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Chapter 20

Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function

PowerPoint Lectures for

Biology: Concepts & Connections, Sixth Edition


Campbell, Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey

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THE HIERARCHY OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN AN ANIMAL

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20.1 Structure fits function at all levels of organization in the animal body
Anatomystructure Physiologyfunction Animals consist of a hierarchy of levels or organization
emergent properties arise at each successive level of the hierarchy through the structural and functional organization of component parts

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An example of structural hierarchy in a pelican B Tissue level A Cellular level Muscle tissue Muscle cell

Tissue: an integrated group of similar cells that performs a common function Organ: is made up of two or more types of tissues that together perform a specific function Organ system: consists of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function Circulatory system: blood, blood vessels, arteries, veins. capillaries D

C Organ level Heart

Organ system level Circulatory system

E Organism level Many organ systems functioning together

20.2 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: An animals form reflects natural selection


Sharks, seals, and penguins have streamlined, tapered bodies

Shark

Penguin

Seal

An animals size and shape are fundamental aspects of form that significantly affect the way an animal interacts with its environment
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20.3 Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function
Animals have four main categories of tissues
Epithelial tissue Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue tissue is from a Latin word meaning weave

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20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities
Epithelial cells come in three shapes
Squamouslike a fried egg Cuboidalas tall as they are wide Columnartaller than they are wide

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Types of epithelial tissue


Basal lamina Underlying tissue Apical surface of epithelium Cell nuclei D Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (respiratory tract)

A Simple squamous epithelium (air sacs of the lung)

B Simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney)

Basal lamina: a dense mat of extracellular matrix consisting of fibrous proteins and sticky polysaccharides that separate the epithelium form the underlying tissues Apical surface of epithelium: faces the outside of an organ or the inside of a tube or passageway E Stratified squamous epithelium C Simple columnar epithelium (esophagus) (intestine)

Types of epithelial tissue


Cuboidal and columnar epithelia have cells with a of Apical surface relatively large amount of cytoplasm, facilitating their role secretion or absorption of materials epithelium Basal lamina Cell Underlying nuclei tissue A Simple squamous epithelium (air sacs of the lung) D Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (respiratory tract)

B Simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney, thyroid gland, salivary glands)

E Stratified squamous epithelium C Simple columnar epithelium: secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients (esophagus) (intestine)

Types of epithelial tissue


Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Apical surface of : forms a mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract epithelium Basal it secretes a slimy solution called mucus that lubricate the surface and keeps it moist lamina helps keep our lungs clean by trapping dust, pollen, and other particles in its secretions Cell Underlying nuclei tissue A Simple squamous epithelium (air sacs of the lung) D Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (respiratory tract)

B Simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney)

Stratified squamous epithelium: well suited for lining surfaces subject to abrasion E Stratified squamous epithelium (esophagus)

C Simple columnar epithelium (intestine)

20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities
Stratified epithelial cells are stacked on top of each other Simple epithelium has a single layer of cells Pseudostratified epithelium is single-layered but appears stratified because the cells vary in length

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EStratified squamous epithelium (esophagus)

20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues


Connective tissue consists of a sparse population of cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix. It can be grouped into six major types Fat
droplets Cartilageforming cells

C Adipose tissue
Cell nucleus Collagen fibers

Matrix

D Cartilage (at the end of a bone)

B Fibrous connective tissue (forming a tendon)

Cell

Collagen fiber

White blood cells Red blood cell

Central canal Matrix Boneforming cells

Elastic fibers

Plasma

E Bone

A Loose connective tissue (under the skin)

F Blood

Fibrous connective tissue (forming a tendon): has a matrix of densely packed parallel bundles of collagen fibers anFat arrangement that maximizes its nonelastic strength
droplets Cartilageforming cells

C Adipose tissue
Cell nucleus Collagen fibers

Matrix

D Cartilage (at the end of a bone)

B Fibrous connective tissue (forming a tendon)

