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## Notes prepared for EE 6310 by Professor Cyrus D. Cantrell August–December 2003

c C. D. Cantrell (06/2003)

## • In simple words, digital is profoundly diﬀerent from analog

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

### Erik Jonsson School PhoTEC

Input

stream

Channel
Input transducer
or formatter
Transmitter
Attenuation,
dispersion,
crosstalk & noise
Digital
Analog transfer function:
G(ω ) = G T (ω )G C (ω )G R (ω )
Input
signal
Output
signal
 Output transducer Output or unformatter stream

## For a digital link, the analog part is the transmitter, channel and receiver For a linear, time-shift-invariant link, the transfer function deﬁnes the bandwidth, total attenuation and dispersion from transmitter input to receiver output

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2002)

## Distortion and noise don’t matter, as long as each digital waveform can be recognized and distinguished from a small set of other waveforms

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## • Integrating voice, video and data is simpler with digital transmission than with analog transmission

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## One wavelength per ﬁber (with time-division-multiplexed logical channels) requires opto-electronic conversion at every node

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## An external SCSI bus An external USB or Firewire bus An Ethernet A wireless LAN

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## ◦ Delay ◦ Transmission-line eﬀects ◦ Attenuation ◦ Crosstalk and noise

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## total delay =transmission time + propagation time + buﬀering time + processing time

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## ◦ Reﬂections can be analyzed in the time domain by using a bounce diagram

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

l

t =

v

g

2l

t =

v

g

3l

t =

v

g

4l

t =

v

g

## using a bounce diagram

z = 0
z =
l
z = l
z
At z = l, the reflected
voltage is
V − (l,t) = ρ l V + (l,t)
and the total voltage is
V (l, t) = V + (l, t) + V − (l, t)
At z = 0, the
reflected
voltage is
At z = l, the total
voltage is
V (l, t) =
V
(l, t) + V − (l, t)
+
V + (0, t) = ρ 0 V − (0, t)
Basic equations:
V (z,t) = V + (z,t) + V − (z,t)
V
− (l,t)
=
ρ l V + (l,t)
Z L − Z 0
ρ =
Z L + Z 0
V + (0, t)

## t

V
V(3)
V(2)
160.0
140.0
120.0
V(1)=V s is a rectangular
pulse going from t=0
to t=10 s, with a height
of 200 V
R s
1
2
3
Transmission line
V
100.0
s
Z 0 = 50 Ω
T d = 3 µs
R L
0
0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
-20.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
time
( s)

## ohms

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

f

7.5

## ATTENUATION IN COAXIAL CABLE

Attenuation vs. frequency for typical coaxial cable

500
500
400
400
300
300
200
200
100
100
0
0
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Attenuation (db/km)

Frequency f (MHz)

## • The dashed line shows a constant times √f

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

0.5
2
1
5
10
1.0
100
1000

# frequency (MHz)

## • The red curve indicates a constant value of attenuation in copper cable

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2002)

## a 1 bit will be detected as representing a 0 bit (or vice versa)

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## mode optical ﬁber

c C. D. Cantrell (01/1999)

## ω

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## Sharing of the channel occurs in signal space, not frequency space

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## |G S(ω )|

ω
• A real signal that is generated by modulating a carrier is a linear combination

## ◦ Only φ(t) varies ⇒ phase (or frequency) modulation

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## |G S(ω )|

channel 2
(negative frequencies)
channel 1
(negative frequencies)
channel 1
(positive frequencies)
channel 2
(positive frequencies)

## v (t) = |v 1(t)| cos ω 1t + φ 1(t) + |v 2(t)| cos ω 2t + φ 2(t)

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## Sharing of the channel occurs in signal space, not frequency space

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

Channel #1
Channel #2
Channel #3

## Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

### wavelengths:

Er-doped fiber amplifiers
(EDFAs)
λ
1
λ 1
MUX
DEMUX
λ
λ
2
2
λ
λ
3
3
λ
λ
4
4
L 1
L 2
L 3

## A SINGLE-DUPLEX DIGITAL COMMUNICATION LINK

Baseband or
Information source
(analog or digital)
Digital
Digital
For matting
Transmitter
bandpass
Modulator
symbols
waveforms
waveforms
)
Channel
Synchronization
Attenuation,
dispersion,
crosstalk & noise
(Layer 0,
media
layer)
Baseband or
Information sink
(analog or digital)
Digital
Digital
bandpass
Unformatting
Demodulator
symbols
waveforms
waveforms

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## WAVEFORMS THAT REPRESENT THE BIT STREAM 101010 ... AT THE BEGINNING AND END OF A SHORT CHANNEL

Bit slot
Bit slot
Bit slot
Bit slot
6
LINE DRIVER INPUT
4
2
0
4
2
0
LINE DRIVER OUTPUT
4
2
0
2 VOLTS PER DIVISION

10 NANOSECONDS PER DIVISION

When it reaches the receiver, the signal is attenuated, distorted and delayed

PROPAGATION DELAY AFTER 25 M

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

# OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Optical
Information source
(analog or digital)
Digital
Digital
Formatting
Modulator
Transmitter
waveforms
symbols
waveforms
)
Optical
Attenuation,
dispersion,
crosstalk & noise
fiber
Synchronization
(Layer 0,
media
layer)
Optical
Information sink
(analog or digital)
Digital
Digital
waveforms
Unformatting
Demodulator
symbols
waveforms
OPTO-

