, respectively. These

are not to be confused with the transform of the disturbance torque T

ol

used earlier.

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Section 4.1 The Basic Equations of Control 173

where T

cl

is the closed-loop gain. We can compute the sensitivity of this closed-

loopgaindirectlyusingdifferential calculus. Theclosed-loopsteady-stategainis

T

cl

=

AK

cl

1 +AK

cl

.

The rst-order variation is proportional to the derivative and is given by

T

cl

=

dT

cl

dA

A.

The general expression for sensitivity of a transfer function T to a parameter

A is thus given by

T

cl

T

cl

=

_

A

T

cl

dT

cl

dA

_

A

A

= (sensitivity)

A

A

.

From this formula the sensitivity is seen to be

T

cl

A

= sensitivity of T

cl

with respect to A

=

A

T

cl

dT

cl

dA

,

so

T

cl

A

=

A

AK

cl

/(1 +AK

cl

)

(1 +AK

cl

)K

cl

K

cl

(AK

cl

)

(1 +AK

cl

)

2

=

1

1 +AK

cl

. (4.26)

This result, which explains our use of the name sensitivity earlier, exhibits an-

other major advantage of feedback:

Advantage of feedback

In feedback control, the error in the overall transfer function gain is less sen-

sitive to variations in the plant gain by a factor of =

1

1+DG

compared with

errors in open-loop control.

As with the case of disturbance rejection, if the gain is such that 1+DG = 100,

a 10% change in plant gain A will cause only a 0.1% change in the steady-state

gain. The open-loop controller is 100 times more sensitive to gain changes than

the closed-loop system with loop gain of 100.

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Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

174 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

The results in this section so far have been computed for the steady-state

error in the presence of constant inputs, either reference or disturbance. Very

similar results can be obtained for the steady-state behavior in the presence of

sinusoidal reference and disturbance signals. This is important because there

are times when such signals naturally occur, as with a disturbance of 60 Hz due

to power-line interference in an electronic system, for example. The concept is

also important because more complex signals can be described as containing

sinusoidal components over a band of frequencies and analyzed using super-

position of one frequency at a time. For example, it is well known that human

hearing is restricted to signals in the frequency range of about 60 to 15,000 Hz.

A feedback amplier and loudspeaker system designed for high-delity sound

must accurately track any sinusoidal (pure tone) signal in this range. If we take

the controller in the feedback system shown in Fig. 4.5 to have the transfer

function D(s) and we take the process to have the transfer function G(s), then

the steady-state open-loop gain at the sinusoidal signal of frequency

o

will be

|D(j

o

)G(j

o

)| and the error of the feedback system will be

|E(j

o

)| = |R(j

o

)|

1

1 +D(j

o

)G(j

o

)

.

Thus, to reduce errors to 1% of the input at the frequency

o

, we must make

|1+DG| 100 or |D(j

o

)G(j

o

)|

>

this loop gain over the range 260 215,000. We will revisit this concept

in Chapter 6 as part of the design based on frequency response techniques.

4.1.3 The Conict with Sensor Noise

Finally, it must be noticed that the feedback system error has a term that is

missing from the open-loop case. This is due to the sensor, which is not needed

in the open-loop case. The error due to this term is E

cl

= TV and will be small

if T is small. Unfortunately, keeping both error due to W and error due to V

small requires that in the one case be small and in the other case T be small.

However, Eq. (4.11) shows that this is not possible. The standard solution to this

dilemma is frequency separation. The reference and the disturbance energies

are typically concentrated in a band of frequencies below some limitlets call

it

c

. On the other hand, the sensor can usually be carefully designed so that

the sensor noise V is held small in the low-frequency band below

c

, where the

energy in R and W are substantial.

4

Thus the design should have small where

R and W are large and where V is small, and should then make T be small (and

necessarily larger) for higher frequencies, where sensor noise is unavoidable.

It is compromises such as this that will occupy most of our attention in the

design of controllers in later chapters.

4

The moral of this is that money spent on a good sensor is usually money well spent.

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Section 4.1 The Basic Equations of Control 175

4.1.4 The RADAR Problem: Tracking a Time

Varying Reference

In addition to rejecting disturbances, many systems are required to track a mov-

ing reference, for which the generic problem is that of a tracking RADAR. In

a typical system, electric pulses are sent from a parabolic antenna, the echoes

from the target airplane are received, and an error between the axis of the an-

tenna and the vector pointing to the target is computed. The control is required

to command the antenna pointing angles in such a way as to keep these vectors

aligned. The dynamics of the systemare of central importance. Aconstant-gain

open-loop controller has no effect on the dynamics of the system for either

reference or disturbance inputs. Only if an open-loop controller includes a dy-

namic input lter, H

r

(s), can the dynamic response to the reference signal be

changed, but the plant dynamics will still determine the systems response to

disturbances. On the other hand, feedback of any kind changes the dynamics of

the system for both reference and disturbance inputs. In the case of open-loop

speed control, Eq. (4.17) shows that the plant dynamics are described by the

(open-loop) time constant . The dynamics with proportional feedback control

are described by Eq. (4.23), and the characteristic equation of this system is

1 +GK

cl

= 0, (4.27)

1 +

AK

cl

s +1

= 0, (4.28)

s +1 +AK

cl

= 0, (4.29)

s =

1 +AK

cl

. (4.30)

Therefore, the closed-loop time constant, a function of the feedback gain K

cl

,

is given by

cl

=

1 +AK

cl

, and is decreased as compared with the open-loop

value. It is typically the case that closed-loop systems have a faster response

as the feedback gain is increased and, if there were no other effects, this is

generally desirable. As we will see, however, the responses of higher order

systems typically become less well dampedandeventually will become unstable

as the gain is steadily increased. Thus a denite limit exists on how large we

can make the gain in our efforts to reduce the effects of disturbances and

the sensitivity to changes in plant parameters. Attempts to resolve the conict

between small steady-state errors and good dynamic response will characterize

a large fraction of control design problems. The conclusion is as follows:

Property of feedback

Feedback changes dynamic response and often makes a systemboth faster and

less stable.

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Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

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ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

176 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

4.2 Control of Steady-State Error: System Type

In the speed-control case study in Section 4.1 we assumed both reference and

disturbances to be constants and also took D(0) and G(0) to be nite constants.

In this section we will consider the possibility that either or both of D(s) and

G(s) have poles at s = 0. For example, a well-known structure for the control

equation of the form

u(t ) = k

p

+k

I

_

t

e() d +k

D

de(t )

dt

(4.31)

is called proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) control, and the cor-

responding transfer function is

D(s) = k

p

+

k

I

s

+k

D

s. (4.32)

In a number of important cases, the reference input will not be constant but

can be approximated as a polynomial in time long enough for the system to

effectively reach steady-state. For example, when an antenna is tracking the el-

evation angle to a satellite, the time history as the satellite approaches overhead

is an S-shaped curve as sketched in Fig. 4.6. This signal may be approximated

by a linear function of time (called a ramp function or velocity input) for a

signicant time relative to the speed of response of the servomechanism. In

the position control of an elevator, a ramp function reference input will direct

the elevator to move with constant speed until it comes near the next oor. In

rare cases, the input can be approximated over a substantial period as having a

constant acceleration. In this section we consider steady-state errors in stable

systems with such polynomial inputs.

The general method is to represent the input as a polynomial in time and to

consider the resulting steady-state tracking errors for polynomials of different

degrees. As we will see, the error will be zero for input polynomials below a

certain degree, and will be unbounded for inputs of higher degrees. A stable

system can be classied as a system type, dened to be the degree of the poly- Denition of system type

nomial for which the steady-state system error is a nonzero nite constant. In

the speed-control example, proportional control was used and the systemhad a

constant nite error to a step input, which is an input polynomial of zero degree;

therefore this systemis called a type zero (type 0) system. If the error to a ramp

or rst-degree polynomial is a nite nonzero constant, such a system is called

type one (type 1), and so on. System types can be dened with regard to either

reference inputs or disturbance inputs, and in this section we will consider both

Figure 4.6

Signal for satellite tracking

Time (sec)

u

s

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Section 4.2 Control of Steady-State Error: System Type 177

classications. Determining the system type involves calculating the transform

of the system error and then applying the Final Value Theorem. As we will see,

a determination of system type is easiest for the case of unity feedback, so we

will begin with that case.

4.2.1 System Type for Reference Tracking:

The Unity Feedback Case

In the unity feedback case drawn in Fig. 4.5, the system error is given by

Eq. (4.9). If we consider only the reference input alone and set W = V = 0,

then, using the symbol for loop gain, the equation is simply

E =

1

1 +L

R = R. (4.33)

To consider polynomial inputs, we let r(t ) = t

k

1(t ), for which the transform

is R =

1

s

k+1

. As a generic reference nomenclature, step inputs for which k = 0

are called position inputs, ramp inputs for which k = 1 are called velocity

inputs, and if k = 2, the inputs are called acceleration inputs, regardless of

the units of the actual signals. Application of the Final Value Theorem to the

error gives the formula

lim

t

e(t ) = e

ss

= lim

s0

E(s) (4.34)

= lim

s0

s

1

1 +L

R(s) (4.35)

= lim

s0

s

1

1 +L

1

s

k+1

. (4.36)

We consider rst a systemfor which L has no pole at the origin and a step input

for which R(s) =

1

s

. In this case, Eq. (4.36) reduces to

e

ss

= lim

s0

s

1

1 +L

1

s

(4.37)

=

1

1 +L(0)

. (4.38)

We dene such a system to be type 0 and we dene the constant L(0)

= K

p

as

the position error constant. If L has one pole at the origin, we could consider

both step and ramp inputs, but it is quite straightforward to evaluate Eq. (4.36)

in a general setting. For this case, it is useful to be able to describe the behavior

of the controller and plant as s approaches 0. For this purpose, we collect all

the terms except the pole(s) at the origin into a function L(s), which is thus

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178 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

nite at s = 0 so that we can dene the constant L

o

(0) = K

n

and write the loop

transfer function as

L(s) =

L

o

(s)

s

n

. (4.39)

For example, if L has nointegrator, then n = 0. If the systemhas one integrator,

then n = 1, and so forth. Substituting this expression into Eq. (4.36), we have

e

ss

= lim

s0

s

1

1 +

L

o

(s)

s

n

1

s

k+1

(4.40)

= lim

s0

s

n

s

n

+K

n

1

s

k

. (4.41)

From this equation we can see at once that if n > k, then e = 0, and if n < k,

then e . If n = k = 0, then e

ss

=

1

1+K

0

, and if n = k = 0, then e

ss

=

1

K

n

. If

n = k = 0, the input is a zero-degree polynomial otherwise known as a step or

position, the constant K

o

is called the position constant, written as K

p

, and

the system is classied as type 0, as we saw before. If n = k = 1, the input is

a rst-degree polynomial, otherwise known as a ramp or velocity, the constant

K

1

is called the velocity constant, written as K

v

, and the system is classied

type 1. In a similar way, systems of type 2 and higher types may be dened.

The type information can be usefully gathered in a table of errors as follows:

TABLE 4.1

Errors as a Function of System Type

Input

Type Step (Position) Ramp (Velocity) Parabola (Acceleration)

Type 0

1

1 +K

p

Type 1 0

1

K

v

Type 2 0 0

1

K

a

The most common case is that of simple integral control leading to a type

1 system. In this case, the relationship between K

v

and the steady-state error Type 2 systems

to a ramp input is shown in Fig. 4.7. Looking back at the expression given

for D

c

G in Eq. (4.39), we can readily see that the several error constants can

be calculated by counting the degree n of the poles of L at the origin (the

number of integrators in the loop with unity gain feedback) and applying the

appropriate one of the following simple formulas

K

p

= lim

s0

L(s), n = 0, (4.42)

K

v

= lim

s0

sL(s), n = 1, (4.43)

K

a

= lim

s0

s

2

L(s), n = 2. (4.44)

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Section 4.2 Control of Steady-State Error: System Type 179

Figure 4.7

Relationship between ramp

response and K

v

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Time (sec)

r, y

r

y

1

K

e

ss

EXAMPLE 4.1 System Type for Speed Control

Determine the system type and the relevant error constant for the speed-control exam-

ple shown in Fig. 4.4, with proportional feedback given by D(s) = k

p

. The plant transfer

function is G =

A

s+1

.

