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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections


This NCCI presents a method for determining the non-dimensional slenderness without explicit determination of Mcr. The basic, conservative method can be refined to take account of section geometry and bending moment distribution.

Contents
1. 2. 3. Simplified method Economy from more complexity Allowance for the effect of destabilizing loads 2 3 6

Created on Friday, September 02, 2011 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

1.

Simplified method

For straight segments of hot-rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections with lateral restraints to the compression flange at both ends of the segment considered and with no destabilizing loads, the value of LT required by EN1993-1-1 6.3.2.2 or 6.3.2.3 may be conservatively taken from Table 1.1.

S 235

S 275

S 355

S420

S 460

LT =

L iz 104

LT =

L iz 96

LT =

L iz 85

LT =

L iz 78

LT =

L iz 75

Table 1.1

LT for different grades of steel

where
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L iz NOTES

is the distance between points of restraint of the compression flange is the radius of gyration of the section about the minor axis.

Table 1.1 is derived from equation (1) taking C1 = 1,0, U = 0,9, V = 1,0 and

w = 1,0.

Improved economy can be gained by increasing the complexity of the slenderness calculation. For beams designed as simply supported, there may be little gain, but for columns with large moments, the gain may be significant. It is advisable to detail structures to avoid destabilising loading. This may be achieved by detailing so that the load and the beam flange are not free to move laterally. For example, where a floor acts as a horizontal diaphragm restraining the beam, the loading is not destabilising. For further information, see also: Economy from more complexity Non-uniform bending moment distribution reduces LT by up to 40% where there is significant reversal of moment. Section geometry reduces LT by up to 15%. Lower yield strengths for thicker elements reduce LT by up to 5%. Allowance for the effects of destabilising loads Background Theory Destabilising loads are rare but when they do exist the bending resistance is reduced. Destabilising loads need to be taken into account in design. Derivation of above simplified equations Page 2

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

2.

Economy from more complexity

A less conservative value of LT may be obtained by taking account of bending moment diagram, section geometry and lower yield strengths. There is little economy to be gained for simply supported beams by use of

1 , but in C1

columns with negative values of (see Table 2.1) and large bending moments, the economy may be significant. NOTE: For beams in simple construction (designed as Simple Supported beams), see EN1993-1-8 5.1.1(2). When the loading is not destabilising, LT is given by

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LT
where C1

1 1 UV z w = UV z w 1 C1 C1

(1)

is a parameter dependent on the shape of the bending moment diagram. Values of


1 for some bending moment diagrams are given in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2. C1

Values for other bending moment diagrams can be obtained from [SN003]. Conservatively, C1 = 1,0 (this value has been used in the simplified method above). U is a parameter dependent on the section geometry and is given by:

U=

Wpl,y g A

Iz Iw

In which g allows for the curvature of the beam if it has zero vertical deflection
I before it is loaded and is given by g = 1 z or, conservatively, g = 1,0 Iy

Conservatively, U = 0,9 (this value has been used in the simplified method above).

is a parameter related to the slenderness. Where the loading is not destabilising, it may be taken as: either, conservatively, = 1,0 for all sections symmetric about the major axis, or as V =

1 1 z 4 1+ 20 h tf
2

for doubly symmetric hot rolled I and H sections

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

The exact definition of V, where the loading is not destabilising, is:


V= k 4 kw 1 (z )2 + 2E A Iw G It Iz
2

If k = kw, then V =
1+
4

(z )2
2E A Iw G It Iz

z
L k

kL ,in which iz

is the distance between points of restraint to the compression flange is the effective length parameter and should be taken as 1,0 unless it can be demonstrated otherwise
= Wy Wpl, y

w
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Wy

is the modulus used to calculate Mb,Rd For Class 1 and 2 sections Wy = Wpl,y For Class 3 sections

Wy = Wel,y

E in which fy is the yield strength appropriate to the thickness of the steel. fy

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

Table 2.1

Values of

1 for end moment loading, to be used with k=1,0 C1

+1,00 +0,75 +0,50 +0,25 0,00


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1 C1
M

M
-1 +1

1,00 0,94 0,87 0,81 0,75 0,70 0,66 0,62 0,63

-0,25 -0,50 -0,75 -1,00

Table 2.2

Values of

1 for cases with transverse loading, to be used with k=1,0 C1


Bending moment diagram

Loading and support conditions

1 C1

0,94

0,62

0.86

0,77

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

3.

