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IRRN GUIDELINES
The International Rice Research Newsletter objective is: "To expedite communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and for ricebased cropping systems. This publication will report what scientists are doing to increase the production of rice, inasmuch as this crop feeds the most densely populated and land-scarce nations in the world . . . IRRN is a mechanism to help rice scientists keep each other informed of current research findings." The concise reports contained in IRRN are meant to encourage rice scientists and workers to communicate with one another. In this way, readers can obtain more detailed information on the research reported. Please examine the criteria, guidelines, and research categories that follow. If you have comments or suggestions, please write the editor, IRRN, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila, Philippines. We look forward to your continuing interest in IRRN. Criteria for IRRN research report has international, or pan-national, relevance has rice environment relevance advances rice knowledge uses appropriate research design and data collection methodology reports appropriate, adequate data applies appropriate analysis, using appropriate statistical techniques reaches supportable conclusions Guidelines for contributors The International Rice Research Newsletter is a compilation of brief reports of current research on topics of interest to rice scientists all over the world. Contributions should be reports of recent work and work-inprogress that have broad, pan-national interest and application. Only reports of work conducted during the immediate past three years should he submitted. Research reported in IRRN should he verified. Single season, single trial field experiments are not accepted. All field trials should be repeated across more than one season, in multiple seasons, or in more than one location, as appropriate. 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Organize the report into a brief statement of research objectives, a brief description of project design, and a brief discussion of results. Relate results to the objectives. Report appropriate statistical analysis. Specify the rice production environment (irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, deepwater, tidal wetlands). Specify the type of rice culture (transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded). Specify seasons by characteristic weather (wet season, dry season, monsoon) and by months. Do not use local terms for seasons or, if used, define them. Use standard, internationally recognized terms to describe rice plant parts, growth stages, environments, management practices, etc. Do not use local names. Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. For soil nutrient studies, be sure to include a standard soil profile description, classification, and relevant soil properties. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants. Do not use common names or local names alone. Quantify survey data (infection percentage, degree of severity, sampling base, etc.). When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, tolerance, etc., report the actual quantification of damage due to stress that was used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used. Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. Use international measurements. Do not use local units of measure. Express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t/ha) for field studies and in grams per pot (g/pot) or per specified length (in meters) row (g/ row) for small scale studies. Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use local monetary units. Economic information should be presented at the exchange rate US$:local currency at the time data were collected. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter, use the abbreviation. Define any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in a table or graph in a footnote or caption/ legend. Categories of research published GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT genetic resources genetics breeding methods yield potential grain quality pest resistance diseases insects other pests stress tolerance drought excess water adverse temperature adverse soils integrated germplasm improvement irrigated rainfed lowland upland deepwater tidal wetlands seed technology CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT soils soil microbiology physiology and plant nutrition fertilizer management inorganic sources organic sources crop management integrated pest management diseases insects weeds other pests water management farming systems farm machinery postharvest technology economic analysis ENVIRONMENT SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CONTENTS
GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT Genetic resources 5 Analysis of the pedigrees of japonica rice varieties released in Taiwan 5 Widely compatible japonica rice from Yunnan, China Genetics 5 Heritability of seedling vigor characters 6 Genetic and cytoplasmic sources of IR varieties 1967-84 6 Effect of germinating condition and plant growth regulator on rate of twin seedlings from polyembryonic rice 7 Inheritance of photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile gene in rice Breeding methodshybrid rice 8 Combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits in indica PGMS lines and their hybrids 8 CIS28-10S, a new indica photoperiod-sensitive, genic male-sterile rice Breeding methodstissue culture 9 Embryogenic cell suspension and plant regeneration from protoplasts of indica rice Yield potential 10 Herbage and grain yield of deepwater rices in the field 11 Leaf venation in rice Oryza sativa L. 11 Simulation of yield potential of rice varieties in Cauvery delta zone, Tamil Nadu 12 Relationship of flag leaf area to yield, filled grains per panicle, and panicle length in upland rice varieties Pest resistancediseases 12 A new field inoculation method for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoo) 13 Resistance of 99 Oryza glaberrima Steud. varieties to blast Pest resistanceinsects 14 Comparison of standard evaluation system and Oates method in assessing stalk-eyed fly resistance 14 Reactions of promising rice cultivars to gall midge (GM) Pest resistanceother pests 15 Variations in termite susceptibility in rice varieties Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated 15 Properties of two new rice varieties released in India 16 IR66 promising as a short-duration variety for the Mekong Delta Seed technology 16 Comparison of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and concentration inoculation (C1) in inspecting rice seed for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Soils 16 Effect of soil moisture on boron availability and uptake 17 Variation in temperature of irrigated rice soils with different drainage characteristics Fertilizer managementorganic sources 18 Effect of sesbania, rice straw, and pre-incubation on urea hydrolysis in wetland soil 18 Multiplication of azolla associated with rice Fertilizer managementinorganic sources 19 Plastic-coated urea (PCU) as a nitrogen source for lowland rice 20 Effect of N source on irrigated rice yield in Cameroon 20 Effect of neem extract-coated urea on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency of transplanted rice lntegrated pest managementdiseases 21 Outbreak of leaf and neck blast in boro rice crop in Bangladesh 21 Effect of plant extracts in controlling rice tungro 22 Optimal stage to apply Rabcide 4, 5, 6, 7 - tetrachlorophthalide for rice blast (BI) control Integrated pest management insects 22 Life history of two braconid parasitoids of rice leaffolder (LF) in the laboratory 23 Effects of sublethal insecticide application on rice leaffolder (LF) Integrated pest managementweeds 24 Agronomic and economic evaluation of herbicides in transplanted rice Integrated pest managementother pests 25 Effect of organic amendments in controlling rice root nematodes Farming systems 25 Simulation of soybean yield in a rice-based cropping system ERRATA ANNOUNCEMENT 25 New IRRI publications