Solution. In this case, L =

kpA

s+1

, and applying Eq. (4.42), we see that n = 0, as there is

no pole at s = 0. Thus the system is type 0, and the error constant is a position constant

given by K

p

= k

p

A.

EXAMPLE 4.2 System Type Using Integral Control

Determine the system type and the relevant error constant for the speed-control exam-

ple shown in Fig. 4.4, with PI feedback. The plant transfer function is G =

A

s+1

, and in

this case the controller transfer function is D

c

= k

p

+

k

I

s

.

Solution. In this case, the transfer function is L(s) =

A(kps+k

I )

s(s+1)

, and as a unity feedback

systemwith a single pole at s = 0, the systemis immediately seen as type 1. The velocity

constant is given by Eq. (4.43) to be K

v

= lim

s0

sL(s) = Ak

I

.

The denition of system type helps us to identify quickly the ability of

a system to track polynomials. In the unity feedback structure, if the process

parameters change without removing the pole at the origin in a type 1 system,

the velocity constant will change, but the systemwill still have zero steady-state

error in response to a constant input and will still be type 1. Similar statements

can be made for systems of type 2 or higher. Thus, we can say that system type

is a robust property with respect to parameter changes in the unity feedback Robustness of system type

structure. Robustness is the major reason for preferring unity feedback over

other kinds of control structure.

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180 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.8

Block diagram reduction

to an equivalent unity

feedback system

Y D

H 1

G

U E

R

4.2.2 System Type for Reference Tracking:

The General Case

If the feedback H =

H

y

H

r

in Fig. 4.4 is different from unity, the formulas given in

the unity feedback case do not apply, and a more general approach is needed.

There are two immediate possibilities. In the rst instance, if one adds and

subtracts 1.0 from H, as shown by block diagram manipulation in Fig. 4.8, the

general case is reduced to the unity feedback case and the formulas can be

applied to the redened loop transfer function L =

DG

1+(H1)DG

, for which the

error equation is again E =

1

1+L

R = R.

Another possibility is to develop formulas directly in terms of the closed-

loop transfer function, which we call the complementary sensitivity function

T(s). From Fig. 4.4, the transfer function is

Y(s)

R(s)

= T(s) =

DG

1 +HDG

, (4.45)

and therefore the error is

E(s) = R(s) Y(s) = R(s) T(s)R(s).

The reference-to-error transfer function is thus

E(s)

R(s)

= 1 T(s),

and the system error transform is

E(s) = [1 T(s)]R(s) = R.

We assume that the conditions of the Final Value Theoremare satised, namely

that all poles of sE(s) are in the left half plane. In that case the steady-state

error is given by applying the Final Value Theorem to get

e

ss

= lim

t

e(t ) = lim

s0

sE(s) = lim

s0

s[1 T(s)]R(s). (4.46)

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Section 4.2 Control of Steady-State Error: System Type 181

With a polynomial test input, the error transform becomes

E(s) =

1

s

k+1

[1 T(s)],

and the steady-state error is given again by the Final Value Theorem:

e

ss

= lim

s0

s

1 T(s)

s

k+1

= lim

s0

1 T(s)

s

k

. (4.47)

The result of evaluating the limit in Eq. (4.47) can be zero, a nonzero constant,

or innite. If the solution to Eq. (4.47) is a nonzero constant, the system is

referred to as type k. For example, if k = 0 and the solution to Eq. (4.47) is

a nonzero constant equal, by denition, to

1

1+K

p

, then the system is type 0.

Similarly, if k = 1 and the solution to Eq. (4.47) is a nonzero constant, then

the system is type 1 and has a zero steady-state error to a position input and

a constant steady-state error equal, by denition, to 1/K

v

to a unit velocity

reference input. Type 1 systems are by far the most common in practice. A

system of type 1 or higher has a closed-loop DC gain of 1.0, which means that

T (0) = 1.

EXAMPLE 4.3 System Type for a Servo with Tachometer Feedback

Consider an electric motor position-control problem, including a nonunity feedback

system caused by having a tachometer xed to the motor shaft and its voltage (which

is proportional to shaft speed) is fed back as part of the control. The parameters corre-

sponding to Fig. 4.4 are

G(s) =

1

s(s +1)

,

D(s) = k

p

,

H(s) = 1 +k

t

s.

Determine the system type and relevant error constant with respect to reference inputs.

Solution. The system error is

E(s) = R(s) Y(s)

= R(s) T(s)R(s)

= R(s)

DG(s)

1 +HDG(s)

R(s)

=

1 +(H(s) 1)DG(s)

1 +HDG(s)

R(s).

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182 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

The steady-state system error from Eq. (4.47) is

e

ss

= lim

s0

sR(s)[1 T(s)].

For a polynomial reference input, R(s) = 1/s

k+1

, and hence

e

ss

= lim

s0

[1 T(s)]

s

k

= lim

s0

1

s

k

s(s +1) +(1 +k

t

s 1)k

p

s(s +1) +(1 +k

t

s)k

p

= 0 , k = 0,

=

1 +k

t

k

p

k

p

, k = 1.

Therefore the system is type 1 and the velocity constant is K

v

=

k

p

1 +k

t

k

p

. Notice that

if k

t

> 0, this velocity constant is smaller than the unity feedback value of k

p

. The

conclusion is that if tachometer feedback is used to improve dynamic response, the

steady-state error is increased.

4.2.3 SystemType with Respect to Disturbance

Inputs

In most control systems, disturbances of one type or another exist. In practice,

these disturbances cansometimes be usefully approximatedby polynomial time

functions such as steps or ramps. This would suggest that systems also be clas-

sied with respect to the systems ability to reject disturbance inputs in a way

analogous to the classication scheme based on reference inputs. System type

with regard to disturbance inputs species the degree of the polynomial ex-

pressing those input disturbances that the system can reject in the steady state.

Knowing the system type, we know the qualitative steady-state response of the

system to polynomial disturbance inputs such as step or ramp signals. Because

type depends on the transfer function from disturbance to error, the system

type depends on exactly where the disturbance enters into the control system.

The transfer function from the disturbance input W(s) to the error E(s) is

E(s)

W(s)

=

Y(s)

W(s)

= T

w

(s), (4.48)

because, if the reference is equal to zero, the output is the error. In a similar way

as for reference inputs, the system is type 0 if a step disturbance input results

in a nonzero constant steady-state error and is type 1 if a ramp disturbance

input results in a steady-state value of the error that is a nonzero constant. In

general, following the same approach used in developing Eq. (4.41), we assume

that a constant n and a function T

o,w

(s) can be dened with the properties

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Section 4.2 Control of Steady-State Error: System Type 183

that T

o,w

(0) =

1

K

n,w

and that the disturbance-to-error transfer function can be

written as

T

w

(s) = s

n

T

o,w

(s). (4.49)

Then the steady-state error to a disturbance input that is a polynomial of degree

k is

y

ss

= lim

s0

_

sT

w

(s)

1

s

k+1

_

= lim

s0

_

T

o,w

(s)

s

n

s

k

_

. (4.50)

From Eq. (4.50), if n > k, then the error is zero, and if n < k, the error is

unbounded. If n = k, the system is type k and the error is given by

1

K

n,w

.

EXAMPLE 4.4 Satellite Attitude Control

Consider the model of a satellite attitude control system shown in Fig. 4.9(a), where

J = moment of inertia,

W = disturbance torque,

H

y

= sensor gain, and

D

c

(s) = the compensator.

With equal input lter and sensor scale factors, the system with PD control can be

redrawnwithunity feedbackas inFig. 4.9(b) andwithPIDcontrol drawnas inFig. 4.9(c).

Assume that the control results in a stable system and determine the system types and

error responses to disturbances of the control system for

(a) System Fig. (4.9)(b) PD control

(b) System Fig. (4.9)(c) PID control

Solution.

(a) We see from inspection of Fig. 4.9(b) that, with two poles at the origin in the plant,

the system is type 2 with respect to reference inputs. The transfer function from

disturbance to error is

T

w

(s) =

1

Js

2

+k

D

s +k

p

(4.51)

= T

o,w

(s), (4.52)

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184 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.9

Model of a satellite attitude

control: (a) basic system;

(b) PD control; (c) PID

control

(a)

R

D(s)

W

K

K

U

Js

1

s

1

u Y

u

(b)

R

W

Js

2

1

Y

1.0

k

p

k

D

s

(c)

R

W

Js

2

1

Y

1.0

k

p

k

D

s

s

k

I

for which n = 0 and K

o,w

= k

p

. The system is type 0 and the error constant is k

p

,

so the error to a unit disturbance step is

1

kp

.

(b) With PID control, the forward gain has three poles at the origin, so this system is

type 3 for reference inputs, but the disturbance transfer function is

T

w

(s) =

s

Js

3

+k

D

s

2

+k

p

s +k

I

, (4.53)

n = 1, (4.54)

T

o,w

(s) =

1

Js

3

+k

D

s

2

+k

p

s +k

I

, (4.55)

from which it follows that the system is type 1 and the error constant is k

I

, so the

error to a disturbance ramp of unit slope will be

1

k

I

.

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Section 4.2 Control of Steady-State Error: System Type 185

EXAMPLE 4.5 System Type for a DC Motor Position Control

Consider the simplied model of a DC motor in unity feedback as shown in Fig. 4.10,

where the disturbance torque is labeled W(s).

(a) Use the proportional controller

D(s) = k

p

, (4.56)

and determine the system type and steady-state error properties with respect to

disturbance inputs.

(b) Let the control be PI, as given by

D(s) = k

p

+

k

I

s

, (4.57)

and determine the systemtype and the steady-state error properties for disturbance

inputs.

Solution.

(a) The closed-loop transfer function from W to E (where R = 0) is

T

w

(s) =

B

s(s +1) +Ak

p

= s

0

T

o,w

,

n = 0,

K

o,w

=

Ak

p

B

.

Applying Eq. (4.50), we see that the system is type 0 and the steady-state error to

a unit step torque input is e

ss

=

B

Akp

. From the earlier section, this system is seen to

be type 1 for reference inputs and illustrates that system type can be different for

different inputs to the same system.

Figure 4.10

DC motor with unity

feedback

W(s)

A

B

1.0

D(s)

s(ts 1)

A

Y R

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186 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

(b) If the controller is PI, the disturbance error transfer function is

T

w

(s) =

Bs

s

2

(s +1) +(k

p

s +k

I

)A

, (4.58)

n = 1, (4.59)

K

n,w

=

Ak

I

B

, (4.60)

and therefore the system is type 1 and the error to a unit ramp disturbance input

will be

e

ss

=

B

Ak

I

. (4.61)

4.3 Control of Dynamic Error: PID Control

We have seen in Section 4.1 basic properties of feedback control, and in Sec-

tion 4.2 we examined the steady state response of systems to polynomial refer-

ence and disturbance input. At the end of Section 4.1 we observed that propor-

tional control changed the time constant of the simple speed-control system.

In this section the impact of more sophisticated controls on system character-

istic equations is examined in the context of a standard controller structure.

The most basic feedback is a constant Proportional to error. As we saw in Sec-

tion 4.2, addition of a term proportional to the Integral of error has a major

inuence on the system type and steady-state error to polynomials. The nal

term in the classical structure term proportional to the Derivative of error.

