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“HORSE, FOOT AND GUNS"

QUICK PLAY ARMY LEVEL WARGAMES RULES FOR LARGE LAND BATTLES 1701-1914

INTRODUCTION These rules are primarily intended for games between two players each controlling a complete army against its historical opponents using a minimum number of figures on a small table, but can also be used for larger or multi-player games featuring big armies split into wings and/or combinations of allied armies. There will also be more detailed companion sets, initially "Tricorne & Musket" covering 1701-1790, "Shako and Bayonet" for 1791-1850, and "Kepi & Rifle" for 1851-1914. The series' inspirations are that no current rules can cope with more than one corps per player, that few of the many wars of the period except the Napoleonic and American Civil Wars are covered by existing rule sets, the greater interest being shown in smaller model scales for which casualty removal is impractical, and the realisation that the methods of our quick play ancient set "De Bellis Antiquitatis" can be extended further than originally supposed.

My intent here is to provide the simplest possible set of wargames rules that retain the full feel and generalship requirements of 18th and 19th century battle at army level. Those wishing for more specific period texture with more detailed troop classification and attention paid to lower level formation and tactics will find these in the companion sets. HFG's simplicity makes it especially suitable as an introduction to wargaming the era for beginners and the young. At first sight, you may doubt the simplicity, which is more real than apparent, but bear in mind that while many troop types are catered for, no individual army will employ more than a few of them.

The extended historical scope may cause raised eyebrows, but while many wars were between like systems, many others were not. Traditional musket lines fought French columns and skirmishers, Russian musket columns fought British and French Minie rifles in the Crimea, Prussian Dreyse needle guns fought Austrian Minie in 1866 but were outranged by French Chassepot and machine guns in 1870, smoothbore and rifled artillery were partnered in more than one war, while at sea ironclads fought unarmoured steamers and wooden sail.

Nevertheless, HFG is not intended for competition play unless with very rigid restrictions on period and priority pairing of historical opponents. It is also unsuitable for battles involving limited numbers of troops, such as most of those of the American War of Independence, nor for siege warfare.

You should not assume that the differences between my perception of the realities of warfare during the era and received opinion are due to ignorance. Some formerly respected secondary sources have recently been discredited by modern research. "The Anatomy of Victory" and "Battle Tactics of Napoleon and his Enemies", both by Brent Nosworthy and "Forward into Battle" and "Rally Once Again" by Paddy Griffith provide good analysis, and many useful books by 18th and 19th century soldiers or theoreticians exist.

Copyright (c) Phil Barker 1991, 1997, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004.

CONTENTS

GAME PHILOSOPHY

Page 2

PLAYING EQUIPMENT AND REPRESENTATIONAL SCALES.

3

TROOP DEFINITIONS.

4

ORGANISING AN ARMY.

8

SETTING UP A BATTLE.

11

FIGHTING THE BATTLE.

16

DEFINITIONS

27

ADVICE FROM THE MASTERS

28

OPTIONAL PRELIMINARY MAP MOVEMENT.

30

ARMY LISTS

31

INDEX TO ARMY LISTS

59

COMMENTS.

60

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION.

60

1

GAME PHILOSOPHY

These rules are based on detailed analysis of a number of key battles for which a good sequence of events is available. This shows that, except for approach marches while out of contact, events are discrete initiatives and responses. This version is the result of testing against participants’ accounts of very many more battles

In HFG, troops are assumed to attempt at all times to be in their preferred formation for their current situation. Whether they achieved this is sometimes shown by their combat results. For example, if infantry are destroyed by cavalry, they have probably failed to form square in time or flinched from the charge. The other rule sets in the series include a variety of formations and formation changing.

Skirmishers integral to units are assumed to be present even if not represented by figures. Infantry elements represent the main body, but the range at which they fire may assume that the fire is actually coming from skirmishers posted in front. The forward edge of an element base does not represent the position of the front rank. Instead, the combined base depth between figures of opposing elements in base contact represents point blank range.

Shooting ranges are those at which substantial casualties could be expected. Shooting is assumed to also occur at up to double that range, but to only put a brake on enemy movement by forbidding march moves in non-tactical formations such as column of route. Artillery ranges are those considered practical by contemporaries and were often limited by considerations of visibility and long range shot dispersion.

Combat results are matched to the range or those recorded during confrontations between troops of those types in similar situations in real battles. Combat factors have been set to produce historical effects in conjunction with the combat outcome table and should not be judged in isolation. One innovation is a “Spent” result for cavalry that used up their mounts’ strength and the riders’ dash and cohesion but mostly survive, so that they are removed but do not count as lost. This encourages use rather than hoarding. At the other extreme, another innovation for the first time provides an adequate reason to reserve elite troops for the decisive moment of the battle.

Conventional rule sets give the player far too much information. A real general does not know that a unit has just lost a certain number of men, or even its total losses until next day, if then. However, he will usually be in a position to see if a body is moving forward cheering, edging back looking over its collective shoulders, or has disintegrated. We provide players with that information and that only.

Our command and movement system is arbitrary, but its results are very similar to those from elaborate systems incorporating written orders, transmission by a limited number of messengers or signals, and then testing interpretation by the recipient. In any case, as Clausewitz points out, confusion is the normal state in battle, good staff work merely reducing it to a barely acceptable level. The function of the command system in a wargame differs from that in a real battle in that it is not used to enable the general to manoeuvre his troops at all, but to prevent him doing so too freely! This we achieve.

Some features of related rule sets are not applicable in this era and others were less or more important. For example, night marches were plentiful, but night attacks were rare and usually restricted to localised assaults on strong points, which is surprising considering the need towards the end of the era to overcome the defensive power of longer ranged firearms. Successful attacks taking advantage of morning mist were less rare, but invariably due to coincidence rather than planning. Indeed, on one occasion, the attacker actually waited for an hour in the hope that the mist that was to give him victory would clear!

The effects of attacks also differ in this era, brigades attacked in both front and flank being more often repulsed or routed than destroyed. Naval co-operation was more common than previously, especially in America on coasts, great lakes and large rivers, though the feats of the Danish ironclad Rolf Krake against the Prussians also deserve a mention. Off-table flank marches and decentralisation into semi-independent Corps were increasingly important from the Napoleonic Wars on. While treachery resulting in allies changing side in mid-battle did not occur, misunderstanding and lack of co-operation between allies was rife.

2

PLAYING EQUIPMENT AND REPRESENTATIONAL SCALES

CHOICE OF FIGURE AND MODEL SCALE These rules are primarily intended for 15mm or smaller figures. 25mm can also be used if the ground scale is increased by 50% and its easier visibility may be helpful in public demonstration games.

TROOP REPRESENTATION AND ARMY SIZE Figures are combined into elements, each of which consists of several figures or figure blocks fixed to a rectangular base of card or some similar material. All bases used by both sides must have the same frontage. Each element type has a cost in Army Points (AP) ranging from 1 to 50, intended to render opposed armies approximately equal in ability and encourage realistic proportions of elite troops, cavalry and artillery.

Opposing sides must be historical contemporaries, or if fictional, of the same putative year. Each side consists of elements of an agreed total of AP and each army (a side may have more than 1 army) must include 1 or more staff elements and up to 1 logistics element. 1 staff element represents the side’s Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) and others his subordinate or allied army, wing or corps commanders. A defending player can also use AP to add garrisoned strong points, provide field defences or conceal troops.

A staff element represents a senior general together with his staff and escorts.

A cavalry element represents a brigade of 6-10 squadrons (usually 1,000-1,500 men), or a commando (or about 500 men) of

Mounted Rifles.

A foot element represents a regiment or small brigade of 2 very strong or 3-4 average battalions (usually 1,500-2,500 men),

reducing to a single battalion (about 1,000 men) if Rifles (1898>) or Marksmen. An artillery element represents 18-24 guns, twice as many machine guns, or 100 jingal or rocket men.

A strong point garrison represents several companies of foot together with any subsequent reinforcements.

A naval element represents 1-2 ironclads, a single submersible or semi-submersible or 2-3 other vessels.

The units represented by an element are assumed to always attempt to be in the appropriate formation. This will normally be single or multiple columns while moving out of contact, and lines, columns or squares, sometimes with advanced skirmisher screens, when in combat.

PLAYING AREA AND GROUND SCALE

A playing area 6 miles wide by 3 miles deep is ample for normal sized battles of up to 400AP. Increasing width to 9 miles

permits the largest historical battles, such as Borodino, Gettysburg or Koniggratz. Also increasing depth to 6 miles allows

paired battles such as Quatre Bras/Ligny, Waterloo/Wavre or Gravelot-St.Privat. These improve elbowroom in multi-player games and scope for manoeuvre, but slow play.

All distances are given in paces (p) of 0.75 metres or 30 inches. An element's frontage represents 400 paces in real life, which sets the standard ground scale at 10mm = 100p, 1 inch = 250p, and 200mm/8 inches = 1 mile.

Measure distances on the table with a card strip or similar marked at 200p intervals up to 800p, then at 400p pace intervals. Element base dimensions are significant multiples of 100p and this will often make use of a measure unnecessary. A pair of 400p x 200p bases with handles instead of figures can be very useful for measuring gaps. Play is smoother and pleasanter if players do not try to position elements "just outside" a critical distance and specify intended separation distance on completing moves.

TIME SCALE Play is in alternate bounds. These do not represent fixed arbitrary divisions of time, but initiatives and responses by the two sides. However, dividing known battle durations by the number of discrete phases that can be identified produces consistent enough results to define a bound as equivalent to an average of 10 minutes in real life. Except for march movement out of contact, which is assumed to be continuous and to have been during the previous enemy bound as well as your current bound, move distances are not a function of time available and theoretical speeds, but are based on typical moves in real battles.

DICE One differently coloured ordinary 1 to 6 dice is required for each staff element used.

3

TROOP DEFINITIONS

Troops are defined by battlefield behaviour as well as by their weapons. We distinguish only those troops thought by contemporaries to differ sufficiently to need different handling by their commanders or the enemy. Each type is identified by a name descriptive of its armament and fighting methods. However, be warned that these necessarily arbitrary names may contradict regimental titles, which were often deceptive and/or obsolete. For example, not all regiments with dragoon titles still practised dismounted fighting and many light infantry regiments came to differ from line regiments only in dress distinctions. Where a date range is specified (<????) = only before ????, (>????) = only before and including ???? and (????>) = only after ????.

Staff elements can be a large Army HQ, a small Command Party, or a Native Potentate. Mounted elements can be Pistols, Cuirassiers, Heavy Cavalry, Dragoons, Light Cavalry, Repeaters, Mounted Rifles, Rifle Cavalry, Light Horse or Sipahis. Foot elements can be Shot, Muskets, Bayonets, Light Infantry, Stoic Foot, Minie, BL, Rifles, Marksmen, Spearmen, or a Strong Point (SP) garrison. Artillery elements can be Smoothbore, Mixed, Rifled, or Light. Naval elements can be Flotilla, Sail, Steamer, Ironclad or Submarine. 1 can be designated Flagship. Train elements can be Pontooneers, a Supply Base, a Laager, or Aeronauts.

A few elements can be additionally graded as BRILLIANT or INERT if staff, as ELITE if mounted or foot, as HORSE or HEAVY if artillery. Any number of mounted, foot or naval can be graded as INFERIOR.

ARMY HEADQUARTERS (HQ), representing the person, advisers, aides, staff, gallopers, escort, and sometimes kibitzing royalty, of an army commander who prefers to change position infrequently and relies on ample messengers to exert authority, such as Napoleon at Waterloo, Schwartzenburg at Leipzig, McClellan in 1862 or Moltke in 1870, or more rarely, the similar entourage of an ally general.

COMMAND PARTY (CP), representing the person and small entourage of an army commander who prefers seeing for himself and personal communication to total reliance on messengers, such as Marlborough, Wellington or Raglan, or of a subordinate general or ally general (AG) commanding a wing of the army or a corps.

NATIVE POTENTATE (NP), representing the ruler, vizier or other sole commander of an African or Asiatic native army, often mounted on an elephant, horse or camel or sitting on a portable throne or litter, together with his advisors, lackeys, fan bearers and bodyguard.

PISTOLS, representing early 18th century cavalry who moved deliberately in close formation and often received enemy cavalry charges at the halt with a fire of pistols and/or carbines rather than counter-charging, such as the French (>1730) and the Austrians (>1751). This tactic was the best against Turkish sipahis, but less effective against European cavalry charging sword in hand.

CUIRASSIERS, representing cavalry in steel plate armour corselet or half-corselet on big horses who charged sword in hand in close formation, such as British cavalry under Marlborough, Prussian cuirassiers of the Seven Years War, French Napoleonic cuirassiers or later Prussian cuirassiers even if brigaded with uhlans. 19th century experts disagreed as to whether the protection offered by a cuirass justified its extra weight and fatigue, though most agreed it made the wearer braver, especially when attacking foot.

HEAVY CAVALRY, representing other cavalry mounted on big horses intended almost exclusively for the mounted charge and inefficient at other duties, such as 19th century British dragoon guards and heavy dragoons, French carabineers and horse grenadiers, or cuirassier regiments that had abandoned armour.

DRAGOONS, representing plainer, cheaper and/or worse mounted cavalry who could not only charge or carry out outpost duties mounted, but retained some ability to fight on foot, such as early 18th century and some later dragoons and early American Civil War cavalry. Not all troops with a dragoon title qualify.

4

LIGHT CAVALRY (1747>), representing regular cavalry with theoretically smaller men mounted on light fast horses trained to charge in line, but also expected to perform the bulk of the army's mounted outpost, escort, scouting, screening and skirmishing duties, such as dashing romantic regiments of hussars, light dragoons, chasseurs or lancers, sometimes supported by duller and less fashionable dragoons. The first troops in this category were the Prussian hussars after their reorganisation by von Winterfeldt.

REPEATERS (1863-1905), representing cavalry mostly armed with repeating magazine carbines as well as with sabre and revolver, and at least as likely to fight with most troopers dismounted as to fight entirely mounted, such as later Union cavalry of the American Civil War.

MOUNTED RIFLES (1880>), representing sharpshooters or infantry with modern rifles riding ponies, mules or camels, such as Boers or regular camel corps, or cavalry whose carbines have been replaced by rifles to fight mostly on foot in a single firing line. They were very wary of cavalry who had swords.

RIFLE CAVALRY (1905>), representing riders with modern rifles, but keeping (or if Australians after 1917 scrounging) swords and combining dismounted fire with decisive mounted charges.

LIGHT HORSE, representing those undisciplined irregular skirmishing horsemen or camel men who dominated the war of outposts, sought to engulf unwary enemy cavalry, but more often hovered in swarms around formed enemy than charged desperately to disaster, such as 18th century Austrian hussars, Russian Cossacks, Tartars, Maratha pindaris or marauding Bedouin. Also used for Light Cavalry present in small number for scouting, but not numerous enough to be formed into brigades, such as British, Loyalist and Rebel cavalry during the American War of Independence, and partisan rangers of the American Civil War.

SIPAHIS, representing fiercer native cavalry charging wildly in loose swarms and superior to Europeans in a confused melee; such as Mamluks, Turkish Sipahis, Indian silhadars or Tuareg.

FIRELOCKS, representing European infantry (1701-1749) still using the French system of the late 17th century, though now often all armed with flintlock smoothbore musket and bayonet. They still formed 4-6 ranks deep with large intervals between ranks that had to be closed up to deploy, change direction or fire. They defended with rank fire, each rank stooping after it fired so that the next could fire over its heads, but were supposed to attack with sword or bayonet without firing. Also those non- European infantry with matchlock or flintlock muskets who fired a volley or two, then charged with swords, such as Turkish Janissaries.

MUSKETS (1701-1860), representing infantry also armed with muzzle-loaded smoothbore musket and bayonet, but using the new Dutch drill and firings, such as the Dutch themselves (>1794), British (<1775), French (1754-1791), Prussians (>1807), and Austrians (1741-1807). They usually formed in 3 ranks with small intervals and marched in step and drilled in cadence, these greatly improving their ability to change formation or direction. Whether in attack or defence, they fought erect in rigid shoulder-to-shoulder lines, the ranks "locked on" by moving half a man width sideways so that all could fire simultaneously. Combat started with platoon fire, with each platoon volleying in its succession, but tended to degenerate into independent fire. At short range, their fire was often more deadly than the skirmishing fire or single volley and charge of the following type, though less decisive than the latter. Their bayonets were chiefly valuable for defence against charging cavalry, against whom there was only time for a single close range volley.

BAYONETS (1701-1885), representing infantry armed and drilled like those we class as Firelocks or Muskets or (1850>) like those we class as Minie, but chiefly relying on the moral effect of a bayonet or sabre charge in line after a single volley amid ringing cheers or rebel yell or of a rapid advance in column, such as brigaded grenadiers, Swedish (>1718), British (1775- 1850), French (1792-1867), Prussian (1808-1864), Austrian (1808-1850 and 1864-1866) and American Civil War Confederates. Those like Muskets (1791>) preferred to form battalion squares when attacked by cavalry and relied for distant or more continuous fire against infantry on skirmishers thrown out in front, which are assumed to be present, though not depicted. Successful bayonet charges killed and wounded few enemy compared with more continuous shooting but were more decisive, since they left fleeing opponents in no doubt that they had lost.

5

LIGHT INFANTRY (1700-1867), representing infantry brigades similar to those classed above as Bayonets, but entirely of men trained to move exceptionally fast and act independently, such as those of the Anglo-Portuguese Light Division of the Peninsular War and French Zouaves and Turcos before 1867. It does not include Prussian fusiliers and French Chasseurs de Pied of 1859, since these were brigaded with normal infantry rather than together.

STOIC FOOT (1700-1915), representing infantry with muzzle-loaded smoothbore musket and bayonet and drilled as any of the types above, or (1857>) with rifles but still relying on dense formations and volley fire, more remarkable for endurance than for marksmanship but fond of the bayonet and whom "it is 6 times easier to kill than to defeat", such as regulars of the Sikh khalsa until 1849 and Russian line infantry.

MINIE (1851-1867), representing infantry armed with muzzle-loaded expanding bullet rifles such as the Minie, Enfield, Springfield, Lorenz or Podewil, the theoretical range of which was not however achieved in war due to the unfamiliar problem of range estimation, a short beaten zone and a lack of practise facilities. They fought erect or kneeling in a looser two-deep line using available cover and mostly relying on its own fire rather than on that of detached skirmishers. Examples include British Crimean War infantry and Union infantry of the American Civil War.

BL (1848-1870), representing infantry armed with low velocity breech-loaded rifles, such as the Dreyse needle gun, Snider or Remington. As well as firing faster, these they could load and fire prone with reduced exposure to enemy fire, so fought in a thick swarm instead of in line or column.

RIFLES (1867>), representing infantry armed with higher velocity breech-loaded or (1886>) magazine rifles, such as the Chassepot, Martini, Berdan or Lee-Metford, and usually fighting as a prone firing line with supports and reserve. A flatter trajectory and adjustable sights permitted long range volleying, and the increased firing rate of magazine rifles and aid by machine guns later allowed even more open formations.

MARKSMEN, representing both the occasional specialist jager battalion employed by European armies during the early part of the period and the larger numbers of irregulars such as Austrian pandours, Indian najibs or jezailachis, wily Pathans and Afghan irregulars; but not the skirmishers of 19 th century regular units or specialist jager or rifle battalions integral to line brigades, such as Austrian jager in 1859 and 1866.

SPEARMEN, representing undrilled foot mainly relying on a charge with spear and/or sword, such as Irish rebel pikemen, Russian Opolchenie militia, Dervish, Zulus, or in the related rule sets, Highland Scots Jacobite rebels.

SMOOTHBORE ARTILLERY (1700-1868), representing entirely smoothbore artillery batteries allocated to a corps or its constituent divisions, or to a grouping of equivalent power centralised under the C-in-C's personal control as an artillery reserve for use in mass at a decisive point. It does not include light guns accompanying individual infantry battalions or regiments, which are instead assumed to be included in these. Each artillery element may include a minority of horse or heavy as well as field batteries, but some armies can also have a few elements entirely of horse artillery, or have their reserve artillery entirely or predominantly of heavy guns.

MIXED ARTILLERY (1857-1879), representing divisional and corps or reserve artillery with a mixture of often larger calibre but light smoothbore batteries and longer-ranged but less lethal rifled batteries (1857-1871), such as American Civil War artillery, or of rifled and mitralleuse batteries (1870), such as the French artillery of 1870.

RIFLED ARTILLERY (1866>), representing divisional and corps or reserve artillery entirely of rifled steel or shorter ranged brass batteries firing efficient point detonation explosive or shrapnel shells.

PORTABLE ARTILLERY, representing man or pony-carried Chinese jingals, camel-mounted zamburaks and/or swarms of Indian rocketeers launching rockets by hand and their pack camels.

PONTOONEERS, representing troops able to move to a river and construct a temporary bridge.

6

SUPPLY BASE, representing the army's supplies, hospitals, stores and transport depots, and positioned contiguous to a built- up area (BUA) or battlefield edge and also on a waterway, navigable river, road or railway. It cannot be moved during a battle and is only feebly defended by its own personnel. Its function is to increase endurance, require protection and offer a target for raids.

LAAGER, representing circled supply wagons such as those of a Boer army. It differs from a Supply Base in being heavily defended and able to move freely, if slowly.

