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JohnF.Kennedy: AddresstotheUnitedNationsGeneralAssembly

Delivered25September1961

AUTHENTICITYCERTIFIED:Textversionbelowtranscribeddirectlyfromaudio

Mr.President,HonoredDelegates,LadiesandGentlemen: Wemeethereinanhourofgriefandchallenge.DagHammarskjoldisdead,buttheUnited Nationslives.Histragedyisdeepinourhearts,butthetasksforwhichhediedareatthetop ofouragenda.Anobleservantofpeaceisgone,butthequestforpeaceliesbeforeus. Theproblemisnotthedeathofonemantheproblemisthelifeofthisorganization.Itwill eithergrowtomeetthechallengesofourage,oritwillbegonewiththewind,without influence,withoutforce,withoutrespect.Werewetoletitdie,toenfeebleitsvigor,tocripple itspowers,wewouldcondemnourfuture. Forinthedevelopmentofthisorganizationreststheonlytruealternativetowarandwar appealsnolongerasarationalalternative.Unconditionalwarcannolongerleadto unconditionalvictory.Itcannolongerservetosettledisputes.Itcannolongerconcernthe GreatPowersalone.Foranucleardisaster,spreadbywindandwaterandfear,couldwell engulfthegreatandthesmall,therichandthepoor,thecommittedandtheuncommitted alike.Mankindmustputanendtowarorwarwillputanendtomankind. SoletushereresolvethatDagHammarskjolddidnotlive,ordie,invain.Letuscallatruce toterror.Letusinvoketheblessingsofpeace.Andaswebuildaninternationalcapacityto keeppeace,letusjoinindismantlingthenationalcapacitytowagewar. ThiswillrequirenewstrengthandnewrolesfortheUnitedNations.Fordisarmamentwithout checksisbutashadow,andacommunitywithoutlawisbutashell.AlreadytheUnited Nationshasbecomeboththemeasureandthevehicleofman'smostgenerousimpulses.

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AlreadyithasprovidedintheMiddleEast,inAsia,inAfricathisyearintheCongoa meansofholdingsman'sviolencewithinbounds. Butthegreatquestionwhichconfrontedthisbodyin1945isstillbeforeus:whetherman's cherishedhopesforprogressandpeacearetobedestroyedbyterroranddisruption,whether the"foulwindsofwar"canbetamedintimetofreethecoolingwindsofreason,andwhether thepledgesofourcharteraretobefulfilledordefiedpledgestosecurepeace,progress, humanrights,andworldlaw. Inthishall,therearenotthreeforces,buttwo.Oneiscomposedofthosewhoaretryingto buildthekindofworlddescribedinArticles1and2ofthecharter.Theother,seekingafar differentworld,wouldunderminethisorganizationintheprocess. Today,ofalldays,ourdedicationtothechartermustbemaintained.Itmustbestrengthened firstofallbytheselectionofanoutstandingcivilservanttocarryforwardtheresponsibilities oftheSecretaryGeneralamanendowedwithboththewisdomandthepowertomake meaningfulthemoralforceoftheworldcommunity.ThelateSecretaryGeneralnurturedand sharpenedtheUnitedNations'obligationtoact.Buthedidnotinventit.Itwasthereinthe Charter.Itisstillthereinthecharter. HoweverdifficultitmaybetofillMr.Hammarskjold'splace,itcanbetterbefilledbyoneman ratherthanbythree.EventhethreehorsesoftheTroikadidnothavethreedrivers,allgoing indifferentdirections.TheyhadonlyoneandsomusttheUnitedNationsExecutive.To installatriumvirate,oranypanel,oranyrotatingauthorityintheUnitedNations administrativeofficeswouldreplaceorderwithanarchy,actionwithparalysis,confidencewith confusion. TheSecretaryGeneral,inaveryrealsense,istheservantofthisAssembly.Diminishhis authorityandyoudiminishtheauthorityoftheonlybodywhereallnations,regardlessof power,areequalandsovereign.Untilallthepowerfularejust,theweakwillbesecureonlyin thestrengthoftheGeneralAssembly. EffectiveandindependentExecutiveactionisnotthesamequestionasbalanced representationInviewoftheenormouschangeinmembershipinthisbodysinceitsfounding, theAmericandelegationwilljoininanyeffortforthepromptreviewandrevisionofthe compositionoftheUnitedNationsbodies. ButtogivethisorganizationthreedriverstopermiteachGreatPowertodecideit'sown case,wouldentrenchtheColdWarintheheadquartersofpeace.Whateveradvantagessucha planmayholdouttomyowncountry,asoneofthegreatpowers,werejectit.Forwefar preferworldlaw,intheageofselfdetermination,toworldwar,intheageofmass extermination.

