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VBScript

VBScript is a scripting language A scripting language is a lightweight programming language VBScript is a light version of Microsoft's programming language Visual Basic This is client-side scripting language

Data types
VBScript supports only one data type called Variant. The variant data type is a special kind of data type that can contain different kinds of information. It is the default data type returned by all functions in VBScript. A variant behaves as a number when it is used in a numeric context and as a string when used in a string context. It is possible to make numbers behave as strings by enclosing them within quotes.

Variables
A variable is a placeholder that refers to a memory location that stores program information that may change at run time. A variable is referred to by its name for accessing the value stored or to modify its value.

Variable Declaration
Variables in VBScript can be declared in three ways: 1. Dim Statement 2. Public Statement 3. Private Statement For example: Dim No_Passenger Multiple variables can be declared by separating each variable name with a comma. For example: Dim Top, Left, Bottom, Right You can also declare a variable implicitly by simply using its name in your script. That is not generally a good practice because you could misspell the variable name in one or more places, causing unexpected results when your script is run. For that reason, the Option Explicit statement is available to require explicit declaration of all variables. The Option Explicit statement should be the first statement in your script. Note:

Variables declared with Dim at the script level are available to all procedures within the script. At the procedure level, variables are available only within the procedure. Public statement variables are available to all procedures in all scripts. Private statement variables are available only to the script in which they are declared.

Naming Convention
There are standard rules for naming variables in VBScript. A variable name: 1. Must begin with an alphabetic character. 2. Cannot contain an embedded period. 3. Must not exceed 255 characters. 4. Must be unique in the scope in which it is declared.

Assigning Values to Variables


Values are assigned to variables creating an expression as follows: the variable is on the left side of the expression and the value you want to assign to the variable is on the right. For example:

B = 200
Scalar Variables and Array Variables Much of the time, you only want to assign a single value to a variable you have declared. A variable containing a single value is a scalar variable. Other times, it is convenient to assign more than one related value to a single variable. Then you can create a variable that can contain a series of values. This is called an array variable. Array variables and scalar variables are declared in the same way, except that the declaration of an array variable uses parentheses ( ) following the variable name. In the following example, a single-dimension array containing 11 elements is declared:

Dim A(10)
Although the number shown in the parentheses is 10, all arrays in VBScript are zero-based, so this array actually contains 11 elements. In a zero-based array, the number of array elements is always the number shown in parentheses plus one. This kind of array is called a fixed-size array.

Constants
A constant is a meaningful name that takes the place of a number or a string, and never changes. VBScript in itself has a number of defined intrinsic constants like vbOK, vbCancel, vbTrue, vbFalse and so on.

You create user-defined constants in VBScript using the Const statement. Using the Const statement, you can create string or numeric constants with meaningful names and assign them literal values. For example:

Const MyString = "This is my string."Const MyAge = 49


Note that the string literal is enclosed in quotation marks (" "). Also note that constants are public by default. Within procedures, constants are always private; their visibility can't be changed.

Conditional Constructs
Conditional Constructs execute statements or repeat certain set of statements based on conditions. The following conditional constructs are available in VBScript If Then Else Select Case

If Then Else Construct


The If Then- Else Construct is used to evaluate whether a condition is true or false and depending on the result, to specify one or more statements to execute. Usually the condition is an expression that uses a comparison operator to compare one value or variable with another. The If- Then Else statements can be nested to as many levels as needed. For example:

Sub ReportValue(value)If value = 0 ThenMsgBox valueElseIf value = 1 ThenMsgBox valueElseIf value = 2 thenMsgbox valueElseMsgbox "Value out of range!"End If
You can add as many ElseIf clauses as you need to provide alternative choices. Extensive use of the ElseIf clauses often becomes cumbersome. A better way to choose between several alternatives is the Select Case statement. Select Case Construct The Select-Case structure is an alternative to If Then Else for selectively executing one block of statements from among multiple blocks of statements. The Select Case Construct makes code more efficient and readable. A Select Case structure works with a single test expression that is evaluated once, at the top of the structure. The result of the expression is then compared with the values for each Case in the

structure. If there is a match, the block of statements associated with that Case is executed. For example: Select Case Document.Form1.CardType.Options(SelectedIndex).Text Case "MasterCard" DisplayMCLogo ValidateMCAccount Case "Visa" DisplayVisaLogo ValidateVisaAccount Case "American Express" DisplayAMEXCOLogo ValidateAMEXCOAccount Case Else DisplayUnknownImage PromptAgain End Select Iterative Constructs Looping allows to run a group of statements repeatedly. The loop is repeated based on a condition. The loop runs as long as the condition is true. The following looping constructs are available in VBScript. Do Loop While Wend For Next

Do Loop
Do Loop statements are used to execute a block of statements based on a condition. The statements are repeated either while a condition is true or until a condition becomes true. While Keyword can be used to check a condition in a Do Loop construct. The condition can be checked before entering into the loop or after the loop has run at least once. The basic difference between a Do while Loop and Do - Loop while is that the previous one gets executed only when the condition in the while statement holds true where as a Do Loop while gets executed at least once, because the condition in the while statement gets checked at the end of the first iteration. While Wend The While...Wend statement is provided in VBScript for those who are familiar with its usage. However, because of the lack of flexibility in while...wend, it is recommended that you use Do...Loop instead.

For..Next
The For-Next loop can be used to run a block of statements a specific number of times. For loops use a counter variable whose value is increased or decreased with each repetition of the loop. The Step Keyword is used to increase or decrease the counter variable by the value that is specified along with it. The For-Next statement can be terminated before the counter reaches its end value by using the Exit For statement. For example: Dim j, total For j = 2 To 10 Step 2 total = total + j Next MsgBox "The total is " & total

Arrays
An array is a contiguous area in the memory referred to by a common name. It is a series of variables having the same data type. Arrays are used to store related data values. VBScript allows you to store a group of common values together in the same location. These values can be accessed with their reference numbers. An array is made up of two parts, the array name and the array subscript. The subscript

indicates the highest index value for the elements within the array. Each element of an array has a unique identifying index number by which it can be referenced. VBScript creates zero based arrays where the first element of the array has an index value of zero.

Declaring Arrays
An array must be declared before it can be used. Depending upon the accessibility, arrays are of two types: Local Arrays A local array is available only within the function or procedure, where it is declared. Global Arrays A global array is an array that can be used by all functions and procedures. It is declared at the beginning of the VBScript Code. The Dim statement is used to declare arrays. The syntax for declaring an array is as follows: Dim ArrayName(subscriptvalue) Where, ArrayName is the unique name for the array and SubscriptValue is a numeric value that indicates the number of elements in the array dimension within the array. Example: Dim No_Passengers(3) The No_Passengers can store 4 values.

Assigning values to the array


No_Passengers (0) = 1 No_Passengers (1) = 2 No_Passengers (2) = 3 No_Passengers (3) = 4

Static and Dynamic Arrays:

VBScript provides flexibility for declaring arrays as static or dynamic. A static array has a specific number of elements. The size of a static array cannot be altered at run time. A dynamic array can be resized at any time. Dynamic arrays are useful when size of the array cannot be determined. The array size can be changed at run time.