AERONAUTS (1794>), representing an observation balloon tethered at 1,000 feet and able to see 4 ½ miles plus its detachment and wagon, or (1910>) 1 or more grounded aeroplanes able to see the whole battlefield when aloft, a canvas hangar, vehicles and ground crew. It can be moved, but can only operate if stationary for the whole of this bound and that preceding, in good going, in good weather, in daylight and within the C-in-C’s easy command distance. It can be attacked, but cannot fight back.

FLOTILLA, representing small craft effective only in close combat including both groups of boarding craft such as galleys, cutting-out expeditions in ships’ boats, canoe fleets or war junks and also unarmoured rams, fire ships and (1860>) spar- or (1876>) other torpedo boats.

SAIL (>1869), representing substantial wooden broadside warships dependent entirely upon sail and unable to move closer than 45 degrees to directly upwind.

STEAMER (1824>), representing similar wooden warships additionally provided with a steam engine driving paddle wheels or screw propeller, or unarmoured vessels powered only by steam.

IRONCLAD (1855>), representing broadside or turret steam warships with sufficient iron or steel armour to provide substantial protection against artillery for armament, engines and flotation.

SUBMARINE (1861>), representing a single practical fully submersible boat or partly submersible “David”.

Troops graded as ELITE include guard cavalry, full brigades of guard infantry or grenadiers, regular marksmen entirely armed with good rifles and fanatic spearmen. Elite cavalry were used for decisive attacks, foot guards and grenadiers to press difficult assaults on villages or as a final reserve to tip a battle hanging in the balance. Not only is the cost increased, but also each element counts as 2 element equivalents.

Troops graded as INFERIOR include all those cavalry or foot significantly deficient in some of the battle skills expected of their type, such as recently recruited volunteers, militia, landwehr, badly-trained reservists, badly-officered and neglected regulars, cavalry dispersed into regiments, squadrons or companies instead of formed into brigades or on bad or half-starved horses. This grading does not reflect on the men’s individual courage or mean that they will not fight well on occasion or be good value. Naval elements similarly graded are those too weakly armed or unseaworthy to lie in line of battle in open sea, such as sailing frigates, corvettes or brigs, steam frigates unless armed with large shell guns, river steamers, coastal, riverine or obsolete Ironclads and all submarines (<1900).

Artillery is graded as HEAVY if heavy 12pdr or larger smoothbores or if 15pdr or larger rifled guns.

Artillery is graded as HORSE if either smoothbores up to 6pdr or rifled guns up to 10pdr with gun crews carried on the limbers or riding the team’s off-side horses, or smoothbores up to light 12pdr or rifled guns up to 13pdr with crew riding separate mounts.

DISMOUNTABLE TROOPS Dragoons, Repeaters, Mounted Rifles and Rifle Cavalry can fight either mounted or dismounted and so are DISMOUNTABLE. Dismountable elements need not be duplicated in mounted and foot forms, but if not should have a mixture of mounted figures, dismounted figures and led horses. A dismountable element is always mounted if it has moved more than 600 paces this bound, and if not, always dismounted if shooting, entrenched, manning an obstacle or in difficult going. Otherwise, Dragoons are always mounted, Mounted Rifles always dismounted, Repeaters and Rifle Cavalry declared by their player before combat dicing.

7

ORGANISING AN ARMY

ELEMENT BASING An element consists of several figures fixed to a thin rectangular base of card or similar material. The size of this base and even the scale of the figures are not critical provided that all land elements have the same frontage. However, some standardisation is needed if you are to play against other people’s armies, and the conventions specified below are the best that can be done to represent the true space occupied.

Standard basing mounts 25mm figures on 60mm wide bases and smaller figures on 40mm wide bases. If figures were previously on 30mm wide bases, fix these to the centre of a 40mm base. The standard basing for 25mm and 15mm figures is the same as in the other sets of the series. Figures smaller than 25mm can alternatively be mounted on 80mm bases, allowing formations to be depicted more realistically and WRG 1685-1845 elements to be combined into an HFG element. If so, use the 10mm number of figures per base for 15mm figures and double the number in each rank for all smaller scale elements except staff.

BASE SIZES 60mm x:40mm x: 80mm x:

120mm.

80mm.

160mm.

Army HQ, Pontooneers, Supply Base, Laager and Aeronauts.

60mm.

40mm.

80mm.

Native Potentate, Dismounted and Artillery.

40mm.

30mm.

60mm.

Command Party, Mounted, BL, Rifles and Spearmen.

30mm.

20mm.

40mm.

Other foot.

RECOMMENDED NUMBER OF FIGURES OR MODELS PER BASE G = General, R = Rider on horse, H = Led horse, A = Artillery piece and crew, Sk = in Skirmisher block, L= in Loose order block, (? d) is the number of ranks a figure block is cast in if greater than 1. Spacing codes are:

Front to rear: o = No gap between ranks, + = Small (1/2 figure depth) gap between ranks, ++ = largest possible gap between ranks. * = Singly, between and beside columns front ranks. Side to side: No code = shoulder-to-shoulder in centre of base, s = spaced equally across base, r = spaced randomly, s/r = s if soldiers and r if irregulars, ?x = in that number of separate groups.

 

25mm & 15mm: 10mm:

6mm Baccus:

Other 6mm:

2mm:

HQ.

G+1-2+1-3R

G+2+2-3R

G+2-3 +2-3R

G>

Command Party.

G1R

G1-2R

G=2R

G2R

Native Potentate.

G2R

G2R

Go4-6R

?

Light Horse.

2Rs/r

3Rs/r

3Rs/r

10Rs

Sipahis.

3Rs/r

4Rs/r

5Rs/r

?

Pistols.

3-4R

5R

4Ro4R

8Ro8R

Others if mounted.

3

5R

6R

12-16R++0-6R

Dragoons if not.

3++3H

4++4H1R

5+1R+6H

16(2d)+2R++16H

Repeaters.

2++2H1R

3++3H2R

4++4H2R

5Sk++6R6H

Mounted Rifles.

3s/r++3H

5s/r++5H

6s/r++6H

10Sk++12H

Rifle Cavalry.

2s++2H1R

3s2R++3H

3s3R++3H

5Sk6R++6H

Firelocks.

4

6s+6s

6s+6s+6s

40(4d)

Muskets.

4

8

8o8

48(3d)

Stoic Foot.

4

6o6

8o8o8

48(6d)

Marksmen.

2s

4r

4r

10Sk

Bayonets (linear).

4

2s++8

2s++8o8

5Sk++26(2d)

Bayonets (columns).

4

3s*2x2o2

3s*2x3o3o3

10Sk ++2x16(4d)

Light Infantry.

4

4s++6

4s++6o6

10Sk++20(2d)

Minie.

4

1s++8r

1s++8ro8r

40-48(2d)

BL.

3s

6s++2x2

6s++3x2o2

20L++2x16(4d)

Rifles.

3s

6s++4

6s++6

20L++26(2d)

Spearmen.

3-4ro2-4r

?

3-7ro7-8ro5-6r

?

Portable artillery.

2As

3As

4As

?

Other artillery.

1A

1A

2A

3A

8

A strong point garrison is represented by a single un-based figure or block to fit in among model buildings.

Most foot figures should be positioned at the rear of their base so that muzzles do not protrude beyond its front edge. Those with an “o” spacing code can be locked, i.e. covering the intervals of the front rank with muzzles between the front rank heads. Figures further forward represent skirmishers or 18c grenade throwers. HQ can be embellished with tents, tables, led horses or travelling coach as desired. Supply bases can be represented by tents, field bakeries, transport animals, or anything else your artistic mind desires. Ground scale considerations make it inconvenient to represent draft teams under these rule unless using 6mm or 2mm, so they are otherwise assumed to have been withdrawn out of sight into dead ground.

It is not necessary to duplicate dismountable elements as mounted and dismounted bases unless you wish to. If you do not, dismounted bases are usually preferable.

Spearmen can alternately use dismounted base depth to permit substitution of 1-2 DBR or DBM elements of similar figures.

The increased depth of Repeaters, Mounted Rifles, Rifle Cavalry, BL and Rifle elements is to suit the use of prone firing figures and also the increased tactical depth due to horse holders in rear and later 19c infantry organisation into separated firing line, supports and reserves.

Although 6mm and 2mm blocks are intended for use without bases, our experience shows bases ARE needed and that using the same base sizes as 15mm figures is most realistic.

2mm blocks are in a variety of widths that can be selected or combined. 2mm cavalry are cast in blocks of 6 light or 8 heavy. My basing allows a single line of heavy or 2 lines of light, or even a mixed brigade of cuirassiers and uhlans. Horse artillery are best represented by 6 horse teams with guns hooked up, field artillery by guns in action with 4 horse teams behind, and heavy artillery by guns in action with 6 horse teams behind.

Irregular Miniatures cast 6mm British Napoleonic infantry blocks as loose order, so substitute their Crimean blocks. When 6mm manufacturers do not distinguish heavy guns, try substituting Renaissance sakers, but with contemporary horse teams and crew. Those 6mm cavalry or infantry blocks cast with slight gaps between figures can be easily cut and combined to fit base frontages.

Naval and Aeronaut elements are represented by smaller models than other land elements, this being rationalised as the element being viewed from a greater distance. There are excellent ranges of 1/1200 ships for the American Civil War and of 1/2400, 1/3000 and 1/6000 ships for other wars of our era. 1/1200 naval elements have a frontage of 30mm and depth of 150mm. 1/2400 or 1/3000 naval elements have a frontage of 20mm and depth of 100mm. 1/6000 naval elements have a frontage of 20mm and depth of 50mm. These base sizes are compatible with the experimental DBSA naval rules also on my web page.

ELEMENT COLOUR CODING While uniform colours provide opponents with all the identification clues they are entitled to, the player controlling them, especially with the smallest figure scales, may need some aid. We recommend painting the rear edge of each base with a single colour indicating the nationality and differing from those of as many as possible of its historical opponents and battlefield allies. Royal Blue = French or Chilean, Black = Prussian, Brunswick, Montenegro or Sudanese, Light Grey = Austrian or Confederate, Dark Green = Russia, Piedmont/Sardinia or Kingdom of Italy, Light Green = Turkish, Egyptian, Hanoverian, Irish Rebel or Afghan, Red = British, Bulgarian, Peruvian or Hungarian revolutionaries, Orange = Netherlands, Nassau or Boer Republics, Light Blue = Bavarian, Danish, Greek, Argentine, Texas Republic or United States, Yellow = Swedish, Saxon, Romanian, Mexican, Bolivian, Sikh or Imperial Chinese, White = Spanish, Hessian, Serbian or Japanese, Mid-Brown = Portuguese or Belgian, Purple = Neapolitan or Indian Princely. Where 2 nations have the same colour, their dress will usually distinguish them. Troop grade can then be indicated by central dots of a contrasting colour Gold = Elite, Silver = Light Cavalry, Light Infantry or Horse Artillery, Mud = Inferior.

ARMY SIZE Unless the battle is a campaign or scenario game, each side consists of troop elements up to an agreed total of army points (AP), normally between 100 and 1,000 AP. In all games each side is controlled by 1 or more staff elements, which must include a Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C). Other staff elements can be subordinate or allied generals, sometimes grouped under

9

an intermediate army commander. Each subordinate or allied staff element controls a command of at least 6 elements including itself. Each element must be part of one of these commands and, unless in a C-in-C’s or other army commander’s command, cannot be transferred to another. Logistic elements must be part of a C-in-C’s or other army commander’s own command.

NAVAL CONTINGENTS Naval forces in the army lists reflect the relative strength and ship types of opposed nations, but not usually overall numbers, since only small portions of fleets were likely to be involved in supporting land forces. Any naval element other than a Flotilla or Submarine can be nominated as a flagship equivalent to an allied general controlling all naval elements; otherwise all naval elements are controlled by the C-in-C

ELEMENT COST Cost in AP if:

Basic. Brilliant. Inert.

Cost in AP if:

Basic.

Heavy.

Horse. Inferior.

Army HQ.

20

40

10

Smoothbore Arty.

8

12

16

-

Command Party.

15

30

5

Mixed Artillery. 10

15

20

-

Native Potentate.

10

20

5

Rifled Artillery. 12

18

24

-

 

Portable Artillery.

5

-

-

-

Pontooneers.

2

Supply Base.

8

Laager.

4

Aeronauts.

25

 

Cost in AP if:

Basic.

Elite.

Inferior.

Pistols.

5

7

3

Cuirassiers.

6

8

4

Flotilla.

3

-

-

-

Heavy Cavalry.

5

7

3

Sail.

6

-

-

4

Dragoons.

4

5

2

Steamer.

8

-

-

6

Light Cavalry.

5

6

3

Ironclad.

20

-

-

15

Repeaters.

6

-

4

If Flagship:

+10

Mounted Rifles.

8

10

5

Submarine

0

-

-

10

Rifle Cavalry.

10

-

7

Light Horse.

2

3

1

Sipahis.

3

5

2

Firelocks.

2

4

1

Muskets.

3

5

2

Bayonets.

4

5

3

Light Infantry.

5

6

4

Stoic Foot.

3

5

2

Minie.

4

5

3

BL.

6

7

4

Rifles.

7

8

5

Marksmen.

2

3

1

Spearmen.

1

3

-

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SETTING UP A BATTLE

SETTING UP SEQUENCE

(1)

Decide which army is the attacker and which is the defender.

(2)

Choose and place battlefield terrain.

(3)

Decide battlefield base edges.

(4)

Record command structure and deployment plans.

(5)

Defender deploys all undelayed unconcealed troops and unconcealed battlefield preparations.

(6)

Attacker deploys all undelayed troops.

DECIDING ATTACKER AND DEFENDER The army commanders each dice and add their army’s aggression factor, which is based on its historical preference for tactical attack or defence and not on which nation is invading the other. The army with the larger total is the attacker and that with the smaller is the defender. Equal scorers dice again.

BATTLEFIELD TERRAIN Players must be able to provide a battlefield in case they become the defender. As generalship is definable as the skill with which generals adapt their troops movements to those of the enemy and to the battlefield, varied and realistic terrain is essential for interesting battles. Since the playing area is so small, we hope players will spend time and ingenuity on making their terrain as visually attractive as their troops.

The battlefield is normally produced by placing separate terrain features of a type appropriate to the theatre of war on a flat board or cloth representing flat or slightly rolling good going. The types of terrain that are significant at army scale during this era often differ from those familiar from other scales and eras. Those selected appear on published maps of major historical battles.

Linear features can be Waterways, Streams or Gullies, Rivers, Roads or (from 1859) Railways. Area features can be BUA (Built Up Area), Hills, Woods, Marsh or Slow Going. All except BUA must have curved edges.

The features used may be restricted by army lists, otherwise must include a minimum of 3 Roads and 2 BUA; and maxima of 1 each of Waterway, River and Railway and 6 of any single type of feature. For every 9 square miles of total battlefield area, there must be 5-8 features, up to 2 of which can be area features more than 1,000p across in any direction.

Each short edge of the battlefield and each half of each long edge are numbered clockwise from 1 to 6 by the defender. Features are now diced for and placed in the order in which they are listed below. The attacker can provide and place 2 of these features if he so wishes. All others are provided and placed by the defender. If both defender and attacker wish to place features of the same type, the defender dices and places first. If there is a gap between area features, it must be at least 400p wide.

WATERWAYS represent the sea or a large un-fordable and navigable river such as the Mississippi, lower Danube or Yiangtse/Hwangshi. A Waterway requires 1 positioning dice and extends 600p-2,000p inward from a side edge running to, from or along the edge section corresponding to its score.

STREAMS represent minor rivers, streams, creeks or brooks, which, although easily fordable, are a significant obstacle due to steep or muddy banks or rocky bed. They are depicted as ¼ of an element base width across and flowing in (often reversing) gentle curves. A Stream requires 2 positioning dice and runs from one of the indicated edge sections to the other unless it meets a previously placed Waterway, Stream or River, which it joins instead. Its length cannot exceed 1 ½ times the straight- line distance between its ends.

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RIVERS represent a single wider and mostly unfordable river, created by optionally upgrading 1 Stream that runs between 2 long battlefield edges by increasing its width to up to 1 element base width across. A River at least ½ an element base width wide is navigable, but only by Flotilla elements.

GULLIES represent a sunken dry or almost dry sunken streambed, gully, wadi, jhil, khor or nullah. In dry climates, such as in India during the fighting season or the Crimea in summer, they are substituted for all Streams not already replaced with a River. They have the same effect as Streams, except that they can conceal foot within them and cannot run through or contact a Marsh.

MARSHES can be up to 3,000p long but no more than 500p wide. A Marsh requires 1 positioning dice and must be placed both nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other and also either at the edge of a Waterway or under a Stream so that it protrudes on both sides of this. Marshes are impassable to Army HQ, artillery unless Portable and Laager, difficult going to all other troops.

HILLS must be between 500p and 4,000p across in every direction. A Hill requires 1 positioning dice and must be placed nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other. It can be difficult or gentle. Difficult Hills are steep and rocky or heavily vegetated and are difficult going. Gentle Hills are smooth bare or lightly treed or brushed good going. Gentle Hills whose minimum width is less than 1,000p and all Difficult Hills slope up to a central crest line. Other Gentle Hills slope up to a flat plateau starting 500p in, the edge of which counts as a crest.

All hills give a close combat advantage if all an element’s front edge started the bound higher than all of its opponent, even if the hill’s crest then separated them or the initially higher element moved down or off the hill to contact its opponent’s nearest edge, but not if it contacted any other edge. An element with such an advantage is said to be “uphill”.

Troops within 400 paces of the far side of the crest of a Gentle Hill can be fired on by artillery, though at much reduced effect, being reached only by ricochets, rolling round shot and shell, as were the British squares in nominally dead ground at Waterloo. Those foot classed as Bayonets (1790>), Light Infantry or Minie can shoot over a Gentle Hill’s crest if within 200 paces to their front, being assumed to send skirmishers forward to that crest.

ROADS are the most important terrain features. They must form a connected net. Some were now metalled, so a single turnpike or similar maintained good road can be depicted as a roughly 10-25mm wide strip coloured as paving, cobbles, gravel, pale brown packed dry earth or even (1820>) tarmac. Others are bad roads and should instead be depicted as earth with deep ruts, potholes and/or stretches of dark wet mud. Each road requires 2 positioning dice and must run from one indicated edge section towards the other, except that if both scores are the same, it runs to the orthagonally opposite edge section.

If the terminal edge is a waterway the road must end at a BUA touching that waterway. A road that intersects a river, stream or gully is assumed to cross it at a ford if no bridge is provided. A permanent bridge can be destroyed by an element which declares that intention and remains in contact with it for 2 entire friendly bounds even if in combat. A permanent or temporary bridge can be destroyed with difficulty by artillery or naval shooting or in close combat by naval, foot or dismounted. A good road that reaches a bad road continues across it. A bad road that reaches another road can either end there or continue on the far side.

Elements may have to fight astride a road, so it is important that the terrain for half an element width on both sides should be identical so that it is obvious whether elements count as in good or other going for combat, though not for movement along the road.

RAILWAYS (1859>) represent a single track of 2 iron rails laid on wooden sleepers bedded in gravel. This cannot cross a hill, but it can cross a marsh, pass through a wood or cross a river, stream or gully by a bridge, or cross a road. It requires 1 positioning dice and runs from the indicated edge section to that directly opposite. It is assumed to allow 1 train each way per double bound.

BUILT-UP-AREAS (BUA) must be 500p-600p square. They are usually small villages or hamlets but can occasionally be sections of a larger village or town separated by roads. They require 1 positioning dice. They must be closer to the indicated edge section than to any other. They must be astride a road or road junction. Movement inside a BUA or march movement completely through it is in good going. Other movement out from a BUA other than into an adjacent BUA section is at slow going rate even if by road.

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A BUA can be occupied and defended by a single foot or dismounted element. This does not prevent other friendly elements

passing through it to end on the far side. Troops defending a BUA have a substantial advantage over attackers until these succeed in entering, but (except for specialist skirmishers, who tended to get cut-off inside buildings) are then bundled out quickly in disorder if they fail to hold. Some BUA derive their defensive strength from stone or brick perimeter walls, substantial stone buildings or mud brick houses with flat roofs and blind walls, but most from gardens, fences, enclosures, winding alleys, general irregularity and especially from orchards. Although distant shooting from more than one source can be combined against a BUA, close combats against each edge are treated as separate and consecutive, the defender facing each in

turn. Any recoil by the defending element is into the BUA’s interior. Only the enemy element that defeated it presses forward.

A BUA set afire by artillery has smoke and flame markers placed. It is not untenable, but becomes difficult going and its

defensive value is reduced.

WOODS represent areas thickly covered with mature trees. They must be between 500p and 3,000p across in every direction and are difficult going. They require 1 positioning dice and must be placed nearer to the indicated edge section than to any other. They give a substantial combat advantage to foot and dismounted defending them against enemy outside. Foot and dismounted getting the worst of a combat while within them can be driven back only slowly. Shooting in distant combat at or

by troops in a Wood is possible only if they are within 100p inside its edge and their opponents are outside it.

SLOW GOING is a catch-all term for terrain cover that offers concealment and hinders movement but not shooting, such as bush or jungle of low brush with occasional trees, sand hills or boulders, elephant grass, hazel or juniper shrub, gorse, vineyards, hop gardens, olive groves, orchards, tall kaoliang millet or areas divided into small fields by substantial hedges, walls, sunken lanes, irrigation channels or paddy bunds. An area of slow going must be between 500p and 3,000p across in every direction. It requires 1 positioning dice and must be closer to the indicated edge section than to any other. Troops that end an off-road move in a stream or gully are in slow going until moved clear.