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Today,everyinhabitantofthisplanetmustcontemplatethedaywhenthisplanetmayno longerbehabitable.Everyman,woman,andchildlivesunderanuclearswordofDamocles, hangingbytheslenderestofthreads,capableofbeingcutatanymomentbyaccident,or miscalculation,orbymadness.Theweaponsofwarmustbeabolishedbeforetheyabolishus. Mennolongerdebatewhetherarmamentsareasymptomoracauseoftension.Themere existenceofmodernweaponstenmilliontimesmorepowerfulthananythattheworldhas everseen,andonlyminutesawayfromanytargetonearthisasourceofhorror,and discord,anddistrust.Mennolongermaintainthatdisarmamentmustawaitthesettlementof alldisputesfordisarmamentmustbeapartofanypermanentsettlement.Andmanmayno longerpretendthatthequestfordisarmamentisasignofweaknessforinaspiralingarms race,anation'ssecuritymaybeshrinking,evenasit'sarmsincrease. Forfifteenyears,thisorganizationhassoughtthereductionanddestructionofarms.Nowthat goalisnolongeradreamitisapracticalmatteroflifeordeath.Therisksinherentin disarmamentpaleincomparisontotherisksinherentinanunlimitedarmsrace. ItisinthisspiritthattherecentBelgradeConferencerecognizingthatthisisnolongera Sovietproblem,oranAmericanproblem,butahumanproblemendorsedaprogramof "general,completeandstrictlyandinternationallycontrolleddisarmament."Itisinthissame spiritthatweintheUnitedStateshavelaboredthisyear,withanewurgency,andwitha new,nowstatutoryagencyfullyendorsedbytheCongress,tofindanapproachto disarmamentwhichwouldbesofarreaching,yetrealistic,somutuallybalancedand beneficial,thatitcouldbeacceptedbyeverynation.Anditisinthisspiritthatwehave presentedwiththeagreementoftheSovietUnionunderthelabelbothnationsnowaccept of"generalandcompletedisarmament"anewstatementofnewlyagreedprinciplesfor negotiation. Butwearewellawarethatallissuesofprinciplearenotsettled,andthatprinciplesaloneare notenough.ItisthereforeourintentiontochallengetheSovietUnion,nottoanarmsrace, buttoapeaceracetoadvancetogether,stepbystep,stagebystage,untilgeneraland completedisarmamenthasbeenachieved.Weinvitethemnowtogobeyondagreementin principletoreachagreementonactualplans. TheprogramtobepresentedtothisAssemblyforgeneralandcompletedisarmament undereffectiveandinternationalcontrolmovestobridgethegapbetweenthosewhoinsist onagradualapproachandthosewhotalkonlyofthefinalandtotalachievement.Itwould createmachinerytokeepthepeaceasitdestroysthemachineryofwar.Itwouldproceed throughbalancedandsafeguardedstagesdesignedtogivenostateamilitaryadvantage overanother.Itwouldplacethefinalresponsibilityforverificationandcontrolwhereit belongs,notwiththebigpowersalone,notwithone'sadversaryorone'sself,butinan internationalorganizationwithintheframeworkoftheUnitedNations.Itwouldassurethat indispensableconditionofdisarmamenttrueinspectionandapplyitinstages proportionatetothestageofdisarmament.Itwouldcoverdeliverysystemsaswellas weapons.

