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A novel technique that uses a fan two-dimensional (2D) continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to phase

demodulate fringe patterns is proposed. The fan 2D CWT algorithm is tested by using computer gener-

ated and real fringe patterns. The result of this investigation reveals that the 2D CWT technique is

capable of successfully demodulating fringe patterns. The proposed algorithm demodulates fringe pat-

terns without the requirement of removing their background illumination prior to the demodulation

process. Also, the algorithm is exceptionally robust against speckle noise. The performance of the 2D CWT

technique in fringe pattern demodulation is compared with that of the 1D CWT algorithms. This

comparison indicates that the 2D CWT outperforms its 1D counterpart for this application. © 2006

Optical Society of America

OCIS codes: 100.2650, 100.5070, 120.6160, 100.7410.

Recently there has been much interest in phase fringe pattern demodulation application.

demodulation of fringe patterns by use of digital One of the time-frequency analysis techniques that

computers because fringe patterns have many medi- has been used successfully in fringe pattern demod-

cal and industrial applications.1,2 There are many ulation is the windowed Fourier transform9 (Gabor

methods that can be used to demodulate fringe pat- transform). This technique outperforms Fourier fringe

terns, such as Fourier transform profilometry,3 phase profilometry in some cases. Also, the Gabor transform

stepping,4 the digital phase-locked loop technique,5 has been dilated to improve its suitability for fringe

direct phase detection,6 and wavelet transform pro- pattern demodulation.10 The dilated Gabor transform

filometry.7 is also known in the literature as the Morlet wavelet

It is well known in digital signal processing theory transform.

that the wavelet transform and time-frequency anal- Federico and Kaufmann11 have proposed the use of

ysis techniques are more suitable for the analysis of a Winger–Ville distribution for fringe pattern demod-

nonstationary signals than for stationary signals. ulation. This time-frequency analysis technique esti-

Conversely, Fourier transform methods are more ap- mates the instantaneous frequencies in a fringe

propriate for processing stationary signals, than non- pattern, which are integrated to retrieve the phase.

stationary signals. A stationary signal is a signal The resultant phase is continuous, and an advantage

whose frequency content does not change in time, is that phase unwrapping is not required.

whereas a nonstationary signal is a signal whose One-dimensional (1D) continuous wavelet trans-

frequency content does change in time.8 Fringe pat- form (CWT) techniques have been used to success-

terns tend to resemble nonstationary signals. This fully demodulate fringe patterns. These algorithms

motivates researchers to investigate wavelet trans- extract the phase of fringe patterns by employing two

different approaches: phase estimation7,12–16 and fre-

quency estimation.17–21

The phase estimation algorithms employ complex

M. A. Gdeisat (m.a.gdeisat@ljmu.ac.uk), D. R. Burton (d.r. mother wavelets to estimate the phase of a fringe

burton@ljmu.ac.uk), and M. J. Lalor (m.j.lalor@ljmu.ac.uk) are pattern.7 The extracted phase suffers from 2 discon-

with the General Engineering Research Institute (GERI), Liver-

tinuities, and a phase unwrapping algorithm is nec-

pool John Moores University, James Parsons Building, Room 114,

Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. essary to remove these 2 jumps.

Received 14 November 2005; revised 1 May 2006; accepted 21 Frequency estimation techniques estimate the

June 2006; posted 22 June 2006 (Doc. ID 65971). instantaneous frequencies in a fringe pattern, which

0003-6935/06/348722-11$15.00/0 are integrated to estimate the phase. The phase ex-