FLAT GOOD GOING is the remainder of the playing area surface still exposed after all terrain features have been placed. It should be depicted as a reasonably uniform approximation of flat or slightly rolling pasture, large cultivated fields or desert, but is still assumed to provide some cover for skirmishing foot.

EFFECT OF TERRAIN ON VISIBILITY We distinguish the terms KNOWN (to all elements of a command) and VISIBLE (to a specific element). Elements visible to any element are known to all elements of its command. Features and elements visible to Aeronauts in good weather are known to all commands with the same entry edge except allied commands, but not until the C-in-C has had an unadjusted PIP score in any previous bound of at least 4.

Terrain features beyond the crest of any intervening hill are visible only to Aeronauts. Troops beyond an intervening BUA or wood are visible only from the upper half of a hill or to Aeronauts. Troops beyond the crest of a difficult hill or 400p> beyond that of a gentle hill, are visible only to Aeronauts.

Troops more than 100p inside a wood edge or in the interior of a BUA are not visible from outside and cannot see out. After the introduction of smokeless powder in 1892, foot or dismounted who shoot out from a Concealed Position (see next page) and do not move are invisible to enemy not within 400p who have not already shot at them.

CHOICE OF BATTLEFIELD EDGE After all terrain has been positioned, the players commanding each side dice for choice of battlefield edge, the attacking side adding 2 to its score. The side with the higher total chooses which long side will be its base edge. The other side takes the opposite long edge as its base edge.

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ARMY COMMAND STRUCTURE Troops must now be allocated to commands. It will obviously save playing time if this has been done in advance and this will normally be the case if the army is permanently organised in Corps. However, some adjustment of resource allocation once the terrain has been seen and a plan formulated is reasonable, but do appreciate that the time available for victory can easily be frittered away by micro-management.

We allow generals to be graded according to their historical performance. Brilliant generals are capable of a sudden stroke throwing the opposing army off balance. However, only good players will have the necessary situational awareness and sense

of timing to benefit and even then opponents may deny them opportunities. Inert generals may handicap their troops by

lethargy, indecision, timidity, over-confident neglect of elementary precautions, failure to take firm control of subordinates,

innate incapacity, dementia, jealousy, extreme pig-headedness, reluctance to beat the enemy badly or even wanting to lose, but are cheap.

A small army will usually be commanded in its entirety directly by the Army Commander. The extra PIPs provided by

additional generals will rarely justify those generals’ cost. A larger army that intends to manoeuvre is best divided into commands for extra PIPs, though large native armies which rely on sheer numbers of troops or on field defences can make do

without them and indeed may not be permitted them.

If the Army Commander is using an HQ element, he will usually only retain a reserve of elite troops or artillery under his

personal command and dole these out to the other commands when needful. If he is using a CP element, he may sometimes command a large proportion of the army directly, but this may hinder him moving to crucial points using his extra mobility.

DEPLOYMENT PLANNING The defender writes down the order of his initially present commands from left to right and front to rear, the position of his extreme element on each flank, the type and position of his battlefield preparations, the position of any bridges pre-constructed by Bridging Trains and the arrival roads or railway lines of commands not initially present. He cannot initially have any elements forward of the centreline, or any within 1,200p of a side edge unless either naval or in a BUA or SP.

The attacker writes down the order of his initially present commands from left to right and the arrival roads or railways of commands arriving later or from flank edges. He cannot initially have any elements further forward than 1,200p from his base edge or less than 400p from a side edge.

BATTLEFIELD PREPARATION The defender can use AP he has allocated to prepare the battlefield as permitted by his army list by garrisoning strong points, constructing fieldworks, mining waterways or concealing troops. The attacker can use AP only for concealment, all AP allocated to other preparations being wasted. Types of preparation are:

STRONG POINT (SP) up to 250p square, consisting of a strong stone building, such as a seminary, walled farm, chateau or

other large house, or in India a walled garden/orchard such as a bagh or mango tope, but not earthworks. Its garrison, initially

of several companies or a battalion detached from one or more of the army’s elements but assumed to be kept up to strength by

reinforcements, is represented by a single foot figure. Its walls aid defence but prevent escape. Capture destroys it. Cost 10 AP. Up to 3 can be used, placed anywhere in the defender’s deployment zone except within 1,200p of a previously placed SP or redoubt.

REDOUBT, representing open-backed earthwork redoubt/s protecting an artillery or foot element from enemy not directly to

their rear. It cannot be enfiladed or overlapped, but can be contacted in flank. Prevents occupants turning, or moving other than directly to its rear. Cost 5 AP. Up to 3 can be used, placed anywhere in the defender’s deployment zone except within 200p of a previously placed redoubt or within 1,200p of a previously placed SP. Each model redoubt represents 1 large real life redoubt

or up to 4 smaller.

ENTRENCHMENT, representing 800p of straight trench, breastwork of earth and/or logs or rough line of fleches or sangars

to protect foot or dismounted from enemy not enfilading them or in front edge contact with their flank or rear. Occupiers

cannot turn unless they first move back or recoil, but can move a base width sideways along it. Costs 15 AP. Up to 6 can be

used, placed in the defender’s deployment zone.

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EXPLOITABLE LINEAR FEATURE (ELF), up to 1,200p long, such as a railway embankment or cutting or a hedge-

banked or sunken road, or a high riverbank on the enemy side of the river. If it is a riverbank, the river is fordable along the ELF’s length, but can be crossed only to retire to the other side or by the enemy. An ELF provides the same protection as an entrenchment. Cost 0. Need not be specified in army list, but only 1 can be used and then only if diced for at placement and 5

or 6 scored and along an existing railway, road or river in the defender’s deployment zone. Cannot be used if the C-in-C is inert.

OBSTACLE, up to 400p long, such as improvised barricades of wagons or furniture, abatis of felled trees, thorn bush zariba

or barbed wire. Placed as if an entrenchment but protects troops manning it only in close combat. If undefended, counts as difficult going. Removed when crossed by either side. Cost 2AP

CONCEALED POSITION, representing a hidden position in a BUA, wood, gully or slow going, on a difficult hill, or behind

a BUA, wood or hill for 1 element or a group of up to 10 elements. The troops’ position and direction is recorded, and they are deployed only when they first move, shoot, or become known to enemy. It also hides entrenchments or a redoubt occupied by

the concealed troops or that the troops are exploiting a linear feature. Cost 10 AP. Only 3 can be used by the defender, placed

in any such position within his deployment zone. The attacker must convert any concealed position into a Surprise.

NAVAL MINEFIELD, 400p square, representing an area of a Waterway that has been sown with command- or contact- detonated explosive mine/torpedoes/infernal devices or other deadly obstructions. This cannot be entered by friendly naval. Each enemy naval element entering it must dice and is destroyed if it scores 1. Cost 20 AP. Only 1 can be used, placed anywhere in a Waterway within the side’s deployment zone.

INITIAL DEPLOYMENT The defender deploys all initially present elements and battlefield preparations that are not concealed. The attacker then deploys all initially present elements.

DELAYED DEPLOYMENTS The Army Commander’s own command must always arrive from the side’s base edge. An Allied General’s command or

(1795>) a Subordinate General’s command can either be deployed then or be retained for later arrival along a road, or (1859>)

a railway, specified in deployment planning. Such a command arrives in their own side’s next bound in which the command’s unadjusted PIP score is 4, 5 or 6 if from its side’s base edge, 5 or 6 if from a side edge.

All elements to arrive in that bound must do so by railway or in column on a road entering the battlefield either on their own side’s base edge, or on a side edge but nearer to their side’s base edge than the enemy’s. They measure their move from where that road crosses the edge. Any enemy element blocking arrival by a road is repulsed 400p.

A command that cannot arrive completely in its initial bound of arrival continues to arrive in subsequent bounds, the off-

battlefield elements counting as part of the same column as the last element to arrive and using the same PIPs.

Troops arriving by railway can deploy up to 4 foot or 1 other land element at a single place on that railway each bound. They cannot do so if any enemy could shoot at them between entry edge and detraining point.

DILATORY ALLIES

If an Allied General’s command has a lower aggression factor than that of the Army Commander, it throws no PIP dice until

the number of friendly bounds completed exceeds the difference.

SURPRISE An attacker that has a Brilliant C-in-C or that has used AP for Concealed Positions throws 1 dice. Add 1 to the score if its C-in-

C is Brilliant and 1 for each Concealed Position, 1 if the enemy C-in-C is Inert and 2 if the weather is misty. Deduct 5 if the

enemy has Aeronauts and the weather is good. Half the total rounded up is the number of bounds the attacker can make before the defender can throw PIP Dice or move any element. Surprise ceases early if any troops shoot, enter close combat or become visible within 800p.

15

FIGHTING THE BATTLE

SEQUENCE OF PLAY The attacker takes 1 st bound, and then the two sides alternate bounds. During each side's bound:

(1) It dices for player initiative points (PIP), and then uses these first to search for fords, then for march movement, then for

tactical moves and lastly for rallying routed elements.

(2) All elements of both sides that are able to shoot in distant combat and have a valid target can shoot once each and make or

inflict outcome moves, in an order decided by the side whose bound it is.

(3) All elements of both sides that are now in suitable contact with enemy fight in close combat and make or inflict outcome

moves, in an order decided by the side whose bound it is. Elements whose pursuit move contacts their original or fresh enemy immediately fight these and make or inflict outcome moves. Elements with enemy in front edge contact with their flank or rear edge can now turn to face unless also in contact to their front.

PLAYER INITIATIVE POINT DICING The army commander simultaneously throws 1 differently coloured dice for each command that has any element on the battlefield or yet to arrive.

If a C-in-C or army commander so wishes, he can exchange his score for that of a directly subordinate (but not an allied)

general whose element is within the senior’s easy command distance (2,400p if an HQ and 800p if a CP or NP) and whose score was lower. An army commander can transfer 1 element or group of his own command per bound to that of a subordinate general within easy command distance of it. Any general can move or rally a non-staff friendly element in front or rear edge contact with him of a different or even allied command. PIPs cannot otherwise be transferred between commands. Unused PIPs are lost.

A Brilliant general can double his initial score in 2 bounds of his choice during the battle, unless within his inert C-in-C’s easy

command distance. An Inert general always deducts 1 from his final score.

No PIP is used up by:

1 PIP is used up by:

2 PIPs are used up by:

3 PIPs are used up by:

The 1 st march move this bound of an element or column if entirely by road.

Any other move by, or transfer between commands of, a single element or group.

Searching for a ford.

Rallying a routing element.

1 extra PIP is used up if:

(a) The land element or group using PIPs to move, rally or search is beyond its general's easy command distance, or its general

is in difficult going off-road, in

close combat, routing, disabled or has been lost.

(b) A tactical move by artillery, Stoic Foot, troops in an entrenchment or redoubt, an Army HQ, a Native Potentate, a Laager

or

Aeronauts.

(c)

Marching a group that has already made 3 march moves this bound if entirely along good roads and/or bad roads in dry

weather, or 2 if at least partially along bad roads in wet weather or off-road or if naval.

(d)

Retiring an element now within 1 base width distance (400p) of any enemy.

(e)

Rallying a routing element that has neither passed through friends facing in the opposite direction who do not rout, nor is in

full front edge to front edge contact with any friendly staff element.

16

WEATHER Wind direction is chosen by the attacking C-in-C, weather decided by his 1 st bound unadjusted PIP score.

If this is 6, it is misty (or dust storm in desert) and continues so until the defending C-in-C has an unadjusted PIP score of 6.

Until then, maximum visibility and shooting range is 200p, Aeronauts cannot function, Naval other than Flotilla cannot move and off-road land movement cannot exceed slow going distance.

If it is 1, the weather is wet and rain continues so until the defending C-in-C has an unadjusted PIP score of 1. Until then,

maximum visibility is 1,200p and Aeronauts cannot function. Until he has a 2 nd such score, Artillery and Laager cannot move more than slow going distance off-road. Until the end of the battle, movement on bad roads is hindered by mud and gullies are changed into streams.

TACTICAL, MARCH AND OUTCOME MOVES Tactical and March moves are voluntary moves by a single element or a group of elements in their own side's bound before combat and expend PIPs. A March move cannot end closer than 600p to known enemy. If in difficult going, it must be by road unless by Spearmen or Marksmen. An element can take part in either 1 or more March moves or 1 Tactical move. A legal move cannot be taken back once made.

Outcome moves are compulsory or optional Press Forward, Charge, Recoil, Repulse, Rout and Pursuit moves made by single elements in both sides' bounds as result of combat and do not require PIPs.

MOVING SINGLE ELEMENTS

A tactical or march move by a single element can be in any directions, even diagonal or oblique, can pass through any gap as

wide as its leading edge, and can end facing any way. It can therefore be used not only to advance, but also to retire, to expand a group's frontage, to pivot an artillery element to face in another direction, or to rally and turn a routed element. It cannot be used to break-off from close combat.

MOVING ELEMENTS TOGETHER AS A GROUP Elements are a group if either all facing in the same direction with each in edge or corner contact with another, or in a 1 element wide column and in front or rear edge or corner contact with another element.

Groups are temporary: if the whole of a group cannot move, some of its elements will probably be able to move as a smaller group or as individual elements. Conversely, a group or single element can move to join other elements and make its next move as a group including these.

To move as a group, each element must start and/or end the move in the group and not exceed its permitted move distance. It must end facing in the original direction of 1 or all elements, except that:

A group can change direction by 1 or more wheels, each pivoting on the inner front corner of the group and measuring move

distance along the outer arc of the wheel. If the group is a 1 element wide column, each element wheels in succession as it reaches the pivot point. If not, all elements wheel simultaneously.

A 1 element wide column can use a group move to change into a 1 or 2 element deep line at 90 degrees to its leading element’s

facing at the start of the move. The leading element’s open flank ends in the former position of its front edge. Conversely, such

a line can turn 90 degrees into column.

A group move must end in a 1 element wide column if leaving a BUA, or moving along a road, or following the bank of a

river, or crossing a river, stream or gully or, unless Spearmen or Marksmen, difficult going. The element that is to head the column moves forward by up to its full tactical move distance. Other elements move without measuring. The nearest elements fall in behind the column. Other elements move to close up any resulting gaps. No element can end further to the rear than its previous position. All elements count as moving along a road if the head of the column does. It may take more than one move before the whole group is in column.

A group can move less than a base width sideways to line up directly opposite enemy. This is the only sideways or oblique

movement permitted to a group and is not deducted from the move.

17

TACTICAL AND MARCH MOVE DISTANCES ON LAND

A single element can always move from front corner-to-front corner contact with an enemy element into close combat with its

flank. Otherwise, moves are measured between the starting point of the front base corner moving furthest of a single element or group and that corner’s final position, and cannot exceed:

If entirely along road or in good going.

If at least partly off-road in:

Slow going.

Difficult going.

Army HQ, NP, Pistols or Cuirassiers.

800p

400p

200p

Heavy Cavalry or Sipahis.

1,200p

400p

200p

Dragoons, Repeaters or Mounted Rifles.

1,200p

400p

400p

Light Cavalry or Rifle Cavalry.

1,600p

400p

300p

CP or Light Horse.

2,000p

400p

300p

Muskets or Stoic Foot unless marching, or Firelocks.

400p

400p

200p

Light Infantry, Spearmen unless inferior, or Marksmen.

800p

800p

600p

Other foot.

600p

400p

400p

Horse artillery.

1,200p

400p

200p

Portable Artillery.

800p

400p

400p

Heavy artillery.

400p

200p

0p

Other artillery (>1756).

400p

200p

200p

(1756>).

600p

400p

200p

Pontooneers, Laager or Aeronauts.

400p

200p

0p

CROSSING OR MOVING BY WATER Water features include Waterways, Rivers, and Streams and also Gullies, even if currently dry.

A Waterway is unfordable and is always navigable by naval elements. If it is a giant river rather than a sea or lake, the army

list will specify which end is upstream.

A River, Stream or Gully can always be crossed at a road ford or road, rail or temporary bridge by a single element or a 1

element wide column, it being assumed that if there is no bridge there is a reliable ford or easy gully crossing. Crossers move

normal distance. Pontooneers intended to construct a temporary bridge are moved to the riverbank, then exchanged for a bridge

at the end of their 2 nd consecutive full bound there unless repulsed. Such bridges can also be pre-constructed by the defender in

his deployment area.

A River cannot be crossed where there is no ford or bridge unless an ELF (see P.14). It may have unknown fords, but these

must be searched for. To search for a ford, move an element up to the river edge using up 2 extra PIPs, and dice. Add 1 to the

score if there is a BUA within 400p on the near side of the river or within 400p plus the width of the river on the far side, or 4

if both. If the total score is now:

Less than 5:

No unknown ford exists within 1,200p, even if searched for again.

At least 5:

A 1 element wide ford is marked and the searching element is moved until its front edge touches the far

bank.

A Stream or Gully can be crossed off-road anywhere, but the initial move must end when the rear base edge of a single

element or of the leading element of a column is half way across. Elements crossing or moving in or astride it are treated as in

slow going until clear.

A River at least ½ a land element base width wide is navigable, but only by Flotilla elements. Movement on it counts as upstream if moving away from its juncture with a Waterway, moving in the direction from which most streams join it, or failing that, moving away from the end specified by the player who placed it.

18

The maximum distance between the starting point of any front corner of a naval element moving on a navigable water feature and that corner’s final position is:

Unless partly upstream.

If partly upstream.

Steamer or Ironclad.

2,000p

1,200p

Submarines.

800p

400p

Sail or Flotilla.

1,200p

800p

MOVING THROUGH OTHER TROOPS OR GAPS Friendly naval elements can always interpenetrate if they have a clear space to end in within move distance.

Land elements making a tactical or march move can move through friends occupying a BUA, or facing in the same or opposite direction and neither on a road nor occupying an entrenchment. Staff can move through friends facing in any direction. A Supply Base can only be passed through by single element moves.

A repulsed or routed element can pass through friends facing in any direction. Elements recoiled, repulsed or routed into a

friendly or unoccupied BUA, SP or redoubt are assumed to flow through or round it, ending in the first clear space beyond it if they have insufficient move to go further. Recoiled and pushed-back elements otherwise do not pass through friends, but push them back if they are facing in the same direction, rout instead if they are not.

If there is insufficient move to clear the first element met, the interpenetrators are inserted immediately beyond it.

Mounted move through enemy artillery or (1790>) through Bayonets, Light Infantry or Stoic Foot after scoring equal to these

in close combat or if subsequently repulsed or routed back into these. This simulates flowing around unbroken squares or

failing to take possession of batteries.

The smallest gap that can be entered or shot through between elements or terrain features is 1 element wide. This does not prevent an element moving sideways out of a column. A gap less than 1 element wide between friendly or enemy redoubts or entrenchments (including elements in them) or between these and a terrain feature can be moved through, the move ending when clear of the gap.

MOVEMENT RESTRICTIONS DUE TO ENEMY PROXIMITY Marksmen can only contact Train. Artillery or train cannot contact any enemy. Unless in an outcome move:

(a) No mounted, non-inferior Spearmen or CP elements can move more than 600p, nor other foot, dismounted or naval element

move more than 200p, and end in any contact with enemy.

(b) No element can move into frontal contact with an enemy element's flank or rear unless it starts entirely behind a line prolonging that base edge of the enemy element or partly behind both flank and side edges

(c)

No element may cross the front of an enemy element that is within 1 base width distance (400p) or pass an occupied BUA

or

SP within 400p unless to retire directly to its own rear, or to move up to a ½ element width sideways and/or pivot to contact

or

line up opposite such an element's front.

RESPONDING TO CONTACT WITH ENEMY An element or group moving, pressing forward or pursuing into close combat with an enemy element must pivot and/or shift sideways up to 1 base width to conform to that enemy.

A

staff, mounted, dismounted or foot element contacted by enemy only on its flank or rear edges turns immediately to conform

to

one such if not already repulsed or routing and all its opponents moved more than 400p in sight this bound or pivoted from

overlap. Otherwise it turns after close combat if the outcome permits. If it turns immediately, its new flank or rear cannot be

contacted this bound. If 2 elements are contacted by 1, both turn, the 2 nd moving behind the 1 st obey the outcome.

Only the 1 st fights, but both

19

TYPES OF COMBAT Combat is either distant or close. Distant combat consists entirely of shooting and is limited to those troop types that shot effectively at long range and their targets. Close combat includes not only hand-to-hand combat with sword, lance, bayonet or pistol, but also musketry and canister at decisive range or at charging enemy and bridge destruction by foot or dismounted.

DISTANT COMBAT Each element of a type that can shoot and that is neither in close combat other than as an overlap nor prevented from shooting by its own movement or situation can shoot at 1 enemy element that is a valid target, either as a primary or aiding shooter. The base edge shot from is the "shooting edge". This is any edge of a garrisoned BUA, an SP, a Laager or any naval elements except Flotilla or Submarine, the front or side edge of an element in a redoubt, but the front edge only of any other element.

An element is a valid target if it is known to the shooting element, in arc and range, it is not in frontal edge contact with enemy other than routers and (unless overhead shooting is permitted) no part of any element is between imaginary lines connecting 1 shooting edge corner to any visible corner of the target and the other to another corner without the lines crossing each other.

