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Creep is defined as the time-dependent strain that occurs under load at elevated temperature and operates in most

applications of heat-resistant high-

alloy castings at normal service temperatures. The stress that produces a

specified minimum creep rate of

an alloy or a specified amount of creep deformation in a given time is referred to as the limiting creep

strength, or limiting stress.

specified amount of creep deformation in a given time is referred to as the limiting creep

Since materials have its

own different melting point,

each will creep when the homologous temperature > 0.5

Since materials have its own different melting point, each will creep when the homologous temperature >
Since materials have its own different melting point, each will creep when the homologous temperature >

1. Deformation by slip

- More slip systems operate at high

temperature

2. Subgrain formation

- Creep deformation produces

inhomogeneity especially around grain boundaries, allowing dislocations to arrange themselves into a low-angle grain

boundary.

3. Grain boundary sliding

- Produced by shear process and promoted by increasing temperature/or decreasing strain rate.

3. Grain boundary sliding - Produced by shear process and promoted by increasing temperature/or decreasing strain
Q = the activated energy for the rate-controlling process A = the material structural constant

Q = the activated energy for the

rate-controlling process A = the material structural constant

T = the absolute temperature

R = the universal gas constant

process A = the material structural constant T = the absolute temperature R = the universal

Superplasticity is the ability to withstand very large deformation in tension without necking.

Give elongation > 1000%.

is the ability to withstand very large deformation in tension without necking. • Give elongation >
For grain boundary diffusion For lattice self-diffusion L ( b a r ) is the
For grain boundary diffusion For lattice self-diffusion L ( b a r ) is the

For grain boundary diffusion

For lattice self-diffusion

L (bar) is the mean linear intercept measure of grain size. In this case n = 2, m =

0.5

L ( b a r ) is the mean linear intercept measure of grain size. In

Creep strength is defined as the stress at a given temperature, which produces a steady-state creep rate (10 -11 to 10 -8 s -1 .)

the stress at a given temperature, which produces a steady-state creep rate (10 - 1 1
the stress at a given temperature, which produces a steady-state creep rate (10 - 1 1

Creep data can also be presented as a plot of stress and time to produce different amounts

of total strain.

Creep data can also be presented as a plot of stress and time to produce different
Creep data can also be presented as a plot of stress and time to produce different

Creep occurs under load at high temperature. Boilers, gas turbine engines, and ovens are some of the systems that have components that experience creep. An understanding of high temperature materials

behavior is beneficial in evaluating failures in

these types of systems.

Failures involving creep are usually easy to identify due to the deformation that

occurs. Failures may appear ductile or brittle.

Cracking may be either transgranular or intergranular. While creep testing is done at constant temperature and constant load actual components may experience damage at various temperatures and loading conditions.

temperature and constant load actual components may experience damage at various temperatures and loading conditions.
temperature and constant load actual components may experience damage at various temperatures and loading conditions.

High temperature progressive

deformation of a material at constant stress is called creep. High temperature

is a relative term that is dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical

creep curve is shown below:

temperature is a relative term that is dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical creep
is a relative term that is dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical creep curve

Stress rupture testing is similar to creep testing except that the stresses used are higher than in a creep test.

that the stresses used are higher than in a creep test. *Rupture strength and failure time

*Rupture strength and failure time are plotted, normally showing a straight line.

used are higher than in a creep test. *Rupture strength and failure time are plotted, normally

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