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Managing Stormwater in Urbanised Singapore for Flood Control Thoo Jung Chee Executive Engineer, Catchment &
Managing Stormwater in Urbanised Singapore for Flood Control Thoo Jung Chee Executive Engineer, Catchment &

Managing Stormwater in Urbanised Singapore for Flood Control

Thoo Jung Chee Executive Engineer, Catchment & Waterways Department

1

1
• Some 7,000 km of roadside drains • 990 km of major rivers • Some
• Some 7,000 km of roadside drains
• 990 km of major rivers
• Some 7,000 km of roadside drains
• 990 km of major rivers
StormwaterStormwater managementmanagement Objective Provide a first-rate drainage system to : • harness rainwater for

StormwaterStormwater managementmanagement

Objective

Provide a first-rate drainage system to :

• harness rainwater for our water needs; and

• keep Singapore flood free.

Provide a first-rate drainage system to : • harness rainwater for our water needs; and •
StrategiesStrategies toto preventprevent andand alleviatealleviate floodsfloods (i) Drainage master planning and

StrategiesStrategies toto preventprevent andand alleviatealleviate floodsfloods

(i)

Drainage master planning and development control

(ii)

Drainage improvement projects

(iii)

Maintenance & enforcement programme

and development control (ii) Drainage improvement projects (iii) Maintenance & enforcement programme
StrategiesStrategies toto preventprevent andand alleviatealleviate floodsfloods (i) Drainage master planning and

StrategiesStrategies toto preventprevent andand alleviatealleviate floodsfloods

(i)

Drainage master planning and development control

• maintain and update the drainage master plans in tandem with land developments

• ensure that proper and adequate drainage facilities are provided to serve new developments

(ii)

Drainage improvement projects

(iii)

Maintenance & enforcement programme

to serve new developments (ii) Drainage improvement projects (iii) Maintenance & enforcement programme

TypesTypes ofof drains/canalsdrains/canals

TypesTypes ofof drains/canalsdrains/canals Canal 820 ha safeguarded for drains and canals (excludes roadside drains within

Canal

TypesTypes ofof drains/canalsdrains/canals Canal 820 ha safeguarded for drains and canals (excludes roadside drains within
TypesTypes ofof drains/canalsdrains/canals Canal 820 ha safeguarded for drains and canals (excludes roadside drains within

820 ha safeguarded for drains and canals (excludes roadside drains within road reserves)

Outlet drain River
Outlet drain
River

Open roadside drain

Closed roadside drain

floodflood protectionprotection measures…measures…

1.0m Crest Crest protection for MRT Newton Station
1.0m Crest
Crest protection for MRT Newton Station
Crest protection for MRT Clarke Quay Station
Crest protection for MRT Clarke
Quay Station
Newton Circus May 1988
Newton Circus
May 1988

Higher platform level for wafer fabrication plants

1.0m Crest

agencies…

workingworking withwith developingdeveloping agencies…

workingworking withwith developingdeveloping agencies… J u r o n g I s l a n d

Jurong Island Complex

J u r o n g I s l a n d C o m p

Hougang New Town

m p l e x H o u g a n g N e w T

Commonwealth Ave/Queensway Interchange

e x H o u g a n g N e w T o w n

Kallang / Paya Lebar Expressway

StrategiesStrategies floodsfloods toto preventprevent andand alleviatealleviate (i) Drainage master planning and

StrategiesStrategies

floodsfloods

toto

preventprevent

andand

alleviatealleviate

(i)

Drainage master planning and development control

(ii)

Drainage improvement projects

• ensure that drains and canals are upgraded in time to serve new developments

• remove constrictions in old drains/canals

(iii) Maintenance & enforcement programme

time to serve new developments • remove constrictions in old drains/canals (iii) Maintenance & enforcement programme

BukitBukit TimahTimah PhasePhase 2A2A FloodFlood AlleviationAlleviation

1 Thomson Road , 3 Dec 1978
1 Thomson Road , 3 Dec 1978
AlleviationAlleviation 1 Thomson Road , 3 Dec 1978 3 Newton Circus , 13 May 1988 2
3
3

Newton Circus , 13 May 1988

2

Bukit Timah Rd / Evans Rd,

y 1988

13 Ma

1 3 4 1 2 2 3
1
3
4
1
2 2
3
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
, 3 Dec 1978 3 Newton Circus , 13 May 1988 2 Bukit Timah Rd /

ReservoirReservoir inin thethe citycity –– MarinaMarina BarrageBarrage

3 in 1 project :- 1) Flood alleviation − to act as a tidal barrier
3 in 1 project :- 1) Flood alleviation
− to act as a tidal barrier to control
floods in the city
2)
Water supply
− to be a freshwater reservoir
3)
Lifestyle attraction
− vibrant waterfront with water
based activities
StrategiesStrategies toto preventprevent andand alleviatealleviate floodsfloods (i) Drainage master planning and

StrategiesStrategies toto preventprevent andand alleviatealleviate floodsfloods

(i)

Drainage master planning and development control

(ii)

Drainage improvement projects

(iii)

Maintenance & enforcement programme

and development control (ii) Drainage improvement projects (iii) Maintenance & enforcement programme

MaintenanceMaintenance ofof WaterwaysWaterways

MaintenanceMaintenance ofof WaterwaysWaterways Keeping the drains and waterways free flowing and to operate drainage