Foot and dismounted elements must shoot at a valid target in an enemy bound. Other shooting is voluntary.

If more than 1 valid target is available to an element, artillery can choose which to shoot at. Other elements must shoot at that

closest to the centre of the shooting edge, or if equidistant, most directly in front. All shooting is assumed to be simultaneous.

An Artillery element can be a grand battery or in support. If in support, it is placed immediately behind 1 of 2-4 elements of foot, dismounted or mounted in side edge-to-side edge contact with each other, but assumed to be distributed by batteries or sections slightly in front or behind all supported troops. It aids each supported element within a base width (400p) in both distant and close combat against enemy in arc and range, but cannot aid others or be a primary shooter.

Artillery cannot shoot while crossing a river, stream or gully, even if by a bridge, or while even partly in a marsh, wood or BUA, or from any part of a difficult hill except its crest, or from there to less than 400p beyond its foot. Other troops in woods

or BUA can only shoot outward from the edge. Artillery also cannot shoot if they made a tactical move this bound and are

either heavy or would be shooting from behind a hillcrest. No troops can shoot while mounted. No element can shoot that

made a march move this bound.

A naval element’s or BUA or SP garrison's target is in arc if any part of the target element is between lines extending beyond

the shooting edge through diagonally opposite corners of the naval element’s, BUA’s or SP’s base. Other shooters' targets are

in arc if any part of the target is within a ½ element base width (200p) of straight ahead of any part of the shooting edge and no

part is behind a line extending that edge.

Maximum ranges from the nearest point of the shooting edge to the nearest point of the target are:

Artillery:

800p if Portable, 1,600p if Smoothbore, 2,400p if Mixed or Brass Rifled, 3,200p if other Rifled.

Add 400p if Heavy Artillery. Increase to 6,000p if heavy Rifled firing at a BUA, or at troops on a hill, or at a logistics target.

Naval:

Flotilla or Submarines 800p (1876> only).

Others 800p (<1850), 1,200p (1850-1858), 2,000p (1859-1886), 3,000p (1887-1905), 6,000p (1906>).

Others: 200p if Firelocks, Muskets, Bayonets (>1790 or if shooting at mounted <1851), Stoic Foot (>1856) or dismounted Dragoons (>1863). 400p if other Bayonets, Light Infantry, Marksmen (>1857), dismounted Repeaters, or SP garrison. 600p if Minie, Marksmen (1857>), Stoic Foot (1857-1875 if Elite, 1857-1880 if not), BL, dismounted Dragoons (1863>) or a Laager. 1,200p if Rifles, Stoic Foot (1875> Elite, 1880> other), dismounted Rifle Cavalry or Mounted Rifles. When artillery or naval shoot at a BUA, SP or bridge, this is at an Other target, but occupiers also have separate combat outcomes. Other elements shoot at the occupiers unless these are now in the interior of a BUA. Troops in a wood can be shot at only from outside and then only if within 100p of the near edge. Targets beyond a wood or BUA (not SP) cannot be shot at unless shooting between upper halves of 2 hills.

20

The only shooting allowed over intervening hillcrests or unconcealed troops is:

Bayonets (1790>), Light Infantry, Minie, BL and Repeaters can shoot over a gentle or steep hill’s crest that is within 200p. This simulates integral skirmishers being sent forward of the crest.

Rifled Artillery (1899>) can shoot from 200-400p behind a gentle hill’s crest at a target at least 800p distant, or over entrenchments and foot occupying them, or at enemy more than 1,200p from them and up to 400p beyond a gentle hill’s crest.

Smoothbore or Mixed Artillery can shoot at enemy more than 400p from them and up to 400p beyond a gentle hill’s crest. This simulates ricochet fire with round shot and shells from the 1 or 2 howitzers included in each smoothbore battery or rifled guns.

Intervening troops more than 400p from both shooter and target can be shot over by artillery on a hill, or by artillery or naval shooting at a hill, or by Rifled Artillery more than 800p from them.

Artillery can always shoot over enemy Marksmen more than 400p from the shooters or over friendly Marksmen.

If more than 1 element shoots at a single enemy element, the additional elements aid the primary shooter instead of their

shooting being resolved separately. If artillery or naval shoot at the same target as foot or dismounted and are not shot back at,

the latter are the primary shooters. Otherwise, the primary shooter is that which the target element will shoot back at or if it will not shoot back, the closest to the target.

A target land element that will be shot at without shooting back at any of the shooters can either aid friends’ shooting or shoot

immediately after it has been shot at and if it still has a legal target after combat outcomes. It then uses the same dice score, but

not any tactical factors already used.

CLOSE COMBAT Close combat occurs when an element's front edge is in both edge and front corner-to-any enemy corner base contact lined up with an enemy element, or in contact with an enemy-held BUA or SP.

An element in close combat with the flank or rear of an enemy element which is also fighting to its front, or which overlaps it, acts as a tactical factor instead of fighting itself. It acts as an overlap if either:

Both right or both left front base corners touch and at least the nearest part of the overlapping elements front edge is not in contact with an enemy element.

Both elements’ flank edges are in contact, neither element is artillery, and the elements are facing in opposite directions, even

if the overlapping element is in contact with a friendly or enemy element to its front. Each then mutually overlaps the other.

However, foot cannot count as an overlap against mounted. Tactical factors for an enemy front edge in contact with an element’s side or rear edge do apply.

An element can overlap two enemy elements on opposite flanks or enemy elements exposed by its own frontal opponent having recoiled or been repulsed, routed or destroyed that bound. An element can only be overlapped once on each flank and cannot be both overlapped and contacted on the same edge. An SP, BUA, Supply Base or Laager can overlap but not be

overlapped. Each element in close combat with its edges fights it separately and consecutively. A redoubt cannot be overlapped, but can overlap or be contacted in flank. A staff element that would fight as such cannot provide overlap or flank

or rear contact tactical factors

RESOLVING COMBATS Whether in close combat, shooting in distant combat or only shot at, both sides dice for each fighting element and add the combat factor below and any tactical or grading factors that apply to its score. A command party substitutes the combat value of a mounted or foot element contiguous to its rear and then uses that element’s tactical factors and outcomes. If in close combat, it adds its own combat factor.

21

A dismountable element is always mounted if it moved more than 600p this bound, and if not, always dismounted if shooting, entrenched, manning an obstacle or in difficult going. Otherwise a Dragoons element is always mounted, a Mounted Rifles element is always dismounted and a Repeaters or Rifle Cavalry element's player chooses whether it is to be mounted or dismounted before dicing for its combat.

When troops occupying a BUA or Bridge are in combat only against artillery that are all beyond 400p, the latter’s score is used for both, even though the occupiers will have a different outcome.

Combat factors of:

Against:

Staff or Mounted.

Dismounted or Foot.

Other.

Army HQ.

+2

+2

+2

Command Party.

+1

+1

+3

Native Potentate.

+4

+2

+2

Cuirassiers.

+4

+3

+2

Heavy Cavalry or mounted Rifle Cavalry.

+4

+2

+2

Pistols.

+3

+3

+2

Light Cavalry and mounted Dragoons or Repeaters.

+2

+2

+2

Mounted Rifles when mounted.

+1

+2

+2

BL or Rifles and all dismounted except Dragoons.

+4

+4

+2

Muskets, Minie, Bayonets or Light Infantry.

+4

+3

+2

Stoic Foot.

+4

+2

+2

Firelocks.

+3

+2

+2

Marksmen.

+1

+2

+3

Dragoons if dismounted.

+1

+2

+2

Heavy Artillery.

+2

+4

+4

Other Artillery.

+3

+3

+3

Sipahis.

+3

+2

+2

Spearmen.

+2

+2

+1

Light Horse.

+1

+1

+2

Sail or Steamer.

+2

+3

+4

Flotilla.

+1

+1

+2

Ironclad.

+1

+2

+5

Submarine.

-

-

+4

Pontooneers or Aeronauts.

+1

+1

+3

Laager.

+5

+4

+2

Supply Base.

+3

+1

+2

BUA.

-

-

+5

SP and its garrison.

+4

+3

+3

Temporary bridge

-

+2

+3

Permanent bridge.

-

+3

+4

Tactical factors:

Adjust your element’s, BUA’s or bridge’s score by each of the following that apply:

+3

if in close combat against an element of a defeated enemy command.

+2

if either shot at or in close combat while protected in a redoubt.

22

+1

if foot or dismounted, and either:

Shooting or shot at or in close combat while protected in an entrenchment. Shot at or in close combat while defending the edge of a BUA or an SP, not yet afire. Shot at on a base edge entirely in difficult going other than a burning BUA or marsh.

Shot at by artillery while in slow going other than a gully or stream. In close combat while manning an obstacle.

+1

if shot at by enemy, all of whom are beyond:

200p if the shooters are foot, dismounted or a Laager, and the target is not artillery. 400p if the shooters are Smoothbore or Mixed Artillery and the target is not artillery, a BUA or an SP. Half maximum range if the shooters are Rifled Artillery or naval.

+1

if shot at only by artillery shooting from beyond a hill crest or over troops of the artillery’s side.

+1

for each friendly element aiding a primary shooter or a target in distant combat, or a single supporting artillery element aiding close combat.

- for each flank overlapped in close combat, or each flank enfiladed by shooting.

1

- if close combat opponents started the bound uphill.

1

- if any land troops being shot at after making a march move, or if Rifles, BL or dismounted except Dragoons and being shot at by foot or dismounted after making a tactical move, or if artillery shot at after a tactical move or who were repulsed this bound or last.

1

- if Sail shooting from or shot at on their front or rear shooting edge.

1

- if Firelocks, Muskets or Stoic Foot; and in close combat in difficult going or in the interior of a BUA.

1

- if mounted, artillery or a Laager; and in close combat in slow or difficult going or in a BUA.

2

- if silenced artillery in close combat, or a damaged naval element.

2

- if pursuers in close combat against new enemy mounted, or if repulsed or routing.

2

- for each enemy element in front edge contact with flank or rear edge.

3

Grading factors:

Compare your element’s current total after tactical factors to that of its opponent, and then adjust it by:

+1 if:

Equal to its opponent’s in close combat unless either is mounted and the other is foot or artillery. Less than its opponent’s if shot at in distant combat unless by artillery or naval or if in close combat.

ELITE and its total is -

- 1 if:

Less than its opponent’s if in close combat. Equal to or more than its opponent’s if in distant combat and shot at by artillery or shooting.

INFERIOR and its total is -

23

COMBAT OUTCOME Now compare the final total of your element with that of its opponent, and then make any immediate outcome move specified below. This depends on its type and that of the enemy element in close combat against it or shooting at it. The affected player can often choose between outcomes or vary the distance moved. If none of the outcomes apply, the element does nothing.

Elements shooting in distant combat but not shot at by any enemy ignore outcomes except press forward. Elements in close combat against the flank or rear of an enemy element always recoil if the enemy total is higher. Supporting artillery use the total of the supported element directly in front, but artillery outcomes. Elements attempting to destroy an undefended bridge ignore outcomes. An SP garrison ignores outcomes not mentioning SP. Otherwise:

If its total is more than that of the enemy:

Mounted.

If in distant combat, charge to contact any enemy in good going and within 600p directly to front.

If in close combat, pursue 300p to 1,200p.

Foot or dismounted.

If shot at in distant combat after moving by foot or dismounted without shooting back, press forward 200p. If in distant or close combat in other circumstances, press forward 200p if desired.

Naval.

Move into close combat against enemy already within 200p if desired.

If its total is the same as that of the enemy:

Mounted or staff.

If in close combat against enemy artillery or (1790>) against, Bayonets, Light Infantry or Stoic Foot

Foot or dismounted.

and there is room beyond these, interpenetrate them and pursue 400p to 800p. If there is insufficient room or if in close combat against other troops, repulsed 600p to 1,200p unless Light Horse. Horse Artillery in support are repulsed with them. If shot at in distant combat in their own bound by dismounted or foot without shooting back,

Artillery.

press forward 200p if desired. If not, halt. If in close combat against mounted who interpenetrate them, then in subsequent bounds while these

Naval.

remain to their rear; they cannot move, shoot or be shot at or fight in close combat and are destroyed by enemy foot or dismounted in contact. Inferior Submarine and opponent both destroyed if in close combat (>1877).

If its total in distant combat is less than that of the enemy but more than half:

Mounted or staff.

Light Horse repulsed 1,600p to 2,400p and other troops recoiled by artillery.

shot at from beyond 400p or Stoic Foot halt, others recoil.

Foot or dismounted.

Repulsed 600p to 1,200p by troops other than artillery. Halt if will be contacted by opponents pressing forward.

Artillery if its total is at least 2 less. Naval if its total is at

Silenced if in a redoubt or entrenchment. Otherwise Dragoons or Repeaters are repulsed 600p to 1,200p, other dismounted, Rifles and BL

In addition to these, artillery destroy any obstacle protecting the target element. Choose whether to be silenced, or to be repulsed 200p if in difficult or slow going or a redoubt, otherwise l,200p to 1,600p if Horse Artillery, 800p if not. Damaged by naval or artillery unless Submarine.

least 2 less. BUA.

Set afire by artillery or naval.

24

If it’s total in close combat is less than that of the enemy but more than half:

Mounted.

Spent if fighting against routers.

Foot or staff.

Destroyed if already routing or if attacking over an obstacle. Destroyed if Cuirassiers, Heavy Cavalry, Dragoons or Mounted Rifles and fighting against Sipahis or Light Horse. Routed 1,200p if not destroyed or spent and already repulsed this bound. If none of these, repulsed 600p to 1,200p. Destroyed if in good going and any enemy mounted in front edge contact with front, flank or rear.

Dismounted.

Destroyed if defending a redoubt. Routed 800p if in an entrenchment. Repulsed 800p if in the interior of a BUA or defending an obstacle. Recoiled if in a Wood or defending the edge of a BUA. Repulsed 400p if attacking the edge of a BUA or SP or an entrenchment or redoubt. If none of these, recoiled if Stoic Foot, otherwise routed 800p by Firelocks, Bayonets, Light Infantry, Stoic Foot, BL or Rifles if these moved or pursued into contact this bound, destroyed by Spearmen. All others routed 800p if any enemy are in front edge contact with flank, repulsed 400p if only with front. Destroyed if in good going and any enemy mounted in front edge contact with front, flank or rear.

Other land.

Repulsed 1,200p if in the interior of a BUA or defending an obstacle. Recoiled if in a wood or defending the edge of a BUA. Repulsed 400p if attacking the edge of a BUA or SP or an entrenchment or redoubt. If none of these, repulsed 400p by Marksmen or artillery, repulsed 800p by Spearmen, routed 1,200p by others. Rout 1,200p if Horse Artillery in good going fighting against foot. If not, destroyed.

Naval.

Repulsed 800p if Flotilla. If not, destroyed by Submarine or Flotilla, damaged by other naval.

If its total in distant or close combat is half or less than half that of the enemy:

Staff.

Destroyed if in close combat or if a Native Potentate. If not, recoil disabled.

Mounted.

Spent if in close combat against any except mounted.

Marksmen.

Repulsed 1,200p if Light Horse fighting against Cuirassiers or Heavy Cavalry. If none of these, destroyed. Destroyed if in close combat in the interior of a BUA or against mounted in good going or against

Naval.

any foot except Muskets or Stoic Foot. Repulsed 800p if in distant combat. If none of these, routed 1,200p. Ironclads destroyed by Mixed or Rifled Heavy Artillery or Ironclad or Flotilla (1876>) or if in

Others.

close combat against Flotilla or Submarine. Other naval destroyed by Ironclad, Steamer, Sail or artillery or if in close combat against Flotilla or Submarines, repulsed 400p by land troops other than artillery. BUA or SP set afire by artillery or naval or bridge destroyed. Troops in BUA routed 400p if in distant combat, destroyed if in close combat. SP garrison destroyed if in close combat. Pontooneers destroyed if in close combat, repulsed 400p if not.

Repulsed by Supply Base, Pontooneers or Aeronauts. Other land troops not in an SP or BUA destroyed.

25

Destroyed elements are removed. This represents artillery having lost too many men and horses to function effectively or retire

safely, other troops' broken survivors dispersing, fleeing discarding weapons, surrendering as prisoners or being slaughtered by

a savage pursuit, or a naval element's vessels blowing-up, sinking, running aground as wrecks or being taken by boarding or rammed.

Damaged naval elements incur a permanent –2 tactical factor and their maximum move is permanently reduced by 400p. If markers are needed, small puffs of dark brown cotton wool, or wreckage are suitable.

Spent elements have expended their mounts' strength and the riders' dash and cohesion but mostly survive, so are removed but do not count as lost. They reappear before the next battle of a campaign.

Disabled staff elements remain so until they next have an unadjusted PIP score of 6. This simulates the effects of confusion while a general recovers from injury or is being replaced by the next in command. A Brilliant general’s replacement is not Brilliant. An Inert general’s replacement is Inert.

Silenced elements remain so until the end of the immediately following bound. Until then, they cannot shoot in distant combat, support or make a tactical or march move. This represents a temporary unwillingness of troops behind defences to expose themselves, or artillery crew depleted, driven from or repairing guns. If a marker is needed, a small puff of dust coloured cotton wool, a casualty figure or a shell hole are all suitable. Opponents of silenced troops can charge or press forward as if unsuccessfully shot at.

Halted elements do not make an outcome move this bound, but act normally in subsequent bounds.

Recoiled elements have staggered back a short distance in response to casualties. The element moves back its base depth, pushing back friends facing the same direction or following it along a road, or Marksmen. If recoiled by shooting from entirely behind a line extending its rear edge, it first turns to face, otherwise remains facing in its original direction. Elements recoiling across a bridge end on the far bank. Recoiled and pushed-back elements that cannot complete the recoil are destroyed if in close combat or reaching terrain they cannot cross or enemy, otherwise are repulsed 800p together with any friends preventing the recoil.

Repulsed elements have lost cohesion and are falling right back to reorganise. They recoil, then turn 180 degrees and move directly to their former rear, except that they divert around impassable terrain. They pass through friendly elements met. They cannot make a tactical or march move in their next bound, but turn 180 degrees at the end of it unless contacted by enemy. They cannot shoot until the bound after they turn.

Routed elements turn 180 degrees and move either straight back to their rear or follow a road, river bank or terrain feature edge leading nearer to their original entry point, passing through friendly elements they meet. Routers that reach a bridge or ford stop at the nearside. Friendly elements contiguous to the initial rear edge of cavalry destroyed in close combat or routers immediately rout full tactical move distance unless defending a BUA, SP or redoubt or the routers are Marksmen or naval or the routers only are Inferior. The element moving furthest ends in front. Routers end their rout move facing in the direction they are moving and remain there until their army’s next bound. If they are not rallied in that bound, they are destroyed.

A repulsed element halts on reaching terrain it cannot cross or avoid, a routing element is destroyed. A repulsed or routing element that reaches enemy must immediately conform to and fight them if it can. Unless destroyed by this, it immediately routs 1,200p straight ahead, bursting through the enemy who halt.

Rallied elements turn 180 degrees instead of moving that bound. They act normally in subsequent bounds.

Pressing forward is always straight ahead unless along a road or the element contacts enemy who are not obligated to conform.

A foot or dismounted element both prolonging the front of (i.e. in both front corner to front corner and side edge contact with)

the friendly element with the press forward combat result and which is not itself in close combat or going to be shot at also presses forward. Elements pressing forward cannot shoot or be shot at again until next bound. Elements pressing forward into close combat with enemy as a result of distant shooting fight them this bound. Elements pressing forward after close combat (unlike pursuers) do not fight again until next bound.

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Pursuing elements follow recoiled, repulsed or routed opponents they were in close combat with this bound, or if these were destroyed, move straight ahead. They need not exceed minimum pursuit move or enter slow or difficult going unless they choose to, or leave the table. If they contact enemy, one side must conform in the usual way described in RESPONDING TO ENEMY CONTACT on P.19 and the combat is resolved immediately.

Elements in frontal contact with an enemy element's flank or rear recoil if friends in close combat against its front are recoiled, repulsed, routed or destroyed and join those friends to prolong their front if they press forward or pursue. An element contacted only to flank or rear and not obligated to move turns immediately to face.

When a Command Party has added the combat factor of an element contiguous to its rear, it is repulsed 600p to 1,200p if the latter becomes spent, otherwise both obey the latter’s outcome. If the outcome is charge to contact enemy, press forward or pursue the element behind follows the same distance.

LOST ELEMENTS Destroyed troops are permanently lost. A routing element that has not left the battlefield counts as lost until it rallies. Troops that recoil, rout or are repulsed across its edge are counted as lost, but reappear in the next period of a campaign.

ELEMENT EQUIVALENTS An ELITE or Artillery element counts as 2 element equivalents. A Laager counts as 2 and a Supply Base as 3 element equivalents per 200 AP (rounded up to the next 200p) in the army. A Flotilla, Submarine or inferior naval element count as ½

an element equivalent. All other elements count as 1 element equivalent.

DEFEATED COMMANDS

A command that at the end of any bound has lost a third of the total of its original element equivalents plus or minus any

elements transferred to or from it, or which has all its original elements lost or spent is defeated. Elements cannot be transferred to or from it. If allied, all its PIPs must be used for single element moves towards and over its original battlefield edge. If subordinate, its elements cannot move closer to enemy elements unless these are between them and the command’s original battlefield edge.