© 2006 Optical Society of America tracted by using these techniques is continuous; con-

sequently, phase unwrapping algorithms are not 共x兲 ⫽ 1兾4 exp共icx兲exp共⫺x2兾2兲, (2)

required.17 Complex or real mother wavelets can be

used to estimate the instantaneous frequencies in a where c is a fixed spatial frequency and is chosen to

fringe pattern. be about 5 or 6 to satisfy the admissibility condition.17

Two-dimensional (2D) continuous wavelet trans- Daughter wavelets b,s are built by translation on the

form (CWT) techniques have been used to filter22,23 x axis by b and dilation by s of the mother wavelet

and demodulate fringe patterns. Similar to the 1D 共x兲 as given by

CWT, the 2D CWT demodulation algorithms can also

be classified into phase estimation24 and frequency

estimation approaches.25

We propose the use of the fan 2D CWT algorithm to

b,x共x兲 ⫽

1 x⫺b

s

s 冉 冊

. (3)

demodulate fringe patterns. The proposed technique The fringe pattern is applied to the 1D CWT algo-

is capable of demodulating fringe patterns that are rithm row by row. A row of fringe pattern g(x) is

heavily corrupt with speckle noise. Section 2 discusses projected onto the daughter wavelets as

the theory of 1D CWT algorithms and their use to

冕 冉 冊

demodulate fringe patterns. The background theory of ⬁

1 x⫺b

the 2D CWT algorithm is discussed in Section 3. In W共s, b兲 ⫽ * g共x兲dx. (4)

Section 4 computer-generated fringe patterns are used 冑

s

⫺⬁

s

to test the validity of the proposed algorithm and com-

pare its performance with the 1D CWT algorithms. In The resultant wavelet transform is a 2D complex

Section 5 results from the application of the proposed array. The phase of the row is calculated by using the

technique to demodulate real fringe patterns are pre- ridges of the wavelet transform.

sented and discussed. Also, the performance of the Figure 1 is an illustration of the use of the complex

proposed technique is compared with the 1D CWT al- Morlet 1D CWT algorithm, employing phase estima-

gorithms using real fringe patterns. tion, to extract the phase from a fringe pattern. Fig-

ure 1(a) shows a computer-generated object that is

2. One-Dimensional Continuous Wavelet Transform issued here to phase demodulate a fringe pattern.

As mentioned above, there are two approaches for The resulting deformed fringe pattern is shown in

extracting the phase of a fringe pattern by using the Fig. 1(b). The fringe pattern is an image of 512 ⫻ 512

1D CWT: phase estimation and frequency estimation. pixels. Row 100 of this fringe pattern is indicated by

Both approaches have the ability to demodulate a dotted line in Fig. 1(b), and it is plotted as a graph

fringe patterns even when there is background illu- of intensity versus pixel position in Fig. 1(c).

mination. This is because the 1D CWT acts as a band- The complex Morlet 1D CWT has been used to

pass filter when the mother wavelet used satisfies the phase demodulate this row as follows. The modulus of

admissibility condition.8 From a computational point the wavelet transform for the row was computed by

of view, the transform of the dc term has a weight using Eq. (5) and is shown in gray scale in Fig. 1(d).

that is completely negligible (typically in a ratio of In this image, white indicates large values in the

10⫺8 or 10⫺9) compared with the weight of the ana- transform, and black indicates small values. The hor-

lyzed phase-modulated fringes.26 izontal axis is translation b, and the vertical axis is

scale s. In the wavelet transform the scale is dis-

A. Phase Estimation cretized and can be represented as a vector. In this

The intensity of a fringe pattern can be expressed as case the scale vector contains 64 elements and varies

from 1 to 64 in increments of 1. The argument of

wavelet transform (s, b) is calculated by using

g共x, y兲 ⫽ a共x, y兲 ⫹ b共x, y兲cos关2fo x ⫹ 共x, y兲兴, (1)

tion, b(x, y) represents the amplitude modulation of

共s, b兲 ⫽ tan⫺1 冋 ᑣ兵W共s, b兲其

ᑬ兵W共s, b兲其册, (5)

the fringes, fo is the spatial carrier frequency, 共x, y兲 and it is shown in gray scale in Fig. 1(e). ᑣ兵W共s, b兲其

is the phase modulation of fringes, and x and y are and ᑬ兵W共s, b兲其 represent the complex and the real

sample indices for the x and y axes, respectively. For parts of the wavelet transform, respectively. The

simplicity, we stipulate that there is no carrier fre- phase of the row can be computed by using the direct

quency on the y axis (i.e., the projected fringes are maximum ridge detection algorithm as follows.14 The

parallel to the y axis). maximum value of the modulus for each column in

The most appropriate mother wavelet for fringe Fig. 1(d) is determined, and then the corresponding

pattern analysis applications is probably the complex phase is chosen from Fig. 1(e). The maximum values