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Itwouldultimatelyhalttheirproductionaswellastheirtesting,theirtransferaswellastheir possession.Itwouldachieveundertheeyesofaninternationaldisarmamentorganization,a steadyreductioninforce,bothnuclearandconventional,untilithasabolishedallarmiesand allweaponsexceptthoseneededforinternalorderandanewUnitedNationsPeaceForce. Anditstartsthatprocessnow,today,evenasthetalksbegin. Inshort,generalandcompletedisarmamentmustnolongerbeaslogan,usedtoresistfirst steps.Itisnolongertobeagoalwithoutmeansofachievingit,withoutmeansofverifyingits progress,withoutmeansofkeepingthepeace.Itisnowarealisticplan,andatestofthose onlywillingtotalk,andatestofthosewillingtoact. Suchaplanwouldnotbringaworldfreefromconflictandgreedbutitwouldbringaworld freefromtheterrorsofmassdestruction.Itwouldnotusherintheeraofthesuperstate butitwouldusherinanerainwhichnostatecouldannihilateorbeannihilatedbyanother. In1945,thisnationproposedtheBaruchPlantointernationalizetheatombeforeother nationsevenpossessedthebombordemilitarizedtheirtroops.Weproposedwithourallies theDisarmamentPlanof1951whilestillatwarinKorea.Andwemakeourproposalstoday, whilebuildingupourdefensesoverBerlin,notbecauseweareinconsistentorinsincereor intimidated,butbecauseweknowthattherightsoffreemenwillprevailbecausewhilewe arecompelled,againstourwilltorearm,welookconfidentlybeyondBerlintothekindof disarmedworldweallprefer. Ithereforeproposeonthebasisofthisplan,thatdisarmamentnegotiationsresumepromptly, andcontinuewithoutinterruptionuntilanentireprogramforgeneralandcomplete disarmamenthasnotonlybeenagreedupon,buthasbeenactuallyachieved. Thelogicalplacetobeginisatreatyassuringtheendofnucleartestsofallkinds,inevery environment,underworkablecontrols.TheUnitedStatesandtheUnitedKingdomhave proposedsuchatreatythatisbothreasonable,effective,andreadyforsignature.Wearestill preparedtosignthattreatytoday. Wealsoproposedamutualbanonatmospherictesting,withoutinspectionorcontrols,in ordertosavethehumanracefromthepoisonofradioactivefallout.Weregretthatthatoffer hasnotbeenaccepted. For15yearswehavesoughttomaketheatomaninstrumentofpeacefulgrowthratherthan ofwar.Butfor15yearsourconcessionshavebeenmatchedbyobstruction,ourpatienceby intransigenceandthepleasofmankindforpeacehavemetwithdisregard. Finally,astheexplosionsofothersbecloudtheskies,mycountrywasleftwithnoalternative buttoactinitsowninterestsandinthefreeworld'ssecurity.Wecannotendangerthat securitybyrefrainingfromtestingwhileothersimprovetheirarsenals.Norcanweendangerit byanotherlong,uninspectedbanontesting.Forthreeyearsweacceptedthoserisksinour opensocietywhileseekingagreementoninspection.Butthisyear,whilewewerenegotiating ingoodfaithinGeneva,othersweresecretlypreparingnewexperimentsindestruction.

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Ourtestsarenotpollutingtheatmosphere.Ourdeterrentweaponsareguardedagainst accidentalexplosionoruse.Ourdoctorsandscientistsstandreadytohelpanynation measureandmeetthehazardstohealthwhichinevitablyresultfromthetestsinthe atmosphere. Buttohaltthespreadoftheseterribleweapons,tohaltthecontaminationoftheair,tohalt thespiralingnucleararmsrace,weremainreadytoseeknewavenuesofagreement.Ournew disarmamentprogramthusincludesthefollowingproposals: First,signingthetestbantreatybyallnations.Thiscanbedonenow.Testbannegotiations neednot,andshouldnotawaitgeneraldisarmament. Second,stoppingtheproductionoffissionablematerialsforuseinweapons,andpreventing theirtransfertoanynationnowlackinginnuclearweapons. Third,prohibitingthetransferofcontrolovernuclearweaponstostatesthatdonotown them. Fourth,keepingnuclearweaponsfromseedingnewbattlegroundsinouterspace. Fifth,graduallydestroyingexistingnuclearweaponsandconvertingtheirmaterialsto peacefuluse. Andfinally,haltingtheunlimitedtestingandproductionofstrategicnucleardelivery vehicles,andgraduallydestroyingthemaswell. Todestroyarms,however,isnotenough.Wemustcreateevenaswedestroycreating worldwidelawandlawenforcementasweoutlawworldwidewarandweapons.Intheworld weseek,theUnitedNationsEmergencyForces,whichhavebeenhastilyassembled, uncertainlysupplied,andinadequatelyfinanced,willneverbeenough. Therefore,theUnitedStatesrecommendsthatallmembernationsearmarkspecialpeace keepingunitsintheirarmedforcestobeoncalloftheUnitedNations,tobespecially trainedandquicklyavailable,andwithadvancedprovisionforfinancialandlogisticsupport. Inaddition,theAmericandelegationwillsuggestaseriesofstepstoimprovetheUnited Nations'machineryforthepeacefulsettlementofdisputesforonthespotfactfinding, mediation,andadjudicationforextendingtherulesofinternationallaw.Forpeaceisnot solelyamatterofmilitaryortechnicalproblemsitisprimarilyaproblemofpoliticsand people.Andunlessmancanmatchhisstridesinweaponryandtechnologywithequalstrides insocialandpoliticaldevelopment,ourgreatstrength,likethatofthedinosaur,willbecome incapableofpropercontrolandlikethedinosaur,vanishfromtheearth.