Genetic resources

GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT
Analysis of the pedigrees of japonica rice varieties released in Taiwan
Maw Sun Lin, Botany Department, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, China
Relative genetic contributions and occurrence of the 10 most important ancestral contributors to 99 varieties released in Taiwan 1940-89. Ancestor Hodoyoshi Kameji NC 4 Oloan-chu Iyosengoku Aikoku Osaka Asahi Iwata Asahi Kairio Aikoku Yoshino 1 Mean genetic contribution 0.213 0.167 0.065 0.061 0.037 0.037 0.023 0.020 0.019 0.018 Cumulative genetic contribution Occurrence (no.) in pedigrees

We studied changes in the genetic diversity of japonica rice varieties released in Taiwan over five time periods: 1940-49, 1950-59, 1960-69, 1970-79, and 1980-89. Relative genetic contributions were computed to quantify the genetic constituents of 99 varieties into theoretical percentages attributable to different ancestors. The varieties were traced back to 65 ancestors, 44 of them Japanese plant introductions. Only 11 were from Taiwan. Japanese introductions contributed more than 85% of the genes. Although more ancestors were integrated into later breeding programs, as few as

0.213 0.380 0.445 0.506 0.543 0.580 0.603 0.623 0.642 0.660

83 80 45 43 26 46 19 23 20 9

10 contributors comprised more than 70% of the genetic constituents of the released varieties in each time period. Two Japanese introductions predominated in mean relative genetic contributions of genes: Hodoyoshi with 21.3% and Kameji with 16.7% (see table). At least 83 of the 99 varieties released in the last 50 yr (including all 11 varieties released in 1980-87) are more or less related because of the Hodoyoshi link.
bination value between Xa-i and nl-1 is 37.3 3.9% by maximum likelihood estimation. Haomei is a widely compatible japonica. Fertility with indica testers is 73.72 4.63%; that with japonica testers is 77.13 11.08%. Haomei has glabrous leaf and hull and glutinous endosperm. The hull is covered

This shows the narrow genetic base in current japonica rice varieties. Extensive use of superior varieties such as Taichung 65 is the major reason integration of diverse plant introductions did not result in diversification of released germplasm. Crosses to elite genotypes that carry specific gene complexes conditioning desirable traits should be made with caution, to avoid decreasing the genetic diversity among released varieties.
with purple blots, with fewer over the glume bulge. Rice base-solubility (1.7% KOH treatment for 23 h under 30 C) belongs to grade 4. It is medium-tillering with large panicles averaging 239 grains. Grain weight is 35.2 g per 1000. Plant height is about 120 cm in Wuchang, Hubei Province.

Widely compatible japonica rice from Yunnan, China


Lu-yuan Dai, Crop Germplasm Station, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Science (YAAS), Kunming, Yunnan 650205; D. P. Zhang and Y. F. Xie, Agronomy Department, Central China Agricultural University, Wuchang, Hubei 430070; and Chen Yong, Crop Germplasm Station, YAAS, Kunming, Yunnan 650205, China

Yunnan local rice variety Haomei carries resistance to nine strains of bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae): Jiangling 691, OS75, 76-27, and KS-6-6 from China and PXO61, PXO86, PXO79, PXO71, and PXO211 from the Philippines. It is susceptible to strain PXO99 from the Philippines. Resistance of Haomei to Chinese strain Jiangling 691 is governed by a newly identified dominant gene, tentatively designated as Xa-i. Xa-i is linked to the marker gene nl-1 (neck leaf-1) located on linkage group 5. The recom-

Genetics
Heritability of seedling vigor characters
M. A. Mgonja and T. M. Masajo, Rice Programme, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria

Poor seedling emergence associated with seedling vigor characters is a major constraint to the adoption of direct seeding for irrigated and rainfed lowland rice. Heritability is the fraction of variation in a trait that is attributable to

genetic causes. It is a property not only of a character, but also of the plant population and the environmental circumstances of the crop. We used variance partitioning of segregating populations (VPSP) and offspring:parent (F 3:F2) regression and correlation in four crosses to estimate narrow sense heritability (Hn) for mesocotyl, coleoptile, and seedling length. Hn for mesocotyl length was comparatively higher than for coleoptile and seedling length (see table). The

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offspring:parent regression was the least variable of the estimates among populations (indicated by the low CV). Among the characters, mesocotyl length estimates were least variable. This means early generation selection for seedling emergence should be more effective using mesocotyl length. Early generation selection using coleoptile and seedling length can be done only in selected crosses. Otherwise, selection would be more effective in later generations, accompanied by progeny testing.

Narrow sense heritability (Hn) estimates for mesocotyl, coleoptile, and seedling length in rice, measured by variance partitioning (VPSP) and offspring:parent F3:F2 regression (regr) and correlation (corr).

