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English Assignment


It is recession time and your company is having an austerity drive. Write a memo to all the staff of your company, suggesting ways of economizing on the use of paper, electricity, etc.

Ans:- HINDUSTAN UNILEVER LIMITED Memo from: Date:managing director To: staff member 29th march Ref. No IGN/NN/66

While markets is suffering still from recession time we are not also for from this diseases. Use of available resource in proper manner is very essential for us , While we have agreed in principle to try and cut down on staff, there are two serious problems in the Buying Department. firstly the clerk in charge of ordering from the stores is also responsible for the utilizing of paper. Because at the end of the month, when most people want to pay the bill from the stores, and on the other hand require information from the files, he is unable to keep up with the demand., for utilizing the paper and electricity we should shut down his/her electric gadgets like computer printer fax machine, so I suggest we try to reorganize his job. Proper use of paper and electricity can save million of company pay packages. Our company has austerity drive.

To recovered from this time , of paper & electricity.

I want you to suggest way to utilized economizing use

Authority:Managing director


Your boss noticed that meetings have been dragging recently and that that have not been especially productive. You have been asked to prepare a brief talk for executives at all levels on the subject of how to run a productive and meaningful meeting. Research this topic and prepare a presentation.

Ans;Any successful meeting has a structure. Each part may be more or less developed; sometimes (especially in informal meetings) parts are barely visible. Here are eight setup tasks for those who wish to lead successful meetings. Set a Time That Works Choose a time of day when people are not likely to be tired, hungry, or otherwise distracted. Let people know that you will begin the meeting on time and take attendance with a sign-up sheet. Also let them know that minutes of the meeting will be taken. Before the meeting, ask a member of the group to take minutes. This way, the person will be prepared with a notebook, pen or pencil, and agenda. Set a realistic time limit for meetings (for example, a 2-hour meeting that will begin at 1 p.m. and end at 3 p.m.). Try to stick to the time limit. Make sure the meeting room is free of distractions. Holding a meeting in the main room of a busy restaurant may sound like fun, but the likelihood of accomplishing anything meaningful there is slim. Set an Agenda An agenda helps spell out the items and issues to be discussed and the results that everyone expects. For some groups, reports from officers, approval of minutes from a previous meeting, and reports from subcommittees are routine for general meetings. There may be specific old and new business. In other situations, a meeting may focus on making decisions or recommendations on a series of issues. An agenda should help participants see what will be expected of them. Don't forget to review the agenda as you start the meeting to let participants know what to expect and to find out whether additional items need to be addressed. Sending out a draft agenda and any available proposals or reports a week or two ahead of the meeting helps participants think through issues, prepare for discussions, and feel more comfortable making decisions.

Set Up Tasks and Divide Chores You may be very energetic, but you are only one person. Dividing the choresasking specific group members to report on specific topics, establishing a subcommittee to investigate a major issue, or getting someone to help with finding resourceshelps strengthen the group and makes for more productive meetings in two ways. First, more work gets done. Second, the more your committee members are involved, and the more active and productive they are, the more committed they will be to the group's goals. Don't be afraid to delegate tasks! Set Up Discussions So That Everyone Gets a Say Discussing topics sometimes takes more time than you would like. Although there are ways to keep a discussion moving, it is essential that the person running the meeting preside impartially. Make sure that people who disagree have a chance to state their cases. Your job in facilitating discussions or debates is to be the referee, a person who does not show favor to people or their ideas. As a referee, you will allow discussion to flow and provide participants a chance to discuss differing opinions on issues. Your job is to bring opposing sides together by showing areas where they agree and asking how they can "give a little" to come to a decision that will permit a win-win outcome for everyone. Set Up a Structure That Keeps Discussion Orderly Keeping discussions organized and moving forward is a major task and often the most difficult one you will face. It is sometimes hard to remind participants to pay attention and stay on task. One way to head off these problems is to get your group to agree in advance on the operating rules for meetings. Rules may be as simple as "one speaker or topic at a time" or "everybody gets a chance to speak one time before anybody else speaks a second time on the same issue." Agreeing on rules ahead of time and deciding what you'll do if people ignore the rules will make it easier for you as chairperson to keep your group on task and your discussion on target. You'll be enforcing the group's rules, not your own. Set Up Ways To Stick to the Subjects Too often, meetings run over their time limit because the group tries to do all the work through discussion, when finding the right answer may require some research. The group may get tangled in a conflict between two people who disagree on a topic that is not easily resolved. A good way to deal with this problem is to move on to other business, agreeing to either leave the subject for a future meeting or have a smaller group (a specific committee) look into the