Combined, these three terms form the classical PID controller, which is widely The PID (proportional-integral-

derivative) controller

used in the process and robotics industries.

4.3.1 Proportional Control (P)

When the feedback control signal is linearly proportional to the system error,

we call the result Proportional feedback. This was the case for the feedback

used in the controller of speed in Section 4.1, for which the controller transfer

function is

U(s)

E(s)

= D

c

(s) = k

p

. (4.62)

As we saw in Section 4.1.4, the time constant of the feedback system was re-

duced by a factor 1 +Ak

p

by proportional control. If the plant is second order,

as, for example, is a DC motor with nonnegligible inductance, then the transfer

function can be written as

G(s) =

A

s

2

+a

1

s +a

2

. (4.63)

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Section 4.3 Control of Dynamic Error: PID Control 187

In this case, the characteristic equation with proportional control is

1 +k

p

G(s) = 0, (4.64)

s

2

+a

1

s +a

2

+k

p

= 0. (4.65)

The designer can control the constant term and the natural frequency, but not

the damping of this equation. If k

p

is made large to get adequate steady-state

error, the damping may be much too low for satisfactory transient response.

4.3.2 Proportional plus Integral Control (PI)

Adding an integral term to the controller results in the Proportional plus Inte-

gral (PI) control equation Proportional plus Integral

control

u(t ) = k

p

e +k

I

_

t

t

0

e() d, (4.66)

for which the D

c

(s) in Fig. 4.5 becomes

U(s)

E(s)

= D

c

(s) = k

p

+

k

I

s

. (4.67)

This feedback has the primary virtue that, in the steady-state, its control output

can be a nonzero constant value even when the error signal at its input is zero.

This comes about because the integral termin the control signal is a summation

of all past values of e(t ). In fact, the integral term will not stop changing until

its input is zero, and therefore if the system reaches a stable steady state, the

input signal to the integrator will of necessity be zero. This feature means that a

constant disturbance w (see Fig. 4.4) can be canceled by the integrators output

even while the system error is zero.

If PI control is used in the speed example, the transform equation for the

controller is

U = k

p

(

ref

m

) +k

I

ref

m

s

, (4.68)

and the system transform equation with this controller is

(s +1)

m

= A(k

p

+

k

I

s

)(

ref

m

) +T W. (4.69)

If we now multiply by s and collect terms, we obtain

(s

2

+(Ak

p

+1)s +Ak

I

)

m

= A(k

p

s +k

I

)

ref

+AsW. (4.70)

Because the PI controller includes dynamics, use of this controller will change

the dynamic response in more complicated ways than the simple speed-up

we saw with proportional control. We can understand this by considering the

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188 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

characteristic equationof thespeedcontrol withPI control, as seeninEq. (4.70).

The characteristic equation is

s

2

+(Ak

p

+1)s +Ak

I

= 0. (4.71)

The two roots of this equation may be complex and, if so, the natural frequency

is

n

=

_

Ak

I

Ak

p

+1

2

n

. These parameters are

both determined by the controller gains. If the plant is second order, then the

characteristic equation is

1 +

k

p

s +k

I

s

A

s

2

+a

1

s +a

2

= 0, (4.72)

s

3

+a

1

s

2

+a

2

s +Ak

p

s +Ak

I

= 0. (4.73)

In this case, the controller parameters can be used to set two of the coefcients,

but not the third. For this we need derivative control.

4.3.3 Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control (PID)

The nal term in the classical controller is derivative control, D, and the com-

plete three-term controller is described by the transform equation we will use,

namely,

D

c

(s) =

U(s)

E(s)

= k

p

+

k

I

s

+k

D

s, (4.74)

or, equivalently, by the equation often used in the process industries, or

D

c

(s) = k

p

[1 +

1

T

I

s

+T

D

s], (4.75)

where the reset rate T

I

in seconds, and the derivative rate, T

D

, also in

seconds, can be given physical meaning to the operator who must select values

for themto tune the controller. For our purposes, Eq. (4.74) is simpler to use.

The effect of the derivative control term depends on the rate of change of the

error. As a result, a controller with derivative control exhibits an anticipatory

response, as illustrated by the fact that the output of a PD controller having a

ramp error e(t ) = t 1(t ) input would lead the output of a proportional controller

having the same input by

k

D

k

p

= T

D

seconds, as shown in Fig. 4.11.

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Section 4.3 Control of Dynamic Error: PID Control 189

Figure 4.11

Anticipatory nature of

derivative control

T

D

u(t)

0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (sec)

PD

Proportional

Because of the sharp effect of derivative control on suddenly changing

signals, the D term is sometimes introduced into the feedback path as shown

in Fig. 4.12(a), which would describe, for example, a tachometer on the shaft

of a motor. The closed-loop characteristic equation is the same as if the term

were in the forward path, as given by Eq. (4.74) and drawn in Fig. 4.12(b), if

the derivative gain is k

D

= k

p

k

t

but the zeros from the reference to the output

are different in the two cases. With the derivative in the feedback path, the

reference is not differentiated, which may be a desirable result if the reference

is subject to sudden changes. With the derivative in the forward path, a step

change in the reference input will, in theory, cause an intense initial pulse in

the control signal, which may be very undesirable.

To illustrate the effect of a derivative term on PID control, consider speed

control, but with the second-order plant. In that case, the characteristic equa-

tion is

s

2

+a

1

s +a

2

+A(k

p

+

k

I

s

+k

D

s) = 0,

s

3

+a

1

s

2

+a

2

s +A(k

p

s +k

I

+k

D

s

2

) = 0. (4.76)

Collecting terms results in

s

3

+(a

1

+Ak

D

)s

2

+(a

2

+Ak

p

)s +Ak

I

= 0. (4.77)

Figure 4.12

Alternative ways of

conguring rate feedback

(a)

(b)

1 k

t,D

s

k

p R G(s) Y

k

p

k

D

s R G Y

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190 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

The point here is that this equation, whose three roots determine the nature

of the dynamic response of the system, has three free parameters in k

P

, k

I

,

and k

D

, and by selection of these parameters, the roots can be uniquely and,

in theory, arbitrarily determined. Without the derivative term, there would be

only two free parameters, but with three roots, the choice of roots of the char-

acteristic equation would be restricted. To illustrate the effect more concretely,

a numerical example is useful.

EXAMPLE 4.6 PID Control of Motor Speed

Consider the DC motor speed control with parameters

5

J

m

=1.13 10

2

N-m- sec

2

/rad, b=0.028 N-m-sec/rad, L

a

=10

1

henry,

R

a

=0.45 ohms, K

t

=0.067 N-m/amp, K

e

=0.067 V-sec/rad. (4.78)

Use the controller parameters

k

p

= 3, k

I

= 15 sec

1

, k

D

= 0.3 sec. (4.79)

Discuss the effects of P, PI, and PID control on the responses of this system to steps

in the disturbance and steps in the reference input. Let the unused controller parameters

be zero.

Solution. Figure 4.13(a) illustrates the effects of P, PI, and PID feedback on the step

disturbance response of the system. Note that adding the integral term increases the

oscillatory behavior but eliminates the steady-state error, and that adding the derivative

term reduces the oscillation while maintaining zero steady-state error. Figure 4.13(b)

illustrates the effects of P, PI, and PID feedback on the step reference response, with

similar results. The step responses can be computed by forming the numerator and

denominator coefcient vectors (in descending powers of s ) and using the step function

in MATLAB. For example, after the values for the parameters are entered, the following

commands produce a plot of the response of PID control to a disturbance step:

numG = [La Ra 0];

denG = [Jm

*

La Ra

*

b + Ke

*

Ke + Ke

*

kD Ra

*

Ke

*

Ke + Ke

*

kp Ke

*

ki];

sysG = tf(numG,denG);

y = step(sysG).

5

These values have been scaled to measure time in milliseconds by multiplying the true L

a

and

J

m

by 1000 each.

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 191

6

8

6

4

2

0

2

4

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (msec)

(a)

0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (msec)

(b)

P

PI

PID

P

PI

PID

Figure 4.13 Responses of P, PI, and PID control to (a) step disturbance input and (b) step reference input

4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts

4.4.1 Digital Implementation of Controllers

As a result of the revolution in the cost-effectiveness of digital computers, there

has beenanincreasinguseof digital logic inembeddedapplications, suchas con-

trollers in feedback systems. With the formula for calculating the control signal

in software rather than hardware, a digital controller gives the designer much

more exibility in making modications to the control law after the hardware

design is xed. In many instances, this means that the hardware and software

designs can proceed almost independently, saving a great deal of time. Also, it is

easy to include binary logic and nonlinear operations as part of the function of

a digital controller. Special processors designed for real-time signal processing

and known as digital signal processors, or DSPs, are particularly well suited for

use as real-time controllers. While, in general, the design of systems to use a

digital processor requires sophisticated use of new concepts to be introduced

in Chapter 8, such as the z-transform, it is quite straightforward to translate a

linear continuous analog design into a discrete equivalent. A digital controller

differs from an analog controller in that the signals must be sampled and quan-

tized.

6

A signal to be used in digital logic needs to be sampled rst, and then

the samples need to be converted by an analog-to-digital converter, or A/D

converter,

7

into a quantized digital number. Once the digital computer has cal-

culated the proper next control signal value, this value needs to be converted

back into a voltage and held constant or otherwise extrapolated by a digital-to-

6

Acontroller that operates on signals that are sampled but not quantized is called discrete, while

one that operates on signals that are both sampled and quantized is called digital.

7

Pronounced A to D.

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192 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

analog converter, or D/A, in order to be applied to the actuator of the process.

The control signal is not changed until the next sampling period. As a result

of the sampling, there are more strict limits on the speed or bandwidth of a

digital controller than on analog devices. Discrete design methods that tend

to minimize these limitations are described in Chapter 8 . A reasonable rule

of thumb for selecting the sampling period is that during the rise time of the

response to a step, the input to the discrete controller should be sampled ap-

proximately six times. By adjusting the controller for the effects of sampling,

the sampling can be adjusted to 2 to 3 times per rise time. This corresponds to a

sampling frequency that is 10 to 20 times the systems closed-loop bandwidth.

The quantization of the controller signals introduces an equivalent extra noise

into the system, and to keep this interference at an acceptable level, the A/D

converter usually has an accuracy of 10 to 12 bits. For a rst analysis, the effects

of the quantization are usually ignored. A simplied block diagram of a system

with a digital controller is shown in Figure 4.14.

For this introduction to digital control, we will describe a simplied tech-

nique for nding a discrete (sampled, but not quantized) equivalent to a given

continuous controller. The method depends on the sampling period T

s

being

short enough that the reconstructed control signal is close to the signal that the

original analog controller would have produced. We also assume that the num-

bers used in the digital logic have enough accurate bits so that the quantization

implied in the A/D and D/A processes can be ignored. While there are good

analysis tools to determine how well these requirements are met, here we will

test our results by simulation, following the well known advice that The proof

of the pudding is in the eating.