Hn estimates Cross ITA212/Nato TN1/Nato TN1/ITA323 IR64/ITA212 Mean CV Mesocotyl VPSP Regr 53.7 30.6 61.8 50.0 49.0 26.9 64.7 71.4 71.4 52.7 65.1 13.5 Corr 49.0 63.3 84.1 63.1 64.9 22.3 Mean 55.8 55.1 72.4 61.1 59.7 11.9 Coleoptile VPSP Regr 30.4 67.6 61.6 21.2 45.2 50.5 40.7 35.6 37.8 18.7 33.2 29.8 Corr 54.2 48.7 46.1 26.2 43.8 27.9 Mean 41.8 50.6 48.5 22.0 40.7 38.1 VPSP 48.3 30.3 50.3 35.2 41.0 23.9 Seedling Regr 26.7 27.4 33.2 26.5 28.5 11.2 Corr Mean 35.0 33.2 20.0 40.3 32.1 26.9 36.7 30.3 34.5 34.0 33.9 26.3

Genetic and cytoplasmic sources of IR varieties 1967-84


Maw Sun Lin, Botany Department, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, China

Genetic diversity of cytoplasm sources for released varieties is important because genetic uniformity could lead to devastating disease epidemics. We used a computer program written in PASCAL to examine the pedigrees of 27 Oryza sativa L. IR lines released 1967-84. The pedigrees show that the 27 varieties can be traced back to 26 ances-

tors, of which 5 appear only once. Ten ancestors comprise 75% of the relative genetic contribution. Three dominate in mean relative genetic contribution: Dee-geo-woo-gen, 16%; Cina, 12.6%; and Latisail, 12.6%. Dee-geo-woo-gen appears in the pedigree of 26 of the 27 varieties; Cina and Latisail are in the pedigrees of all varieties. This makes the 27 varieties examined more or less related. More ancestors have been integrated into recent varieties. Four cultivars were ultimate maternal ancestors, and thus contributed cytoplasm to all 27 varieties (see table). Cina contributed its cytoplasm to 22 of the 27 varieties, and is the most

Cytoplasm parents for 27 varieties released at IRRI. Cytoplasm parent Nam Sagui 19 Cina IR52 IR5 IR8 IR20 IR22 IR24 IR26 IR43 IR62 IR lines IR54 IR28 IR29 IR30 IR32 IR34 IR36 IR44 IR38 IR40 IR42 IR45 IR46 IR48 IR50 IR56 IR58 IR60

Marong-Paroc Arikarai

important contributor of both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes to the IR varieties.

Effect of germinating condition and plant growth regulator on rate of twin seedlings from polyembryonic rice
Tan Zhi-jun, Huang Yi-qiang, and Deng Hongde, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha, Hunan 410125, China

Table 1. Rates of twin seedlings under different germinating conditions. Rate (%) of twin seedlings Variety Germinated in distilled water (25C) 41.0 5.3 6.5 2.0 Germinated in N6 (25C) (with no pretreatment) 48.4 7.7 13.2 3.1 Germinated in N6 media (25 C) with wet pretreatment a (5 h) 0C 17.1 5.3 6.7 0 10C 65.8 12.9 11.1 1.9 20C 67.5 7.4 7.9 3.9 30C 75.0 13.2 13.1 1.9 40C 70.5 6.9 8.8 1.6 50C 42.5 16.6 24.5 4.4

Polyembryonic ricecharacterized by twin seedlingsis a good genetical tool for apomixis research. We studied four selected heritable polyembryonic rices. Adventitious embryos had low frequencies (2.6-5.1%). The apparent primary mode of polyembryonic rice is twin seedlings, but there is an internal relationship between the rate of twin seedlings and the rate of adventitious embryos. We experimented with the effect of germinating condition on twin seedling rate in Shuang 3 (indica), Shuang 13

Shuang 3 (indica) Shuang 13 (indica) Lu 52 (japonica) Alixisini (japonica)


a

There was no germination at 60C.

(indica), Lu 52 (japonica), and Alixisini (japonica). Germinating seeds without hulls resulted in higher rates of twin seedlings than germinating seeds with hulls. The highest increase was 3.8%. The rate of twin seedlings increased when the germination test was done in

N6 media. The twin seedling rate varied with pregermination treatment at different temperatures (Table 1). The optimum pretreatment temperature was 50C for two japonicas and one indica and 30C for the other indica. At optimum temperature, the rate of twin seedlings

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

Table 2. Effect of plant growth regulators (10 mg/liter) on germination of polyembryonic rice. a

Treatment b CK IAA KT GA3 2.4-D 6-BAP

Shuang 13 (indica) G(%) 98.1 98.7 98.2 98.2 97.5 97.6 R(%) 6.3 9.5 7.2 8.7 10.8 10.4 WS (mg) 44.75 47.73 42.63 42.59 36.45 42.81 WT(mg) 39.62 44.67 39.50 43.68 38.55 43.27 G(%) 94.8 94.1 93.3 89.5 93.9 92.9

Shuang 3 (indica) R(%) 29.4 31.2 31.7 27.0 38.1 30.7 WS (mg) 28.60 30.42 25.89 24.14 26.60 30.60 WT(mg) 27.82 28.81 25.60 23.38 25.89 28.39 G(%) 72.2 85.3 91.3 79.1 86.0 80.0

Lu 52 (japonica) R(%) 5.6 6.0 6.7 5.1 8.0 9.4 WS (mg) 50.21 50.33 55.17 48.72 48.28 51.93 WT(mg) 52.00 54.09 55.20 46.50 49.58 57.80

a G =germination percentage, R = rate of twin seedlings, WS = weight of single seedling, WT = weight of twin seedlings, b CK = distilled H O instead of plant growth regulator. 2

increased rapidly. At low (0C) and high (60C) temperatures, the seeds did not germinate. The effect of five plant growth regulators IAA, KT, GA3, 2,4-D, and 6-BAP on rate of twin seedlings was studied with polyembryonic rices Shuang 3, Shuang 13, and Lu 52. At concentrations of

10 mg/liter, all growth regulators except GA, increased the production of twin seedlings. The twin seedling rate increased more with 2,4-D and 6-BAP (Table 2). Seedling growth of indicas Shuang 3 and Shuang 13 was stimulated by IAA at 10 mg/liter; average weight of

seedlings also increased. KT at 10 mg/ liter increased seedling weight of japonica Lu 52. The optimum concentrations for increasing the rate of twin seedlings were 1 mg 2,4-D/liter and 10 mg 6-BAP/ liter.