issue. Bring up the idea of using a "parking lot"some place to acknowledge unresolved issues or additional topics to ensure that they are brought up for later discussion. Set Up Time To Summarize Build in time at appropriate points during the meeting and especially at the end of the meeting to very briefly review and summarize what has taken place. If your meeting has dealt with complex or far-ranging topics, this is particularly important. Building in time to summarize your meeting also affirms commitments others have made to the group and confirms everyone's understanding of decisions, next steps, and assignments of tasks to be completed. Q7 Here are some typical answers interviewers get. Say which of these are acceptable and which are unacceptable. Give reasons why they are acceptable/unacceptable.

i) unacceptable because is that only use salutation words, its respected word like hi, everybody, hello sir. ii) unacceptable because there is mo matter which family background you belong to, if you have a knowledge, confidence and positive attitude no one can stop you to grab the jobs. i) Acceptable its show the positive attitude of candidates, he has no idea to how particular jobs will be done, but he is ready to face problem and have a guts to solve them also candidates will found a new things to learn $ develop skills. Acceptable but no one could be always acquire first position in the life .because perfections never ever achievable fully. Acceptable team sprit work every where , being part of team of leader in fields can grab any type of crucial roll in organisation .even difficult work done in a easy way. Particularly you cannot do any work. Unacceptable, one should negotiate for this issue in proper way. Acceptable definitely time management is big issue of the day which work shold be done which time will be managed . Acceptable if you have some type of strong point then its good for you to show this at interviewer. Acceptable accepting weak point ,also good idea for candidates because employers can know ability to handle situation.

ii) iii)

iv) v) vi) vii)


Acceptable ,without knowing what exactly has to be done no one can get the target of .

Q 9 Write a letter complaining about the inefficient bus service which you use every day to get to work. Explain the inconveniences that you and others have to put up with, and suggest ways of improving the service. Hint: From Kunal Sharma, Teacher, Rajasthan.

To The Cotroller, Bus Depot, Rajasthan. 2/10/10 SUB: Complain against inefficient bus service. Sir/Madam, It is to bring to your kind notice that i always get late for the school because the bus i use, never turns up on right time. Sometime the bus breaks down on the way. That is why my colleagues in the school tease me by calling late comers. I also miss classes and my routine work is also disturbed due to late. I therefore kindly resuest you to please see into the matter and instruct the proper person to take action against it. It will help me and all the employees like me travelling through the bus daily. I will be very grateful to you for this king piece of work. THANKING YOU With Regards Kunal Sharma

SAD Assignment

Hint: The general aim of testing is to affirm the quality of software systems by systematically exercising the software in carefully controlled circumstances. Testing is involved in every stage of software life cycle, but the testing done at each level of software development is different in nature and has different objectives. Unit Testing is done at the lowest level. It tests the basic unit of software, which is the smallest testable piece of software, and is often called unit, module, or component interchangeably. Integration Testing is performed when two or more tested units are combined into a larger structure. The test is often done on both the interfaces between the components and the larger structure being constructed, if its quality property cannot be assessed from its components. System Testing tends to affirm the end-to-end quality of the entire system. System test is often based on the functional/requirement specification of the system. Non-functional quality attributes, such as reliability, security, and maintainability, are also checked. Acceptance Testing is done when the completed system is handed over from the developers to the customers or users. The purpose of acceptance testing is rather to give confidence that the system is working than to find errors. Software Testing Methods There are different types of testing methods or techniques as part of the software testing process. I have enlisted a few of them below. White box testing Black box testing Gray box testing Unit testing Integration testing Regression testing Usability testing Performance testing Scalability testing Software stress testing Recovery testing Security testing Conformance testing Smoke testing Compatibility testing System testing Alpha testing Beta testing (a complete solution site)