Finding a discrete equivalent to a given analog controller is equivalent to

nding a recurrence equation for the samples of the control which will approx-

imate the differential equation of the controller. The assumption is that we

have the transfer function of an analog controller and wish to replace it with a

discrete controller that will accept samples of the controller input, e(kT

s

), from

a sampler and, using past values of the control signal, u(kT

s

), and present and

past samples of the input, e(kT

s

), will compute the next control signal to be

sent to the actuator. As an example, consider a PIDcontroller with the transfer

function

U(s) = (k

p

+

k

I

s

+k

D

s)E(s), (4.80)

Figure 4.14

Block diagram of a digital

controller

Sensor

H

U

T

Y R A/D

e(kT) u(kT)

D/A

Digital controller

D(z)

Clock

Plant

G

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 193

which is equivalent to the three terms of the time-domain expression

u(t ) = k

p

e(t ) +k

I

_

t

0

e() d +k

D

e(t ) (4.81)

= u

P

+u

I

+u

D

. (4.82)

Using the fact that the systemis linear, the next control sample canbe computed

term by term. The proportional term is immediate:

u

P

(kT

s

+T

s

) = k

p

e(kT

s

+T

s

). (4.83)

The integral term can be computed by breaking the integral into two parts and

approximating the second part, which is the integral over one sample period,

as follows:

u

I

(kT

s

+T

s

) = k

I

_

kT

s

+T

s

0

e() d (4.84)

= k

I

_

kT

s

0

e() d +k

I

_

kT

s

+T

s

kT

s

e() d (4.85)

= u

I

(kT

s

) +{area under e() over one period} (4.86)

= u

I

(kT

s

) +k

I

T

s

2

{e(kT

s

+T

s

) +e(kT

s

)}. (4.87)

InEq. (4.87) theareainquestionhas beenapproximatedbythat of thetrapezoid

formed by the base T

s

and vertices e(kT

s

+ T

s

) and e(kT

s

), as shown by the

dashed line in Fig. 4.15.

The area can also be approximated by the rectangle of amplitude e(kT

s

)

and width T

s

, shown by the solid blue in Fig. 4.15, to give u

I

(kT

s

+ T

s

) =

u

I

(kT

s

) +k

I

T

s

e(kT

s

). These and other possibilities are considered in Chapter 8.

In the derivative term, the roles of u and e are reversed from integration,

and the consistent approximation can be written down at once from Eq. (4.87)

and Eq. (4.81) as

T

s

2

{u

D

(kT

s

+T

s

) +u

D

(kT

s

)} = k

D

{e(kT

s

+T

s

) e(kT

s

)}. (4.88)

Figure 4.15

Graphical interpretation of

numerical integration

t

x

x f (x, u)

x dt

0

t

i

t

i1

x(t

i

)

0

t

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194 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

As with linear analog transfer functions, these relations are greatly simplied

and generalized by the use of transform ideas. At this time, the discrete trans-

form will be introduced simply as a prediction operator z, much as if we de-

scribed the Laplace transform variable s as a differential operator. Here we

dene the operator z as the forward shift operator in the sense that if U(z) is

the transform of u(kT

s

), then zU(z) will be the transform of u(kT

s

+T

s

). With

this denition, the integral term can be written as

zU

I

(z) = U

I

(z) +k

I

T

s

2

[zE(z) +E(z)] , (4.89)

U

I

(z) = k

I

T

s

2

z +1

z 1

E(z), (4.90)

and from Eq. (4.88) the derivative term becomes the inverse

U

D

(z) = k

D

2

T

s

z 1

z +1

E(z). (4.91)

The complete discrete PID controller is thus described by

U(z) =

_

k

p

+k

I

T

s

2

z +1

z 1

+k

D

2

T

s

z 1

z +1

_

E(z). (4.92)

Comparing the two discrete equivalents of integration and differentiation with

the corresponding analog terms, it is seen that the effect of the discrete ap-

proximation in the z-domain is as if everywhere in the analog transfer function

the operator s has been replaced by the composite operator

2

T

s

z1

z+1

. This is the

trapezoid rule

8

of discrete equivalents:

Trapezoid Rule

The discrete equivalent to D

a

(s) is D

d

(z) = D

a

_

2

T

s

z 1

z +1

_

. (4.93)

EXAMPLE 4.7 Discrete Equivalent

Find the discrete equivalent of the analog controller with transfer function

D(s) =

U(s)

E(s)

=

11s +1

3s +1

, (4.94)

using the sample period T

s

= 1.

8

The formula is also called Tustins Method after the English engineer who used the technique

to study the responses of nonlinear circuits.

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 195

Solution. The discrete operator is

2(z 1)

z +1

, and thus the discrete transfer function is

D

d

(z) =

U(z)

E(z)

= D(s)

s=

2

Ts

z1

z+1

(4.95)

=

11

_

2(z 1)

z +1

_

+1

3

_

2(z 1)

z +1

_

+1

. (4.96)

Clearing fractions, we get the discrete transfer function

D

d

(z) =

U(z)

E(z)

=

23z 21

7z 5

. (4.97)

Converting the discrete transfer function to a discrete difference equation by using the

denition of z as the forward shift operator is done as follows: First we cross-multiply

in Eq. (4.97) to obtain

(7z 5)U(z) = (23z 21)E(z), (4.98)

and interpreting z as a shift operator, we nd that this is equivalent to the difference

equation

9

7u(k +1) 5u(k) = 23e(k +1) 21e(k), (4.99)

where we have replaced kT

s

+ T

s

with k + 1 to simplify the notation. To compute the

next control at time kT

s

+T

s

, therefore, we solve the difference equation

u(k +1) =

5

7

u(k) +

23

7

e(k +1)

21

7

e(k). (4.100)

Now lets apply these results to a control problem. Fortunately, MATLAB

provides us with the Simulink capability to simulate both continuous and dis-

crete systems, allowing us to compare the responses of the systems with con-

tinuous and discrete controllers.

EXAMPLE 4.8 Equivalent Discrete Controller for Speed Control

A motor speed control is found to have the plant transfer function

Y

U

=

45

(s +9)(s +5)

. (4.101)

9

The process is similar to that used in Chapter 3 to nd the ordinary differential equation to

which a rational Laplace transform corresponds.

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196 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

A PI controller designed for this system has the transfer function

D(s) =

U

E

= 1.4

s +6

s

. (4.102)

The closed-loop system has a rise time of about 0.2 sec and an overshoot of about

20%. Design a discrete equivalent of this controller, and compare the step responses

and control signals of the two systems. (a) Compare the responses if the sample period

is 0.07, which is about three samples per rise time. (b) Compare the responses with a

sample period of T

s

= 0.035, which corresponds to about six samples per rise time.

Solution.

(a) Using the substitution given by Eq. (4.93), the discrete equivalent for T

s

= 0.07 is

given by replacing s by s

2

0.07

z 1

z +1

in D(s) as follows:

D

d

(z) = 1.4

2

.07

z 1

z +1

+6

2

.07

z 1

z +1

, (4.103)

= 1.4

2(z 1) +6 0.07(z +1)

2(z 1)

, (4.104)

= 1.4

1.21z 0.79

(z 1)

. (4.105)

On the basis of this expression, the equation for the control is (the sample period

is suppressed)

u(k +1) = u(k) +1.4 [1.21e(k +1) 0.79e(k)]. (4.106)

(b) For T

s

= 0.035, the discrete transfer function is

D

d

= 1.4

1.105z 0.895

z 1

, (4.107)

for which the difference equation is

u(k +1) = u(k) +1.4[1.105 e(k +1) 0.895 e(k)].

A Simulink block diagram for simulating the two systems is given in Fig. 4.16, and

plots of the step responses are given in Fig. 4.17(a). The respective control signals are

plotted in Fig. 4.17(b). Notice that the discrete controller for T

s

= 0.07 results in a

substantial increase in the overshoot in the step response, while with T

s

= 0.035, the

digital controller matches the performance of the analog controller fairly well.

For controllers with many poles and zeros, making the continuous-to-discrete sub-

stitution called for in Eq. (4.93) can be very tedious. Fortunately, MATLAB provides

a command that does all the work. If one has a continuous transfer function given by

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 197

Step

Mux

Control

s

s6

PI Control

1.4

Slider K

c

s9

9

Tau 1

Mux1

Output

s5

5

Tau 2

z1

1.21z0.79 Discrete

PI control 1.4

Slider K

d

s9

9

Tau 1

s5

5

Tau 2

Figure 4.16 Simulink block diagram to compare continuous and discrete controllers

D

c

(s) =

numD

denD

represented in MATLAB as sysDa=tf(numD,denD), then the discrete

equivalent with sampling period T

s

is given by

sysDd = c2d (sysDa, T

s

, 't'). (4.108)

In this expression, of course, the polynomials are represented in MATLAB form. The

last parameter in the c2d function given by 't' calls for the conversion to be done using

the trapezoid method. The alternatives can be found by asking MATLAB for help c2d.

For example, to compute the polynomials for T

s

= 0.07 for the preceding example, the

commands would be

numDa = [1 6];

denDa = [1 1];

sysDa = tf(numD,denD)

sysDd = c2d( sysDa,0.07,'t')

0

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Time (sec)

(a)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Time (sec)

(b)

0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

Continuous controller

Digital controller (T 0.07 sec)

Discrete controller (T 0.035 sec)

Continuous controller

Digital controller (T 0.07 sec)

Discrete controller (T 0.035 sec)

Figure 4.17 Comparison plots of a speed-control system with continuous and discrete controllers: (a) output

responses; (b) control signals

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198 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

4.4.2 ZieglerNichols Tuning of PID Regulators

As we will see in later chapters, sophisticated methods are available to develop

a controller that will meet steady-state and transient specications for both

tracking input references and rejecting disturbances. These methods require

that the designer have either a dynamic model of the process in the form of

equations of motion or a detailed frequency response over a substantial range

of frequencies. Either of these data can be quite difcult to obtain, and the dif-

culty has led to the development of sophisticated techniques of system model

identication. Engineers early on explored ways to avoid these requirements.

Callender et al. (1936) proposeda designfor the widely usedPIDcontroller

by specifying satisfactory values for the controller settings based on estimates

of the plant parameters that an operating engineer could make from experi-

ments on the process itself. The approach was extended by J. G. Ziegler and

N. B. Nichols (1942, 1943) who recognized that the step responses of a large

number of process control systems exhibit a process reaction curve like that

shown in Fig. 4.18, which can be generated from experimental step response

data. The S-shape of the curve is characteristic of many systems and can be

approximated by the step response of Transfer function for a

high-order system with a

characteristic process

reaction curve

Y(s)

U(s)

=

Ae

st

d

s +1

, (4.109)

which is a rst-order system with a time delay of t

d

seconds. The constants in

Eq. (4.109) can be determined from the unit step response of the process. If a

tangent is drawn at the inection point of the reaction curve, then the slope of

the line is R = A/ and the intersection of the tangent line with the time axis

identies the time delay L = t

d

.

Ziegler and Nichols gave two methods for tuning the PID controller for

sucha model. Inthe rst methodthe choice of controller parameters is designed Tuning by decay ratio of 0.25

to result in a closed-loop step response transient with a decay ratio of approxi-

Figure 4.18

Process reaction curve

t

y(t)

L t

d

Lag

t

A

t

A

Slope R

A

t

reaction rate

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 199

Figure 4.19

Quarter decay ratio

0.25

1

Period

t

y(t)

mately 0.25. This means that the transient decays to a quarter of its value after

one period of oscillation, as shown in Fig. 4.19. A quarter decay corresponds

to = 0.21 and is a reasonable compromise between quick response and ade-

quate stability margins. The authors simulated the equations for the system on

an analog computer and adjusted the controller parameters until the transients

showed the decay of 25% in one period. The regulator parameters suggested

by Ziegler and Nichols for the controller terms, dened by

D

c

(s) = k

p

(1 +

1

T

I

s

+T

D

s), (4.110)

are given in Table 4.2.