Inheritance of photoperiodsensitive genic male-sterile gene in rice


Huang Qun-ce, Biological Department, Xiangtan Teachers' College, P. O. Box 41 1201, Xiangtan, Hunan, China

Table 1. Fertility of lower generation hybrids, Xiangtan, China, 1990.

Cross

Grain fertility Separation of F2 hybrids of F1 hybrids (%) Sterile plants Fertile plants (no.) (no.) 79.1 85.7 81.1 10.3 7.5 63.9 80.7 86.7 76 29 61 66 59 71 63 51 231 88 185 181 180 220 179 160

Sterile plants: fertile plants

CIS28-10S is a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile indica rice. To find the number of the gene for its male sterility in CIS28-10S, I set up a field experiment Apr-Sep 1990 with eight F2 hybrids and eight B1F1 backcross hybrids, with CIS2810S as the female parent. There were 50 single plants/cross in the F1, 117-307 in the F2 , and 79-161 in the B1F1 backcross. CIS28-10S was regarded as the check. The proportion of male sterile and male fertile plants was calculated 25 Jul-30 Aug. The F2 hybrids separated at nearly 1:3 sterile:fertile plants (Table 1). Fertility separation in the B1F1 backcross hybrids also was obvious, at nearly 1:1 (Table 2). The male sterility of CIS28-10S appears to be controlled by a single dominant gene.

CIS28-10S/02428 CIS28-10S/R5 CIS28-10S/PC312 CIS28-10S/Guizhouger CIS28-10S/Suweon 290 CIS28-10S/Japanese glutinous rice CIS28-10S/Zixie glutinous rice CIS28-10S/Teqing

1.000:3.039 1.000:3.034 1.000:3.033 1.000:2.742 1.000:3.051 1.000:3.099 1.000:2.841 1.000:3.137

Table 2. Fertility of B 1F1 hybrids, Xiangtan, China, 1990.

Cross

Separation of F2 hybrids Sterile plants (no.) 41 53 64 70 80 63 39 49 Fertile plants (no.) 39 55 61 12 81 66 40 48

Sterile plants: fertile plants

CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/02428 CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/R5 CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/PC312 CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/Guizhouger CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/Suweon 290 CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/Japanese glutinous rice CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/Zixie glutinous rice CIS28-10S//CIS28-10S/Teqing

1.0000:0.9512 1.0000:1.0377 1.0000:0.9531 1.0000:1.0286 1.0000:1.0125 1.0000:1.0476 1.0000:1.0256 1.0000:0.9796

Space limitations prevent IRRN from publishing solely yield data and yield component data from routine germplasm screening trials. Publication is limited to manuscripts that provide either a) data and analysis beyond yield and yield components (e g., multiple or unique resistances and tolerances, broad adaptability), or b) novel ways of interpreting yield and yield component data across seasons and sites.

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

Breeding methods hybrid rice


Combining ability and heterosis of agronomic traits in indica PGMS lines and their hybrids
Mou Tongmin and Lu Xinggui, Food Crop Research Institute, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064, China

In a two-line hybrid rice system, photoperiod-sensitive, genic male sterile (PGMS) rices are used. Knowledge of the combining ability and heterosis of PGMS lines and their hybrids is needed for selecting good combiners for high vigor combinations. We crossed indica PGMS lines W6154S, W6184S, W6417S, W7415S, and W6434S, and 6 test lines in a 5 6 mating pattern. Thirty F 1 hybrids, 6 testers, and 2 check combinations were planted at 25 17 cm, in a random design with three replications.

General combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were analyzed for grain yield per plant and 10 other agronomic traits. GCA and SCA were significant for all traits, indicating that additive and nonadditive interactions were important (Table 1). Variances due to SCA were greater than those due to GCA for grain yield per plant and fertile spikelets per panicle,

suggesting dominant gene action. Variances due to GCA were greater than those due to SCA for other traits. PGMS lines W6154S and W6184S were good general combiners for grain yield per plant (Table 2). Heterobeltiosis ranged from 246.8 to 2.0% for grain yield per plant. Combinations W6154S/Teqing 2 and W6184S/02428 yielded 3.2 and 12.8% more, respectively, than check Shan-you 63, the best three-line system combination.

Table 2. Estimates of SCA and GCA effects for yield per plant of PGMS lines and cross combinations. Female parent W6154S W6184S WG417S W7415S W6434S GCAb Variance of SCA
a

SCA of crosses with each given male parent Minghui 63 0.659 0.591 -7.227 1.432 4.554 2.761 a 14.403 Teqing 2 6.759 1.714 -2.520 5.972 -11.926 2.354 ab 16.043 02428 7.384 13.626 -4.125 -14.364 -2.521 0.276 ab 50.673 Qingsiai -3.691 -3.653 7.296 -1.922 1.970 -1.465 b 30.133 Ce 64 -03.744 -6.399 2.980 5.138 2.024 -1.572 b Ce 49 -7.368 -5.880 3.596 3.744 5.907 -2.355 c

GCAab 5.561*a 5.402*a -2.007 b -3.328 b -5.628*b

Variance of SCA 22.887 48.322 29.216 50.389 35.180

11.386 109.927

K2fm = 46.51

* = Significantly different from zero at 5% level of probability. b Different letters show significant difference in GCA at 5% level of probability.

