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NEXT GENERATION WIRELESS COMMUNICATION- FREE SPACE OPTICS Harish R. Sutar (Third Year) Department of Electronics & Telecommunication, Government Polytechnic Nashik.

. INTRODUCTION In telecommunications, Free Space Optics (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to transmit data between two points. The technology is useful where the physical connections by the means of fibre optic cables are impractical due to high costs or other considerations."Free space" means air, outer space, vacuum, or something similar. It is the opposite of a fibre optic cable or transmission line.

Lasers through Free Space

FSO is an optical technology and simple concept involving the transmission of voice, video and data through the air using lasers. It is not a troublemaking technology; it is more of an enabling technology that promises to deliver that everincluding high-speed optical bandwidth to the ultimate end users. FSO offers many advantages when compared to fibre. It is a zero sunk-costs solution. The principle advantages of free space optics (FSO) are: 1. Significantly lower cost on average than the build out of a new fibre optical solution, or leased lines

Thursday, July 28, 2011

2. FSO can be deployed in days to weeks vs. months to years


A narrow beam of light is launched at a transmission station, transmitted through the atmosphere, and subsequently received at the receive station. In as much as FSO and fibre-optic transmission systems use infrared. FSO is often referred to as fibre less optics or optical wireless transmission. Most FSO systems use simple ONOFF keying as a modulation format, the same standard modulation technique that is used in digital fibre optics systems, wherein data are typically transmitted in a digital format with light ON representing a 1 and light OFF representing a 0. This simple modulation scheme allows FSO systems to be designed as bandwidth- and protocol-transparent physical layer connections. In general, the examining parameters can be divided into two different categories: internal parameters and external parameters. Internal parameters are related to the design of a FSO system and include optical power, wavelength, transmission bandwidth, divergence angle, and optical loss on the transmit side and receiver sensitivity, bit-error rate, receive lens diameter, and receiver field on the receive side. External parameters, or non-system-specific parameters, are related to the environment in which the system must operate and include visibility and atmospheric attenuation, scintillation, deployment distance, window loss, and pointing loss. FSO technology is simple. It's based on connectivity between FSO-based optical wireless units, each consisting of an optical transceiver with a transmitter and a receiver to provide full-duplex capability. Each optical wireless unit uses an optical source, plus a lens or telescope that transmits light through the atmosphere to another lens receiving the information. At this point, the receiving lens or telescope connects to a high-sensitivity receiver via optical fibre.

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Block diagram of FSO system Free-Space Optics Subsystems

FIG 2. FSO Major Subsystems

Figure2 illustrates the free-space optics communications system. The transmit, receive, and tracking telescopes are illustrated as separate optical apertures. For example, a single optic performs all three functions thereby saving cost, weight, and size. Diode lasers are driven with a DC bias current to put the devices above threshold, and then, on top of that, are modulated with an AC current to provide. The receive detector is coupled to the receive aperture through either free-space or fibre. Depending on the data rate and optical design alignment, tolerances can be extremely restrictive. Detectors are generally either PIN diodes or avalanche photodiodes (APD). For carrier class free-space optics systems, an APD is always advantageous since atmospheric induced losses can reduce received signals to very low levels where electronics noise dominates the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio. The APD must be capable of meeting the system bandwidth requirements. Usually a trans-impedance amplifier is used after the detector because in most cases they

Thursday, July 28, 2011

provide the highest gain at the fastest speed.

Market Drivers Increasing Number of Internet Users/Subscribers Increasing E-Commerce Activities Deployment of 3G and 4G Faster Service Activation Multiple Applications/Services Support Service Drivers

FSO Core Applications

Metro Network Extensions FSO can be deployed to extend an existing metro ring or to connect new networks.

These links generally do not reach the ultimate end user, but are more an application for the core of the network.

FSO Challenges FSO performance can be affected by some conditions: 1) Physical Obstructions 2) Building sway/seismic activity: 3) Scintillation

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4) Absorption:

Safety The safety of FSO is often a concern, since it uses lasers for transmission. This challenge has more to do with perception than reality. The two major concerns typically expressed involve questions about human exposure to laser beams and high voltages within the laser systems and their power supplies. Safety of the lasers does not depend on its frequency, but rather on the classification of the laser

CONCLUSION 1. FSO is just starting to be applied to solve the Internet last-mile interconnectivity problem. 2. But there are many problems which need to solve. 3. Free-space optics technology is a good alternative, especially compare to fibre optics 4. In the future, FSO may be one of the most important access technologies due to its advantages. 5. Big market in the future. REFERENCES [1] Mendelson, James S. and Dorrier, Charles R. Free Space Optics. [2] [3]