The above software testing methods can be implemented in two ways - manually or by automation. Manual software testing is done by human software testers who manually i.e. physically check, test and report errors or bugs in the product or piece of code. In case of automated software testing, the same process is performed by a computer by means of an automated testing software such as WinRunner, LoadRunner, Test Director, etc. Software Testing Methodologies These are some commonly used software testing methodologies: Waterfall model V model Spiral model RUP Agile model RAD Let us have a look at each one of these methodologies one by one. Waterfall Model The waterfall model adopts a 'top down' approach regardless of whether it is being used for software development or testing. The basic steps involved in this software testing methodology are: 1. Requirement analysis 2. Test case design 3. Test case implementation 4. Testing, debugging and validating the code or product 5. Deployment and maintenance In this methodology, you move on to the next step only after you have completed the present step. There is no scope for jumping backward or forward or performing two steps simultaneously. Also, this model follows a non-iterative approach. The main benefit of this methodology is its simplistic, systematic and orthodox approach. However, it has many shortcomings since bugs and errors in the code are not discovered until and unless the testing stage is reached. This can often lead to wastage of time, money and valuable resources. V Model The V model gets its name from the fact that the graphical representation of the different test process activities involved in this methodology resembles the letter 'V'. The basic steps involved in this methodology are more or less the same as those in the waterfall model. However, this model follows both a 'top-down' as well as a 'bottom-up' approach (you can visualize them forming the letter 'V'). The benefit of this methodology is that in this case, both the development and testing activities go hand-in-hand. For example, as the development team goes about its (a complete solution site)

requirement analysis activities, the testing team simultaneously begins with its acceptance testing activities. By following this approach, time delays are minimized and optimum utilization of resources is assured. Spiral Model As the name implies, the spiral model follows an approach in which there are a number of cycles (or spirals) of all the sequential steps of the waterfall model. Once the initial cycle is completed, a thorough analysis and review of the achieved product or output is performed. If it is not as per the specified requirements or expected standards, a second cycle follows, and so on. This methodology follows an iterative approach and is generally suited for very large projects having complex and constantly changing requirements. Rational Unified Process (RUP) The RUP methodology is also similar to the spiral model in the sense that the entire testing procedure is broken up into multiple cycles or processes. Each cycle consists of four phases namely; inception, elaboration, construction and transition. At the end of each cycle, the product or the output is reviewed and a further cycle (made up of the same four phases) follows if necessary. Today, you will find certain organizations and companies adopting a slightly modified version of the RUP, which goes by the name of Enterprise Unified Process (EUP). Agile Model This methodology follows neither a purely sequential approach nor does it follow a purely iterative approach. It is a selective mix of both of these approaches in addition to quite a few new developmental methods. Fast and incremental development is one of the key principles of this methodology. The focus is on obtaining quick, practical and visible outputs and results, rather than merely following theoretical processes. Continuous customer interaction and participation is an integral part of the entire development process. Rapid Application Development (RAD) The name says it all. In this case, the methodology adopts a rapid development approach by using the principle of component-based construction. After understanding the various requirements, a rapid prototype is prepared and is then compared with the expected set of output conditions and standards. Necessary changes and modifications are made after joint discussions with the customer or the development team (in the context of software testing). Though this approach does have its share of advantages, it can be unsuitable if the project is large, complex and happens to be of an extremely dynamic nature, wherein the requirements are constantly changing. Here are some more advantages of rapid application development. This was a short overview of some commonly used software testing methodologies. With the (a complete solution site)

applications of information technology growing with every passing day, the importance of proper software testing has grown multifold. What is a White Box Testing Strategy? White box testing strategy deals with the internal logic and structure of the code. White box testing is also called as glass, structural, open box or clear box testing. The tests written based on the white box testing strategy incorporate coverage of the code written, branches, paths, statements and internal logic of the code etc. In order to implement white box testing, the tester has to deal with the code and hence is needed to possess knowledge of coding and logic i.e. internal working of the code. White box test also needs the tester to look into the code and find out which unit/statement/chunk of the code is malfunctioning. Advantages of White box testing are: i) As the knowledge of internal coding structure is prerequisite, it becomes very easy to find out which type of input/data can help in testing the application effectively. ii) The other advantage of white box testing is that it helps in optimizing the code iii) It helps in removing the extra lines of code, which can bring in hidden defects. Disadvantages of white box testing are: i) As knowledge of code and internal structure is a prerequisite, a skilled tester is needed to carry out this type of testing, which increases the cost. ii) And it is nearly impossible to look into every bit of code to find out hidden errors, which may create problems, resulting in failure of the application. Types of testing under White/Glass Box Testing Strategy: Unit Testing: The developer carries out unit testing in order to check if the particular module or unit of code is working fine. The Unit Testing comes at the very basic level as it is carried out as and when the unit of the code is developed or a particular functionality is built. Static and dynamic Analysis: Static analysis involves going through the code in order to find out any possible defect in the code. Dynamic analysis involves executing the code and analyzing the output. Statement Coverage: In this type of testing the code is executed in such a manner that every statement of the (a complete solution site)