TABLE 4.2

ZieglerNichols Tuning for the Regulator

D(s) = k

p

(1 +1/T

I

s +T

D

s), for a decay ratio of 0.25

Type of Controller Optimum Gain

Proportional k

p

= 1/RL

PI

_

k

p

= 0.9/RL,

T

I

= L/0.3

PID

_

_

_

k

p

= 1.2/RL,

T

I

= 2L,

T

D

= 0.5L

In the ultimate sensitivity method, the criteria for adjusting the parameters Tuning by evaluation at limit of

stability (ultimate sensitivity

method)

are based on evaluating the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations of

the system at the limit of stability rather than on taking a step response. To

use the method, the proportional gain is increased until the system becomes

marginally stable and continuous oscillations just begin, with amplitude limited

by the saturation of the actuator. The corresponding gain is dened as K

u

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200 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.20

Determination of the

ultimate gain and period

Process r

y

K

u

e

(called the ultimate gain) and the period of oscillation is P

u

(called the ultimate

period). These are determined as shown in Figs. 4.20 and 4.21. P

u

should be

measured when the amplitude of oscillation is as small as possible. Then the

tuning parameters are selected as shown in Table 4.3.

TABLE 4.3

ZieglerNichols Tuning for the Regulator

D

c

(s) = k

p

(1 +1/T

I

s +T

D

s), Based on the Ultimate

Sensitivity Method

Type of Controller Optimum Gain

Proportional k

p

= 0.5K

u

PI

_

k

p

= 0.45K

u

,

T

I

=

P

u

1.2

PID

_

_

k

p

= 0.6K

u

,

T

I

=

1

2

P

u

,

T

D

=

1

8

P

u

Experience has shown that the controller settings according to Ziegler

Nichols rules provide acceptable closed-loop response for many systems. The

process operator will often do nal tuning of the controller iteratively on the

actual process to yield satisfactory control.

10

Figure 4.21

Neutrally stable system

P

u

t

y(t)

10

Tuning of PID controllers has been the subject of continuing study since 1936. A modern

publication on the topic is H. Panagopoulous, K. J. strm, and T. Hagglund, Proceedings of

the American Control Conference, San Diego, CA, June 1999.

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 201

Figure 4.22

A measured process

reaction curve

0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0

Time (sec)

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

y

EXAMPLE 4.9 Tuning of a Heat Exchanger: Quarter Decay Ratio

Consider the heat exchanger of Example 2.13. The process reaction curve of this system

is shown in Fig. 4.22. Determine proportional and PI regulator gains for the systemusing

the ZeiglerNichols rules to achieve a quarter decay ratio. Plot the corresponding step

responses.

Solution. From the process reaction curve, we measure the maximum slope to be

R

=

1

90

and the time delay to be L

Table 4.2 the gains are as follows:

y

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

y

400.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0

Time (sec)

(b)

400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0

Time (sec)

(a)

PI PI

Proportional

Proportional

Figure 4.23 Closed-loop step responses

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202 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Proportional : k

p

=

1

RL

=

90

13

= 6.92,

PI : k

p

=

0.9

RL

= 6.22 and T

I

=

L

0.3

=

13

0.3

= 43.3

Figure 4.23(a) shows the step responses of the closed-loop system to these two regula-

tors. Note that the proportional regulator results in a steady-state offset, while the PI

regulator tracks the step exactly in the steady-state. Both regulators are rather oscilla-

tory and have considerable overshoot. If we arbitrarily reduce the gain k

p

by a factor

of 2 in each case, the overshoot and oscillatory behaviors are substantially reduced, as

shown in Fig. 4.23(b).

EXAMPLE 4.10 Tuning of a Heat Exchanger: Oscillatory Behavior

Proportional feedback was applied to the heat exchanger in the previous example until

the systemshowed nondecaying oscillations in response to a short pulse (impulse) input,

as shown in Fig. 4.24. The ultimate gain was K

u

= 15.3, and the period was measured

at P

u

= 42 sec. Determine the proportional and PI regulators according to the Zeigler

Nichols rules based on the ultimate sensitivity method. Plot the corresponding step

responses.

Solution. The regulators from Table 4.3 are

Proportional : k

p

= 0.5K

u

= 7.65,

PI : k

p

= 0.45 K

u

= 6.885 and T

I

=

1

1.2

P

u

= 35.

The step responses of the closed-loop system are shown in Fig. 4.25(a). Note that the

responses aresimilar tothose inExample 4.9. If we reduce k

p

by 50%, thenthe overshoot

is substantially reduced, as shown in Fig. 4.25(b).

Figure 4.24

Ultimate period of heat

exchanger

I

m

p

u

l

s

e

r

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.00

0.002

0.006

0.004

0.008

0.010

Time (sec)

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 203

y

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

y

400.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0

Time (sec)

(b)

400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0

Time (sec)

(a)

PI

PI

Proportional

Proportional

Figure 4.25 Closed-loop step response

4.4.3 Truxals Formula for the Error Constants

In this chapter we have derived formulas for the error constants in terms of the

system transfer function. The most common case is the type 1 system, whose

error constant is K

v

, thevelocityerror constant. Truxal (1955) derivedaformula

for the velocity constant in terms of the closed-loop poles and zeros, a formula

that connects the steady-state error to the dynamic response. Since control

design often requires a trade-off between these two characteristics, Truxals

formula can be useful to know. Its derivation is quite direct. Suppose the closed-

loop transfer function T(s) of a type 1 system is

T(s) = K

(s z

1

)(s z

2

) (s z

m

)

(s p

1

)(s p

2

) (s p

n

)

. (4.111)

Since the steady-state error in response to a step input in a type 1 system is

zero, the DC gain is unity. Thus,

T(0) = 1. (4.112)

The system error is given by

E(s)

= R(s) Y(s) = R(s)

_

1

Y(s)

R(s)

_

= R(s)[1 T(s)]. (4.113)

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204 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

The system error due to a unit ramp input is given by

E(s) =

1 T(s)

s

2

. (4.114)

Using the Final Value Theorem, we get

e

ss

= lim

s0

1 T(s)

s

. (4.115)

Using LHpitals rule, we rewrite Eq. (4.115) as

e

ss

= lim

s0

dT

ds

(4.116)

or

e

ss

= lim

s0

dT

ds

=

1

K

v

. (4.117)

Equation (4.117) implies that 1/K

v

is related to the slope of the transfer func-

tion at the origin, a result that will also be shown in Section 6.1.2. Using

Eq. (4.112), we can rewrite Eq. (4.117) as

e

ss

= lim

s0

dT

ds

1

T

(4.118)

or

e

ss

= lim

s0

d

ds

[ln T(s)]. (4.119)

Substituting Eq. (4.111) into Eq. (4.119), we get

e

ss

= lim

s0

d

ds

_

ln

_

K

m

i=1

(s z

i

)

n

i=1

(s p

i

)

__

(4.120)

= lim

s0

d

ds

_

K +

m

i=1

ln(s z

i

)

m

i=1

ln(s p

i

)

_

, (4.121)

or

1

K

v

=

d ln T

ds

s=0

=

n

i=1

1

p

i

+

m

i=1

1

z

i

. (4.122)

We observe from Eq. (4.122) that K

v

increases as the closed-loop poles Truxals formula

move away from the origin. Similar relationships exist for other error coef-

cients, and these are explored in the problems.

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 205

EXAMPLE 4.11 Truxals Formula

A third order type 1 system has closed-loop poles at 2 2j and 0.1. The system has

only one closed-loop zero. Where should the zero be if a K

v

= 10 is desired?

Solution. From Truxals formula we have

1

K

v

=

1

2 +2j

1

2 2j

1

0.1

+

1

z

,

or

0.1 = 0.5 +10 +

1

z

.

Therefore, the closed-loop zero should be at z = 0.1.

4.4.4 Sensitivity of Time Response to Parameter

Change

We have considered the effects of errors on the steady-state gain of a dynamic

system and have shown how feedback control can reduce these errors. Since

many control specications are in terms of the step response, the sensitivity of

the time response toparameter changes is sometimes very useful toexplore. For

example, by looking at the sensitivity plot we can tell whether increasing a par-

ticular parameter will increase or decrease the overshoot of the response.

11

The

analysis that follows is also a good exercise in small-signal linearization.

To consider the sensitivity of the output y(t, ) of a systemhaving a param-

eter of interest, , we compute the effect of a perturbation in the parameter,

, on the nominal response by using the Taylors series expansion

y(t, +) = y(t, ) +

y

+ . (4.123)

The rst-order approximation of the parameter perturbation effect is the term

y(t ) =

y

. (4.124)

This function can be generated from the system itself as shown by Perkins

et al, 1991. We assume that the response depends linearly on the parameter

and therefore that the overall transfer function T(s, ) is composed of com-

ponent transfer functions that can be dened to bring out the dependence on

the parameter explicitly. A block diagram of the transfer function in terms of

11

As we shall see in the next chapter, the development of the MATLAB root locus interface

rltool gives the designer a computer aid to this result.

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206 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.26

Block diagram showing the

dependence of output y on

parameter

u

Y R T

11

T

12

T

22

T

21

X Z V

the components T

ij

(s) can be expressed as shown in Fig. 4.26, where we have

labeled the parameter as and its input signal as Z. In terms of this block

diagram, the equations relating Y and Z to the reference input can be written

immediately:

Y = T

11

R +T

21

Z (4.125)

and

Z = T

12

R +T

22

Z. (4.126)

The perturbed equations are

Y +Y = T

11

R +T

21

( +)(Z +Z) (4.127)

and

Z +Z = T

12

R +T

22

( +)(Z +Z). (4.128)

Multiplying these out and ignoring the small term Z, the expressions for

the perturbations in Y and Z are given by

Y = T

21

(Z +Z) (4.129)

and

Z = T

22

(Z +Z). (4.130)

The solutions to these equations can be best presented as a block diagram,

shown in Fig. 4.27(a). The output of this gure is Y =

y

, and we notice

that the input Z is multiplied by a gain of . Therefore, if we drop the block

, the output will be simply

y

the sensitivity as the variation to a percent change in the parameter, which is

y

ln

=

y(t,)

ln

=

y

the block to its input as shown in Fig. 4.27(c). We are now in a position to

give the nal block diagram of the system as it is to be implemented, shown in

Fig. 4.28.

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 207

Figure 4.27

Block diagrams showing

the generation of (a) Y

and Z, (b)

y

, and

(c)

y

(a)

du dZ

T

22

Z

T

21

u

dY du

u

y

(b)

T

22

Z

T

21

u

u

y

(c)

T

22

Z T

21

u

u

uy

In this gure, it is clear that to compute the sensitivity of the output to a

parameter, one needs to simulate two copies of the system. The input to the

rst systemis the reference input of interest, and the input to the second system

is at the input to the parameter of interest of the variable Z, taken from the

input to the parameter in the original system. The transfer function from the

reference input to the output sensitivity is readily computed to be

T

12

T

21

(1 T

22

)

2

. (4.131)

Response sensitivity

Fromthis function it is clear that to keep the sensitivity of the output signal to a

parameter change low, it is important to have feedback with high gain around

the parameter in question.

Figure 4.28

Block diagram showing

the computation of

y

function

R Y

u u

Z

V

uy

u

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208 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.29

Block diagram showing

the computation of the

sensitivity of the output of

the speed-control example

R

K

s 1

A

Y

K

cl

s 1

A

K

cl

Z

K

Y

EXAMPLE 4.12 Time-Domain Sensitivity

Compute the sensitivity of the output of the speed-control example described by

Eq. (4.20) with respect to the control gain, K

cl

. Take the nominal values to be K

cl

= 9,

= 0.01 sec, and A = 1 rad/volt-sec.

Solution. The required block diagram for the computation is given in Fig. 4.29, based

on Fig. 4.28. In MATLAB, we will construct the several transfer functions with T

ij

=

n

ij

d

ij

andwill implement Eq. (4.131). For comparison, we compute the nominal response from

Fig. 4.26 and add 10% of the sensitivity to the nominal response. The instructions to do

the computation in MATLAB are

% script to compute sensitivity for Fig. 4.29

% First input the data for the component transfer functions T

ij

% and the nominal parameter, Kcl for this problem

Kcl = 9; tau = .01;

n11 = 0; d11 = 1;

n12 = 1; d12 = 1;

n22 = [0 1]; d22 = [tau 1];

n21 = 1; d21 = [tau 1];

% Now compute the numerator and denominator polynomials of the transfer

% functions using the convolution function conv to multiply the polynomials

% and put them into system transfer function forms with the MATLAB function tf.