WINNING OR LOSING THE BATTLE The first side at the end of any bound to have its cumulative losses exceed a quarter of its original element equivalents and to have lost more element equivalents in that bound than the enemy loses the battle. All battles end at nightfall unless renewed the next day. Nightfall occurs after 24 pairs of bounds unless the optional map movement system is being used.

DEFINITIONS

BEYOND means “further than”. WITHIN means “at or closer than”. DIRECTLY SUBORDINATE means one command level down i.e. A Corps commander is directly subordinate to one Army commander. If there is more than one Army commander, all are directly subordinate to the C-in-C. An allied commander is directly subordinate only to a more senior commander of his own nation. ENFILADED means a line extending your element’s rear edge meets an enemy shooting edge. An SP, BUA, Supply Base or Laager, or a Pontooneers, Aeronauts or naval element cannot be enfiladed. TO REAR means with any part directly behind the element. CONTACT means “touching on any edge or corner”. FRONTAL CONTACT means “with own front edge in contact with any enemy edge”. SAME DIRECTION means “exactly the same direction”. COLUMN means “a group only 1 element wide with all elements facing in the same direction except when wheeling.”

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ADVICE FROM THE MASTERS

“In war all is simple; but the most simple is still very difficult. The instrument of war resembles a machine with prodigious friction, but cannot, as in ordinary mechanics, be adjusted at pleasure, but is ever in contact with a host of chances….It thus falls out that we remain behind the line we have drawn by anticipation, and that no common powers are required to maintain us even at a medium point.” (Clausewitz).

“Tactical talent consists in causing the unexpected arrival, upon the most accessible and the most important positions, of means which destroy the equilibrium, and give victory; to execute, in a word, with promptness, movements which disconcert the enemy, and for which he is entirely unprepared”. (Marmont). “Fatigue the opponent, if possible, with few forces and conserve a decisive mass for the critical moment. Once this critical mass has been thrown in, it must be used with the greatest audacity.” (Clausewitz) “Always mystify, mislead and surprise the enemy if possible” (Stonewall Jackson).

“If the art of war consisted merely in not taking risks, glory would be at the mercy of very mediocre talent.” (Napoleon). “First reckon, then risk.” (Moltke). “There is always hazard in military movements, but we must decide between possible loss from inaction and the risk of action.” (Lee).

“If you attack expecting to prevail, do it in full strength, because a surplus of victory never caused any conqueror one pang of remorse.” (Xenophon).

“Luck is like a sum of gold, to be spent.” (Allenby). “Not only strike while the iron is hot, but make it hot by striking.” (Cromwell). “In war there is only one favourable moment. Genius seizes it.” “In order to smash, it is necessary to act suddenly.” “It is very advantageous to rush unexpectedly on an enemy who has erred, to attack him suddenly and come down upon him with thunder before he has seen the lightning”. (Napoleon).

“If a segment of one’s force is located where it is not sufficiently busy with the enemy, or if troops are on the march – that is, idle – while the enemy is fighting, then those forces are being managed uneconomically. In this sense they are being wasted, which is even worse than using them inappropriately. When the time comes, the first requirement should be that all parts must act, even the least appropriate task will occupy some of the enemy’s forces and reduce his overall strength, while completely inactive troops are neutralised for the time being.” (Clausewitz).

“There is a gift of being able to see at a glance the possibilities offered by the terrain…One can call it the coup d’oeil and it is inborn in great generals.” (Napoleon).

“A general should show boldness, strike a decided blow, and manoeuvre upon the flank of his enemy. The victory is in his hands.” “Carry your troops well on and attack the enemy vigorously.” “In war as in love, we must achieve contact ere we triumph.” “In order to smash, it is necessary to act suddenly.” (Napoleon) “The bayonet is a wise man; the bullet is a fool.” “We must attack!!! Cold steel - bayonets and sabres. Push the enemy over, hammer them down, don’t lose a moment! Overcome everything that stands in your way, however insurmountable it may appear! Follow on their heels, destroy them to the last man! The Cossacks will catch the fugitives and all their baggage. Forward without rest and exploit the victory.” (Suvorov).

“He who stays on the defensive does not make war, he endures it.” (Goltz). “The defensive-offensive is the strongest form, but the most difficult of execution” (Clausewitz). “Nothing is more dangerous than the attempt at defending seriously a river line, by keeping his side of the river occupied; for if the enemy were to cross suddenly with surprise effect – and that he will always be able to do somehow – we would find the defender in extensive positions from which the latter will be unable to assemble in time.” (Napoleon).

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“Time spent in reconnaissance is seldom wasted.” (FSR 1912). “A general should never have to say, “I did not expect it.” (Maurikios). “You will usually find that the enemy has three courses open to him, and of these he will usually choose the fourth.” (Moltke).

“The first duty of an advance guard is to advance.” (Slim).

“The true speed of war is not headlong precipitancy, but the unremitting energy that wastes no time.”(Mahan).

“Most opponents are at their best if they are allowed to dictate a battle; they are not so good when they are thrown off-balance by manoeuvre and are forced to react to your own movements and thrusts.” (Montgomery)

“The use of cavalry demands boldness and ability: above all, it should not be handled with any miserly desire to keep it intact.” “Charges of cavalry are equally useful at the beginning, the middle and the end of a battle. They should be made always, if possible, on the flanks of the infantry, especially when this last is engaged in front.” (Napoleon). “The defeat of the hostile cavalry is purely a family affair and without influence on the course of the battle if the cavalry contents itself with this small success and does not endeavour to attain the greater and more important result of advancing against the flank and rear of the enemy.” (Balck).

“It is with artillery that one makes war.” “One must have as much artillery as one’s enemy.” “There is no infantry, however brave, which can, without artillery, march with impunity ten or twelve hundred yards against 16 pieces of cannon well placed and well-served.” (Napoleon). “No extraordinary effort is required for infantry to seize a few guns; but when the fire of many guns is concentrated to oppose its attack, the havoc created is so dreadful that the most courageous infantry frequently fails in the attempt to carry a powerful battery.” (Robertson).

“We still have in our recollection the character of weariness and exhaustion which it (the battle of Borodino) assumed. The infantry masses were so reduced, that, perhaps, not more than a third of their original strength was engaged. The rest were either killed, wounded, engaged in removing the wounded, or rallying in the rear. Large vacancies were everywhere apparent. That enormous artillery, which had brought on the two sides nearly 2,000 pieces into the field, was now heard only in single shots, and even these seemed to have lost the force and thunder of their original voice, and to give a hoarse and hollow tone. The cavalry had almost everywhere taken up the place and position of the infantry, and made its attacks in a weary trot; riding hither and thither, disputing and gaining by turns the field works. Towards 3pm it was evident that the battle was on its last legs, and that, according to all rule, the decision depended entirely on the possession of the last trump card, i.e. the strongest reserve.” (Clausewitz).

“Providence is always on the side of the last reserve.” “A general who retains fresh troops for the day after a battle is almost always beaten. He should throw in his last man.” (Napoleon) “The great secret of battle is to have a reserve. I always had one.” (Wellington). “To fight without a reserve is like playing cards without capital – sheer gambling.” (Fuller)

“A prompt and vigorous pursuit is the only means of ensuring complete success.” (Sheridan). “Never let up in pursuit while your men have strength to follow, for an army, if hotly pursued, becomes panic stricken and can be destroyed by half their number.” (Stonewall Jackson).

“History…is indeed little more than a chronicle of the crimes, follies and misfortunes of mankind”(Gibbon).

“The kind of person who could not lead a patrol of 9 men is happy to arrange armies in his imagination, criticise the conduct of a general, and say to his misguided self “My God, I know I could do better in his place.”(Frederick).

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OPTIONAL PRELIMINARY MAP MOVEMENT

Real battles were not mutually arranged, but were the consequence of previous movement by the opposing sides in attempting

to apply their respective strategies. The deployment rules give some of the flavour of this, but this can be enhanced if you wish

by a simple preliminary map campaign using the following system. More elaborate campaigns using real maps and third party umpires can be substituted, but will need more time, effort and organiser expertise.

The two sides share a single stylised map. This is marked with road links between nodal points which are usually villages, but can also be road junctions, defiles or just arbitrary intermediary points. The distance between two adjacent nodes is called a STAGE, and is notionally 7.5 miles or 12 kilometres. Only major rivers are shown and in Europe are crossed by existing bridges. Each campaign day is split into three periods MORNING, AFTERNOON and NIGHT.

Movement is simultaneous, to simulate the fact that generals usually heard of other actors' movements, but only after some delay. Before the start of play, each player writes down movement orders that will be implemented at game start. At dawn each day, each player then writes down movement orders for that day. The previous days moves are then implemented on the common map.

The only reason for having weather in a war game is to cause inconvenience. It should not therefore be omitted because it is inconvenient! Dice at the end of each afternoon. A score of 1 indicates bad weather, which for our purposes is assumed to be prolonged heavy rain that turns bad roads to mud. Dice again at the start of each succeeding period, a score of 4 or more indicating that the rain stops, but that roads are still affected until the end of that period.

Command parties, Dragoons, Light Cavalry, Repeaters, Mounted Rifles, Rifle Cavalry, Light Infantry, Light Horse, Spearmen

or Marksmen march up to 3 stages in one period and up to 3 stages in total per day.

Cuirassiers, Heavy Cavalry, Sipahis, Bayonets, Minie, BL or Rifles or HQ march up to 2 stages in one period and up to 3 stages in total per day. Other foot march 2 stages in one period and up to 2 stages in total per day. Horse Artillery or Portable Artillery march 3 stages in one period and up to 3 stages in total per day. Other Artillery march 1 stage in one period and up to 2 stages in total per day.

A march partly or entirely over bad roads in bad weather and/or by night cannot exceed 1 stage.

1 period of work is needed to construct infantry entrenchments or break down a bridge, 2 periods to construct artillery redoubts

or repair a bridge, 3 periods to construct a bridge.

Unless in rout, no more than 2 commands or 15 elements can be marching on the same stage during the same period.

Troops cannot march or work for more than 2 successive periods. A march starting or finishing at night must be followed by a rest period.

In colonial warfare, we suggest that the native side moves only every second day, but then makes two days' moves, so as to

provide an extra element of surprise.

When opposing forces meet, they are transferred to the wargames table and a battle is fought. A side arriving first is always the defender, but not all the opposed troops will necessarily be on the battlefield at the start and if not they will continue to arrive. After 12 bounds by each side, another map period starts during which troops may start arriving from 1 stage away “marching

to the sound of the guns”. Retreat to avoid battle is possible only if the retreating force has movement remaining and has no

troops with a shorter tactical move than the shortest of the other force. Retreat from a battle once started is by a compulsory army rout of 1 or 2 stages. Battles cease at nightfall. The night can be used to retreat, or the battle can resume next morning.

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HORSE, FOOT AND GUNS ARMY LISTS, GROUPED BY CAMPAIGNS.

1. LOW COUNTRIES AND RHINELAND 1701-1714

(War of the Spanish Succession)

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2. RUSSIA 1707-1709

(Great Northern War)

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3. SILESIA, SAXONY, BOHEMIA, MORAVIA AND BAVARIA 1740-1779

(1 st & 2 nd Silesian Wars,

Seven Years War, War of the Bavarian Succession)

33

4. HANOVER, HESSE, WESTPHALIA, THURINGIA AND RHINELAND 1757-1762 (Seven Years War.)

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5. AMERICA 1775-1783 (“American War of Independence”)

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6. INDIA 1778-1805

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7. IRELAND 1798 (Tara, New Ross, Antrim, Ballynahinch, Vinegar Hill, Castlebar, Ballinamuck).

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8. BAVARIA 1805

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9. AUSTRIA 1805 (Austerlitz)

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10. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 1808-1814

(Peninsular War)

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11. AUSTRIA 1809 (Eckmuhl, Aspern-Essling and Wagram)

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12. RUSSIA 1812 (Borodino Campaign)

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13. GERMANY 1813

(Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, Kulm, Leipzig)

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BELGIUM 1815

14. (Ligny, Quatre Bras, Wavre, Waterloo)

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15. ALGERIA & MOROCCO 1829-1847

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16. CRIMEA 1854-56 (Alma 1854, Balaclava 1854, Inkerman 1854, Eupatoria 1855, Tchernaya 1855)

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17. ITALY 1859. (Magenta and Solferino).

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18. CALABRIA 1860 (Volturno)

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19. AMERICA 1861-65

(American Civil War)

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20. SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN 1864 (Battles of Jagel, Overselk, Oversee, Viele, Dupple, Alsen, Rendsburg)

50

21. BOHEMIA, MORAVIA & ITALY 1866

(Seven Weeks War)

50

22. FRANCE 1870 (Franco-Prussian War – Battles of Spicheren, Worth, Gravelot/St.Privat, Sedan)

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23. BULGARIA 1876 (Battles of Zaitschar, Novi-Bazar, Gurgusovatz, Alexinatz)

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24. BULGARIA 1877-78

52

25. ZULULAND 1879 (Isandhlwana, Gingindlovu, Khambula, Ulundi)

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26. EGYPT 1882

(Tel-el-Kebir)

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27. INDO-CHINA 1883-85

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28. BULGARIA 1885 (Battles of Slivnitza, Dragoman, Zaribrod Pass, Pirot).

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29. ETHIOPIA 1895

(Adowa)

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30. SUDAN 1898 (Omdurman)

56

31. NATAL 1899-1900 (2nd Boer War)

56

32. MANCHURIA 1904-5 (Russo-Japanese War)

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33.THRACE AND MACEDONIA 1912-13

(1 st & 2 nd Balkan Wars)

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INDEX

59

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1.

LOW COUNTRIES AND RHINELAND 1701-1714 (150AP-350AP)

(War of the Spanish Succession)

ANGLO-DUTCH – Aggression: 4

1 x Brilliant CP (Marlborough) @ 30AP, 0-1 x subordinate CP (Overkirk) @ 15AP, 1-2 x Heavy Cavalry (British Horse

>1707) @ 5AP or Cuirassiers (British Horse 1707>) @ 6AP, 1-3 x Pistols (Dutch) @ 5AP, 0-4 x Inferior Pistols (Prussian and other German) @ 3AP, 0-2 x Heavy Cavalry (Danish) @ 5AP, 3-9 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Muskets (British Guards) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Elite Muskets (Dutch Guards) @ 5AP, 0-3 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 6-12 x Muskets (British) @ 3AP, 8-15 x Muskets (Dutch) @ 3AP, 0-2 x Muskets (Danish) @ 3AP, 0-4 x Muskets (Prussian) @ 3AP, 4-16 x

Firelocks (other German) @ 2AP, 1 per 7-10 foot x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

IMPERIALIST – Aggression: 3

1 x HQ (Baden) @ 20AP or Brilliant CP (Eugene) @ 30AP, 2-5 x Pistols @ 5AP, 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Horse

(Hussars) @ 2AP, 4-28 x Firelocks @ 2AP, 1 x Smoothbore Artillery @ 8 AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-

1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

FRANCO-BAVARIAN – Aggression: 1

1 x Brilliant HQ (Villars or Vendome) @ 40AP or HQ (Tallard, Villeroi or Boufflers) @ 20AP, 0-1 x subordinate CP (Elector

of Bavaria with Marsin, or Burgundy) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Elite Pistols (French Maison and Gendarmerie) @ 7AP, 0-1 x Elite Pistols (Bavarian Cuirassiers) @ 7AP, 4-6 x Pistols (French Chevaux-legers) @ 5AP, 1-8 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-2 x Light Horse (French Hussars) @ 2AP, 0-3 x Elite Firelocks (French Guards) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets (French brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Elite Firelocks (Bavarian Guards) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets (Bavarian Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 18-

34 x Firelocks (French) @ 2AP, 0-5 x Firelocks (Bavarian) @ 2AP, 1 per 6-8 foot x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-3 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-3 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

Marlborough and Eugene can command each other’s troops.

2. RUSSIA 1707-1709 (100AP-125AP) (Great Northern War)

SWEDISH – Invader Aggression: 4

1 x Brilliant-CP (Karl XII) @ 30AP or CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonet (Guards) @ 5AP, 2-4 x Bayonet @ 4AP, 4-5 x Heavy

Cavalry @ 5AP, 2-3 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Horse @ 2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-4 x Inferior Firelocks (Rebel Cossacks) @ 1 AP, 1 x Laager @ 4AP.

RUSSIAN – Aggression: 1

1 x HQ @ 20AP, 0-2 x Elite Stoic Foot (Guards) @ 5AP, 15-16 x Inferior Stoic Foot @ 2AP, 4-5 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Inferior Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 1AP, 0-3 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Entrenchment @ 15AP.

Notes: The Swedes still armed 1/3 of their infantry with pikes until 1718 and relied on a charge with these and bayonets rather than on shooting, so are classed as Bayonets. The Russians retained pikes, at least against the Turks, until 1737, but used them only defensively and relied on shooting. Most Russian artillery was 2pdr and 3pdr regimental guns, so is included in the dragoon and infantry elements. Nearly all the Swedish artillery was left in the camp at Poltava so that it would not slow the attack.

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3. SILESIA, SAXONY, BOHEMIA, MORAVIA AND BAVARIA 1740-1779 (150AP-400AP) (1 st & 2 nd Silesian Wars, Seven Years War, War of the Bavarian Succession)

PRUSSIAN – Aggression: 3

1 x Brilliant HQ (Frederick the Great) @ 40AP or HQ @ 20AP, 0-1 x subordinate Brilliant CP (Seydlitz 1757-1772) @ 30AP

or subordinate CP @ 15AP, 0-2 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 2-6 x Inferior Cuirassiers (>1742) @ 4AP or Elite Cuirassiers (1757-1772) @ 8AP or Cuirassiers (1743-1757 and 1773>) @ 6AP, 0-1 x Elite Dragoons (Bayreuth Dragoons 1748>) @ 5AP, 1-4 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-2 x Inferior Light Horse (Hussars >1746) @ 1AP or 1-6 x Light Cavalry (Hussars 1746>) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Inferior Light Horse (Bosniaken) @ 1AP, 1 x Elite Muskets (Guard) @ 5AP, 2-5 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers)

@ 5AP, 9-21 x Muskets (includes up to 1/3 Fusiliers 1745>) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager >1760) @ 2AP, 0-2 x

Inferior Light Infantry (Freicorps 1756>) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Inferior Muskets (collected garrison battalions) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery (1772>) @ 15AP, 1 per 3-8 Muskets x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery (12pdr Brummer 1756>) @ 12 AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

AUSTRIAN – Aggression: 1

1 x HQ (Browne 1752-57 or Loudon 1761-1778) @ 20AP or Inert HQ @ 10AP, 0-1 x subordinate CP (Loudon 1757-1760) @

15AP or subordinate Inert CP @ 5AP, 1-2 x subordinate Inert CP, 0-1 x Cuirassiers (Carabiniers 1768>) @ 6AP, 6-12 x Pistols (Cuirassiers >1751) @ 5AP or Inferior Cuirassiers (Cuirassiers 1751>) @ 4AP or Cuirassiers (Cuirassiers 1772>) @ 6AP, 2- 10 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-4 x Light Horse (Hussars) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry (Chevauleger 1758>) @ 5AP, 1-3 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers 1756>) @ 5AP, 3-6 x Inferior Bayonets (Hungarian regiments >1755) @ 3AP or Bayonets (1755>) @ 4AP, 5-30 x Inferior Muskets (German and other regiments >1755) @ 2AP or Muskets (1755>) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager 1758-1763 and 1778-79) @ 3AP, 4-9 x Marksmen (Croats/Grenzers) @ 2AP, 0-4 x Inferior Pistols (German subject cavalry 1757) @ 3AP, 0-8 x Inferior Firelocks (German subject foot 1757) @ 1AP, 0-4 x Pistols (Saxon Cuirassiers) @ 5AP, 0-2 x Light Horse (Saxon Uhlans) @ 2 AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Saxon Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 0-12 x Firelocks (Saxon foot) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery (1758>) @ 15AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery per 5-10 Muskets and Firelocks @ 8AP, 1-2 x Heavy Smoothbore Artillery @ 12 AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

Notes: Austrian heavy cavalry did not cease reliance on firepower until after the drill book of 1751 and were admitted to have not achieved proficiency until after 1772. Their infantry initially formed in 4 ranks, of which only 2 fired, and performed an over-complicated drill badly. The grenadiers were described as ferocious and the Hungarian infantry as lively. Both made use of the sabres with which they were provided.

RUSSIAN 1757-1761 – Aggression: 2

1 x HQ @ 20AP, 1-2 x Inferior Cuirassiers @ 4AP, 0-2 x Dragoons (Dragoon Grenadiers) @ 4AP, 2-6 x Inferior Dragoons @

2AP, 0-3 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 3AP, 8-16 x Inferior Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 1AP, 0-4 x Elite Bayonets

(brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 18-25 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 0-2 x Marksmen (Jager) @ 2AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery

@ 16AP, 1 per 3-5 Stoic Foot x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 per 6 Stoic Foot x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @

12AP, 0-3 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-6 x Entrenchments @ 10AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

Austrian allied corps (1759 and 1761): 1x Ally CP (Loudon or Beck) @ 15AP, 1-2 x Inferior Cuirassiers @ 4AP, 1 x Dragoons

@ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Horse (Hussars) @ 2AP, 0-8 x Inferior Muskets @ 2AP, 0-1 x Marksmen (Croats) @ 2AP, 0-3 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

Notes: Russian commanders distrusted both the motives of their allies and the competence of their subordinates. Russian cavalry of the 7 Years War were greatly handicapped by a lack of good horses.