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Andasweextendtheruleoflawonearth,somustwealsoextendittoman'snewdomain, outerspace.AllofussalutethebravecosmonautsoftheSovietUnion.Thenewhorizonsof outerspacemustnotbedrivenbytheoldbitterconceptsofimperialismandsovereignclaims. Thecoldreachesoftheuniversemustnotbecomethenewarenaofanevencolderwar. Tothisend,weshallurgeproposalsextendingtheUnitedNationsChartertothelimitsof man'sexplorationintheuniverse,reservingouterspaceforpeacefuluse,prohibitingweapons ofmassdestructioninspaceoroncelestialbodies,andopeningthemysteriesandbenefitsof spacetoeverynation.Weshallpropose,further,cooperativeeffortsbetweenallthenationsin weatherpredictionandeventuallyinweathercontrol.Weshallpropose,finally,aglobal systemofCommunicationssatelliteslinkingthewholeworldintelegraphandtelephoneand radioandtelevision.Thedayneednotbefarawaywhensuchasystemwilltelevisethe proceedingsofthisbodytoeverycorneroftheworldforthebenefitofpeace. Butthemysteriesofouterspacemustnotdivertoureyesorourenergiesfromtheharsh realitiesthatfaceourfellowmen.Politicalsovereigntyisbutamockerywithoutthemeansof meetingpovertyandilliteracyanddisease.Selfdeterminationisbutasloganifthefuture holdsnohope. Thatiswhymynation,whichhasfreelysharedit'scapitalandit'stechnologytohelpothers helpthemselves,nowproposesofficiallydesignatingthisdecadeofthe1960'sastheUnited NationsDecadeofDevelopment.UndertheframeworkofthatResolution,theUnitedNation's existingeffortsinpromotingeconomicgrowthcanbeexpandedandcoordinated.Regional surveysandtraininginstitutescannowpoolthetalentsofmanynewresearch,technical assistance,andpilotprojectsthatcanunlockthewealthoflessdevelopedlandsanduntapped waters.Anddevelopmentcanbecomeacooperativeandnotacompetitiveenterpriseto enableallnations,howeverdiverseintheirsystemsandbeliefs,tobecomeinfactaswellas inlawfreeandequalnations. Mycountryfavorsaworldoffreeandequalstates.Weagreewiththosewhosaythat colonialismisakeyissueinthisAssembly.Butletthefullfactsofthatissuebediscussedin full.Ontheonehandisthefactthat,sincethecloseofWorldWarII,aworldwidedeclaration ofindependencehastransformednearly1billionpeopleand9millionsquaremilesinto42 freeandindependentstates.Lessthan2%oftheworld'spopulationnowlivesin"dependant" territories. Idonotignoretheremainingproblemsoftraditionalcolonialismwhichstillconfrontthisbody. Thoseproblemswillbesolvedwithpatienceandgoodwillanddetermination.Withinthelimits ofourresponsibilityinsuchmatters,mycountryintendstobeaparticipantandnotmerelyan observer,inthepeaceful,expeditiousmovementofnationsfromthestatusofcoloniestothe partnershipofequals.Thatcontinuingtideofselfdetermination,whichrunssostrong,has oursympathyandoursupport.