## ◦ This leads to a clock synchronization problem ⇒ framing

SAMPLING TIMES

4
2
0
LINE DRIVER OUTPUT
4
2
0

t

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## A FULL-DUPLEX DIGITAL COMMUNICATION LINK

Baseband or
Information source
and sink
Formatting/
Digital
Digital
bandpass
Modem
Transceiver
Unformatting
symbols
waveforms
waveforms
)
Channel
(Layer 0,
Synchronization
Attenuation,
dispersion,
crosstalk & noise
media
layer)
Baseband or
Information sink
(analog or digital)
For matting/
Digital
Digital
bandpass
Modem
Transceiver
Unformatting
symbols
waveforms
waveforms

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

# Optical Communication Protocol Stack

Datapath
Control
Framing/Switching
Block Coding
Bit Signaling/Line Coding
Modules/Tx/Rx/Amplifiers/Connectors
Components/Devices/Fiber/Packaging
Physical Layer
Analog Layer

## Mapping of bit groups to codewords (e.g., using a block code)

Formatting

 Information source Source coding Encryption Framing Channel coding Digital (analog or digital) symbols

c C. D. Cantrell (08/2002)

## 8B/4Q (1000BASE-T)

c C. D. Cantrell (09/2002)

## ◦ Mapping of base-β symbols to analog signals

Modulator
Digital
Code
vectors
Line driver
(incl. line coding)
Digital
Serializer
symbols
waveforms
Synchronization
 Transmitter

c C. D. Cantrell (06/2002)

## 4D-PAM5 (1000BASE-T)

c C. D. Cantrell (08/2002)

## CRZ

c C. D. Cantrell (08/2002)

1's
eye opening
0's
−2 −1
0
1
2

time

## to-noise ratio

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## to self-phase modulation and group-velocity dispersion.

1 C. Y. Kuo et al., IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 2, 911–913 (1990)

c C. D. Cantrell (08/2002)

## over 4 unshielded twisted pairs:

1.0
0.8
0.5 volt
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
−0.2
−0.4
−0.6
−0.8
−1.0
−4 −2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12

time (ns)

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## L can be made arbitrarily close to H (X ) by choice of codewords

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## B = channel bandwidth, S = signal power, N = noise power

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## Basic bit-error-rate test (BERT) arrangement:

c C. D. Cantrell (08/2002)

## BER = p(1)P (0|1) + p(0)P (1|0)

P(1|0)

P(0|1)

I
1
1
bit level
I
D
decision threshold
I
0
0
bit level
Time
sampling times
Signal

c C. D. Cantrell (08/2002)

I
1
D
σ 1 √ 2π
−∞

I 1 − I D
σ 1 √ 2

## Q

c C. D. Cantrell (08/2002)

## and transmitted over a trunk line at a rate of 8000 frames/second

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

# Datapath for a telephone call via the PSTN (U.S.)

Customer premises
equipment
Analog
Customer premises
equipment
(local
loop)
Bit-serial TDM digital
(telephone
company
trunks)
Analog
(local
loop)
PCM
PCM
Codec
Codec
End
Toll
End
office
office
office
∆f ≤ 3.3 kHz
∆f ≤ 3.3 kHz

t
t 1
t 2
t 3
t 4
t 5
t 6
t 7

## Sampling times

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION

0111
0110
0101
Closest
digital
Quantizing
0100
Closest
value
error
digital
0011
value
0010
0001
0000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
t
t 1
t 2
t 3
t 4
t 5
t 6
t 7

### Sampling times

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

## PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM) CODING

Time
Band-limited analog waveform
PAM Samples
10001101
01101101
01101101
10001101
10001101

Quantized and digitized PAM samples (PCM data)

Decoded PCM
Interpolated waveform

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## In North America, µ = 255

c C. D. Cantrell (01/2000)

### 0

193-bit frame (125 µsec)
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
Channel
1
2
3
4
24
Bit 1 is
a framing
code
7 Data
bits per
Bit 8 is for
signaling
channel

# DS-1 frame (1.544 Mb/s)

After: Computer Networks , 3rd ed. by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, © 1996 Prentice Hall

## Switch fabric must be reconﬁgurable between frames

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## T-4

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## 565.148

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

• ## 9953.28 9621.504

c C. D. Cantrell (10/1998)

## (see next slide)

c C. D. Cantrell (01/1999)

# delivery time = transmission time + propagation delay transmission time = packet size/bandwidth propagation delay = distance/group velocity

## Power budget

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2002)

## (synchronized: TDM; non-synchronized: FDM, WDM)

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## ◦ Total delay: Software (e.g., ping, traceroute)

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## BWD is an extremely important parameter for TCP

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## ◦ Connectionless datalink layer: Ethernet frame

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## networks

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## MAN = Metropolitan Area Network, WAN = Wide Area Network

c C. D. Cantrell (02/2000)

## Stefan A. Fechtel (Wiley, 1998).

c C. D. Cantrell (01/1999)