Cell

Collagen fiber

White blood cells Red blood cell

Central canal Matrix Boneforming cells

Elastic fibers

Plasma

E Bone

A Loose connective tissue (under the skin): its matrix is a loose weave of fibers many of the fibers consists F Blood of the strong ropelike protein collagen serves mainly as a binding and packing material, holding other tissues and organs in place

Fat droplets

Cartilageforming cells

C Adipose tissue Cartilage (at the end of a bone): a connective tissue that Cell forms a strong nucleus but flexible skeletal material Bone has a matrix of collagen fibers embedded Collagen in a hard mineral substance made of calcium, fibers magnesium and phosphate Cell B Fibrous connective Blood functions differently form other connective White tissue (forming blood tissues. Its extensive extracellular matrix is cells a tendon) a liquid called plasma that consists of water, Collagen fiber salt, and dissolved proteins
Elastic fibers Red blood cell Plasma

Matrix

D Cartilage (at the end of a bone)

Central canal Matrix Boneforming cells

E Bone

A Loose connective tissue (under the skin)

F Blood

20.6 Muscle tissue functions in movement


Skeletal muscle causes voluntary movements Cardiac muscle pumps blood Smooth muscle moves walls of internal organs, such as the intestines and vessels

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Three types of muscle


Unit of muscle contraction

Muscle fiber

Muscle fiber Nucleus

Junction between two cells

Nucleus

Muscle fiber Nucleus B Cardiac muscle

A Skeletal muscle

C Smooth muscle

20.7 Nervous tissue forms a communication network


Nervous tissue senses stimuli and rapidly transmit information from one part of animal to another Neuron (functional unit of nervous tissue) carries signals by conducting electrical impulses Supporting cells insulate axons and nourish neurons

Cell body Nucleus

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Correlation b/w structure and function

Tissue Epithelial (20.4) Structure


Sheets of closely packed cells

Connective (20.5)
Sparse cells in extracellular matrix Binding and support of other tissues

Muscle (20.6)
Long cells (fibers) with contractile proteins Movement of body parts

Nervous (20.7)
Neurons with branching extensions Transmission of nerve signals

Function

Protection, exchange, secretion

20.8 Organs are made up of tissues


Each tissue performs specific functions The heart has epithelial, connective, and nervous tissues
Epithelia line the heart chambers Connective tissues make the heart elastic Neurons regulate contractions

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Tissue layers of the small intestine wall

Small intestine

Lumen Epithelial tissue (columnar epithelium)

Lumen

Connective tissue

Smooth muscle tissue (2 layers) Connective tissue Epithelial tissue

20.9 CONNECTION: Bioengineers are learning to produce tissues and organs for transplants
Artificial skin Used to heal burns

In 2006, the first successful transplantation and long-term functioning of laboratory-growth bladders

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20.10 Organ systems work together to perform lifes functions


An organ system usually consists of many organs Each organ system has one or more functions

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20.10 Organ systems work together to perform lifes functions


Endocrine system controls body functions Skeletal and muscular systems support and move the body Circulatory system transports the food and oxygen Respiratory system absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide Integumentary system covers and protects the body
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Human organ systems and their component parts


A Endocrine system

Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland

B Skeletal system Bone

Adrenal gland Pancreas Ovary (female) Testis (male)

Cartilage

Human organ systems and their component parts


C Circulatory system D Respiratory system Nasal cavity Larynx Trachea Bronchus Lung

Heart

Blood vessels

Human organ systems and their component parts

E Muscular system F Integumentary system Hair Nails Skin

Skeletal muscles

20.10 Organ systems work together to perform lifes functions


Excretory system disposes of certain wastes Lymphatic and immune systems protect the body from infection and cancer Reproductive system perpetuates the species Digestive system absorbs food Nervous system controls body functions

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Human organ systems and their component parts


G, H Lymphatic and immune systems Thymus Bone marrow Spleen Lymph nodes Lymphatic vessels