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Butcolonialisminitsharshestformsisnotonlytheexploitationofnewweaponsbyofnew nationsbyold,ofdarkskinsbylight,orthesubjugationofthepoorbytherich. Mynationwasonceacolony,andweknowwhatcolonialismmeanstheexploitationand subjugationoftheweakbythepowerful,ofthemanybythefew,ofthegovernedwhohave givennoconsenttobegoverned,whatevertheircontinent,theirclass,ortheircolor. Andthatiswhythereisnoignoringthefactthatthetideofselfdeterminationhasnotyet reachedtheCommunistEmpirewhereapopulationfarlargerthanthatofficiallytermed "dependant"livesundergovernmentsinstalledbyforeigntroopsinsteadoffreeinstitutions, underasystemwhichknowsonlyonepartyandonebeliefwhichsuppressesfreedebate, andfreeelections,andfreenewspapers,andfreebooks,andfreetradeunionsandwhich buildsawalltokeeptruthastrangeranditsowncitizensprisoners.Letusdebatecolonialism infullandapplytheprincipleoffreechoiceandthepracticeoffreeplebiscitesinevery corneroftheglobe. Finally,asPresidentoftheUnitedStates,IconsideritmydutytoreporttothisAssemblyon twothreatstothepeacewhicharenotonyourcrowdedagenda,butwhichcausesusand mostofyouthedeepestconcern. ThefirstthreatonwhichIwishtoreportiswidelymisunderstood:thesmolderingcoalsofwar inSoutheastAsia.SouthVietnamisalreadyunderattacksometimesbyasingleassassin, sometimesbyabandofguerillas,recentlybyfullbattalions.ThepeacefulbordersofBurma, Cambodia,andIndiahavebeenrepeatedlyviolated.AndthepeacefulpeopleofLaosarein dangeroflosingtheindependencetheygainednotsolongago. Noonecancallthese"warsofliberation."Forthesearefreecountrieslivingundertheirown governments.Noraretheseaggressionsanylessrealbecausemenareknifedintheirhomes andnotshotinthefieldofbattle. Theverysimplequestionconfrontingtheworldcommunityiswhethermeasurescanbe devisedtoprotectthesmallandtheweakfromsuchtactics.ForiftheyaresuccessfulinLaos andSouthVietnam,thegateswillbeopenedwide. TheUnitedStatesseeksforitselfnobase,noterritory,nospecialpositioninthisareaofany kind.WesupportatrulyneutralandindependentLaos,itspeoplefreefromoutside interference,livingatpeacewiththemselvesandwiththeirneighbors,assuredthattheir territorywillnotbeusedforattacksonothers,andunderagovernmentcomparable(asMr. KhrushchevandIagreedatVienna)toCambodiaandBurma. ButnowthenegotiationsoverLaosarereachingacrucialstage.Theceasefireisatbest precarious.Therainyseasoniscomingtoanend.Laotianterritoryisbeingusedtoinfiltrate SouthVietnam.Theworldcommunitymustrecognizeandallthosewhoareinvolvedthat thispotentthreattoLaotianpeaceandfreedomisindivisiblefromallotherthreatstotheir own.

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Secondly,IwishtoreporttoyouonthecrisisoverGermanyandBerlin.Thisisnotthetimeor theplaceforimmoderatetones,buttheworldcommunityisentitledtoknowtheverysimple issuesasweseethem.Ifthereisacrisisitisbecauseanexistingpeaceinthatareaisunder threat,becauseanexistingislandoffreepeopleisunderpressure,becausesolemn agreementsarebeingtreatedwithindifference.Establishedinternationalrightsarebeing threatenedwithunilateralusurpation.Peacefulcirculationhasbeeninterruptedbybarbedwire andconcreteblocks. OnerecallstheorderoftheTsarinPushkin's"BorisGodunov:"Takestepsatthisveryhour thatourfrontiersbefencedinbybarriers...thatnotasinglesoulpasso'ertheborder,thatnot aharebeabletorunoracrowtofly." ItisabsurdtoallegethatwearethreateningawarmerelytopreventtheSovietUnionand EastGermanyfromsigningasocalled"treaty"ofpeace.TheWesternalliesarenotconcerned withanypaperarrangementstheSovietsmaywishtomakewitharegimeoftheirown creation,onterritoryoccupiedbytheirowntroopsandgovernedbytheirownagents.Nosuch action,however,canaffecteitherourrightsorourresponsibilities. IfthereisadangerouscrisisinBerlinandthereisitisbecauseofthreatsagainstthe vitalinterestandthedeepcommitmentsoftheWesternpowers,andthefreedomofWest Berlin.Wecannotyieldtheseinterests.Wecannotfailthesecommitments.Wecannot surrenderthefreedomofthesepeopleforwhomweareresponsible.A"peacetreaty"which carriedwithittheprovisionswhichdestroythepeacewouldbeafraud.A"freecity"which wasnotgenuinelyfreewouldsuffocatefreedomandwouldbeaninfamy. Foracityorapeopletobetrulyfreetheymusthavethesecureright,withouteconomic, politicalorpolicepressuretomaketheirownchoiceandtolivetheirownlives.AndasIhave saidbefore,ifanyonedoubtstheextenttowhichourpresenceisdesiredbythepeopleof WestBerlin,wearereadytohavethatquestionsubmittedtoafreevoteinallBerlin,and,if possible,amongalltheGermanpeople. Theelementaryfactaboutthiscrisisisthatitisunnecessary.Theelementarytoolsfora peacefulsettlementaretobefoundinthecharter.Underitslaw,agreementsaretobekept, unlesschangedbyallthosewhomakethem.Establishedrightsaretoberespected.The politicaldispositionofpeoplesshouldrestupontheirownwishes,freelyexpressedin plebiscitesandfreeelections.Iftherearelegalproblems,theycanbesolvedbylegalmeans. Ifthereisathreatofforce,itmustberejected.Ifthereisadesireforchange,itmustbea subjectfornegotiation,andifthereisnegotiation,itmustberootedinmutualrespectand concernfortherightsofothers. TheWesternPowershavecalmlyresolvedtodefend,bywhatevermeansareforcedupon them,theirobligationsandtheiraccesstothefreecitizensofWestBerlinandtheself determinationofthosecitizens.Thisgenerationlearnedfrombitterexperiencethateither brandishingoryieldingtothreatscanonlyleadtowar.Butfirmnessandreasoncanleadto thekindofpeacefulsolutioninwhichmycountryprofoundlybelieves.