Morlet, because it provides better localization in both of the modulus are called the ridges of the wavelet

spatial and frequency domains. Also, the Gaussian transform and are shown as a dotted curve in Figs.

window function used in the Morlet wavelet trans- 1(d) and 1(e). The resulting wrapped phase is shown

form is the optimal window shape.16,17 The Morlet in Fig. 1(f). The wrapped phase map of the fringe

wavelet is a plane wave modulated by a Gaussian pattern is shown in Fig. 1(g), and the unwrapped

function, and it is defined as phase produced by using Itoh’s algorithm27 is shown in

Fig. 1. (Color online) Fringe pattern demodulated by using the complex Morlet 1D CWT (phase estimation).

Fig. 1(h). All the wrapped phase maps in this paper are opposite is true for the imaginary part of the wavelet

unwrapped by using this algorithm. It is worth men- transform. The ratio between the imaginary part and

tioning that the algorithm works correctly even when the real part of the transform indeed determines the

the resolution of the scale vector has been reduced four phase of the signal. This property of the wavelet

times (i.e., when the scale vector contains only 16 ele- transform is expressed in Eq. (5).26

ments and varies from 4 to 64 in increments of 4).

The ability of the complex Morlet wavelet trans- B. Frequency Estimation

form to extract the phase of the fringe pattern can be The second approach to retrieve the phase of a

explained as follows. Integral equation (4) can be fringe pattern is to estimate the instantaneous fre-

viewed as calculating the correlation between the sig- quencies in the fringe pattern. The estimated fre-

nal g(x), which is a row in the fringe pattern, and the quencies are then integrated to extract the phase of

Morlet wavelet with different dilation values. The the fringe pattern. A few authors refer to this algo-

transform will reach its maximum value in the region rithm in the literature as the phase gradient.21

of the 共2fo兾s, b兲 space where the daughter wavelet Complex or real mother wavelets can be used to

and the signal are locally the most similar. This offers implement this approach. The Morlet mother wavelet

definite knowledge of the signal’s phase and fre- will be used here because it provides the best local-

quency in that region. The modulus of the transform ization in both frequency and spatial domains.17 The

has a maximum value when the Morlet wavelet fre- ability of the Morlet wavelet transform to determine

quency is close to the signal frequency. This produces the instantaneous frequencies in a fringe pattern can

a ridge of the transform. The real and imaginary be justified as follows. The evaluation of the wavelet

parts of the Morlet wavelet allow the determination transform by use of Eq. (4) can be viewed as calculating

of the phase of the signal. For example, when the the correlation between the signal g(x), which is a row

phase of the signal is close to the phase of the real in the fringe pattern, and the Morlet wavelet with

part of the Morlet wavelet, the real part of the trans- different dilation values. The transform will reach its

form reaches its maximum value, whereas the imag- maximum value in the region of the (2fo兾s, b) space

inary part of the transform will be close to zero. The when the frequency of the daughter wavelet is close

Fig. 2. (Color online) Fringe pattern demodulated by using the complex Morlet 1D CWT (frequency estimation).

to the instantaneous frequency of the signal in that phase of the fringe pattern is shown in Fig. 2(d). The

region. Since the frequency of the dilated Morlet is resultant phase is continuous, and an unwrapping

known, then the instantaneous frequency of the sig- algorithm is therefore not required in this case. This

nal in that region can be determined.26 approach is not practical for the demodulation of

fringe patterns for a number of reasons that are sum-

1. Complex Morlet marized below.

To extract the phase of the fringe pattern shown in First, the algorithm estimates the instantaneous