Human organ systems and their component parts


I Urinary system Mouth Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra J Digestive system Esophagus Liver Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus

Human organ systems and their component parts


K Reproductive system

Female Oviduct Ovary Uterus Vagina

Male

Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Vas deferens Penis Urethra Testis

Human organ systems and their component parts


Brain Sense organ Spinal cord L Nervous system

Nerves

20.11 CONNECTION: New imaging technology reveals the inner body


New technologies show body organs without surgery X-rays help to see bones and teeth
X-rays, discovered in 1895, were the first means of producing a photographic radiation A type of high-energy radiation that passes readily through soft tissues. X-rays are shadows of hard structures, such as bones

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20.11 CONNECTION: New imaging technology reveals the inner body


Computed tomography (CT)
A newer X-ray technology Produces images of a series of thin cross sections through the body The patient is often given a special liquid to improve the contrast of the images

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20.11 CONNECTION: New imaging technology reveals the inner body


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Takes advantage of the behavior of the hydrogen atoms in water molecules. Uses powerful magnets to align the hydrogen nuclei, then knocks the nuclei out of alignment with a brief pulse of radio waves Is used before surgery to map out the surgical procedure or design artificial implants for reconstructive surgery

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20.11 CONNECTION: New imaging technology reveals the inner body


Positron-emission tomography (PET)
Helps identify metabolic processes at specific body locations
Patient is injected with a radioactive isotope (biological molecule: glucose)

PET scan

Combined CT-PET scan

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20.12 The integumentary system protects the body


The skin consists of two layers Epidermis, at the surface Dermis, inner layer
Hair Epidermis Sweat pore Dermis Muscle Nerve Sweat gland

Hypodermis Adipose tissue Blood vessels Oil gland Hair follicle

20.12 The integumentary system protects the body


Skin has many functions
Epidermis
Resists damage Decreases water loss Prevents penetration by microbes

Dermis
Sensory information Synthesis of vitamin D Temperature regulation

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EXCHANGES WITH THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

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20.13 Structural adaptations enhance exchange between animals and their environment
Animals must exchange materials with the environment Respiratory system exchanges gases Digestive system acquires food and eliminates wastes Excretory system eliminates metabolic waste

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Indirect exchange between the environment and the cells of a complex animal

External environment CO2 O Food 2 Mouth Animal

Digestive system Heart

Respiratory system Interstitial fluid

Nutrients

Circulatory system Body cells Urinary system

Intestine

Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (urine)

20.13 Structural adaptations enhance exchange between animals and their environment
Adaptations that increase surface area promote exchanges with the environment
Two basic concepts in animal biology 1. Any animal with a complex body- one with most of its cells not in direct contact with its external environment- must have internal structures that provide sufficient surface area to service those cells 2. The organ systems of the body are interdependent; it takes their coordinated actions to produce a functional organism

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20.14 Animals regulate their internal environment


Homeostasis is an internal steady state

External environment Internal environment Homeostatic mechanisms Small fluctuations

Large fluctuations

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20.14 Animals regulate their internal environment


Humans promote homeostasis by
Adding clothing when we are cold Drinking water when we are dehydrated Eating when our calories are running low Urinating when our bladders are full

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20.15 Homeostasis depends on negative feedback


Negative feedback mechanisms permit only small fluctuations around set points
Sweat glands secrete sweat that evaporates, cooling body Thermostat in brain activates cooling mechanisms

Blood vessels in skin dilate and heat escapes Temperature decreases Thermostat shuts off cooling mechanisms Homeostasis: Internal body temperature of approximately 3638 C Temperature increases Thermostat shuts off warming mechanisms Blood vessels in skin constrict, minimizing heat loss Skeletal muscles rapidly contract, causing shivering, which generates heat Thermostat in brain activates warming mechanisms Temperature falls below normal

Temperature rises above normal

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Negative feedback in which a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that reverse that change

Receptor: sensor Stimuli: trigger the sensor (room temperature below the set point) Effector: furnace Response: heat