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4. HANOVER, HESSE, WESTPHALIA, THURINGIA AND RHINELAND 1757-1762 (150AP-400AP) (Seven Years War.)

HANOVERIAN AND ALLIES – Aggression: 4 1 x HQ (Cumberland 1757) @ 20AP or Brilliant HQ (Ferdinand 1758-62) @ 40AP, 0-2 x Brilliant subordinate CP (Erbprinz, Holstein-Gottorp, Granby 1759-62) @ 30AP or CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x Inert subordinate CP (Sackville 1758-1759) @ 5AP or subordinate CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. Hanoverian: 0-2 x Heavy Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-2 x Light Horse (Luckner’s Hussars, Mounted Jager) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Elite Muskets (Guards) @ 5AP, 1-3 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 5-12 x Muskets @ 3AP, 1-3 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. British 1758-62: 1-2 x Heavy Cavalry (Dragoon Guards) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry (Light Dragoons) @ 5AP, 0-2 x Elite Muskets (Guards) @ 5AP, 0-2 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Bayonets (Highlanders) @ 4AP, 4-6 x Muskets @ 3AP, 0-2 x Inferior Marksmen (British Legion 1760> only) @ 1AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. Hessian: 0-2 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-2 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 2-4 x Muskets @ 3AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 0-2 x Inferior Muskets (Militia 1759-62 only) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Artillery. Brunswick: 0-1 x Inferior Cuirassiers (Dragoons) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Horse (Hussars) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets @ 5AP, 2-4 x Muskets @ 3AP. Prussian: 0-2 x Dragoons (1758-60) @ 4AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry (Hussars 1758-62) @ 5AP, 0-4 x Muskets (1757-60) @ 3AP. Buckeberg: 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

Notes: Troops of all nationalities were usually mixed in commands under generals of any nationality. Buckeberg provided only artillery and a single battalion to escort them. Brunswick dragoons wore cuirasses.

FRENCH – Aggression: 2 1-2 x Brilliant HQ (Broglie 1759-61) @ 40AP or HQ (D’Estrees 1757, Contades 1758-59, Castries 1761-62) @ 20AP or Inert HQ (Soubise 1758-62, Clermont 1758) @ 10 AP, 0-2 x Brilliant subordinate CP (Broglie 1757-58, Chevert 1757-58) @ 30AP or subordinate CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x allied CP (Lusace 1758-60) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Elite Cuirassiers (Maison and Gendarmerie) @ 8AP, 4-6 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 2-6 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1-2 x Inferior Light Horse (Hussars) @ 1AP, 0-2 x Elite Muskets (Guards) @ 5AP, 0-4 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 0-4 x Muskets (“Old Regiments”) @ 3AP, 10-36 x Inferior Muskets (other regiments >1758) @ 2AP or Muskets (other regiments 1758>) @ 3AP, 0-2 x Muskets (Swiss) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Muskets (Irish) @ 3AP, 1-2 x Marksmen @ 2AP, 1 per 5-8 Muskets x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-3 x Firelocks (Wurtembergers 1758) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Concealment @ 10AP, 0-2 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. Saxons 1758-60: 0-4 x Pistols (Cuirassiers) @ 5AP, 0-1 x LH (Uhlans) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets (brigaded Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 3-6 x Firelocks @ 2AP.

Note: Yes, it is possible to have 2 C-in-C’s or for a C-in-C to have no subordinate generals allowed to control more than a brigade. King Louis preferred telling senior generals to co-operate with each other to establishing a proper chain of command. Influence at court counted more than ability. If present, Lusace must command at least some of his own Saxons but can also command French troops. The “Old Regiments” are those whose standards have a single background colour behind the white cross, namely Picardie, Champagne, Navarre, Piemont and Normandie. There was a marked improvement in French infantry after Belle-Isle’s reforms in 1758.

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5.

AMERICA 1775-1783 (75AP-150AP.) (American War of Independence)

BRITISH – Aggression: 3

1 x Inert HQ (Howe >1777 or Cornwallis 1780-81) @ 10AP or HQ (Burgoyne 1777 or Clinton 1778>) @ 20AP, 1-2 x

subordinate CP @ 15 AP, 1-2 x Light Horse (Light Dragoons) @ 2 AP, 1-2 x Elite Bayonets (Guards & Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Light Infantry @ 5AP, 2-6 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1-2 x Muskets (Hessians) @ 3AP, 0-2 x Marksmen (Jager & Rangers) @ 2AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Flotilla @ 3AP, 0-1 x Sail Flagship @ 16AP, 0-1 x Sail @ 6AP, 0-2 x Inferior Sail (Sloops etc) @ 4AP. Only >1779: 0-2 x Concealment @ 10AP, 0-1 x Strong Point @ 10AP. Only 1779>: 0-2 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Entrenchment @ 10 AP.

Note: British light dragoons are classed as LH because shortage of horses and close terrain reduced them to minor roles.

PATRIOT – Aggression: 2 0-1 x HQ (Washington) @ 20AP or Inert HQ (Gates 1777-80) @ 10AP, 0-1 x subordinate Brilliant CP (Arnold – only with Gates 1777) @ 30AP or CP @ 15AP, 4-6 x Muskets (Continentals) @ 3 AP, 2-8 x Inferior Muskets (Militia) @ 2AP, 0-2 x Light Horse @ 2AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen @ 3AP, 1-2 x Marksmen @ 2AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Redoubt @ 5AP, 0-1 x Flotilla @ 3AP. Only 1777>: 0-2 x Light Infantry @ 5AP. French allies: 1 x CP @ 15AP, 2-4 x Muskets @ 3 AP, 1 x Marksmen (Legion) @ 2AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Artillery @ 8 AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Sail Flagship @ 16AP, 0--2 x Sail @ 6AP.

6. INDIA 1778-1805 (50AP-100AP)

MAHRATTA – Aggression: 2

1 x NP @ 10AP (or CP @ 15AP if army is commanded by a European mercenary general), 0-1 x Elite Sipahis (Rathors) @

5AP, 0-2 x Sipahis (other Rajputs) @ 3AP, 4-8 x Inferior Light Horse (Pindaris) @ 1AP, 0-1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (European-trained regular cavalry) @ 3AP, 0-6 x Muskets (European-trained regular foot) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Artillery (European-trained artillery) @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Smoothbore Artillery (traditional Indian artillery) @ 12AP, 1 x Portable

Artillery (Rocketeers) @ 5AP, 1-3 x Marksmen (Najib matchlock men) @ 2AP, 1-3 x Spearmen (other traditional Indian foot)

@ 1AP, 0-1 x Strong Point @ 10AP.

BRITISH - Aggression: 4

1 x CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry (Regular British and Indian cavalry) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Sipahis (Indian irregular cavalry)

@ 5AP, 0-1x Elite Bayonets (British) @ 5AP, 4-8 x Bayonets (Sepoys) @ 4 AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP,

1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-2 x Marksmen (Najib) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

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7. IRELAND 1798 (50-100AP) (Tara, New Ross, Antrim, Ballynahinch, Vinegar Hill, Castlebar, Ballinamuck).

BRITISH – Aggression: 4

1 x Inert HQ (Cornwallis) @ 10AP or CP (Lake) @ 15AP, 0-1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP (Lake if not C-in-C), 0-1 x Light

Cavalry (British) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Irish Yeomanry) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Bayonets (Scotch Fencibles) @ 4AP, 3- 10 x Inferior Bayonets (Irish Militia) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (5 th /60 th ) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Sail Flagship @ 16AP, 0-2 x Sail @ 6AP, 0-2 x Inferior Sail (Frigates) @ 4AP.

IRISH REBEL – Aggression: 3.

1 x Inert CP (committee, unworldly priest or drunken Napper Tandy) @ 5 AP, 2-15 x Elite Spearmen (pikes) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Inferior Marksmen @ 1AP.

FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY ALLIES (IF PRESENT) – Aggression: 1

1

x CP (Humbert) @ 15AP, 2-4 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Sail Flagship @ 16AP, 0-

3

x Inferior Sail (Frigates) @ 4AP.

Notes: The minimum army size allows a quickly gathered scratch force of British to fight either an Irish rebel army or the small French force that arrived after the main risings were defeated, reinforced by Irish remnants. The maximum size allows the much larger French force, readied but not landed, to join with the main rebel armies before these were dispersed; and then be used against the gathered British forces. Cornwallis was a conciliator, Lake a fiery avenger, Humbert baffled. Irish yeomanry were Protestants, militia mainly Catholic. Neither they nor the rebels gave quarter or were kind to civilians of the wrong persuasion. The most able Irish rebel leader, the Wolf Tone (a Protestant), never landed and suicided after his French ship was taken. The most attractive, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, was killed at the outset of the rebellion in a failed coup against Dublin. In a large game, Irish and French should start separated on a large table and attempt to concentrate, with Cornwallis and Lake trying to defeat them in detail.

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8. BAVARIA 1805 (300AP-800AP)

FRENCH – Aggression: 4

1 x Brilliant HQ (Napoleon) @ 40AP, 3- 6 x Elite Bayonets (Guard) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Heavy Cavalry @ 7AP, 0-1 x Elite

Light Cavalry @ 6AP, 0-2 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 2-5 x Elite Bayonets (Grenadier Division) @ 5AP, 0-3 x Inferior Muskets (Dismounted Dragoon Division) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP.

1 x Reserve Cavalry, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Murat) @ 15AP, 1 x Heavy Cavalry (Carabiniers) @ 5AP, 4 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 7 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 3 x Light Cavalry (Chasseurs & Hussars) @ 5AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP.

1 x Corps (I), of: 1 x subordinate Inert CP (Bernadotte) @ 5AP, 8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Corps (II), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Marmont) @ 15AP, 12 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-2 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Corps (III), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Davout) @ 15AP, 12 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-2 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Corps (IV), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Soult) @ 15AP, 16 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Corps (V), of: 1 x subordinate Brilliant CP (Lannes) @ 30AP, 8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Corps (VI), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Ney) @ 15AP, 12 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Corps (VII), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Augereau) @ 15AP, 8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Bavarian Corps, of: 1 x allied CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets

(Guard) @ 5AP, 4-10 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-

1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 15AP.

AUSTRIANS – Aggression: 2

1 x Inert HQ (Mack) @ 10AP, 4 x Cuirassier @ 6AP, 8-16 x Elite Bayonets (Grenadier Divisions) @ 5AP, 1-2 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP.

4-12 x Corps, each of: 1 x Inert CP @ 5AP, 8 x Muskets @ 3AP, 0-1 x Inferior Light Infantry (Grenze) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars, Dragoons, Chevauxleger, Uhlans) @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

Notes: My main source for 1805 has walked or hidden, so I’m mostly relying on Duffy’s “Austerlitz”. The French list is reliable except possibly for the Guard and Bavarians. The Austrian list is roughly correct in terms of battalions and squadrons and its organisation conforms to normal Austrian practise. Feel free to offer corrections. Mack’s stupid headlong advance into Bavaria (possibly the only example of an aggressive Inert general!) led to the quick surrounding and surrender of nearly all the Austrian field army at Ulm before there was much fighting and long before their Russian allies could arrive. These lists are therefore strictly for “what if” battles. Mack tried unsuccessfully to live off the country like the French, so is not permitted a Supply Base.

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9. AUSTRIA 1805 (450AP) (Austerlitz)

FRENCH – Aggression: 3

1 x Brilliant HQ (Napoleon) @ 40AP, 2-3 x Elite Bayonets (Guard) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Heavy Cavalry @ 7AP, 0-1 x Elite Light

Cavalry @ 6AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-4 x Elite Bayonets (Grenadier Division) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP.

1 x Corps (I), of: 1 x subordinate Inert CP (Bernadotte) @ 5AP, 6 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

1 x Corps (III), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Davout) @ 15AP, 2-3 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

1 x Corps (IV), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Soult) @ 15AP, 8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1 x Corps (V), of: 1 x subordinate Brilliant CP (Lannes) @ 30AP, 6 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

1 x Reserve Cavalry, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Murat) @ 15AP, 1 x Heavy Cavalry (Carabineers) @ 5AP, 2 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP.

RUSSIAN AND AUSTRIAN – Aggression: 4

1 x Inert HQ (Kutuzov & Emperors) @ 10AP, 4 x Elite Stoic Foot @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Cuirassiers @ 8AP, 1 x Elite Light

Cavalry @ 6AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 0-1 x subordinate Inert HQ (Buxhowden – commanding 1 st - 3 rd Columns) @ 10AP.

1 x Russian Advance Guard, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Bagration) @ 15AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 3 x Stoic

Foot @ 3AP, 1 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 5AP, 1 x Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 2AP, 2 x Smoothbore

Field Artillery @ 8AP.

1 x Mixed Column (1 st ), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Dokhturov) @ 15AP, 1 x Inferior Light Infantry (Austrian Grenze) @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Austrian Uhlans & Hussars) @ 5AP, 1 x Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 2 AP, 1 x Horse Smoothbore Artillery (Austrian) @ 15AP, 1 x Elite Bayonets (Russian Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 6 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Smoothbore Artillery (Russian) @ 8AP, 1 x Heavy Smoothbore Artillery (Russian) @ 12AP.

2 x Russian Columns (2 nd, 3 rd ), each of: 1 x subordinate CP (Langeron, Prebyshevsky) @ 15AP, 1 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

1 x Mixed Column (4 th ), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Miloradovitch) @ 15AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 4 x Muskets (Austrian) @ 3AP, 1 x Marksmen (Austrian Jager) @ 2AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @

12AP.

1 x Mixed Column (5 th ), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Liechtenstein) @ 15AP, 1 x Cuirassiers (Austrian) @ 6AP, 1 x Cuirassiers (Russian) @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Russian Uhlans & Hussars) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Dragoons (Russian), 1 x Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 2AP, 1 x Horse Smoothbore Artillery @ 12AP.

Notes: Initial strengths had been greatly reduced by Austerlitz. Those here are the numbers actually present.

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10. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 1808-1814 (100AP-250AP) (Peninsular War)

ANGLO-PORTUGUESE – Aggression: 1

1 x Brilliant-CP (Wellesley/Wellington) @ 30AP, 0-1 x subordinate Brilliant-CP (Hill 1812>) @ 30AP, 0-1 x CP (Graham

1812>) @ 15AP, 0-4 x Heavy Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-4 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Inferior Heavy Cavalry (Portuguese) @ 3AP, 1 x Elite Bayonets (Guards) @ 5AP, 1-2 x Elite Light Infantry @ 6AP, 12-16 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-5 x Bayonets (Portuguese) @ 4AP, 0-4 x Inferior Muskets (Spanish) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-3 x Smoothbore Artillery (Portuguese) @ 8AP, 0-3 x Concealment @ 10AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Sail @ 6AP. Spanish or Portuguese Partida forces, of: 0-1 x Ally Inert CP (Guerrilla leader) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Light Horse @ 2AP, 0-7 x Inferior Marksmen @ 1AP, 0-3 x Concealment @ 10AP. Note: Each brigade of the Light Division was of 1 strong battalion of British light infantry, 1 smaller battalion of Portuguese

cacadores and a ½ battalion of British riflemen. This is now best simulated as an element of Elite Light Infantry.

SPANISH REGULAR – Aggression: 0

1 x Inert HQ @ 10AP, 0-2 x Inferior Heavy Cavalry @ 3AP, 1-2 x Inferior Light Cavalry @ 3AP, 6-12 x Inferior Muskets @

2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-3 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-1

x Redoubt @ 5AP.

FRENCH – Aggression: 3

1 x HQ @ 20AP, 0-1 x Elite Light Cavalry @ 6AP, 0-8 x Elite Bayonets (Young Guard) @ 5AP, 0-5 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-2

x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Concealment @ 10AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 2-4 Corps each of:

1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 3-6 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

Notes: The French are for once permitted a Supply Base, due to the impossibility of relying completely on foraging in such a barren country. It also provides a line of communication for Partida to attack. The Spanish are not, due to their lack of organisation.

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11. AUSTRIA 1809 (Eckmuhl, Aspern-Essling and Wagram)

AUSTRIAN – Aggression: 2

1 x Brilliant CP (Archduke Charles) @ 30AP, 2-3 x Cuirassier @ 6AP, 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-3 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 8

x Elite Bayonet (Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 1-3 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-

1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

0-1 x Avantgarde of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-6 x Bayonets (Line) @ 4AP, 0-2 x Light Infantry (Jager) @ 5AP or Inferior Light Infantry (Grenze) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP. 4-6 x Line Infantry Corps each: 1 x subordinate Inert CP @ 15AP, 0-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 7-8 x Bayonets (Line) @ 4AP,

1-2 x Light Infantry (Jager) @ 5AP or Inferior Light Infantry (Grenze) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-

1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-4 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

Notes: The army cannot include more than 5 Jager, 6 Grenze, 6 Heavy, 3 Horse or 20 other artillery elements. Archduke Charles was an excellent commander, but was unable to produce brilliant strokes because of poor staff organisation. I am currently simulating this by making him Brilliant and subordinates other than the commander of the Avantgarde Inert. The Austrian line had recently adopted bayonet attack, column movement and skirmishing, but did not do these very well. However, their increased confidence and Napoleon’s put-down “It is obvious you were not at Wagram” to their denigrators have persuaded me not to class them as inferior. Landwehr are not distinguished from regulars. Brigade batteries are not treated as regimental guns. Alternative arguments on any of these points are welcome.

FRENCH – Aggression: 4

1 x Brilliant HQ (Napoleon) @ 40AP, 0-1 x Elite Heavy Cavalry (Horse Grenadiers, Empress Dragoons) @ 7AP, 0-1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Guard) @ 6AP, 0-4 x Elite Bayonets (Guard) @ 5AP, 0-2 x Heavy Smoothbore Artillery, 0-2 x Horse Smoothbore Artillery, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP. 1-3 x French Corps, each: 1 x subordinate CP (Seras, Oudinot, Lannes, Davout, Marmont, Macdonald) @ 15AP, 10-23 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-2 x Cuirassiers (Seras and Davout only) @ 6AP, 1-3 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy

Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Inferior Muskets (Portuguese) @ 2AP.

1

x partly French Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Massena) @ 15AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 11-12 x Bayonets @ 5AP, 0-

4

x Muskets (Baden) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Baden Jager) @ 3AP, 1-2 x Elite Bayonets (Hesse Darmstadt Guard) @

5AP, 0-1 x Bayonets (Hesse Darmstadt) @ 4AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery

@ 8AP.

1 x French Reserve Cavalry, of: 0-1 x subordinate CP (Nansouty or Bessieres) @ 15AP, 1 x Heavy Cavalry (Carabiniers) @

5AP, 2-6 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP. 0-1 x Bavarian Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Lefebvre) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets (Guard) @ 5AP, 4-10 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 0-1 x Wurttemberg Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Vandamme or Wrede) @ 15AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 2 x Muskets @ 3AP, 1 x Light Infantry (Light and Jager) @ 5AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP or Smoothbore Field Artillery @

8AP.

0-1 x Saxon Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Bernadotte) @ 15AP, 1 x Elite Cuirassiers @ 8AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-

2 x Elite Bayonets (Guards and Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 5-7 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-2 x Marksmen @ 2AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

Notes: The army cannot include more than 6 French Cuirassiers.

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12. RUSSIA 1812 (800AP-1,000AP) (Borodino Campaign)

FRENCH GRANDE ARMEE – Aggression: 4

1 x Brilliant HQ (Napoleon) @ 40AP, 9-16 x Elite Bayonets (Guard) @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-2 x

Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP. 1 st Corps: 1 x CP (Davout) @ 15AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 15-18 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Inferior Muskets (Spanish) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 3 rd Corps: 1 x CP (Ney) @ 15AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 6 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Inferior Muskets (Portuguese) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Inferior Bayonets (Illyrian) @ 3 AP, 1-6 x Muskets (Wurttemburg) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Light Infantry (Wurttemburg) @ 5AP,

0-2 x Marksmen (Wurttemburg Chasseurs) @ 2AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery

@ 8AP.

4 th Corps: 1x CP (Eugene) @ 15AP, 0-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Elite Dragoons (Italian) @ 5AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Bavarian) @ 5AP, 8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 4-8 x Bayonets (Italian) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Inferior Bayonets (Croatian) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Inferior Muskets (Spanish) @ 2AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 5 th Corps: 1 x CP (Poniatowski) @ 15AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry (Polish Chasseurs and Lancers) @ 5AP, 7-8 x Bayonets (Polish)

@ 4AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

8 th (Westphalian) Corps: 1 x Inert CP (Junot) @ 5AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Bayonets @ 5AP, 4-7 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 3 x Marksmen @ 2AP, 1 x Elite Marksmen @ 3AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. Reserve Cavalry: 1 x CP (Murat) @ 15AP, 6-7 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 3-4 x Light Cavalry (Polish Lancers) @ 5AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Bavarian) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Cuirassier (Carabiniers) @ 8AP, 3-4 x Cuirassier @ 6AP, 1 x Cuirassier (Saxon) @ 6AP, 1 x Cuirassier (Westphalian) @ 6AP, 2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 4-8 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP.

COMBINED RUSSIAN ARMIES OF THE WEST – Aggression: 0

1 x Inert HQ (Kutuzov) @ 10AP. 0-1 x Entrenchment (fleches) @ 15AP, 0-2 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

1 st ARMY

1 x CP (Barclay) @ 15AP, 0-7 x subordinate CP @ 15AP or Inert CP @ 5AP.