Fig. 1(b), the intensity data of the same fringe pattern frequencies in a particular row of the fringe pattern.

are applied to the complex Morlet 1D CWT algorithm The phase is then extracted by integrating the esti-

row by row. The 1D CWT is calculated for each row by mated frequencies. This approach sets the initial

using Eq. (4). The wavelet transform for a row is a 2D phase shift in the fringes to zero. Consequently, the

complex array. Figure 2(a) indicates the modulus demodulated phase in each row starts with zero. As

of the wavelet transform for the row shown in Fig. shown in Fig. 2(d), this algorithm is not capable of

1(c). The horizontal axis in Fig. 2(a) is translation b, demodulating the fringe pattern correctly.

and the vertical axis is scale s. The scale is discretized Second, the algorithm depends on smax共b兲 to esti-

to a vector that contains 640 elements and varies mate the instantaneous frequencies. To estimate the

from 0.1 to 64 in increments of 0.1. instantaneous frequency to a reasonable degree of

The phase of the row is extracted as follows. The accuracy, the resolution of the scale must be high;

maximum value for each column in Fig. 2(a) and its otherwise the results will be poor. This increases the

corresponding scale value are determined. The scale computation time considerably in comparison with

values smax共b兲 are shown in Fig. 2(b). The maximum the 1D CWT techniques that employ the phase esti-

values of the modulus (ridges) are indicated by the mation approach. For example, the resolution of the

dotted curve shown in Fig. 2(a). The estimated in- scale has been increased here tenfold in comparison

stantaneous frequencies f̂共b兲 are calculated by using17 with the phase estimation approach.21

2. Real Morlet

c ⫹ 冑c2 ⫹ 2 The real Morlet is used to demodulate the fringe

f̂共b兲 ⫽ ⫺ 2fo. (6) pattern shown in Fig. 1(b). The fringe pattern is ap-

2smax共b兲

plied to the 1D CWT algorithm one row at a time. To

Subsequently, f̂共b兲 terms are integrated to extract the illustrate the functionality of this algorithm, the row

phase, which is shown in Fig. 2(c). The demodulated shown in Fig. 1(c) is wavelet transformed by employ-

Fig. 3. (Color online) Fringe pattern demodulated by using the real Morlet 1D CWT (frequency estimation).

ing the real Morlet wavelet, and the result of the algorithm by using dynamic programming optimi-

transform is depicted in Fig. 3(a). The maximum zation. Another elegant solution has been proposed

value in each column in Fig. 3(a) and its correspond- in the literature, an algorithm based on the property

ing scale value are determined. The scale values for that when the analyzing frequency is close or equal to

all the smax共b兲 columns are shown in Fig. 3(b). The the signal frequency, the b derivative of the phase of

scale vector contains 640 elements and varies from the transform is equal to this frequency. Also, this

0.1 to 64 in increments of 0.1. The estimated instan- algorithm has an iterative solution that converges

taneous frequencies f̂共b兲 are calculated by using Eq. rapidly.13,26,28,29

(6), and the f̂共b兲 are then integrated to extract the

phase of the row, which is shown in Fig. 3(c). This 3. Two-Dimensional Continuous Wavelet Transform

process is repeated to demodulate all the rows in the In a 1D CWT a row of intensity data from a fringe

fringe pattern, and the demodulated phase map of pattern g(x) is projected onto wavelet b,s by transla-

the fringe pattern is shown in Fig. 3(d). tion on the x axis by b and dilation by s of the mother

wavelet 共x兲. The resulting wavelet transform is 2D.