Table 1. Analysis of variance for combining ability for yield and yield components of PGMS lines. Sourceb MS and F test for agronomic characters Yield/ plant 481.0** 70.2* 166.7** 0.24 Panicles/ plant 7.5* 26.8** 2.8 12.4 Spikelets/ panicle 1091.3** 43172.3** 944.0** 9.95 Fertility (%) 1118.4** 1813.6** 315.8** 1.46 Grains/ panicle 3110.8** 3377.2** 1955.7** 0.26 1000-grain weight 71.7** 201.0** 2.6** 6.71 Days to heading 230.1** 1467.3** 74.8** 4.17 Plant height 31.7** 1339.7** 65.5** 4.08 Tillering ability 45.2 60.6** 5.9 18.44 Panicle length 1.2 43.7** 2.7** 3.67 Spikelet density 152.2** 5576.5** 113.1** 11.48 ..

GCA1 GCA2 SCA VGCAIVSCA


due to GCA and SCA.

a*,** = significant at the 5% and 1 % level of probabillty, respectively. b GCA1 = general combining ability (GCA) of female parents; GCA2 = GCA of male parents. VGCA and VSCA = variance

CIS28-10S, a new indica photoperiod-sensitive, genic male-sterile rice


Huang Qun-ce and Zhang Xi-ting, Biological Department, Xiangtan Teachers College, Xiangtan, Hunan Province, China

CIS28, a B 9F4 progeny of the cross Caloro/IR28, was bred by Yuan Longping in 1985 as a cyto-nucleoplasm hybrid. We found a spontaneous mutant in 1986, and the indica, photoperiodsensitive, genic male-sterile germplasm CIS28-10S, one of the derivatives isolated from the spontaneous mutant,

was released in 1989 for use in developing two-line hybrids. We evaluated CIS28-10S at Xiangtan (28 N) in 1990. Fifty individual plants were spaced at 15 20 cm. Plant height, days to 50% flowering, panicle length, grains per panicle, 1,000-grain weight, exserted stigma rate, sterility-transformation and fertility-transformation stages were measured, with CIS28 as the check (see table). CIS28-10S has very strong ratooning ability, high-yielding agronomic characters, and good grain quality. Floral characters that influence outcrossing rates are also very good.

Performance of CIS28-10S in Xiangtan, China, 1990. Parameter Sowing time Days to 50% flowering Duration (d) Plant height (cm) Panicle length (cm) Panicles (no./hill) Grains (no./panicle) 1000-grain weight (g) Exserted stigma (%) CIS28-10S CIS28 (check] 25 Apr 15 Jul 111 66 18 14.2 131.5 26 48.3 25 Apr 25 Jul 121 85 17.2 12.1 135.1 25.8 42.6

The critical stage of sterility transformation is about 15 Jul and fertility transformation 20 Sep under the climatic

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

conditions of Xiangtan. Under natural conditions, there is no pollen in the anther 15 Jul-20 Sep. We consider sunlight period to be the primary factor affecting its sterility and fertility transformation; air temperature is not important. This means it is a truly photoperiodsensitive, genic male-sterile rice.

Breeding methods tissue culture


Embryogenic cell suspension and plant regeneration from protoplasts of indica rice
G. C. Ghosh Biswas and F. J. Zapata, Tissue Culture Laboratory, Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biochemistry, IRRI

Protoplasts were cultured in 60- 15mm plastic petri dishes containing 3 ml MS1 medium at 1-2 105 pp/ml, and maintained in the dark at 25 1 C. After 3-4 wk, the agarose layer was cut into four blocks and transferred to a fresh medium without glucose but supplemented with 3.0% sucrose. For plant regeneration, 100 calli about 4-5 mm in diameter were transferred to test tubes containing 20 ml of MSYo medium and kept under 12 h darknight photoperiod at 25 1 C. Media compositions (SK-1, AA, MS1, MSYo) and growth substances used for different steps of the cultures are given in the table.
Media composition. Constituent KNO3 NH4NO3 KH2PO4 CaCl22H2O MGSO47H2O FeSO47H2O Na2EDTA KC1 KI CoCl2 6H2O Na2MoO42H2O CuSO47H2O ZnSO47H2O MnSO44H2O H3BO3 Inositol Nicotinic acid Pyridoxine-HCl Thiamine-HCl Glycine L-glutamine L-aspartic acid L-arginine Sucrose Glucose Casein hydrolysate 2,4-D NAA Kinetin GA3 Agar Agarose PH

The type of callus used (see figure, 1) was highly suitable for developing a suspension culture composed of small groups of cytoplasmic and starchcontaining embryogenic cells (2). Protoplasts isolated from this suspension displayed dense cytoplasm (3). The first division was observed after 4 d of culture (4); multicellular structures were formed after 8-10 d of culture (5). Within 3 wk of culture, most of the structure underwent further growth leading to the direct formation of recognizable globular embryoids (6). Colony formation was counted at this stage. About 0.5-0.75% plated protoplasts formed colonies. Upon transfer to

Amount (mg/liter) SK-1 3,150


-

AA
-

MS1 1,900 1,650 170 440 370 27.85 37.25 0 0.83 0.025 0.25 0.025 8.6 22.3 6.2 100 0.5 0.5 0.1 2.0
-

MSYo 1,900 1,650 170 440 370 27.85 37.25 0 0.83 0.025 0.25 0.025 8.6 22.3 6.2 100 0.5 0.5 0.1 2.0
-