1 st , 2 nd & 3 rd Cavalry Corps combined: 1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Guard) @ 6AP, 2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 5 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 2 nd Corps: 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 8 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 4 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 3 rd Corps: 1 x Light Horse @ 2AP, 6 x Elite Bayonets (Grenadier Regiments) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Bayonets (combined Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-8 x Spearmen (Opolchenie) @

1AP.

4 th Corps: 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Bayonets (combined Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 7 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 3 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 5 th Corps: 2 x Elite Cuirassier (Lifeguard) @ 8AP, 4 x Elite Stoic Foot (Guard) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Bayonets (combined Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 6 th Corps: 8 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 4 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. Cossacks: 7 x Inferior Light Horse @ 1AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP.

2 nd ARMY

1 x CP (Bagration) @ 15AP, 0-3 x subordinate CP @ 15AP or Inert CP @ 5AP.

4 th Cavalry Corps: 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Uhlans) @ 5AP, 0-4 x Inferior Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 1AP,

1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

7 th Corps: 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 8 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 4 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 8 th Corps: 6 x Elite Bayonets (Grenadier Regiments) @ 5AP, 6 x Elite Bayonets (combined Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 2 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry (Jager) @ 4AP, 2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

41

Notes: Infantry elements represent a regiment. The Russian army distinguished permanent Grenadier regiments, regiments combined from the Grenadier companies of 2 nd battalions left in depot, and Grenadier companies remaining with the 1 st and 3 rd battalions of each infantry regiment. The latter consisted of a Grenadier platoon and a Jager platoon that was supposed to do the battalion’s skirmishing, which must be distinguished from permanent Jager regiments now classed as Light Infantry despite being possibly entirely dispersed as skirmishers at Borodino. French Light Cavalry were Hussars and Chasseurs, Russian were Hussars and Uhlans. Russian dragoons had had most of their firearms taken away and no longer fought on foot. At Borodino, Russian corps were often paired under the senior corps commander. If the Russians do not use corps commanders, Barclay and Bagration are treated as subordinates of Kutuzov. If they do, Kutuzov functions as an extra command layer, able to transfer his PIP score only to the army commanders, who can then transfer it downward. Minimums represent units that certainly fought at Borodino.

42

13. GERMANY 1813 (Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, Kulm, Leipzig)

FRENCH IF NAPOLEON IS PRESENT - Aggression: 4

1 x Brilliant HQ (Napoleon) @ 40AP, 2-6 x Elite Bayonets (Old & Middle Guard) @ 5AP, 6-18 x Bayonets (Young Guard) @

4AP, 1 x Elite Heavy Cavalry (Horse Grenadiers & Guard Dragoons) @ 7AP, 4-5 x Elite Light Cavalry (Guard) @ 6AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 5 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 5 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP. 2-8 x Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 7-12 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-½ x Inferior LC @ 3AP, 0-½ x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 0-1 x Part-Saxon Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 2 x Bayonets (French) @ 4AP, 3 x Inferior Bayonets (Saxon) @ 3AP, 1 x Inferior Light Horse (Saxon) @ 3AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @

12AP.

0-1 x Reserve Cavalry of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP or Brilliant CP (Murat) @ 40AP, 2-5 x Inferior Cuirassier @ 4AP, 0-1 x Cuirassier (Saxon) @ 6AP, 1-4 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 4-12 x Inferior Light Cavalry @ 3AP.

FRENCH IF NAPOLEON IS NOT PRESENT – Aggression: 2

1 x CP (Eugene, Soult, Ney, Macdonald or Oudinot) @ 15AP, 0-2 x Inferior Cuirassiers @ 4AP or Dragoons @ 4AP, 1-4 x

Inferior Light Cavalry @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP. 1-3 x Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 7-12 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-½ x Inferior LC @ 3AP, 0-½ x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP. 0-1 x Part-Saxon Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 2 x Bayonets (French) @ 4AP, 3 x Inferior Bayonets (Saxon) @ 3AP, 1 x Inferior Light Horse (Saxon) @ 3AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @

12AP.

Notes: ½ means no more than 1 corps in 2 can have such an element. Saxon foot and mounted except cuirassiers are classed as inferior because of disaffection (they finally changed sides). French cavalry (except Dragoons, who were not in the disastrous 1812 campaign) are classed as inferior because inexperienced riders on bad horses. French infantry, although mostly recent recruits, are presently not classed as inferior because they seem to have learned quickly and their bad behaviour was mostly off the battlefield.

ALLIES: SPRING 1813 – Aggression: 3

1 x CP (Wittgenstein or Barclay) @ 15AP (doubling as 1 Corps commander in each case), 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

1-3 x Russian Corps, each of: 0-1 x subordinate CP (Wittgenstein, Barclay & Miloradovitch) @ 15AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP,

2 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x

Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. 0-1 x Russian Cavalry Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Wintzingerode) @ 15AP, 1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Guard) @ 6AP, 4 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-2 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP or Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-2 Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. 1-3 x Prussian Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP (Blucher, Yorck & Kleist) @ 15AP, 8 x Bayonet (Regular & Reserve @ 4 AP, 4 x Inferior Bayonet (Landwehr) @ 3 AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons, Hussars & Uhlans) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. Blucher’s Corps only: 2 x Elite Bayonets (Guards) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Guard) @ 6AP, 1 x Heavy Cavalry (“Cuirassiers”) @ 5AP

ALLIES – AUTUMN 1813:

ARMY OF BOHEMIA

1 x HQ (Schwarzenberg accompanied by Emperors of Austria & Russia & King of Prussia) @ 20AP, 4 x Elite Stoic Foot

(Russian Guards) @ 5AP, 2 x Elite Bayonets (Prussian Guards) @ 5AP, 10 x Elite Bayonets (Austrian Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 4-

5 x Elite Bayonets (Russian Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Prussian Guard) @ 6AP, 2 x Cuirassiers (Austrian)

@ 6AP, 2 x Cuirassiers (Russian) @ 6AP, 1 x Heavy Cavalry (Prussian “Cuirassiers”) @ 5AP, 4 x Smoothbore Heavy

Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Austrian Light Division of: 2 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 2 x Inferior Bayonets @ 3AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP & 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

1 x Austrian Avantgarde, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Liechtenstein) @ 15AP, 4 x Inferior Bayonets @ 3AP, 4 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

43

2-4 x Austrian Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate Inert CP (Colloredo, Klenau, Merveldt & Gyulai) @ 5AP, 6 x Inferior Bayonets

@ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore

Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. 0-1 x Wurttemburg Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Prince) @ 15AP, 4-7 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Light Infantry @ 5AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

1 x Prussian Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Kleist) @ 15AP, 8 x Bayonets (Regular & Reserve) @ 4 AP, 4 x Inferior Bayonets (Landwehr) @ 3 AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons, Hussars and Uhlans) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP,

1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1-3 x Russian Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP (Wittgenstein, Eugen & Osterman) @ 15AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x

Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. 0-1 x Russian Cavalry Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Pahlen) @ 15AP, 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-2

x

Inferior Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 1AP. (If not used, include troops but not general in Wittgenstein’s Corps.

x

Austro-Bavarian Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Wrede) @ 15AP,

Bavarians: 11 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-2 x Inferior Bayonets (National Guard) @ 3AP, 3 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. Austrians: 6 x Inferior Bayonets @ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

ARMY OF THE NORTH – Aggression: 2 1x Inert CP (Bernadotte) @ 5AP, 1-2 x Elite Bayonets (Guards & Grenadiers) @ 5AP, 2-8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Inferior Heavy Cavalry @ 3AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry @ 3AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-4 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

1 x Prussian Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Bulow) @ 15AP, 8 x Bayonet (Regular & Reserve) @ 4 AP, 4 x Inferior Bayonet (Landwehr) @ 3 AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons, Hussars & Uhlans) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

0-1 x Russian Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Langeron) @ 15AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 0-

1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

ARMY OF SILESIA

1 x CP (Blucher) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

1 x Prussian Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Yorck) @ 15AP, 8 x Bayonet (Regular & Reserve @ 4 AP, 4 x Inferior Bayonet (Landwehr) @ 3 AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons, Hussars & Uhlans) @ 5AP, 1 x

Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP,

2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

1-2 x Russian Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP (Sacken or Langeron) @ 15AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

ARMY OF RESERVE 1x CP (Benningsen) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

2-3 x Russian Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP (?,?, Osterman) @ 15AP, 4 x Stoic Foot @ 3AP, 2 x Inferior Light Infantry

@ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy

Artillery @ 12AP. Notes: Prussian brigades were division-sized formations of 1 regiment each of regulars, reserves and landwehr. The reserves being recently serving soldiers are assumed to be as good as the regulars, but were differently uniformed, usually in grey. Russian battalions had been reduced by campaigning to 250-300 men each, so a Russian foot element now represents a brigade. Swedish cavalry are classed as inferior because of poor horses and lack of regimental-level training. Austrian infantry

are now classed as inferior because their confidence, training and equipment had degenerated since 1809, but more importantly because their own generals (who should know) said they were! Troops of reserve divisions have been placed directly under the C-in-C.

I am confident of the French in spring and autumn and the Prussians in autumn, for which I have detailed orders of battle, less so of the Austrians, least of the Swedes and Russians and the Prussians in spring 1813. The mixing of corps in each army is confusing and I have had trouble allocating corps commanders. Any of you who have better information on 1813 (or 1814) please advise me.

44

14. BELGIUM 1815 (90AP-700AP) (Ligny, Quatre Bras, Wavre, Waterloo)

ANGLO-ALLIED – Aggression: 1 C-in-C’s Reserve (Quatre Bras & Waterloo), of: 1 x Brilliant CP (Wellington) @ 30AP, 3 x Bayonets (British) @ 4AP, 2 x Inferior Bayonets (Hanoverian Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Light Infantry (Brunswick) @ 5AP, 1 x Bayonets (Brunswick) @ 4AP,

1 x Bayonets (Nassau) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery (British) @ 16AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery (British & Hanoverian) @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery (Brunswick) @ 8AP, 0-2 x Strong Points @ 10AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

I Corps (Quatre Bras & Waterloo), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Orange) @ 15AP, 2 x Elite Bayonets (British Guards) @ 5AP, 1 x Bayonets (British) @ 4AP, 1 x Bayonets (KGL) @ 4AP, 1 x Bayonets (Hanoverian) @ 4AP, 4 x Bayonets (Dutch) @ 4AP, 1 x Bayonets (Belgian) @ 4AP, 1 x Bayonets (Nassau) @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery (British & KGL) @ 8AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery (Belgian & Dutch) @ 8AP.

II Corps (Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate Brilliant CP (Hill) @ 30AP, 2 x Elite Light Infantry (British) @ 6AP, 2 x

Bayonets (KGL) @ 4AP, 1 x Inferior Bayonets (Hanoverian Landwehr) @ 3AP, 2 x Bayonets (British) @ 4AP, 1 x Light Infantry (Dutch) @ 5AP, 2 x Inferior Bayonets (Dutch Militia & Belgian) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery (British, KGL & Hanoverian) @ 8AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery (Dutch) @ 8AP. Cavalry Corps (* Quatre Bras attached to I Corps and Waterloo, rest Waterloo only, of: 1 x subordinate CP (Uxbridge) @

15AP, 1 x Elite Heavy Cavalry (British Guards) @ 6AP, 1 x Heavy Cavalry (British) @ 5 AP, 1* x Inferior Heavy Cavalry (Dutch & Belgian) @ 3AP, 3 x Light Cavalry (British & KGL Hussars, British Light Dragoons) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Hanoverian) @ 3AP, 2* x Light Cavalry (Dutch & Belgian) @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery (British) @ 16AP, 1* x Smoothbore Horse Artillery (Dutch) @ 16AP.

PRUSSIAN – Aggression: 2 C-in-C (Ligny & Waterloo only): 0-1 x CP (Blucher) @ 15AP, 0-2 x Strong Points @ 10AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

I Corps (Ligny & Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Zeiten) @ 15AP, 7 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 4 x Inferior Bayonets

(Landwehr) @ 3AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons, Uhlans & Hussars) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP,

1

x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

II

Corps (Ligny & Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Pirch) @ 15AP, 4 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Inferior Bayonets

(Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore

Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

III Corps (Ligny & Wavre only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Thielemann) @ 15AP, 5 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 6 x Inferior Bayonets

(Landwehr) @ 3AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Uhlans, Hussars & Dragoons) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP,

1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

IV Corps (Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Bulow) @ 15AP, 4 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 6 x Inferior Bayonets (Landwehr)

@ 3AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Hussars & Uhlans) @ 5AP, 1 x Inferior Light Cavalry (Landwehr) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse

Artillery @ 16AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP.

FRENCH – Aggression: 4 C-in-C’s Reserve (Ligny & Waterloo only): 1 x Brilliant HQ (Napoleon) @ 40AP, 4 x Elite Bayonets (Old Guard) @ 5AP, 2 x Bayonets (Young Guard) @ 4AP, 1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Chasseurs & Lancers of the Guard) @ 6AP, 1 x Elite Heavy

Cavalry (Grenadiers, Empress Dragoons) @ 6AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 3 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery (includes that of subordinate Corps) @ 12AP.

I Corps (Quatre Bras? & Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (D’Erlon) @ 15AP, 8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Lancers, Hussars & Chasseurs) @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

II Corps (Quatre Bras & Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Reille) @ 15AP, 6-8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry

(Chasseurs & Lancers) @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

III Corps (Ligny & Wavre only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Lefol) @ 15AP, 8 (Ligny) or 6 (Wavre) x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

IV

Corps (Ligny & Wavre only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Gerard) @ 15AP, 6 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars

&

Chasseurs) @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP.

VI

Corps (Ligny & Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Lobau) @ 15AP, 4 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Light Cavalry

(Chasseurs & Lancers) @ 5AP, 2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP.

Reserve Cavalry (Quatre Bras & Waterloo only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Ney) @ 15AP, 4 x Cuirassiers @ 7AP, 1 x Dragoons

@ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP.

Reserve Cavalry (Ligny & Wavre only), of: 1 x subordinate CP (Grouchy) @ 15AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 5AP, 4 x

Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP.

45

Notes: The Anglo-Allied army includes that part of Hill’s II Corps detached as a flank guard, but not the Hanoverian Reserve Corps and the British siege artillery, which were both far to the rear. The Prussian army includes only those units that had arrived in the theatre in time to fight. If all 4 Prussian Corps had concentrated, they would have amounted to about 425AP. The full French army if concentrated against a single opponent amounts to about 580AP. The French troops engaged at Quatre Bras come to about 130AP, plus 70AP of D’Erlon’s I Corps if Napoleon does not countermand their march, against Orange’s I Corps of about 100AP, later reinforced by Wellington’s Reserve Corps of 120AP. The French troops at Ligny total about 320AP against an approximately equal value of Prussians. The French troops at Waterloo come to about 430AP, and were opposed by 365AP of British, plus 330AP of arriving Prussians. Wavre was a rearguard action by a single Prussian Corps of 95AP in a strong position against Grouchy’s 160AP arriving off the march. These all provide a good balance of forces taking into account delayed arrival. If Napoleon is not present, Ney or Grouchy ceases to be subordinate and commands all French forces present.

46

15. ALGERIA & MOROCCO 1829-1847 (150AP)

FRENCH – Aggression: 3

1 x CP @ 15AP, 8-18 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Marksmen (Zouaves >1841), 0-2 x Light Infantry (Zouaves & Turcos 1841>)

@ 5AP, 0-2 x Elite Bayonets (Foreign Legion 1830>) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Elite Sipahis (Spahis 1834>) @ 5AP, 0-3 x Elite Light

Horse (Chasseurs d’Afrique 1830>) @ 3AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Sail Flagship @ 16AP, 0-2 x Sail @ 6AP, 0-1 x Inferior Sail (Frigate) @ 4AP, 0-2 x Inferior Steamer (Paddler) @ 6AP.

ALGERIANS – Aggression: 2

1 x NP @ 10AP or Brilliant NP (Abd-el-Kadir 1834>) @ 20AP, 0-2 x allied NP @ 10AP, 0-4 x Elite Firelocks (Janissaries >1830) @ 4AP, 12-30 x Firelocks (Regulars >1837) @ 2AP, 10-15 x Spearmen @ 1AP, 0-30 x Sipahis @ 3AP, 3-20 x Marksmen @ 2AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery (>1830) @ 12AP, 0-4 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Inferior Sail (Xebec >1830) @ 4AP.

16 CRIMEA 1854-56 (160AP-275AP) (Alma 1854, Balaclava 1854, Inkerman 1854, Eupatoria 1855, Tchernaya 1855)

BRITISH – Aggression: 2

1 x CP (Raglan 1854-55, Simpson 1855-56) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Heavy Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Minie

@ 5AP, 3-9 x Minie @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen (95 th ) @ 3AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 2-4 x

Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 1-10 x Inferior Muskets (Turks) @ 2AP, 0-1

x Inferior Light Horse (Bashi-Bazooks) @ 1AP, 0-1 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Steamer Flagship @ 18AP, 0-1 x Sail @ 6AP, 0-1 x Inferior Steamer @ 6AP, 0-1 x Flotilla @ 3AP.

FRENCH – Aggression: 3

1 x Inert HQ (St.Arnaud 1854 or Canrobert 1854-55) @ 10AP or HQ (Pelissier 1855-56) @ 20AP, 0-2 x subordinate CP @

15AP, 0-1 x Elite Light Horse @ 3AP or Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Elite Bayonets @ 5AP, 11-16 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-4 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-5 x Inferior Muskets (Turks) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Steamer Flagship @ 18AP, 0-2 x Sail @ 6AP, 0-1 x Inferior Ironclad (floating battery 1855-56) @

15AP.

TURKS (1855-56 only) – Aggression: 1

1 x Allied CP (Omar Pasha) @ 15AP, 1-3 x Inferior Light Cavalry @ 3AP, 8-24 x Inferior Muskets @ 2AP, 2-6 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-3 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 1 x Inferior Steamer @ 6AP, 0-2 x Inferior Sail @ 4AP.

PIEDMONTESE/SARDINIAN (1855-56 only) – Aggression: 2

1 x Allied CP (La Marmora) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 6 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @

8AP.

RUSSIAN – Aggression: 3 1x Inert HQ (Menschikoff 1854, Gorschakoff 1855-56) @ 10AP, 2-3 x subordinate Inert CP @ 5AP, 0-3 x Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 5AP, 2-5 x Inferior Light Horse (Cossacks) @ 1AP, 14-56 x Stoic Foot@ 3AP, 0-1 x Marksmen (Jager) @ 2AP, 1-3 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-3 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-2 x Concealed Position @ 10AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Inferior Steamer @ 6AP, 0-1 x Sail @ 6AP.

Notes: A Stoic element represents half a 4-battalion regiment. This allows equal AP field battles with the Russians fighting against British and French at the Alma, British at Balaclava and Inkerman, Turks at Eupatoria or French and Piedmontese at the Tchernaya. The Russians had largely discarded skirmishing as hindering decisive action and deployed only a single jager

battalion armed with an equivalent of the unsatisfactory Brunswick rifle to each corps. Fighting in the Sebastopol siege works

is not covered.

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17. ITALY 1859 (330AP-750AP) (Magenta and Solferino).

FRENCH – Aggression: 4

1 x HQ (Emperor) @ 20AP, Guard: 0-1 x Elite Cuirassiers @ 8AP, 0-1 x Elite Heavy Cavalry @ 7AP, 0-1 x Elite Light

Cavalry @ 6AP, 8 x Elite Bayonets @ 5AP, 0-1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1 x @ 5AP, 1 x Aeronauts (Balloon) @ 25AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 3-5 x French corps each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 9-12 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP. 0-1 x Piedmontese corps of: 1 x CP (King) @ 15AP, 2 x Elite Heavy Cavalry @ 7AP, 1-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 2 x Elite Bayonets @ 5AP, 18 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 4-5 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 2-3 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-3 x Entrenchment @ 15AP.

AUSTRIAN

1 x Inert HQ (Gyulia or Emperor) @ 10AP, 2-6 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP (Dragoons, Hussars, Uhlans – Cuirassiers not sent), 0-

2 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1-3 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x

Supply Base @ 8AP. 5-8 x corps each of: 1 x Inert CP @ 5AP, 8-10 x Minie @ 4AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Horse Artillery @ 16AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP. (45-80AP). Notes: Austrians cannot include more than 6 horse artillery. Austrian brigades now consisted of a 4-battalion line regiment with a jager battalion to do the skirmishing and are each simulated by 2 Minie elements.

18. CALABRIA 1860 (85AP-100AP) (Volturno)

GARIBALDINI

1 x Brilliant CP (Garibaldi) @ 30AP, 7-10 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Light Horse @ 2AP, 1 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @

8AP.

NEAPOLITANS

1 x Inert HQ (Ritucci) @ 10AP, 8-14 x Minie @ 4AP, 3 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP, 2-3 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

19. AMERICA 1861-1865 (115AP) (American Civil War).

AMERICA 1861 EAST (1 st Bull Run campaign of the American Civil War) UNION – Aggression: 4

1 x HQ (McDowell) @ 20 AP, 0-1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 15-18 x Inferior Minie @ 3AP, 0-1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1-2 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 0-1 x Inferior Dragoons @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

CONFEDERATE – Aggression: 2

2 x HQ (Beauregard starting on table, Johnston off-table) @ 20AP, 0-1 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 10-15 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1-2 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

AMERICA 1862 EAST (Peninsular, Antietam and Fredericksburg campaigns of the American Civil War) UNION – Aggression: 2 if McClellan, 4 if Burnside.