C. Ridge Extraction Algorithms In the 2D CWT, the fringe pattern g(x, y) is projected

The direct maximum ridge detection algorithm used onto the wavelet a,b,s, by translation on x and y axes

above for phase retrieval does not have the ability to by a and b, respectively, dilation by s, and rotation by

perform against noise. For example, in the case of a angle of the mother wavelet 共x, y兲. The resulting

low signal-to-noise ratio, the magnitude of the 1D wavelet transform is 4D.30,31 The wavelet transform

CWT from the noise might be stronger than that from of an image g(x, y) is given by

the signal. In this case, the direct maximum ridge

detection algorithm will incorrectly extract the phase S共a, b, s, 兲 ⫽ 具a,b,s,, g共x, y兲典

and frequency of the noise and consider them to be-

long to the signal.14

To improve the noise performance of the 1D CWT

algorithm, Liu et al.14 formalized the ridge extraction

⫽ s⫺1 冕冕 冉

x⫺a y⫺b

s

,

s 冊

, r g共x, y兲dxdy.

Fig. 4. 2D complex Morlet wavelet and its spectrum for two different values of .

the background illumination of a fringe pattern prior

to processing it by using the 2D CWT algorithm, be-

再1

冎

ˆ M共s, r兲 ⫽ exp ⫺ 关共r ⫺ ko cos 兲2 ⫹ 共s ⫺ ko sin 兲2兴 .

2

(10)

cause the 2D CWT behaves as a bandpass filter. This

also enables the algorithm to filter out speckle noise

from the interferogram. Figure 4(a) shows the real part of a 2D complex Mor-

The mother wavelet 共x, y兲 must satisfy the admis- let mother wavelet with a rotation angle of ⫽ 0°,

sibility condition whereas Fig. 4(b) shows the imaginary part. The Fou-

rier transform of the wavelet is shown in Fig. 4(c).

冕冕

Figures 4(d), 4(e), and 4(f) depict the real and imag-

ˆ 共s, r兲

c ⬅ 共2兲2 dsdr ⬍ ⬁, (8) inary parts and the Fourier transform of the Morlet

s2 ⫹ r2 wavelet, respectively, but with ⫽ 45°.

The complex Morlet 2D CWT algorithm can be

where ˆ 共s, r兲 is the Fourier transform of 共x, y兲. The used to demodulate fringe patterns with narrow band-

2D mother wavelets can be classified into two groups: widths.24 The technique has been tested by using

isotropic and directional wavelets. In fringe pattern the fringe pattern shown in Fig. 1(b) and failed to

applications, the isotropic wavelets are used for fil- perform the demodulation process correctly. This can

tering, whereas the directional wavelets are used for be explained by noticing the narrow spectrum of this

phase demodulation. The mother wavelets used in 2D wavelet, which is shown in Fig. 4(c). The complex

this paper belong to the second group. Morlet 2D CWT algorithm is described as an omni-

directional transform and is used in pattern recogni-

A. Two-Dimensional Complex Morlet Wavelet tion to extract a specific direction of an object.30,31

The 2D complex Morlet mother wavelet is essentially The ability of the 2D-CWT complex Morlet to

a plane wave within a Gaussian window and is given extract the phase of a fringe pattern can be described

by24,25,30 as follows. The integration in Eq. (7) measures the

local similarity between the fringe pattern and the

M共x, y兲 ⫽ exp关iko共x cos ⫹ y sin 兲兴exp ⫺ 冉 1 2

2 冊

冑x ⫺ y2 , 2D wavelet with different dilation and rotation val-

ues. For a particular value of translation across both

(9) axes, the transform will reach its maximum value

when the dilated and rotated 2D wavelet and the

where is the rotation angle. To ensure the admis- fringe pattern are locally most similar. This enables

sibility condition, ko is set to 5.336.30 The Fourier us to determine the phase and the instantaneous

transform of this wavelet is frequency of the fringe pattern in that region. The

Fig. 5. Fan mother wavelet and its spectrum.