Cell suspension established from antherderived callus of indica rice cultivar IR43 was used for protoplast isolation and culture. Callus was induced following the standard anther culture technique developed at IRRI: Anthers inoculated individually in plastic petri dishes (60 15 mm) containing 6 ml of SK-1 medium, and cultures incubated in the dark at 25 1 C for 1 mo. Embryogenic calli (approximately 2 g) were selected and placed in 125-ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 ml of liquid AA medium to initiate suspension cultures. The cultures were placed on a gyrotary shaker (120 rpm) in the dark at 25 1 C. Liquid medium was replaced every 5-6 d. After 3-4 mo, the actively dividing embryogenic cell suspension established was maintained by weekly subculturing at 1:4 dilution (suspension inoculum:fresh medium). To isolate protoplasts, 3- to 4-d-old cells were incubated for 4 h in a solution containing 1.0% Cellulase Onozuka RS, 0.2% Pectolyase Y-23,5 mM MES, CPW salts, and 13% mannitol at pH 5.6. The protoplasts were sieved through 45- to 25-m nylon mesh, collected by centrifuging at 100 g for 5 min, and washed 3 times in CPW salts containing 13% mannitol.

540 150 185 27.85 37.25 1.0 0.25 0.025 10 22.3 6 100 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0
-

170 440 370 27.85 37.25 2,940 0.83 0.025 0.25 0.025 8.6 22.3 6.2 100 0.5 0.5 0.1 75.0 877 266 228 30,000
-

40,000
-

90,000
-

30,000

500 0.75 2.5 0.75 8,000


-

2.0 0.2 0.1


-

1.0
-

1.0 1.0
-

5.8

5.8

5,000 5.8

8,000 5.8
-

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

Protoplast culture and plant regeneration from indica rice. 1. Type of callus used to initiate cell suspension. 2. Cells from the embryogenic cell suspension culture. 3. Freshly isolated protoplast. 4. Dividing protoplast. 5. Multicellular structures formed from protoplasts. 6. Globular embryoid from protoplast. 7. Organized embryogenic callus obtained from protoplast-derived colonies. 8. Albino plant from protoplast-derived callus.

a fresh medium, the protocolonies continued to grow and formed white embryogenic calli with secondary embryoids on their surfaces. Organized sectors with cup-shaped scutellar structures (7) developed in some of the protoplast-derived calli. Six percent of the transferred calli responded, producing 11 albino plants (8).

Yield potential
Herbage and grain yield of deepwater rices in the field
T. Kupkanchanakul, K. Kupkanchanakul, and S. Roontun, Huntra Rice Experiment Station, Ayutthaya 13000, Thailand; and B. S. Vergara, Agronomy, Plant Physiology, and Agroecology Division, IRRI

laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Dry seeds of deepwater rice cultivars were sown at 120 kg/ha onto plowed soil 5 May 1989. Seedlings emerged midMay. The plants experienced drought

stress from mid-Jul to the first week of Aug. Herbage was cut twice at the highest collar level of the last fully developed leafon 14 Aug (90 d after emergence [DE]) and 13 Sep (120 DE).

Table 1. Herbage and grain yield of 20 deepwater rice cultivars. Huntra Rice Experiment Station, Ayutthaya, Thailand, 1989 WS. a Cultivar Ban Daeng Huntra 60 Khao Hoi Khao Kaset Khao Lod Chong Khao Mali Khao Praguad Khao Puang Nak Khao Rachinee Leb Mue Nahng 111 Luang Pratharn Mali Tawng Nahng Khiew Pan Tawng Pin Gaew 56 Plai Ngahm RD19 Sai Bua Sam Ruang Tapow Gaew 161 LSD 0.05
a DE = days after emergence.

Herbage yield (t/ha) 90 DE 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.2 120 DE 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 ns Total 1.0 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.6 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.4 ns Control 2.2 3.1 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.7 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.2 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.4 2.8 2.2 2.6 1.8

Grain yield (t/ha) Cut 2.4 3.2 2.1 2.5 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.5 3.0 2.1 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.9 2.4 2.7 3.0 2.4 2.6 2.0 Difference +0.2 +0.1 +0.0 +0.4 +0.5 +0.1 +0.4 +0.2 +0.4 0.1 +0.1 +0.1 +0.0 +0.4 +0.4 +0.3 +0.2 +0.1 +0.1 +0.2

Some characteristics of deepwater riceluxurious growth, poor light transmission in the canopy because of long and droopy leaves, and lodging susceptibilitycan be improved by herbage removal. Deepwater rice cultivars also have traits that increase herbage production: high biomass production and very long growth duration. Varieties may respond differently to leaf cutting. We studied the effect of leaf cutting on herbage yield, grain yield, and agronomic characteristics of deepwater rice cultivars under natural field conditions at the Huntra Rice Experiment Station in the 1989 wet season (WS). Twenty deepwater rice cultivars and two herbage treatments were evaluated. The experiment was

10

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

Cultivars differed significantly in herbage yield at 90 DE, but not at the second cutting (Table 1). Mali Tawng, Pan Tawng, and Khao Puang Nak produced high herbage yields under drought stress, suggesting their potential for herbage production in deepwater areas that experience drought at the vegetative stage before flooding. Mean grain yields were not significantly different and had no relationship to herbage yield. The relationship between grain yield differences and herbage yields was also low. The interaction between cultivars and herbage cutting was not significant, indicating a similar response to herbage cutting.