Keeping the drains and waterways free flowing and to operate drainage facilities

regular desilting of canals and rivers

cleansing of open roadside drains

trapping and removing flotsam & debris

· float booms

· mechanical debris removal facility

pumping stations & tidegates

DrainageDrainage facilitiesfacilities

DrainageDrainage facilitiesfacilities Float boom Pumping Station Tide Gate

Float boom

DrainageDrainage facilitiesfacilities Float boom Pumping Station Tide Gate

Pumping Station

DrainageDrainage facilitiesfacilities Float boom Pumping Station Tide Gate

Tide Gate

Desilting of canals and rivers
Desilting of canals and rivers

Desilting of canals and rivers

Desilting of canals and rivers
FloodFlood ProneProne AreasAreas
FloodFlood ProneProne AreasAreas
FloodFlood ProneProne AreasAreas

PhysicalPhysical conditionsconditions affectingaffecting drainagedrainage inin SingaporeSingapore

• island generally flat with pockets of low lying areas

• affected by high tides

• increased stormwater runoff from urbanisation

285.3 253.9 241.8 194.0 184.6 179.2 171.1 176.2 171.0 163.8 163.0 159.3 Amount of Rainfall
285.3
253.9
241.8
194.0
184.6
179.2
171.1
176.2
171.0
163.8
163.0
159.3
Amount of Rainfall (mm)

• annual rainfall of around 2400mm

• 2 main seasons dictated by monsoons

– northeast monsoon (Nov to Mar)

– southwest monsoon (May to Sep)

PastPast majormajor floodsfloods inin SingaporeSingapore

Maximum 24-hour rainfall (from 1931 to 2008) 600 600 DecDec 19691969 3,000 people affected DecDec
Maximum 24-hour rainfall (from 1931 to 2008)
600
600
DecDec 19691969
3,000 people affected
DecDec 19781978
1,000 people affected
7 people died
512
Tide level = 3.2m
500
500
5 people died
Tide level = 3.2m
Total flooded area = 3178 ha
467
Total flooded area = 2750 ha
400
400
366
DecDec 19541954
50,000 people affected
5 people died
326
300
300
Tide level = 3.2m
Total flooded area = 2540 ha
200
200
100
100
No
Record
0
0
Amount o f Rainfall (mm)
Amount of Rainfall (mm)
1931
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2008

Year

Year

Flood Photo 1954
Flood Photo 1954

Potong Pasir, Dec 1954

Flood Photo 1954 Potong Pasir, Dec 1954 Newton Circus, Dec 1969 Flood Photo 1954 Orchard Road,

Newton Circus, Dec 1969

Flood Photo 1954
Flood Photo 1954

Orchard Road, Dec 1954

Circus, Dec 1969 Flood Photo 1954 Orchard Road, Dec 1954 3 2 0 0 h a

3200 ha in the 1970s

Bideford Road, Dec 1969

Past Floods

i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ’ s Bideford Road, Dec 1969 Past

Braddell Road, Dec 1978

i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ’ s Bideford Road, Dec 1969 Past

Braddell Road, Dec 1978

Past Floods 21 May 1984
Past Floods
21 May 1984
Past Floods 21 May 1984

Recent Floods

Sims Ave East near Lor Marican (12 Apr 2008)
Sims Ave East near Lor Marican
(12 Apr 2008)

(Singapore)

Recent Floods Sims Ave East near Lor Marican (12 Apr 2008) (Singapore)

Recent Floods

Slip road from CTE to PIE (14 May 2008)
Slip road from CTE to PIE
(14 May 2008)

(Singapore)

Recent Floods Slip road from CTE to PIE (14 May 2008) (Singapore)

Recent Floods

Syed Alwi Rd (26 Sep 2008)
Syed Alwi Rd
(26 Sep 2008)

(Singapore)

Recent Floods Syed Alwi Rd (26 Sep 2008) (Singapore)

PastPast majormajor floodsfloods inin SingaporeSingapore

Maximum 24-hour rainfall (from 1931 to 2008) 600 600 DecDec 19691969 3,000 people affected DecDec
Maximum 24-hour rainfall (from 1931 to 2008)
600
600
DecDec 19691969
3,000 people affected
DecDec 19781978
1,000 people affected
7 people died
512
Tide level = 3.2m
500
500
5 people died
Tide level = 3.2m
Total flooded area = 3178 ha
467
Total flooded area = 2750 ha
DecDec 20062006
8 nurseries, 29 families, 1
club house & 4 shophouses
400
400
Tide level = 3.0m
Total flooded area = 12 ha
366
DecDec 19541954
50,000 people affected
5 people died
326
300
300
Tide level = 3.2m
Total flooded area = 2540 ha
200
200
100
100
No
Record
0
0
Amount o f Rainfall (mm)
Amount of Rainfall (mm)
1931
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2008

Year

Year

While the flood problems in Singapore are under control, we can still expect floods for two main reasons :

• low-lying areas where ground levels are barely above high tide are prone to flooding when heavy rain coincides with high tides. The only effective flood control measure is to raise the ground levels in conjunction with redevelopment

• there is a limit to which we can widen drains because of land constraints. Very intense rainfall can overwhelm the drains and cause flash floods. Such floods however will be minor and of short duration

• Some 7,000 km of roadside drains • 990 km of major rivers • Some
• Some 7,000 km of roadside drains
• 990 km of major rivers
• Some 7,000 km of roadside drains
• 990 km of major rivers
Active Beautiful Clean (ABC) Waters Programme Long-term strategic initiative
Active Beautiful Clean (ABC) Waters Programme
Long-term strategic initiative

– To transform our utilitarian drains, canals and re servoirs into vibrant, aesthetically pleasing and clean flowing streams, rivers and lakes

– To bring people closer to the water so that they w ill cherish and
– To bring people closer to the water so that they w ill cherish and take ownership
– To create a seamless blue-green network well integ rated with the adjacent developments
“…Turn Singapore into a City of Gardens and Water”
– PM Lee, ABC Waters Public Exhibition - Feb 2007

Thank You

Thank You