modulus of the transform has a maximum value in Fig. 5(b). The Fourier transform of the fan wavelet

when the 2D Morlet wavelet frequency is close to the is shown in Fig. 5(c). The resultant Fourier transform

fringe frequency and the rotation of the 2D Morlet contains isolated bumps. Each bump results from a 2D

is close to the direction of the fringes. This produces complex Morlet wavelet having a different direction.

a ridge of the transform. Both aspects of similarity The fan 2D CWT is used to demodulate the fringe

(dilation and rotation) provide the 2D CWT with bet- pattern shown in Fig. 1(b). The resultant wrapped

ter noise immunity than its 1D counterpart where phase map is shown in Fig. 6(a), and the unwrapped

the similarity is in one aspect only (i.e., dilation). phase map is shown in Fig. 6(b). The fringe pattern is

The real and imaginary parts of the 2D Morlet an image of 512 ⫻ 512 pixels. The scale vector used

wavelet allow the determination of the phase of the in the transform consists of 10 elements and varies

signal. For example, when the phase of the fringe from 2 to 20 in increments of 2. The values of

pattern is close to the phase of the real part of the j ⫽ 兵0°, 30°, 60°, 90°其. The 2D CWT produces a com-

Morlet wavelet and the direction of fringes is also plex array with dimensions of 512 ⫻ 512 ⫻ 10 ⫻ 4.

close to the rotation angle, the real part of the trans- The dimensions of the array result from translation

form reaches its maximum value, whereas the imag- across the x axis by a, translation across the y axis by

inary part of the transform will be close to zero. The b, scale vector s, and angle vector j.

opposite is true for the imaginary part of the wavelet The phase of a pixel g(m, n) in the fringe pattern

transform. The ratio between the imaginary part and is determined as follows. An array is extracted from

the real part of the transform indeed determines the the 4D complex array produced by the 2D CWT.

phase of the signal. This property of the wavelet This array corresponds to the individual and is

transform is expressed in Eq. (13). known as a ridge array, having dimensions of

10 ⫻ 4. This array corresponds to a ⫽ m and b ⫽ n.

B. Fan Wavelet Element in the ridge array with the largest mod-

The 2D fan mother wavelet is formed by superposing ulus is determined. Then the phase of the pixel is

a number of complex Morlet wavelets. The superpo- calculated by using

sition is constructed by averaging a series of 2D Mor-

let wavelets over a finite number of directions32 N:

N⫺1

共m, n兲 ⫽ tan⫺1共ᑣ兵其兾ᑬ兵其兲, (13)

F共x, y兲 ⫽ 兺 exp关iko共x cos j ⫹ y sin j兲兴

where ᑣ兵其 and ᑬ兵其 are the imaginary and the real

冉 冊

j⫽0

1 parts of element , respectively. This procedure is

⫻ exp ⫺ 冑x2 ⫹ y2 . (11) repeated until the phase of all the pixels in the fringe

2

pattern is determined.

The Fourier transform of the fan wavelet is

ˆ F共s, r兲 ⫽

N⫺1

兺 exp

k⫽0

再1

⫺ 关共r ⫺ ko cos k兲2

2

冎

⫹ 共s ⫺ ko sin k兲2兴 , (12)

between successive Morlet wavelets.

Figure 5(a) shows the real part of the fan wavelet.

This wavelet is constructed by the superposition

of six 2D complex Morlet wavelets. The values of

j ⫽ 兵0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, 150°其, ␦ ⫽ 30°, and Fig. 6. (Color online) Demodulating the fringe pattern shown in

N ⫽ 6. The complex part of the fan wavelet is shown Fig. 1(b) by using the fan 2D CWT algorithm.

Fig. 7. (Color online) Computer-generated fringe pattern demodulated by using 1D CWT and 2D CWT algorithms.