Mean grain yield of all cultivars with herbage cutting was significantly higher, a result mainly of more panicles/unit area. Spikelet number/panicle, fertility, and 1,000-grain weight were not affected by herbage cutting. Tiller number/unit area and harvest index increased significantly with herbage cutting but plant height and dry matter production at harvest decreased. Percentage of productive tillers and growth duration were not affected (Table 2). Herbage cutting reduced plant height, but increased light transmission in the canopy, leading to higher tiller survival and, thus, to more panicles/unit area. That increased grain yield.

Table 2. Effect characteristics Huntra Rice Thailand, 1989 Character

of herbage removal on agronomic of 20 deepwater rice cultivars. Experiment Station, Ayutthaya, WS. Control 2.4 103 120 87.7 26.9 119 86 204 12.3 Cut 2.6 117 116 86.9 27.0 134 87 181 10.3 Differencea + + + + + 0.20** 14** 4 0.88 0.06 15** 1 23** 2.01**

Grain yield (t/ha) Panicles/m2 Spikelets/panicle Fertility (%) 1000-grain weight (g) Tillers/m2 at maturity Productive tillers (%) Height (cm) Dry matter at harvest (t/ha) Harvest index Duration (d)

0.22 0.28 232 232

+ 0.06** 0

a ** = significant at the 1% level.

Leaf venation in rice Oryza sativa L.


M. Shahid, A. Majid, M. Iqbal, T. Latif, M. J. Mirza, and F. A. Faiz, Breeding Section, Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, Pakistan

The relationship of leaf vein frequency and components of transport system is important to better understand the assimilate and its relationship to photo-

synthesis. There is a positive correlation between the ratio of mesophyll thickness to interveinal distance in the leaf and photosynthetic rate per unit area. We studied rice leaf vein frequency after flowering on 20 varieties during 1987-88. Veins per unit area were counted on the flag leaf of the main culm of 30 plants/variety (10/replication). Vein frequency ranged from 5.62/mm to 3.79/mm, with an average 4.70/mm (see table). Variety 4048-3 had the

highest vein frequency. The ratio of small vein to large vein also showed considerable differences among the varieties. The highest was 5.40 for Bas 370.

Simulation of yield potential of rice varieties in Cauvery delta zone, Tamil Nadu
M. N. Budhar, S. Palanisany, and A. A. Kareem, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai 612101, Tamil Nadu, India

Small and large vein frequency ratio in 20 rice varieties. Lahore, Pakistan. Variety 4048-3 Bas 370 1053-1-2 4439 Bas 385 PK 3729-4 IR9 IR8 PK2480-7-3-1 PK3058-2-2-2 IR28 KS282 IR6 PK2001-1-5-5-1 IR64 PK3727-5 PK1385-9-1-B-1 PK3727-2 PK1385-9-1-B-12 PK1385-9-1-B-13 LSD values Mean vein frequency 5.62 5.38 5.32 5.32 5.23 4.90 4.77 4.63 4.60 4.59 4.58 4.56 4.56 4.55 4.52 4.50 4.34 4.32 4.02 3.79 0.14 Small vein Mean 4.29 4.54 3.90 4.07 3.69 4.12 3.98 3.83 3.79 3.81 3.80 3.77 3.77 3.77 3.75 3.84 3.55 3.55 3.25 2.99 0.12 CV (%) 12.90 1.95 9.07 11.53 5.63 8.32 8.60 4.32 4.73 5.86 2.37 3.19 3.57 3.96 12.77 7.29 8.32 8.33 11.10 2.50 0.10 Large vein Mean 1.33 0.84 1.33 1.25 1.54 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.78 0.78 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.79 0.77 0.77 0.80 CV (%) 13.57 10.55 13.60 14.40 10.67 11.22 9.12 4.40 16.80 10.65 7.59 14.86 12.43 11.37 8.47 22.20 13.13 9.25 4.73 14.86 at alpha 5% Small vein: large vein ratio

3.22 5.40 2.99 3.26 2.39 5.25 5.04 4.79 4.68 4.88 4.87 4.71 4.78 4.83 4.87 4.99 4.49 4.61 4.22 3.74

We validated the ability of the L1D module of the MACROS simulation model developed at IRRI to predict the potential yield of rice varieties IR20, CO 43, and ADT38. The experiment was conducted in 1989 under irrigated conditions. Water, nutrients, and plant protection measures ensured that crop growth rate depended only on weather. Experimental and simulated yields agreed more satisfactorily for local varieties CO 43 and ADT38 than for IR20 (see table).
Experimental and simulated grain yields of rice at TRRI, Aduthurai, India, 1989. Variety IR20 CO 43 ADT38 Grain Experimental 4.5 5.3 yield (t/ha) Agreement (%) 60 6.5 81 5.8 81

Simulated 7.6

4.8

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

11

Relationship of flag leaf area to yield, filled grains per panicle, and panicle length in upland rice varieties
M. K. Bashar, E. Haque, R. K. Das, and N. M. Miah, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI). Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh

Table 1. Analyses of variances in 8 upland rice varieties or lines for yield and yield-contributing characters. BRRI, 1989. Variety or line BR1888-29-2-2-2 BR1888-29-2-2-3 BR1890-6-1-1-2 BR1890-10-2-1-1 BR1890-10-2-1-4 BR20 BR21 Hashikalmi Variance CV (%) Flag leaf area (cm2) 41.1 3.97 44.5 6.84 51.5 9.61 54.0 3.59 41.5 3.23 37.4 3.73 42.9 4.45 26.7 0.26 212.1** 10.2 Yield (t/ha) 3.62 3.90 3.82 3.66 3.24 3.46 3.70 1.97 1.16** 7.0 0.47 0.25 0.42 0.06 0.15 0.45 0.29 0.20 Filled grains (no./panicle) 118 11.27 142 10.39 136 24.44 133 17.50 122 10.69 133 17.67 112 7.23 63 0.58 1876.71** 8.8 Panicle length (cm) 26.3 24.8 25.9 26.3 25.8 23.3 25.9 20.8 11.25** 3.1 0.80 0.55 0.55 1.10 1.00 0.23 0.76 0.64