1 x Inert HQ (McClellan) @ 10AP or HQ (Burnside) @ 20AP, 3-4 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 18-45 x Minie @ 4AP, 1-5 x

Inferior Dragoons @ 2AP, 0-1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 per 3-4 Minie x Mixed Artillery (Divisional and Corps) @ 10AP, 2-3 x Mixed Artillery (Army reserve) @ 10AP, 0-1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Inferior Ironclad (Monitor) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Steamer Flagship @ 18AP, 0-1 x Steamer @ 8AP, 0-2 x Inferior Sail (Frigates etc) @ 4AP, 0-1 x Aeronauts (Balloon) @ 25AP. Max: 587 AP.

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CONFEDERATE – Aggression: 1 if Johnston, 3 if Lee. Upstream.

1 x HQ (Johnston) @ 20AP or Brilliant-HQ (Lee) @ 40AP), 1 x subordinate Brilliant CP @ 30AP (Jackson) or CP @ 15AP, 1-

2 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 12-18 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 1 per 3-5 Bayonets x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 0-1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 1 x Inferior Ironclad (Virginia) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Inferior Steamer @ 6AP, 0-2 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-3 x Concealment

@ 10AP, Max: 379 AP.

AMERICA 1862 WEST (Shiloh, Perryville and Stones River.) UNION – Aggression: 2, Upstream.

1 x Brilliant HQ (Grant) @ 40AP or HQ (Rosecrans @ 20AP) or Inert HQ (Buell) @ 10AP, 0-1 x subordinate Brilliant CP

(Sherman) @ 40AP or CP @ 15AP, 2-3 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 10-16 x Minie @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen @ 3AP, 0-1 x Inferior Dragoons @ 2AP, 1 per 3-4 Minie x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 0-1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 1-2 x Inferior Steamer (unarmoured paddle wheel gunboats) @ 6AP, 0-3 x Inferior Ironclad @ 15AP. Max: 364 AP.

CONFEDERATE - Aggression: 3

1 x HQ (Beauregard or Johnston) @ 20AP or Inert HQ (Bragg) @ 10AP, 0-1 x subordinate Lethargic CP (Polk) @ 5AP, 2-3 x

subordinate CP @ 15AP, 13-16 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Light Horse (Forest) @ 3AP, 3-4 x Smoothbore Field Artillery

@ 8AP, 0-2 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP, 0-2 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-3 x Concealment @

10AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-2 x Inferior Steamer @ 6AP, 0-1 x Inferior Ironclad @ 15AP, 0-1 x Mines @ 20AP. Max:

302 AP.

AMERICA WEST 1863-65 (Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Atlanta and Franklin.)

UNION – Aggression: 3

1 x Brilliant HQ (Grant 1863 only or Sherman 1864-65 only) @ 40AP or HQ (Rosecrans 1863 only or Thomas 1864-65 only)

@ 20AP, 0-1 x subordinate Brilliant CP (Sherman 1863 with Grant only) @ 30AP or CP @ 15AP, 2-3 x subordinate CP @

15AP, 27-43 x Minie @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen @ 3AP, 1-2 x Dragoons @ 4AP before 1865, then 2-5 x Repeaters @ 6AP, 0-1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 per 3-4 Minie x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 0-1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @

15AP, 0-1 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. Max: 453 AP.

CONFEDERATE – Aggression: 3

1 x Inert HQ (Bragg 1863 only) @ 10AP or HQ (Pemberton 1863 only, Hood 1864 only, Beauregard 1864 only or Johnston

1864-65 only) @ 20AP, 1-3 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 16-26 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2-4 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-1 Elite x Light Horse (Forest) @ 3AP, 3-4 x Smoothbore Field Artillery @ 8AP, 0-2 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 0-2 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-3 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. Max: 280 AP.

AMERICA EAST 1863-65 (Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Sailor’s Creek.)

UNION – Aggression: 4

1 x HQ (Hooker 1863 only, Meade 1863 only) @ 20AP or Brilliant HQ (Grant 1864-65 only) @ 40AP, 0-1 x subordinate

Brilliant CP (Sheridan 1864-65 only) @ 30AP or CP @ 15AP, 3-4 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 38-50 x Minie @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Marksmen @ 3AP, 1-7 x Inferior Dragoons @ 3AP before July 1863, then Repeaters @ 6AP, 3-6 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 per 3-5 Minie x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 0-3 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP, 0-1 x Aeronauts

(Balloon) @ 25AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1 x Ironclad @ 20AP, 0-3 x Inferior Ironclad (Monitors) @ 15AP. Max: 809AP.

CONFEDERATE – Aggression: 3, Upstream.

1 x Brilliant HQ (Lee) @ 40AP, 0-1 x subordinate Brilliant CP (Stuart 1863-64 only) @ 30AP, 3-4 x subordinate CP @ 15AP,

28-35 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 2-7 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 0-1 x Elite Light Horse (Mosby & others) @ 3AP, 0-2 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 per 3-5 Bayonets x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 0-1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP, 0-2 x Redoubts

@ 5AP, 0-3 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-3 x Concealment @ 10AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-1

x Inferior Ironclad @ 15AP, 0-1 x Inferior Steamer @ 6AP, 0-1 x Inferior Submarine @ 10AP, 0-1 x Mines @ 20AP. Max:

571AP.

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20.

SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN 1864 (125AP-300AP) (Battles of Jagel, Overselk, Oversee, Viele, Dupple, Alsen, Rendsburg)

DANISH – Aggression: 1

1 x HQ @ 20AP, 0-3 x Elite Bayonets @ 5AP, 11-15 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Dragoons @ 4AP, 4 x Smoothbore Field

Artillery @ 8AP, 0-2 x Smoothbore Heavy Artillery @ 12AP, 0-3 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-6 x Entrenchments @ 15AP, 0-2 x Strong Points @ 10AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 0-1 x Ironclad (Dannebrog) @ 20AP, 0-1 x Inferior Ironclad (Rolf Kraki) @ 15AP, 0-1 x Steamer Flagship (Niels Juel) @ 18AP, 0-1 x Steamer (Jylland) @ 8AP, 0-1 x Inferior Steamer (Hejmdal) @ 6AP.

ALLIES – Aggression: 4 HQ (Wrangel) @ 20AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-3 x Inferior Steamer (Prussian: Adler, Blitz, Basilisk) @ 6AP.

1 x Prussian Corps, of: 1 x CP (Frederick Charles) @ 15AP, 8 x BL @ 6AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 0-1 x Mixed Horse

Artillery @ 20AP, 2 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1-2 x Heavy Rifled Artillery @ 18AP. 0-1 x Austrian Corps, of: 1 x allied Inert CP (Gablenz) @ 5AP, 8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 0-1 x Horse Brass Rifled Artillery @

25AP, 2 x Brass Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Heavy Brass Rifled Artillery @ 18AP. 0-1 x Austrian Naval Squadron, of: 0-1 x Steamer Flagship (Schwarzenberg) @ 18AP, 0-1 x Steamer (Radetzky) @ 8AP, 0-1 x Inferior Steamer (Dandalo) @ 6AP.

Notes: Of the causes of this war, a senior statesman is said to have remarked that only three men had ever fully understood the details of the dispute, of whom one had died, one had gone mad, and he personally had forgotten them; but much simplified it was whether German-speaking Danes should be Danish or German. Prussia and Austria doubtfully claimed to have been deputed by the other German states to enforce the latter view. Prussia did most of the land fighting and annexed the useful parts of the conquered territory, leaving Austria fuming and provoking the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. The Danes were severely disadvantaged by opposing smoothbore muskets to Dreyse BL, but exploited field fortifications well and made some gallant bayonet charges. The small turret-ship Rolf Kraki intervened several times in land operations and became thoroughly detested by the Prussians. The other ships included are those that also took part in actions. English sources are sketchy, so refinements from Danish wargamers would be especially appreciated.

21. BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA AND ITALY 1866 (450AP-1,200AP) (Seven Weeks War)

BOHEMIA AND MORAVIA 1866 (Seven Weeks War) PRUSSIAN SUPREME COMMAND – Aggression: 0 1x Inert HQ (Moltke and the Kaiser) @ 10AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

PRUSSIAN 1 st ARMY – Aggression: 3 0-1 x Inert HQ (Prince Frederick Charles) @ 10AP, 0-1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP. 3-4 Corps, each of: 8 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars, Dragoons and Uhlans) @ 5AP, 2 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP.

1 Corps, of: 1 x Elite Cuirassiers (Guard) @ 8AP, 2 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Guard Dragoons and Uhlans) @ 6AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons, Uhlans and Hussars) @ 5AP, 1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP.

PRUSSIAN 2 nd ARMY – Aggression: 4

1 x HQ (Crown Prince) @ 20AP, 3 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 3 x Light Cavalry (Hussars and Uhlans) @ 5AP, 1 x Mixed Horse

Artillery @ 20AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP.

1 Guard Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 8 x Elite BL @ 7AP, 1 x Elite Light Cavalry (Guard Uhlans and Hussars) @

6AP, 3 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP. 1-3 Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 8 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars, Dragoons and Uhlans) @ 5AP, 2 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP.

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AUSTRIAN ARMY OF THE NORTH – Aggression: 3

1 x HQ (Benedek) @ 20AP, 6 x Heavy Cavalry (Cuirassiers with Uhlans) @ 5AP, 5 x Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 5AP, 5-6 x

Rifled Horse Artillery (Brass) @ 24AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 1-6 Corps, each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 8 (1 Corps only 6) x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery (Brass) @ 24AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery (Brass) @ 12AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery (Brass) @ 18AP, 0-1 x Redoubt @ 5AP.

1 Saxon Corps, of: 1 x allied CP @ 15AP, 1 x Heavy Cavalry (Reiter) @ 5AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 5AP, 8 x Minie

@ 4AP, 1 x Elite Marksmen (Jager) @ 3AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery (Brass) @ 24AP, 1 x Rifled Field Artillery (Brass) @

12AP, 2 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP.

Notes: The size of the armies favours multi-player games with all or part of one Prussian army and part of the other fighting all or part of the Austrians with or without the Saxons. Although Moltke (accompanied by the Kaiser) in theory commanded all the Prussians and was present at the decisive battle of Koninggratz, his HQ exerted little control over the two army commanders, who communicated with him only as an afterthought. Prince Frederick Charles was hyper-cautious and kept his army concentrated under tight control with all the cavalry behind the infantry, so in consequence had great difficulty finding the enemy. Only one of his three original infantry corps is even listed as having a commanding general. Crown Prince Frederick, youthful and spirited, dispersed his corps so widely that he found himself out of effective control distance of any, listening to sounds of battle coming from two opposite directions. One 1 st Army and all 2 nd Army and Austrian Cuirassier brigades combined Cuirassiers and Uhlans. Austrian Cuirassiers no longer wore corslets. Uhlans were tending now to be thought of as heavy cavalry because of the supposed effect of their lance on infantry, but most were still brigaded as Light Cavalry. The Prussians tried to keep the jager battalion in each Corps as specialist woods-fighters but found opportunities for this so limited that they were employed as ordinary infantry. The jager battalion in each Austrian brigade was used only as its skirmish line. Accordingly, both are assumed to be included in the standard infantry elements. Prussian artillery was a mix of smoothbores and steel rifled breech-loaders, Austrian all brass rifled muzzle-loaders.

NORTHERN ITALY 1866 (325AP-575AP) (Seven Weeks War) AUSTRIAN ARMY OF THE SOUTH – Aggression: 3 Brilliant HQ (Archduke Albrecht) @ 40AP, 3 x Light Cavalry (2 Hussars, 1 Uhlans) @ 5AP, 3 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 4 x Rifled Field Artillery (Brass) @ 12AP, 4 x Rifled Heavy Artillery (Brass) @ 20AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @

8AP.

1-3 Corps, each of: 1x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 6-8 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery (Brass) @ 25AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery (Brass) @ 12AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery (Brass) @ 18AP. 0-1 x Ironclad Flagship @ 30AP, 0-2 x Ironclad @ 20AP, 0-1 Steamer @ 8AP, 0-3 x I-Steamer @ 6AP.

ITALY – Aggression: 3 Inert HQ (La Mamora) @ 10AP or HQ (Cialdini) @ 20AP. 0-2 x Elite Heavy Cavalry @ 7AP, 0-1 x Rifled Horse Artillery (Brass) @ 24AP, 1-2 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 3-4 Corps each of:

1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 1 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-2 x Elite Light Infantry (brigaded Bersaglieri) @ 6AP, 1 x Rifled

Heavy Artillery (Brass) @ 18AP, 3-4 Divisions each of: 4 x Bayonets @ 4AP, 1 x Rifled Field Artillery (Brass) @ 12AP. 0-1 x Volunteer force of: ally Brilliant CP (Garibaldi) @ 30AP, 3-4 x Light Infantry @ 5AP, 1 x Elite Marksmen (Sharpshooters) @ 3AP, 1 x Light Horse (Guides) @ 2AP, 0-1 x Rifled Field Artillery (Brass) @ 12AP. 0-1 x Ironclad Flagship @ 30AP, 0-3 x Ironclad @ 20AP, 0-4 x I- Steamer @ 8AP.

TURKS allied to AUSTRIA – Aggression: 0 18,000 + 2,000 Bashi-bazouks. 1-2 x Steamers, 0-1 x I-Steamers.

Notes: The Italians launched 3 separate simultaneous invasions of the Austrian ruled territory. The main army was theoretically led by the elderly King, but practically by the inept La Mamora. Cialdini led a smaller army and Garibaldi a thrust into the Tyrol, where he found no support from the population. After La Mamora lost the battle of Custoza, Cialdini consolidated the Italian armies and pushed on against a weakened Austrian army that had sent two corps to reinforce the Austrian army against the Prussians. The Turks in the event only produced a distraction requiring troop to be retained in the south, but offer an interesting “what if”. Austrian Grenze troops were used only in garrisons and to guard other borders. Most Bersaglieri were dispersed in support of line infantry but 3-4 battalions were kept as a Corps reserve. All Austrian and Italian artillery were brass muzzle-loaders.

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22. FRANCE 1870 (350AP-1,015AP) (Franco-Prussian War – Battles of Spicheren, Worth, Gravelot/St.Privat, Sedan)

PRUSSIAN 1 st ARMY

1 x HQ (Steinmetz) @ 20AP, 0-3 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry (Uhlans) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @

24AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 2-3 x Corps (I,VII,VIII), each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 8 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons & Hussars) @ 5AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP.

PRUSSIAN 2 nd ARMY

1 x HQ (Frederick Charles) @ 20AP, 2 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Hussars) @ 5AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery

@ 24AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

0-1 x Guard Corps, of: 1 x subordinate CP @ @ 15AP, 8 x Elite BL @ 7AP, 3 x Elite Light Cavalry (Uhlans & Dragoons) @ 6AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 20AP. 2-5 x Corps (II,III,IV,IX,X), each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 8 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Hessian in X, otherwise

Dragoons & Hussars) @ 5AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP. 0-1 x Saxon Corps (XII), of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 2 x Elite BL (Grenadiers) @ 7AP, 6 x BL @ 6AP, 3 x Light Cavalry (Chevauxlegers & Uhlans) @ 5AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 2 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP.

PRUSSIAN 3 rd ARMY

1 x HQ (Crown Prince) @ 20AP, 2 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 4 x Light Cavalry (Hussars, Uhlans & Dragoons) @ 5AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, & 0-1 x Wurttemburg Division of: 6 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry

(Chevauxlegers) @ 5AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, & 0-1 x Baden Division of: 2 x Elite BL (Guard & Grenadiers) @ 7AP, 1-2 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons) @ 5AP, 3 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP. 2-3 x Corps (V,VI,XI), each of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 8 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Dragoons & Hussars) @ 5AP,

2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 1 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP.

0-1 x Bavarian Corps (1 st ), of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 1 x Elite BL (Guards) @ 7AP, 7 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Chevauxlegers) @ 5AP, 1 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 2 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP.

1 x Bavarian Corps (2 nd ), of: 1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 8 x BL @ 6AP, 2 x Light Cavalry (Chevauxlegers & Uhlans) @ 5AP, 1 x Rifled Horse Artillery @ 24AP, 2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 2 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP.

PRUSSIAN NAVY – Aggression: 1 0-1 x Ironclad Flagship @ 30AP, 0-1 x Ironclad @ 20AP, 0-1 x Inferior Ironclad @ 15AP, 0-1 x Inferior Steamer @ 6AP.

Notes: 1 st Army alone or 1 st & 2 nd together can fight Bazaine or 3 rd alone or 2 nd & 3 rd together fight MacMahon. Many, but not all, Prussian uhlan regiments were now included in cuirassier brigades for their reputed value against infantry in heavy rain. Though there were several naval skirmishes around the world between German and French ships, there were no naval operations in support of the armies. However, a projected French descent on Kiel with Danish support offers an interesting “What if”.

FRENCH ARMY OF THE RHINE

1 x Inert HQ (Bazaine) @ 10AP, 2 x Elite Light Cavalry (Chasseurs d’Afrique) @ 6AP, 3 x Cuirassiers @ 6AP, 1 x Dragoons

@ 4AP, 3 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

1 x Guard Corps, of: 1 x subordinate Inert CP @ 5AP, 8 x Elite Rifles @ 8AP, 1 x Elite Cuirassiers @ 8AP, 2 x Elite Light

Cavalry @ 6AP, 2 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 1 x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP.

4 x Corps (II,III,IV,VI), each of: 1 x subordinate Inert CP @ 5AP, 12 (II,IV) or 16 (III,VI) x Rifles @ 7AP, 1 x Light Cavalry

(Chasseurs or Hussars) @ 5AP, 1 x Dragoons (II,III,IV) @ 4AP or Light Cavalry (Lancers, VI only) @ 5AP, 0-1 x Dragoons (III only) @ 4AP or Cuirassiers (VI only) @ 6AP, 1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 3 (II,IV) or 4 (III,VI) x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP.

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FRENCH ARMY OF CHALONS

1 x Inert HQ (MacMahon) @ 10AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

3 x Corps (I,V,XII), each of: 1 x subordinate Inert CP @ 5AP, 12 (V,XII) or 16 (I) x Rifles @ 7AP, 0-1 x Cuirassiers (I,XII only) @ 6AP, 0-1 x Light Cavalry (Hussars & Chasseurs I,V only) @ 5AP or Cuirassiers (XII only) @ 6AP, 1 x Light Cavalry (Lancers I,V,XII) @ 5AP, 1 x Mixed Horse Artillery @ 20AP, 3 (V,XII) or 4 (I) x Mixed Field Artillery @ 10AP, 1 x Mixed Heavy Artillery @ 15AP.

FRENCH NAVY – Aggression: 2 0-1 x Ironclad Flagship @ 30AP, 0-3 x Ironclad @ 20AP, 0-3 x I-Steamer @ 6AP.

Notes: Much confusion has been caused by rifled guns being called by the weight of the cannon ball they would have fired if they had been smoothbore. The French nominal 4pdr fired a 9-pound and the 12pdr a 16-pound shell. Mitrailleuses are not distinguished from other French Field Artillery, but 1 model can replace a 4pdr model of each corps for added colour.

23. BULGARIA 1876 (65AP-150AP) (Battles of Zaitschar, Novi-Bazar, Gurgusovatz, Alexinatz)

SERBIAN – Aggression: 2

1

x Inert HQ @ 10AP, 8-32 x Inferior BL @ AP, 0-2 x Light Cavalry @ 5AP, 1-4 x Rifled Field Artillery (Brass) @ 12AP, 0-1

x

Rifled Heavy Artillery (Brass) @ 18AP, 0-4 x Entrenchment @ 15AP, 0-3 x Redoubts @ 5AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

TURKISH – Aggression: 4

1 x CP @ 15AP, 0-1 x subordinate CP @ 15AP, 4-9 x BL @ 6AP, 1 x Elite Light Horse (Circassians) @ 3AP, 1-2 x Rifled Field Artillery @ 12AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP.

This Serbian invasion of Turkish-ruled Bulgaria was instigated by the Russians, who were not yet ready to take on the Turks themselves. Many Russian officers were sent as “advisers” and quickly became hated by the Serbs for trying to make them do exactly what they did not want to do – fight. They showed this dislike by running away after each setback. Masses of Russian “volunteer” troops crossed the border in civilian clothes to stiffen the Serbs in the final battle, to no avail. For once, the local Turkish field command was in the hands of competent junior generals who quickly defeated the invaders, but were prevented from counter-invading by inertia at Constantinople followed by diplomatic pressure by the great powers.

24. BULGARIA 1877-78 (450AP-1,500AP)

RUSSIAN - Aggression: 4

1 x Inert HQ @ 10AP, 0-2 x Rifled Heavy Artillery @ 18AP, 0-4 x LH (Cossacks) @ 2AP, 0-3 x Rifled Horse Artillery

(Brass) @ 24AP, 0-1 x Redoubt @ 5AP, 0-1 x Pontooneers @ 2AP, 0-1 x Supply Base @ 8AP, 0-2 x Inferior Ironclad @

15AP, 0-3 x Steamer @ 8AP, 0-3 x I-Steamer @ 6AP, 0-2 x Flotilla (Spar Torpedo Boats 1877, Automotive 1878) @ 3AP, 0-1