In the numerical simulation, a simulated object is and their noise immunity. Figure 7(a) shows the

used to phase modulate a computer-generated fringe computer-generated fringe pattern I(x, y) with the

pattern. The resultant deformed fringe pattern is an variance set to 0.5. The signal-to-noise ratio for this

image of 512 ⫻ 512 pixels and is used to test the fringe pattern is 6 dB. This fringe pattern has been

proposed algorithm. The object is given by demodulated by using the phase estimation complex

Morlet 1D CWT algorithm. The wrapped and un-

共x, y兲 ⫽ 0.15关共x ⫺ 256兲2 ⫹ 共y ⫺ 256兲2兴1兾2, (14) wrapped phase maps are shown in Figs. 7(b) and 7(c),

respectively.

and the fringe pattern is given by The fringe pattern has been demodulated by using

the frequency estimation complex and real Morlet

I共x, y兲 ⫽ 0.3共x, y兲 ⫹ cos关2fo x ⫹ 共x, y兲兴 ⫹ NOISE. 1D CWT algorithms, and the demodulated phase

(15) maps are shown in Figs. 7(d) and 7(e), respectively.

Inspection of Figs. 7(d) and 7(e) reveals that for the

The term 共x, y兲 represents the object that phase frequency estimation approach the complex Morlet

modulates fringes whose spatial frequency fo is set to algorithm performs better against noise than the real

1兾16, 0.3共x, y兲 represents the background illumina- Morlet algorithm because the ridge for the real Mor-

tion, and NOISE represents a normally distributed let 1D CWT is grainy. The fringe pattern that is

noise. The object is shown in Fig. 1(a). The computer- shown in Fig. 7(a) has been applied to the fan 2D

generated fringe pattern without noise and back- CWT algorithm. The wrapped and unwrapped phase

ground illumination is shown in Fig. 1(b). maps are shown in Figs. 7(f) and 7(g), respectively.

The computer-generated fringe pattern is used to The scale vector varies from 2 to 20 in increments of

test the 1D CWT and 2D CWT algorithms to deter- 2. The angle vector is {0, 0.25, 0.5} rad.

Fig. 8. (Color online) Computer-generated fringe pattern demodulated by using 1D CWT and 2D CWT algorithms.

To determine the noise performance of the above the demodulated phase is shown in Fig. 8(d). Both

algorithms, the standard deviation of the phase er- algorithms failed to demodulate the fringe pattern.

ror has been computed for each technique in the ex- The fringe pattern shown in Fig. 8(a) has been

periment above. The phase error is defined as the demodulated by using the fan 2D CWT, and the re-

difference between the modulating object and the de- sultant wrapped and unwrapped phase maps are

modulated phase produced by each wavelet tech- shown in Figs. 8(e) and 8(f), respectively. This algo-

nique. The standard deviation values of the phase rithm performs well against noise, and this enables it

error for the 1D CWT frequency estimation using the to demodulate the fringe pattern. The fan 2D CWT

real wavelet, the 1D CWT frequency estimation using algorithm has better noise immunity than the 1D

the complex wavelet, the 1D CWT phase estimation, CWT techniques.

and the 2D CWT algorithms are 0.11, 0.09, 0.0177,

and 0.0075 rad, respectively. 5. Experimental Results

Figure 8(a) shows the fringe pattern with the noise Figure 9(a) shows a real fringe pattern taken from the

variance set to 1.3. The signal-to-noise ratio for this thorax of a female mannequin. The fringe pattern is an

fringe pattern is ⫺10.6 dB. The fringe pattern has image of 512 ⫻ 512 pixels. The fringe pattern was

been demodulated by using the phase estimation com- demodulated by using the phase estimation approach

plex Morlet 1D CWT algorithm. The wrapped phase complex Morlet 1D CWT algorithm. The scale vector

map is shown in Fig. 8(b), and it is very noisy. The was set to 兵1, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 64其. The resultant wrapped

unwrapped phase map is shown in Fig. 8(c). The fringe phase map is shown in Fig. 9(b). The top of the image

pattern has been demodulated by using the frequency is noisy. The wrapped phase map is unwrapped and

estimation complex Morlet 1D CWT algorithm, and the resultant image is shown in Fig. 9(c).