% The overall transfer function is

% Y/R = n11/d11 + (n12

*

n21

*

d22)/(d12

*

d21

*

[d22-Kcl

*

n22]) = sysy

% The transfer function from the reference input to the sensitivity is

% Kcl

*

(dy/dKcl)/R = sysdy

% Now dene the numerators and denominators of several intermediate

% intermediate transfer functions

n1 = Kcl

*

conv(n21,n12);

d1 = conv(d21,d12);

n2 = d22;

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Section 4.4 Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts 209

d2 = [d22-Kcl

*

n22];

ny = conv(n1,n2);

dy = conv(d1,d2);

% Now put these together to form two intermediate transfer functions

sysy1 = tf(ny,dy);

sysy2 = tf(n11,d11);

% Now construct the nal transfer functions

% The overall transfer function Y/R

sysy = sysy1+sysy2;

% The sensitivity transfer function

ndy = conv(ny,n2);

ddy = conv(dy,d2);

sysdy = tf(ndy,ddy);

% Now use these to compute the step responses and

% plot the output, the sensitivity and a perturbed response

[y,t] = step(sysy);

[yd,t] = step(sysdy);

plot(t,[y yd y+.1

*

yd]);

These instructions are constructed to compute the sensitivity for any system, given the

several transfer functions. The script input is for the specic example. Plots of the output,

its sensitivity, andthe result of a 10%change inthe parameter value are giveninFig. 4.30.

Figure 4.30

Plots of the output, the

sensitivity, and the result

of a 10% change in the

parameter value for the

speed-control example

1.0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time (msec)

y

y dy

k

cl

dk

cl

dy

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210 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

SUMMARY

The system error in a feedback control can be compactly described by

dening the loop gain L, the sensitivity function , and the complementary

sensitivity function T.

Compared with open-loop control, feedback can be used to reduce steady-

stateerrors todisturbances, reducethesystems transfer functionsensitivity

to parameter variations, and speed up the transient response.

Sensor noise introduces a conict between efforts to reduce error caused

by plant disturbances and those caused by the sensor noise.

Classifying a system as type k indicates the ability of the system to achieve

zero steady-state error to polynomials of degree less than but not equal

to k. A stable unity feedback system is type k with respect to reference

inputs if the loop gain L has k poles at the origin, in which case we can

write

L(s) =

(s +z

1

)(s +z

2

)

s

k

(s +p

1

)(s +p

2

)

,

and the error constant is given by

K

k

= lim

s0

s

k

L(s). (4.132)

A table of steady-state errors for unity feedback systems of types 0, 1, and

2 to reference inputs is given in Table 4.1.

Systems can be classied as to type for rejecting disturbances by computing

the system error to polynomial disturbance inputs. The system is type k to

disturbances if the error is zero to all disturbance polynomials of degree

less than k, but nonzero for a polynomial of degree k.

The standard PID controller is described by the equation

U(s) =

_

k

p

+

k

I

s

+k

D

s

_

E(s)

or

U(s) = k

p

_

1 +

1

T

I

s

+T

D

s

_

E(s) = D(s)E(s).

This latter form is ubiquitous in the process-control industry and is the

basic controller in many control systems.

Increasing the proportional feedback gain reduces steady-state errors, but

high gains almost always destabilize the system. Integral control provides

robust reduction in steady-state errors, but often makes the system less

stable. Derivative control usually increases damping andimproves stability.

These three kinds of control combined form the classical PID controller.

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End-of-Chapter Questions 211

Useful guidelines for tuning PID controllers were presented in Tables 4.2

and 4.3.

A difference equation describing a digital controller to be used to replace

a given analog controller can be found by replacing s with

2

T

s

z1

z+1

in the

analog controllers transfer function and using z as a forward shift operator

in the sense that if U(z) corresponds to u(kT

s

), then zU(z) corresponds to

u(kT

s

+T

s

).

MATLAB can compute a discrete equivalent with the command c2d.

End-of-Chapter Questions

1. Give three advantages of feedback in control.

2. Give two disadvantages of feedback in control.

3. A temperature control system is found to have zero error to a constant tracking

input and an error of 0.5

of 40

C/sec. What is the system type of this control system and what is the relevant

error constant [K

p

or K

v

or etc.]?

4. What are the units of K

p

, K

v

, and K

a

?

5. What is the denition of system type with respect to reference inputs?

6. What is the denition of system type with respect to disturbance inputs?

7. Why does system type depend on where the external signal enters the system?

8. What is the main objective of introducing integral control?

9. What is the major objective of adding derivative control?

10. Why might a designer wish to put the derivative term in the feedback path rather

than in the error path?

11. Give two reasons to use a digital controller rather than an analog controller.

12. Give two disadvantages to using a digital controller.

13. Give the substitution in the discrete operator z for the Laplace operator s if the

approximation to the integral in Eq. (4.87) is taken to be the rectangle of height

e(kT

s

) and base T

s

.

14. What is the advantage of having a tuning rule for PID controllers?

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212 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Problems

Problems for Section 4.1: The Basic Equations of Control

4.1. Consider a system with the conguration of Fig. 4.5, where D is the constant gain

of the controller and G is that of the process. The nominal values of these gains

are D = 5 and G = 7. Suppose a constant disturbance w is added to the control

input u before the signal goes to the process.

(a) Compute the gain from w to y in terms of D and G.

(b) Suppose the system designer knows that an increase by a factor of six in the

loop gain DG can be tolerated before the system goes out of specication.

Where should the designer place the extra gain if the objective is to minimize

the system error r y due to the disturbance? For example, either D or G

could be increased by a factor of six, or D could be doubled and G tripled,

and so on. Which choice is the best?

4.2. Bode dened the sensitivity function relating a transfer function G to one of its

parameters k as the ratio of percent change in k to percent change in G. We dene

the reciprocal of Bodes function as

S

G

k

=

dG/G

dk/k

=

d ln G

d ln k

=

k

G

dG

dk

.

Thus, when the parameter k changes by a certain percentage, S tells us what

percent change to expect in G. In control systems design, we are almost always

interested in the sensitivity at zero frequency, or when s = 0. The purpose of this

exercise is to examine the effect of feedback on sensitivity. In particular, we would

like to compare the topologies shown in Fig. 4.31 for connecting three amplier

stages with a gain of K into a single amplier with a gain of 10.

Figure 4.31

Three-amplier topologies

for Problem 4.2

b

1

R Y K K K

(a)

(b)

(c)

R Y K K K

b

3

R K

K

b

2

K Y

b

2

b

2

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Problems 213

(a) For each topology in Fig. 4.31, compute

i

so that, if K = 10, Y = 10R.

(b) For each topology, compute S

G

k

when G = Y/R. [Use the respective

i

values

found in part (a).] Which case is the least sensitive?

(c) Compute the sensitivities of the systems in Fig. 4.31(b, c) to

2

and

3

. Us-

ing your results, comment on the relative need for precision in sensors and

actuators.

4.3. Comparethetwostructures showninFig. 4.32withrespect tosensitivitytochanges

in the overall gain due to changes in the amplier gain. Use the relation

S =

d ln F

d ln K

=

K

F

dF

dK

as the measure. Select H

1

and H

2

so that the nominal system outputs satisfy

F

1

= F

2

, and assume KH

1

> 0.

R

H

1

K

H

1

K F

1

(a)

R

H

2

K K F

2

(b)

Figure 4.32 Block diagrams for Problem 4.3

4.4. A unity feedback control system has the open-loop transfer function

G(s) =

A

s(s +a)

.

(a) Compute the sensitivity of the closed-loop transfer function to changes in the

parameter A.

(b) Compute the sensitivity of the closed-loop transfer function to changes in the

parameter a.

(c) If the unity gain in the feedback changes to a value of = 1, compute the

sensitivity of the closed-loop transfer function with respect to .

(d) Assuming that A = 1 and a = 1, plot the magnitude of each of the preceding

sensitivity functions for s = j using the semilogy command in MATLAB.

Comment on the relative effect of parameter variations in A, a, and at

different frequencies , paying particular attention to DC (when = 0).

Problems for Section 4.2: Control of Steady-State Error

4.5. Consider the second-order plant

G(s) =

1

(s +1)(5s +1)

.

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214 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

(a) Determine the system type and error constant with respect to tracking poly-

nomial reference inputs of the system for P, PD, and PID controllers (as

congured in Fig. 4.5). Let k

p

= 19, k

I

= 0.5, and k

D

=

4

19

.

(b) Determine the system type and error constant of the system with respect to

disturbance inputs for each of the three regulators in part (a) with respect to

rejecting polynomial disturbances w(t ) at the input to the plant.

(c) Is this systembetter at tracking references or rejecting disturbances? Explain

your response briey.

(d) Verify your results for parts (a) and (b) using MATLAB by plotting unit step

and ramp responses for both tracking and disturbance rejection.

4.6. Consider a system with the plant transfer function G(s) = 1/s(s + 1). You wish

to add a dynamic controller so that

n

= 2 rad/sec. and 0.5. Several dynamic

controllers have been proposed:

1. D(s) = (s +2)/2

2. D(s) = 2

s +2

s +4

3. D(s) = 5

(s +2)

s +10

4. D(s) = 5

(s +2)(s +0.1)

(s +10)(s +0.01)

(a) Using MATLAB, compare the resulting transient and steady-state responses

to reference step inputs for each controller choice. Which controller is best

for the smallest rise time and smallest overshoot?

(b) Which system would have the smallest steady-state error to a ramp reference

input?

(c) Compare each system for peak control effort; that is, measure the peak mag-

nitude of the plant input u(t ) for a unit reference step input.

(d) Based on your results from parts (a) to (c), recommend a dynamic controller

for the system from the four candidate designs.

4.7. A certain control system has the following specications: rise time t

r

0.010 sec,

overshoot M

p

16%, and steady-state error to unit ramp e

ss

0.005.

(a) Sketch the allowable region in the s -plane for the dominant second-order

poles of an acceptable system.

(b) If Y/R = G/(1 + G), what condition must G(s) satisfy near s = 0 for the

closed-loop systemto meet specications; that is, what is the required asymp-

totic low-frequency behavior of G(s)?

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Problems 215

4.8. For the system in Problem 4.35, compute the following steady-state errors:

(a) for a unit-step reference input;

(b) for a unit-ramp reference input;

(c) for a unit-step disturbance input;

(d) for a unit-ramp disturbance input.

(e) Verify your answers to parts (a) to (d) using MATLAB. Note that a ramp

response can be generated as the step response of a system modied by an

added integrator at the reference input.

4.9. Consider the systemshowninFig. 4.33. Showthat the systemis type 1 andcompute

the K

v

.

Figure 4.33

Control system for

Problem 4.9

K(as b)

s(s 1)

Y R

4.10. Consider the DC motor control system with rate (tachometer) feedback shown

in Fig. 4.34(a).

u

u

r

(a)

K

p

K

k

1

K

m

s(1 t

m

s)

k

t

s

u

u

r

(b)

K

s(1 t

m

s)

1 k

t

s

(a) Find values for K

and k

t

so that the system of Fig. 4.34(b) has the same

transfer function as the system of Fig. 4.34(a).

(b) Determinethesystemtypewithrespect totracking

r

andcomputethesystem

K

v

in terms of parameters K

and k

t

.

(c) Does the addition of tachometer feedback with positive k

t

increase or de-

crease K

v

?

4.11. Consider the system shown in Fig. 4.35, where

D(s) = K

(s +)

2

s

2

+

2

o

.