application is executed at least once. It helps in assuring that all the statements execute without any side effect. Branch Coverage: No software application can be written in a continuous mode of coding, at some point we need to branch out the code in order to perform a particular functionality. Branch coverage testing helps in validating of all the branches in the code and making sure that no branching leads to abnormal behavior of the application. Security Testing: Security Testing is carried out in order to find out how well the system can protect itself from unauthorized access, hacking cracking, any code damage etc. which deals with the code of application. This type of testing needs sophisticated testing techniques. Mutation Testing: A kind of testing in which, the application is tested for the code that was modified after fixing a particular bug/defect. It also helps in finding out which code and which strategy of coding can help in developing the functionality effectively. Besides all the testing types given above, there are some more types which fall under both Black box and White box testing strategies such as: Functional testing (which deals with the code in order to check its functional performance), Incremental integration testing (which deals with the testing of newly added code in the application), Performance and Load testing (which helps in finding out how the particular code manages resources and give performance etc.) etc. What is a Black Box Testing Strategy? Black Box Testing is not a type of testing; it instead is a testing strategy, which does not need any knowledge of internal design or code etc. As the name "black box" suggests, no knowledge of internal logic or code structure is required. The types of testing under this strategy are totally based/focused on the testing for requirements and functionality of the work product/software application. Black box testing is sometimes also called as "Opaque Testing", "Functional/Behavioral Testing" and "Closed Box Testing". The base of the Black box testing strategy lies in the selection of appropriate data as per functionality and testing it against the functional specifications in order to check for normal and abnormal behavior of the system. Now a days, it is becoming common to route the Testing work to a third party as the developer of the system knows too much of the internal logic and coding of (a complete solution site)

the system, which makes it unfit to test the application by the developer. In order to implement Black Box Testing Strategy, the tester is needed to be thorough with the requirement specifications of the system and as a user, should know, how the system should behave in response to the particular action. Various testing types that fall under the Black Box Testing strategy are: functional testing, stress testing, recovery testing, volume testing, User Acceptance Testing (also known as UAT), system testing, Sanity or Smoke testing, load testing, Usability testing, Exploratory testing, ad-hoc testing, alpha testing, beta testing etc. These testing types are again divided in two groups: a) Testing in which user plays a role of tester and b) User is not required. Testing method where user is not required: Functional Testing: In this type of testing, the software is tested for the functional requirements. The tests are written in order to check if the application behaves as expected. Stress Testing: The application is tested against heavy load such as complex numerical values, large number of inputs, large number of queries etc. which checks for the stress/load the applications can withstand. Load Testing: The application is tested against heavy loads or inputs such as testing of web sites in order to find out at what point the web-site/application fails or at what point its performance degrades. Ad-hoc Testing: This type of testing is done without any formal Test Plan or Test Case creation. Ad-hoc testing helps in deciding the scope and duration of the various other testing and it also helps testers in learning the application prior starting with any other testing. Exploratory Testing: This testing is similar to the ad-hoc testing and is done in order to learn/explore the application. Usability Testing: This testing is also called as Testing for UserFriendliness. This testing is done if User Interface of the application stands an important consideration and needs to be specific for the specific type (a complete solution site) of user. Smoke Testing: This type of testing is also called sanity testing and is done in order to check if the application is ready for further major testing and is working properly without failing up to least expected level. Recovery Testing: Recovery testing is basically done in order to check how fast and better the application can recover against any type of crash or hardware failure etc. Type or extent of recovery is specified in the requirement specifications. Volume Testing: Volume testing is done against the efficiency of the application. Huge amount of data is processed through the application (which is being tested) in order to check the extreme limitations of the system. Testing where user plays a role/user is required: User Acceptance Testing: In this type of testing, the software is handed over to the user in order to find out if the software meets the user expectations and works as it is expected to. Alpha Testing: In this type of testing, the users are invited at the development center where they use the application and the developers note every particular input or action carried out by the user. Any type of abnormal behavior of the system is noted and rectified by the developers. Beta Testing: In this type of testing, the software is distributed as a beta version to the users and users test the application at their sites. As the users explore the software, in case if any exception/defect occurs that is reported to the developers.