Fig. 9. (Color online) Real fringe pattern demodulated by using 1D CWT and 2D CWT algorithms.

The above experiment was repeated but with the rithm is more tolerant to speckle noise. Comparison

frequency estimation complex Morlet 1D CWT algo- of Figs. 9(c) and 9(d) discloses that the frequency

rithm. The scale vector resolution is ten times the estimation complex Morlet 1D CWT algorithm is

scale vector used in the phase estimation approach, equivalent in its noise performance to the phase es-

and it starts with 0.1 and ends at 64 in increments of timation complex Morlet 1D CWT algorithm that em-

0.1. The demodulated phase map produced by this ploys the Itoh27 unwrapper. The combination of the

method is shown in Fig. 9(d). The demodulation of the phase estimation complex Morlet 1D CWT algorithm

filtered fringe pattern using the frequency estimation with a robust phase unwrapping algorithm33 makes

approach was repeated but with a real Morlet wave- it more tolerant to noise and more suitable to demod-

let. The demodulated fringe pattern is shown in Fig. ulate fringe patterns.

9(e). The fringe pattern that contains background All the algorithms in this paper were programmed

illumination was applied to the fan wavelet 2D CWT in MATLAB and executed on a Pentium 4 computer

algorithm to demodulate it. The scale and angle vec- with a 1.7 GHz clock speed and 1 Gbyte RAM. The 1D

tors are set to 兵2, 4, 6, 8, . . . , 20其 , and 兵0, 0.5, 1其 rad, CWT and the 2D CWT algorithms were programmed

respectively. The resultant wrapped phase map is with the aid of the yet another wavelet toolbox

shown in Fig. 9(f). The unwrapped phase map is (YAWTB).34 The execution time required for process-

shown in Fig. 9(g). ing the fringe pattern shown in Fig. 9(a) by using the

Inspection of Fig. 9 reveals that the 2D CWT algo- fan 2D CWT algorithm on this hardware platform was

rithm outperforms the 1D CWT algorithm in fringe approximately 45 s. On the other hand, the phase and

pattern demodulation because the 2D CWT algo- frequency estimation complex Morlet 1D CWT algo-

rithms require approximately 28 and 460 s, respec- V. L. Brudny, S. A. Ledesma, and M. C. Marconi, eds., Proc.

tively, to demodulate the same fringe pattern on the SPIE 4419, 162–165 (2001).

16. P. Tomassino, A. Giulietti, L. Gizzi, M. Galimberti, D. Giuilietti,

same hardware platform.

M. Borghesi, and O. Willi, “Analyzing laser plasma interfero-

grams with a continuous wavelet transform ridge extraction

6. Conclusion

technique: the method,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6561– 6568 (2001).

The fan 2D CWT algorithm has been proposed for 17. A. Durson, S. Ozder, and N. Ecevit, “Continuous wavelet

fringe pattern demodulation. The performance of the transform analysis of projected fringe patterns,” Meas. Sci.

proposed algorithm has been evaluated by using Technol. 15, 1768 –1772 (2004).

computer-generated and real fringe patterns. Also, 18. M. Afif, A. Fassi-Fihri, M. Marjane, K. Nassim, M. Sidki, and

1D CWT algorithms have been reviewed, and their S. Rachafi, “Paul wavelet-based algorithm for optical phase

performance has been compared with the fan 2D distribution evaluation,” Opt. Commun. 21, 47–51 (2002).

19. Q. Chenggen, C. Tay, and L. Chen, “Fringe-density estimation

CWT algorithm. This comparison revealed that the

by continuous wavelet transform,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2359 –2365

proposed algorithm is more suitable for demodulat- (2005).

ing fringe patterns and has better noise immunity 20. Y. Fu, C. Tay, C. Quan, and L. Chen, “Temporal wavelet anal-

than the 1D CWT algorithms. ysis for deformation and velocity measurement in speckle in-

terferometry,” Opt. Eng. 43, 2780 –2787 (2004).

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