(a) Prove that if the systemis stable, it is capable of tracking a sinusoidal reference

input r = sin

o

t with zero steady-state error. (Look at the transfer function

from R to E and consider the gain at

o

.)

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216 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.35

Control system for

Problem 4.11

D(s) Y R

1

s(s 1)

(b) Use Rouths criteria to nd the range of K such that the closed-loop system

remains stable if

o

= 1 and = 0.25.

4.12. Consider the system shown in Fig. 4.36, which represents control of the angle of a

pendulum that has no damping.

Figure 4.36

Control system for

Problem 4.12

W

s

2

1

D(s) R

K

Y

(a) What condition must D(s) satisfy so that the system can track a ramp refer-

ence input with constant steady-state error?

(b) For a transfer function D(s) that stabilizes the system and satises the condi-

tion in part (a), nd the class of disturbances w(t ) that the system can reject

with zero steady-state error.

(c) Show that, although a PI controller satises the condition derived in part (a),

it will not yield a stable closed-loop system. Will a PID controller workthat

is, satisfy part (a) and stabilize the system? If so, what constraints must k

p

,

k

I

, and k

D

satisfy?

(d) Discuss qualitatively and briey the effects of small variations on the con-

troller parameters k

p

, k

I

, and k

D

on the systems step response rise time and

overshoot.

4.13. A unity feedback system has the overall transfer function

Y(s)

R(s)

= T(s) =

2

n

s

2

+2

n

s +

2

n

.

Give the system type and corresponding error constant for tracking polynomial

reference inputs in terms of and

n

.

4.14. Consider the second-order system

G(s) =

1

s

2

+2 s +1

.

We would like to add a transfer function of the form D(s) = K(s +a)/(s +b) in

series with G(s) in a unity-feedback structure.

(a) Ignoring stability for the moment, what are the constraints on K, a, and b so

that system is type 1?

(b) What are the constraints placed on K, a, and b so that the system is stable

and type 1?

(c) What are the constraints on a and b so that the system is type 1 and remains

stable for every positive value for K?

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Problems 217

4.15. The transfer function for the plant in a motor position control is given by

G(s) =

A

s(s +a)

.

If we were able to select values for both A and a, what would they be to result in

a system with K

v

= 20 and = 0.707?

4.16. Consider the system shown in Fig. 4.37(a).

(a) What is the system type? Compute the steady-state tracking error due to a

ramp input r(t ) = r

o

t 1(t ).

(b) For the modied system shown in Fig. 4.37(b), give the value of H

f

so that

the system is type 2 for reference inputs, and compute the K

a

in this case.

(c) Is the resulting type 2 property of this system robust with respect to changes

in H

f

(i.e., will the system remain type 2 if H

f

changes slightly)?

Figure 4.37

Control system for

Problem 4.16

(a)

(b)

Y R

s(s 1)

A

R

s(s 1)

A

H

f

s

H

r

4.17. A controller for a satellite attitude control with transfer function G = 1/s

2

has

beendesignedwithaunityfeedbackstructureandhas thetransfer function D(s) =

10(s +2)

s +5

.

(a) Find the system type for reference tracking and the corresponding error con-

stant for this system.

(b) If a disturbance torque adds to the control so that the input to the process is

u+w, what is the system type and corresponding error constant with respect

to disturbance rejection?

4.18. A compensated motor position control system is shown in Fig. 4.38. Assume that

the sensor dynamics are H(s) = 1.

(a) Can the system track a step reference input r with zero steady-state error?

If yes, give the value of the velocity constant.

(b) Can the system reject a step disturbance w with zero steady-state error? If

yes, give the value of the velocity constant.

(c) Compute the sensitivity of the closed-loop transfer function to changes in the

plant pole at 2.

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218 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.38

Control system for

Problem 4.18

Sensor

Y R

W

1

s(s 2)

Plant

H(s)

s 4

s 30

Compensator

160

(d) In some instances there are dynamics in the sensor. Repeat parts (a) to (c)

for H(s) = 20/(s +20) and compare the corresponding velocity constants.

4.19. Consider the system shown in Fig. 4.39 with PI control.

Figure 4.39

Control system for

Problem 4.19

s

k

P

s k

I

Y

W

U

R

s

2

s 20

10

(a) Determine the transfer function from R to Y .

(b) Determine the transfer function from W to Y .

(c) Use Rouths criteria to nd the range of (k

p

, k

I

) for which the systemis stable.

(d) What is the systemtype anderror constant withrespect toreference tracking?

(e) What is the system type and error constant with respect to disturbance

rejection?

4.20. The general unity feedback system shown in Fig. 4.40 has disturbance inputs w

1

,

w

2

, and w

3

and is asymptotically stable. Also,

G

1

(s) =

K

1

m

1

i=1

(s +z

1i

)

s

l

1

m

1

i=1

(s +p

1i

)

, G

2

(s) =

K

2

m

1

i=1

(s +z

2i

)

s

l

2

m

1

i=1

(s +p

2i

)

.

Figure 4.40

Single inputsingle output

unity feedback system with

disturbance inputs

Y R

W

1

G

1

(s)

W

2

W

3

G

2

(s)

(a) Show that the system is of type 0, type l

1

, and type (l

1

+ l

2

) with respect to

disturbance inputs w

1

, w

2

, and w

3

.

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Problems 219

4.21. One possible representation of an automobile speed-control system with integral

control is shown in Fig. 4.41.

Figure 4.41

System using integral

control

W

s

m

V

c

k

1

k

2

s

k

1

E

k

3

k

1

F

V

(a) With a zero reference velocity input (v

c

= 0), nd the transfer function

relating the output speed v to the wind disturbance w.

(b) What is the steady-state response of v if w is a unit-ramp function?

(c) What type is this system in relation to reference inputs? What is the value of

the corresponding error constant?

(d) What is the type and corresponding error constant of this system in relation

to tracking the disturbance w?

4.22. For the feedback system shown in Fig. 4.42, nd the value of that will make the

system type 1 for K = 5. Give the corresponding velocity constant. Show that

the system is not robust by using this value of and computing the tracking error

e = r y to a step reference for K = 4 and K = 6.

Figure 4.42

Control system for

Problem 4.22

R

s 2

K

Y

a

4.23. A position control system has the closed-loop transfer function (meter/meter)

given by

Y(s)

R(s)

=

b

0

s +b

1

s

2

+a

1

s +a

2

.

(a) Choose the parameters (a

1

, a

2

, b

0

, b

1

) so that the following specications are

satised simultaneously:

i. The rise time t

r

< 0.1 sec.

ii. The overshoot M

p

< 20%.

iii. The settling time t

s

< 0.5 sec.

iv. The steady-state error to a step reference is zero.

v. The steady-state error to a ramp reference input of 0.1 m/sec is not more

than 1 mm.

(b) Verify your answer via MATLAB simulation.

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220 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

4.24. Suppose you are given the system depicted in Fig. 4.43(a), where the plant param-

eter a is subject to variations.

R Y

s a

1

s

1

4

1

x

(a)

R Y G(s)

(b)

E(t)

Figure 4.43 Control system for Problem 4.24

(a) Find G(s) so that the system shown in Fig. 4.43(b) has the same transfer

function from r to y as the system in Fig. 4.43(a).

(b) Assume that a = 1 is the nominal value of the plant parameter. What is the

system type and the error constant in this case?

(c) Now assume that a = 1 + a, where a is some perturbation to the plant

parameter. What is the system type and the error constant for the perturbed

system?

4.25. Two feedback systems are shown in Fig. 4.44.

Y R

K

0

4s 1

(a)

Y

K

0

4s 1

(b)

R K

3

K

2

K

1

s

U U

Figure 4.44 Two feedback systems for Problem 4.25

(a) Determine values for K

1

, K

2

, and K

3

so that both systems

i. exhibit zero steady-state error to step inputs (that is, both are type 1)

ii. whose static velocity error constant K

v

= 1 when K

0

= 1.

(b) Suppose K

0

undergoes a small perturbation: K

0

K

0

+ K

0

. What effect

does this have on the system type in each case? Which system has a type

which is robust? Which system do you think would be preferred?

(c) Estimate the transient response of both systems to a step reference input, and

give estimates for t

s

, t

r

, and M

p

. In your opinion, which system has a better

transient response at the nominal parameter values?

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Problems 221

4.26. You are given the system shown in Fig. 4.45, where the feedback gain is subject

to variations. You are to design a controller for this system so that the output y(t )

accurately tracks the reference input r(t ).

Figure 4.45

Control system for

Problem 4.26

Y R D

i

(s)

10

(s 1)(s 10)

b

a

(a) Let = 1. You are given the following three options for the controller D

i

(s):

D

1

(s) = k

p

, D

2

(s) =

k

p

s +k

I

s

, D

3

(s) =

k

p

s

2

+k

I

s +k

2

s

2

.

Choose the controller (including particular values for the controller con-

stants) that will result in a type 1 system with a steady-state error to a unit

reference ramp of less than

1

10

.

(b) Next, suppose that there is some attenuation in the feedback path that is

modeled by = 0.9. Find the steady-state error due to a ramp input for your

choice of D

i

(s) in part (a).

(c) If = 0.9, what is the system type for part (b)? What are the values of the

appropriate error constant?

4.27. Consider the system shown in Fig. 4.46.

Figure 4.46

Control system for

Problem 4.27

Y R

1

(s p

1

)(s p

2

) (s p

q

)

E

(a) Find the transfer function from the reference input to the tracking error.

(b) For this system to respond to inputs of the form r(t ) = t

n

1(t ) (where n < q)

with zero steady-state error, what constraint is placed on the open-loop poles

p

1

, p

2

, , p

q

?

4.28. The feedback control system shown in Fig. 4.47 is to be designed to satisfy the

following specications: (1) steady-state error of less than10%toa rampreference

input, (2) maximum overshoot for a unit-step input of less than 5%, and (3) 1%

settling time of less than 3 sec.

(a) Compute the closed-loop transfer function.

(b) Sketch the region in the complex plane where the closed-loop poles may lie.

(c) What does specication (1) imply about the possible values of A?

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222 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.47

Control system for

Problem 4.28

Y R

A

s(s 2)

1 k

t

s

(d) What does specication (3) imply about the closed-loop poles?

(e) Find the error due to a unit-ramp input in terms of A and k

t

.

(f) Suppose A = 32. Find the value of k

t

that yields closed-loop poles on the

right-hand boundary of the feasible region. Use MATLAB to check whether

this choice for k

t

satises the desired specications. If not, adjust k

t

until it

does.

(g) Using A = 32 and the value for k

t

computed in part (f), estimate the settling

time of the system. Use MATLAB to check your answer.

4.29. The transfer functions of speedcontrol for a magnetic tape-drive systemare shown

in Fig. 4.48. The speed sensor is fast enough that its dynamics can be neglected

and the diagram shows the equivalent unity feedback system.

Figure 4.48

Speed-control system for a

magnetic tape drive

K

10

0.5s 1

Amplifier

Torque

motor

Torque

Disturbance

torque

1

Js b

Tape

dynamics

m Reference

speed,

r

J 0.10 kgm

2

b 1.00 Nmsec

(a) Assuming

r

= 0, what is the steady-state error due to a step disturbance

torque of 1 Nm? What must the amplier gain K be in order to make the

steady-state error e

ss

0.001 rad/sec?

(b) Plot the roots of the closed-loop system in the complex plane, and accurately

sketch the time response (t ) for a step input

r

using the gain K computed

in part (a). Are these roots satisfactory? Why or why not?

(c) Plot the region in the complex plane of acceptable closed-loop poles corre-

sponding to the specications of a 1% settling time of t

s

0.1 sec and an

overshoot M

p

5%.

(d) Give values for k

p

and k

D

for a PDcontroller that will meet the specications.