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Wearecommittedtonorigidformulas.Weseenoperfectsolution.Werecognizethattroops andtankscan,foratime,keepanationdividedagainstitswill,howeverunwisethatpolicy mayseemtous.Butwebelieveapeacefulagreementispossiblewhichprotectsthefreedom ofWestBerlinandalliedpresenceandaccess,whilerecognizingthehistoricandlegitimate interestsofothersinassuringEuropeansecurity. Thepossibilitiesofnegotiationarenowbeingexploreditistooearlytoreportwhatthe prospectsmaybe.Forourpart,wewouldbegladtoreportattheappropriatetimethata solutionhasbeenfound.ForthereisnoneedforacrisisoverBerlin,threateningthepeace andifthosewhocreatedthiscrisisdesirepeace,therewillbepeaceandfreedominBerlin. Theeventsanddecisionsofthenexttenmonthsmaywelldecidethefateofmanforthenext tenthousandyears.Therewillbenoavoidingthoseevents.Therewillbenoappealfrom thesedecisions.Andweinthishallshallberememberedeitheraspartofthegenerationthat turnedthisplanetintoaflamingfuneralpyreorthegenerationthatmetitsvow"tosave succeedinggenerationsfromthescourgeofwar." Intheendeavortomeetthatvow,Ipledgeyoueveryeffortthatthisnationpossesses.I pledgeyouthatweshallneithercommitnorprovokeaggression,thatweshallneitherfleenor invokethethreatofforce,thatweshallnevernegotiateoutoffear,andweshallneverfearto negotiate. Terrorisnotanewweapon.Throughouthistoryithasbeenusedbythosewhocouldnot prevail,eitherbypersuasionorexample.Butinevitablytheyfail,eitherbecausemenarenot afraidtodieforawifealifeworthliving,orbecausetheterroriststhemselvescameto realizethatfreemencannotbefrightenedbythreats,andthataggressionwouldmeetitsown response.Anditisinthelightofthathistorythateverynationtodayshouldknow,behe friendorfoe,thattheUnitedStateshasboththewillandtheweaponstojoinfreemenin standinguptotheirresponsibilities. ButIcomeheretodaytolookacrossthisworldofthreatstoaworldofpeace.Inthatsearch wecannotexpectanyfinaltriumphfornewproblemswillalwaysarise.Wecannotexpect thatallnationswilladoptlikesystemsforconformityisthejailoroffreedom,andthe enemyofgrowth.Norcanweexpecttoreachourgoalbycontrivance,byfiat,orevenbythe wishesofall. Buthoweverclosewesometimesseemtothatdarkandfinalabyss,letnomanofpeaceand freedomdespair.Forhedoesnotstandalone.Ifweallcanpersevere,ifwecanineveryland andoffice,lookbeyondourownshoresandambitions,thensurelytheagewilldawninwhich thestrongarejust,andtheweaksecure,andthepeacepreserved. LadiesandGentlemenofthisAssembly,thedecisionisours.Neverhavethenationsofthe worldhadsomuchtolose,orsomuchtogain.Togetherweshallsaveourplanet,ortogether weshallperishinitsflames.Saveitwecanandsaveitwemustandthenshallweearn theeternalthanksofmankind,and,aspeacemakers,theeternalblessingofGod.

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