Allowance for the effect of destabilizing loads

The effect of a destabilising load may be taken into account by increasing the value of the non-dimensional slenderness.

3.1

Beams with destabilizing loads

A beam with the load acting at a distance above the shear centre of the section is shown in Figure 3.1b. If both the load and the beam are free to move laterally, such a load is described as a destabilising load. The destabilising effect arises because when the beam buckles, deflecting laterally and twisting, the line of action of the load remains vertical but moves relative to the shear centre of the section. The load therefore applies an additional torque,
w

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a) Load acting through shear centre

b) Load acting at top flange (destabilising load)

Figure 3.1

An example of a destabilising load

increasing the effect of lateral torsional buckling.

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

3.2

Slenderness with destabilising loads


1 UVD z 1 C1 1 UVD z w C1

Where the loading is destabilising, LT is given by

LT
where
V

w =

(2)

1 k k w (z )2 + C z + 2 g 2E A Iw G It Iz
2

)2

Iz Iw

0, 25

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For doubly symmetric hot rolled I and H sections, V may be taken conservatively as: 1 = V 2 1 z 2 Iz 4 1+ h t + C2 z g I 20 f w

C2 zg

is a parameter dependent on the shape of the bending moment diagram. Values of C2 are given in SN003. is the height of the destabilising load above the shear centre

1 Iz 1 V 2 C 2 z g Iw
0,5

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

Annex A Background Theory


The theoretical consistency between the simplified method and the explicit method using Mcr for calculating values of LT is demonstrated below. The elastic critical buckling moment may be written:

2 EI z M cr = C1 (kL)2 g

k k w

2 I w (kL )2 GI t 2 + 2 + (C2 z g ) C2 z g I EI z z

where g is the correction factor for the increase in critical buckling moment caused by
I increased curvature, which may be taken as g = 1 z , or conservatively as g =1,0. Iy
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EN 1993-1-1 defines the non-dimensional slenderness as LT =


Wy f y 2 EI z C1 (kL )2 g k k w I w (kL )2 GI t + C2 zg I + 2 EI z z
2

Wy f y M cr

C2 zg

1 W y g (kL )2 1 = C1 A I z 2 E A fy Iw Iz

1 k k w (kL )2 GI t I z + C z + 2 g I z A 2 E I w A
2

)2

Iz C2 zg Iw

1 W y g (kL )2 1 = C1 A (iz )2 2 E fy

1 1 Iw 2 k (kL )2 G I t I z + + C2 zg I z k w (iz )2 2 E AI w

Iz C2 zg I z Iw Iw

defining 1 =

kL E and z = iz fy

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

1 Wy g C1 A

Iz (z )2 1 2 Iw (1 )

1 k k w ( z ) + C z + 2 g 2 E A Iw G It Iz
2 2

)2 II z

C2 zg

Iz Iw

defining V =

1 k k w (z )2 + C z + 2 g 2E A Iw G It Iz
2

)2 II z

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LT =

1 Wy Wpl, y g C1 Wpl.y A

I z ( z )2 1 2 I w ( 1 ) 1 C2 zg I z V 2 Iw

defining w =

Wy Wpl, y

and U =

Wpl, y g A

Iz Iw

LT

2 V2 1 2 ( z ) WU = C1 (1 )2 1 V 2C z I z 2 g Iw

defining D =

1 1 V 2C 2 z g I z Iw

LT =

( )2 1 WU 2 z 2 V 2 D 2 C1 (1 )
1 UVD z 1 C1 W

LT =

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

V may be simplified as follows. Where k = kw and the load is applied through the shear centre of the section, V reduces to
V= 1+ 1 = 1+
4

(z )2
2E A Iw G It Iz

(z )2
2E A Iw G It Iz

h For hot-rolled I-sections, 20 t G It Iz f

2E A Iw

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Therefore, for hot-rolled I-sections, and where the loads are not destabilising, V may be taken as:

V=
4 1+

1 1 z 20 h tf
2

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NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections SN002a-EN-EU

Quality Record
RESOURCE TITLE NCCI: Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections

Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK
Created on Friday, September 02, 2011 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Company The Steel Construction Institute The Steel Construction Institute SCI

Date

James Lim Charles King D C Iles

2/3/05

G W Owens A Bureau A Olsson C Mueller J Chica G W Owens

SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI

1/3/05 1/3/05 1/3/05 1/3/05 1/3/05 21/04/06

2. France 3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by:

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