(e) How would the disturbance-induced steady-state error change with the new

control scheme in part (d)? Howcould the steady-state error to a disturbance

torque be eliminated entirely?

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X, Inc., Technical Typesetters Tel. (902)454-8111 FAX (902)454-2894 Franklin, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5e

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Problems 223

4.30. Alinear ODEmodel of the DCmotor with negligible armature inductance (L

a

=

0) and disturbance torque w was given earlier in the chapter; it is restated here,

in slightly different form, as

JR

a

K

t

m

+K

e

m

= v

a

+

R

a

K

t

w,

where

m

is measured in radians. Dividing through by the coefcient of

m

, we

obtain

m

+a1

m

= b

0

v

a

+c

0

w,

where

a

1

=

K

t

K

e

JR

a

, b

0

=

K

t

JR

a

, c

0

=

1

J

.

With rotating potentiometers, it is possible to measure the positioning error be-

tween and the reference angle

r

or e =

ref

m

. With a tachometer we can

measure the motor speed

m

. Consider using feedback of the error e and the

motor speed

m

in the form

v

a

= K(e T

D

m

),

where K and T

D

are controller gains to be determined.

(a) Draw a block diagram of the resulting feedback system showing both

m

and

m

as variables in the diagram representing the motor.

(b) Suppose the numbers work out so that a

1

= 65, b

0

= 200, and c

0

= 10. If

there is noloadtorque (w = 0), what speed(inrpm) results from v

a

= 100 V?

(c) Using the parameter values given in part (b), nd k

p

and k

D

so that a step

change in

ref

with zero load torque results in a transient that has an approx-

imately 17% overshoot and that settles to within 5% of steady-state in less

than 0.05 sec.

(d) Derive an expression for the steady-state error to a reference angle input,

and compute its value for your design in part (c), assuming

ref

= 1 rad.

(e) Derive an expression for the steady-state error to a constant disturbance

torque when

ref

= 0, and compute its value for your design in part (c), as-

suming that w = 1.0.

4.31. We wish to design an automatic speed-control for an automobile. Assume that

(1) the car has a mass m of 1000 kg, (2) the accelerator is the control U and

supplies a force on the automobile of 10 N per degree of accelerator motion, and

(3) air drag provides a friction force proportional to velocity of 10 Nsec/m.

(a) Obtain the transfer function from control input U to the velocity of the

automobile.

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X, Inc., Technical Typesetters Tel. (902)454-8111 FAX (902)454-2894 Franklin, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5e

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

224 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

(b) Assume the velocity changes are given by

V(s) =

1

s +0.002

U(s) +

0.05

s +0.02

W(s),

where V is given in meters per second, U is in degrees, and W is the percent

grade of the road. Design a proportional-control law U = k

p

V that will

maintain a velocity error of less than 1 m/sec in the presence of a constant

2% grade.

(c) Discuss what advantage (if any) integral control would have for this problem.

(d) Assuming that pure integral control (that is, no proportional term) is ad-

vantageous, select the feedback gain so that the roots have critical damping

( = 1).

4.32. Consider the automobile speed-control system depicted in Fig. 4.49.

Figure 4.49

Automobile speed-control

system

Y R

H

y

H

r

k

p

s a

A

s a

B

R

Y

W

Desired speed

Actual speed

Road grade, %

(a) Find the transfer functions from W(s) and from R(s) to Y(s).

(b) Assume that the desired speed is a constant reference r , so that R(s) = r

o

/s .

Assume that the road is level, so w(t ) = 0. Compute values of the gains K,

H

r

, and H

f

to guarantee that

lim

t

y(t ) = r

o

.

Include both the open-loop (assuming H

y

= 0) and feedback cases (H

y

= 0)

in your discussion.

(c) Repeat part (b) assuming that a constant grade disturbance W(s) = w

o

/s is

present in addition to the reference input. In particular, nd the variation in

speed due to the grade change for both the feed forward and feedback cases.

Use your results to explain (1) why feedback control is necessary and (2) how

the gain k

p

should be chosen to reduce steady-state error.

(d) Assume that w(t ) = 0 andthat the gain A undergoes the perturbation A+A.

Determine the error inspeeddue tothe gainchange for boththe feedforward

and feedback cases. How should the gains be chosen in this case to reduce

the effects of A?

PreT

E

X, Inc., Technical Typesetters Tel. (902)454-8111 FAX (902)454-2894 Franklin, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5e

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Problems 225

4.33. For a system with impulse response h(t ), prove that the velocity constant is given

by

1

K

v

=

_

0

t h(t ) dt,

and the acceleration constant is given by

1

K

a

=

1

2

_

0

t

2

h(t ) dt.

4.34. Consider the multivariable system shown in Fig. 4.50. Assume that the system is

stable. Find the transfer functions fromeach disturbance input to each output, and

determinethesteady-statevalues of y

1

and y

2

for constant disturbances. Wedene

a multivariable system to be type k with respect to polynomial inputs at w

i

if the

steady-state value of every output is zero for any combination of inputs of degree

less than k, and at least one input is a nonzero constant for an input of degree k.

What is the system type with respect to disturbance rejection at w

1

? At w

2

?

Figure 4.50

Multivariable system

W

1

s

1

R

1

Y

1

s 1

1

R

2

s 1

1

s 2

1

W

2

Y

2

Problems for Section 4.3: Control of Dynamic Error: PID Control

4.35. The DC motor speed control shown in Fig. 4.51 is described by the differential

equation

y +60y = 600v

a

1500w,

where y is the motor speed, v

a

is the armature voltage, and w is the load torque.

Assume that the armature voltage is computed by using the PI control law

v

a

=

_

k

p

e +k

I

_

t

0

e dt

_

,

where e = r y.

Figure 4.51

DC motor speed control

block diagram for

Problem 4.35

Y

W

e

a

R

D 600

1500

s 60

1

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X, Inc., Technical Typesetters Tel. (902)454-8111 FAX (902)454-2894 Franklin, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5e

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

226 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

(a) Compute the transfer function from W to Y as a function of k

p

and k

I

.

(b) Compute values for k

p

and k

I

sothat the characteristic equationof the closed-

loop system will have roots at 60 60j .

4.36. Consider the system shown in Fig. 4.52, which consists of a prelter and a unity

feedback system.

Figure 4.52

Unity feedback system for

Problem 4.36

K

r

s 1

s a

Y R

s(ts 1)

A

(a) Determine the transfer function from R to Y .

(b) Determine the steady-state error due to a step input.

(c) Discuss the effect of different values of (K

r

, a) on the systems response.

(d) For each of the three cases,

(1) A = 1, = 1, (2) A = 10, = 1, (3) A = 1, = 2,

use MATLAB to nd values for K

r

and a so that (if possible)

i. the rise time is less than 1.5 sec,

ii. the overshoot is less than 20%,

iii. the settling time is less than 10 sec, and

iv. the steady-state error is less than 5%.

In cases in which the specications are easily met, try to make the rise time as

small as possible. If the specications cannot be met, nd the design to meet

as many of the specications as possible, in the order given.

4.37. Consider the satellite attitude-control problem shown in Fig. 4.53, where the nor-

malized parameters are

J = 10 spacecraft inertia, N-m-sec

2

/rad.

r

= reference satellite attitude, rad.

= actual satellite attitude, rad.

H

y

= 1 sensor scale factor volts/rad.

H

r

= 1 reference sensor scale factor, volts/rad.

w = disturbance torque N-m.

PreT

E

X, Inc., Technical Typesetters Tel. (902)454-8111 FAX (902)454-2894 Franklin, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5e

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Problems 227

Figure 4.53

Satellite attitude control

H

y

Js

1

w

H

r

s

1

D(s) u u

r

(a) Use proportional control, P, with D(s) = k

p

, and give the range of values for

k

p

for which the system will be stable.

(b) Use PD control, let D(s) = (k

p

+ k

D

s), and determine the system type and

error constant with respect to reference inputs.

(c) Use PD control, let D(s) = (k

p

+ k

D

s), and determine the system type and

error constant with respect to disturbance inputs.

(d) Use PI control, let D(s) = (k

p

+ k

I

/s), and determine the system type and

error constant with respect to reference inputs.

(e) Use PI control, let D(s) = (k

p

+ k

I

/s), and determine the system type and

error constant with respect to disturbance inputs.

(f) Use PID control, let D(s) = (k

p

+ k

I

/s + k

D

s), and determine the system

type and error constant with respect to reference inputs.

(g) Use PID control, let D(s) = (k

p

+ k

I

/s + k

D

s), and determine the system

type and error constant with respect to disturbance inputs.

Problems for Section 4.4: Extensions to the Basic Feedback Concepts

4.38. Compute the discrete equivalents for the controllers of Problem 4.6 by using the

trapezoid rule of Eq. (4.93). Let T

s

= 0.05 in each case.

(a) D

1

(s) = (s +2)/2

(b) D

2

(s) = 2

s +2

s +4

(c) D

3

(s) = 5

(s +2)

s +10

(d) D

4

(s) = 5

(s +2)(s +0.1)

(s +10)(s +0.01)

4.39. Give the difference equations corresponding to each of the discrete controllers

respectively found in Problem 4.38

(a) For D

1

(s).

(b) For D

2

(s).

(c) For D

3

(s).

(d) For D

4

(s).

4.40. The unit-step response of a paper machine is shown in Fig. 4.54(a), where the

input into the system is stock ow onto the wire and the output is basis weight

(thickness). The time delay and slope of the transient response may be determined

from the gure.

(a) Findtheproportional, PI, andPID-controller parameters byusingtheZeigler

Nichols transient-response method.

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X, Inc., Technical Typesetters Tel. (902)454-8111 FAX (902)454-2894 Franklin, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5e

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

228 Chapter 4 Basic Properties of Feedback

Figure 4.54

Paper-machine response

data for Problem 4.40

S

t

e

p

r

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

U

n

i

t

i

m

p

u

l

s

e

r

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0

(b)

Time (sec)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0

(a)

Time (sec)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(b) Using proportional feedback control, control designers have obtained a

closed-loop system with the unit impulse response shown in Fig. 4.54(b).

When the gain K

u

= 8.556, the system is on the verge of instability. Deter-

mine the proportional-, PI-, and PID-controller parameters according to the

ZeiglerNichols ultimate sensitivity method.

4.41. A paper machine has the transfer function

G(s) =

e

2s

3s +1

,

where the input is stock ow onto the wire and the output is basis weight or

thickness.

(a) Find the PID-controller parameters using the ZeiglerNichols tuning rules.

(b) The systembecomes marginally stable for a proportional gain of K

u

= 3.044,

as shown by the unit-impulse response in Fig. 4.55. Find the optimal PID-

controller parameters according to the ZeiglerNichols tuning rules.

Figure 4.55

Unit impulse response

for paper machine in

Problem 4.41

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.00

0.005

0.010

0.015

Time (sec)

y

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Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

Problems 229

4.42. Prove that for a type 2 system, the acceleration error constant is given by

1

K

a

=

1

2

_

m

i=1

1

z

2

i

i=1

1

p

2

i

_

,

where z

i

and p

i

are the closed-loop zeros and poles of the system.

4.43. For the unity feedback system with proportional control D = k

p

and process

transfer function G(s) =

A

s(s +1)

.

(a) Draw the block diagram from which to compute the sensitivity to changes

in the parameter of the output response to a reference step input. Let the

parameter be = 1/ .

(b) Use MATLAB to compute and plot the sensitivity computed from the block

diagram of part (a) if A = = k

p

= 1.

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X, Inc., Technical Typesetters Tel. (902)454-8111 FAX (902)454-2894 Franklin, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, 5e

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Fifth Edition,

by Gene F. Franklin, J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini.

ISBN 0-13-149930-0. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.

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