Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Simple English Grammar: Prepared by Teacher Claudine

1. Every English word has a grammar function in a sentence. They can be

NOUN A word that refers to a person, (such as Ann or doctor ), a place (such as Paris or city ) or a thing, a quality or an activity (such as plant , sorrow or tennis )
Oxford University Press, 2010

PRONOUN A word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase.


Oxford University Press, 2010

VERB A word or group of words that expresses an action (such as eat ), an event (such as happen ) or a state (such as exist )
Oxford University Press, 2010

ADJECTIVE A word that describes a person or thing, for example big , red and clever in a big house , red wine and a clever idea.
Oxford University Press, 2010

ADVERB A word that adds more information about place, time, manner, cause or degree to a verb, an adjective, a phrase or another adverb. Oxford University Press, 2010

CONJUCTION A word that joins words, phrases or sentences, for example and, but, or
Oxford University Press, 2010

GERUND
A noun in the form of the present participle of a verb (that is, ending in -ing ).
Oxford University Press, 2010

DETERMINER A word such as the , some , my , etc. that comes before a noun to show how the noun is being used
Oxford University Press, 2010

ARTICLE The words a and an ( the indefinite article ) or the ( the definite article ) Oxford University Press, 2010

PREPOSITION A word or group of words, such as in, from, to, out of and on behalf of , used before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time or method. Oxford University Press, 2010

Simple English Grammar: Prepared by Teacher Claudine

2. In an English sentence, a combination of words (gabungan banyak perkataan) can be called many things. For example:

The subject of a sentence is the person, place, thing, or idea that is doing or being something. You can find the subject of a sentence if you can find the verb. Noun
(the verb is is so the subject is the house)

e.g. The house is going to be repaired. noun + noun e.g. The cat lover is happy. Pronoun e.g. They destroyed the monster using laser weapons.

A part of a sentence containing a verb that makes a statement about the subject of the verb. Oxford University Press, 2010 verb + other contents (noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition, etc.) e.g. She eats the food happily. e.g Tom went home.

A noun phrase, frequently a noun accompanied by modifiers (such as adjectives), is a group of related words acting as a noun. adjective adjective noun e.g. The long and winding road is difficult to travel. noun noun e.g. The house builder has skills.

Simple English Grammar: Prepared by Teacher Claudine

A group of words containing a subject and a verb. It can be a sentence itself or form part of a sentence. Noun verb (a sentence) e.g. She sleeps. Pronoun verb
(Below is the main sentence ayat utama) (here is the clause)

e.g. John finally told his wife what he had done with his money.

A word or group of words that describes a noun phrase or restricts its meaning in some way
Oxford University Press, 2010

There are many more terms for a combination of words in a sentence, and they can be difficult to learn. Above are merely a few examples.

3. Recognizing the function of each word can help you write English sentences. The basic structure of a sentence contains: + NOUN / NOUN PHRASE/ NOUN CLAUSE / PRONOUNS etc. + PREDICATE Verb + other contents

4. Often, a sentence can be more than just a noun and a verb. But the basic structure must have a verb after a subject.
Clause - time noun (subject) verb verb

e.g. As darkness fell, the village.


noun(gerund) noun(gerund) verb

emerged from the forest and began to enter the

*Notice that both the verbs are in simple past tense. adjectives
noun

e.g.

and

are my favourite activities.

*Notice that the verb to be is are because there are two NOUNS as subjects.

Simple English Grammar: Prepared by Teacher Claudine

gerund e.g.
Modifiers
verb

pronoun

noun verb

my fathers car is a fun chore.


pronoun verb
pronoun verb conjunction verb conjunction

pronoun

e.g. Feeling delighted,


spotted his mother,

arrived home with a smile on his face, and when he went up to her and gave her a big hug.

* Notice that after every important subject - noun there is a verb except when there are two sentences combined with a conjunction. When the first main verb is in past tense, the following *main verbs should also follow the tenses.

5. What is tense? Tense is a time indicator in the English grammar. It is shown only through VERB. Verb Verb to be Verb to have Auxiliary verb etc. : e.g. jump, run, walk, feel, excite, touch, think : e.g. is, am, are, was, were : e.g. have, has, had : e.g. be, do, has, can

6. There are three categories of tenses. Past, present and future. . 7. A sentence can be constructed in three ways: Simple form, continuous form, and perfect form Lets use the verb clean to make sentences in various forms. SIMPLE FORM (singular subject) he, she, it Present (plural subject) I, you, we, they (singular subject) Past he, she, it subject + verb (present tense)+ S

Abu cleans the house.

subjects + verb (present tense) (root word) subject + verb (past tense)

Abu and Ali clean the house.

Abu cleaned the house.

Simple English Grammar: Prepared by Teacher Claudine

future

(plural subject) I, you, we, they (singular subject) he, she, it (plural subject)

subjects + verb (past tense)

Abu and Ali cleaned the house.

subject + will/shall + verb (root word)

Abu will clean the house.

subjects + will/shall + verb (root word)

Abu and Ali will clean the house.

CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE TENSE FORM (singular subject) he, she, it (plural subject) I, you, we, they (singular subject) he, she, it (plural subject) I, you, we, they (singular subject) he, she, it (plural subject) subject + singular verb to be(present tense) + (verb+ing) subjects + plural verb to be(present tense) + (verb+ing) subject + verb to be(past tense) + (verb+ing) subjects + verb to be(past tense) + (verb+ing) subject + will/shall + be + (verb+ing)

Abu is cleaning the house.

Present

Abu and Ali are cleaning the house.

Abu was cleaning the house.

Past

Abu and Ali were cleaning the house.

Abu will be cleaning the house.

future

subjects + will/shall + be + (verb+ing)

Abu and Ali will be cleaning the house.

Simple English Grammar: Prepared by Teacher Claudine

PERFECT TENSE FORM (singular subject) he, she, it Present (plural subject) I, you, we, they (singular subject) he, she, it Past (plural subject) I, you, we, they subject + has + verb (past participle)

Abu has cleaned the house.

subjects + have + verb (past participle)

Abu and Ali have cleaned the house.

subject + had + verb (past participle)

Abu had cleaned the house.

subjects + had + verb (past participle)

Abu and Ali had cleaned the house.

By the time (singular (something happens), subject) subject + will + have he, she, + verb (past participle) it future (plural subject) I, you, we, they By the time (something happens), subjects + will + have + verb (past participle)

By the time she arrives, Abu will have cleaned the house.

By the time she arrives, Abu and Ali will have cleaned the house.

8. In a passive sentence, the agent is not the subject. In fact, sometimes a passive sentence will not contain an agent. verb to be verb (past participle) e.g. The dean's report was reviewed by the faculty senate. (passive) The faculty senate reviewed the deans report. (active) verb to be verb (past participle) e.g. Three cities in the country's interior were bombed. (passive)
*Agent is not mentioned so it is hard to change into active voice. Can you see the difference between continuous form and passive voice?