Eight upland rice varieties and breeding lines were direct seeded during 1989 wet season, in a randomized complete block design with three replications to determine the relationship of flag leaf area to yield, panicle length, and number of filled grains per panicle. Flag leaf area was measured using the formula K x L x W before leaf senescence. The characters studied differed significantly among the entries (Table 1). The characters were highly correlated among themselves and with flag leaf area (Table 2). This indicates that flag leaf area has a significant influence on grain yield, directly or indirectly, through number of

filled grains/panicle and through panicle length. The contribution of flag leaf area to yield was confirmed by regression analysis. All three characters showed linear relationships with flag leaf area (see figure). We conclude that flag leaf area can be used as a selection criterion for the improvement of high-yielding upland rice.

Table 2. Correlation coefficients among flag leaf area, yield, filled grains, and panicle length in upland rice, BRRI, 1989. Components Correlation coefficient a 0.82* 0.79* 0.84** 0.92** 0.7 1 * 0.83*

Flag leaf area and yield Flag leaf area and filled grains/panicle Flag leaf area and panicle length Filled grains/panicle and yield Filled grains/panicle and panicle length Panicle length and yield
a

* =significant at the 5% level. ** =significant at the 1% level.

Relationships of yield (a), number of filled grains per panicle (b), and panicle length (c) to flag leaf area in upland rice. BRRI, 1989.

Pest resistance diseases


A new field inoculation method for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoo)
Xie Guanlin, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou, China

Bacterial leaf streak caused by Xoo has become a major disease of rice in China. Breeding for disease resistance has been

given more attention. An efficient field inoculation method for screening was needed. We evaluated eight inoculation methods 1987-90. The modified improved needle-inoculation method gave 100% leaf infection (see table). The inoculation tool has three parts: inoculation needles, inoculation suspension box, and inoculation suspension

storage bottle. Four pins are fixed on a 5-mm-long and 4-mm-wide rubber (another piece of rubber is stuck on the end of the pins for convenience in handling). A 2-cm-thick, 5-cm-long, 5-cm-wide sponge is placed in a suitable box. On one side of the box, a 10-cm-tall plastic bottle is inserted so the inoculum suspension can flow to the sponge. Twenty rice leaves can be pricked simultaneously. When the pins are inserted into the leaves, the bacterial suspension on the sponge is squeezed

12

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

Comparison of bacterial leaf streak inoculation methods. Method Modified improved needle Common needle Brushing Smearing Sandpaper rubbing Seedling soak Spraying Natural infection
a

Leaves infected (%) 100 100 94.2 90.3 86.1 59.7 54.6 0-100

Moisture Suitable Effi- Volume of Concentration needed after period for ciency a suspension needed (cells/ml) inoculation inoculation 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 Little Little Moderate Moderate Moderate Large Large None or large 107-10 8 107-108 107-1 08 108-10 9 107-10 8 106-107 108-109 No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes All growth stages All growth stages At seedling, tillering At seedling, tillering All growth stages At seedling At seedling, booting All growth stages

Suitable place for inoculation Field, greenhouse Greenhouse Greenhouse Greenhouse Field Greenhouse Field Field

Variety b R BG155 BG162 BG178 BG187 YG12 YG15 YG25 YG62 YG189 YG234 KG247 YG275 YG301 YG304 YG307 YG332 YG353 DG15 EG4 EG23 EG30 HG32 HG40 LG5 LG6 LG9 LG17 LG18 LG19 LG50 MG3 MG15 MG22 MG23 MG26 CG1 CG5 CGl1 CG15 CG20 CG34 CG35 CG40 CG60 CG61 CG74 CG84 CG93 CG116 CG128 CG178 Cas V5 OG6 OG7 OG8 OG9 OG10 OG13 OG14 OG15 OG17 OG19 OG20 OG21
a

Varieties (no.) with indicated response S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 I 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 I 3 1 0 2 0 1 1 3 2 2 3 +0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 5 1 2 6 0 2 1 3 0 1 3 3 0 3 4 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 3 2 0 1 5 3 2 2 3 0 4 2 1 3 0 2 1 1 3 1

Based on the time required for preparing inoculum and inoculation. 1 = most efficient.

into the leaves. When the suspension on the sponge is used up, it can be replaced by squeezing the bottle. We can inoculate rice plants for 2 h at a time.

The method is simple, more effective, and more efficient for field inoculation.

Resistance of 99 Oryza glaberrima Steud. varieties to blast


D. Silue and J. L. Notteghem, Laboratoire de Phytopathologie, CIRAD/IRAT B.P. 5035, 34032 Montpellier Cedex 1, France

Responsesa of 99 Oryza glaberrima varieties to 10 strains of Pyricularia grisea in Bouake, Ivory Coast.

Varietyb R TG6 TGl0 TG11 TG17 TG18 TG19 TG25 TG34 TG59 UG13 UG26 UG30 UG38 UG67 To 533 Lib 1 c Zak 3 c Zak 4 Zak IRAT c Zak ORSTOM c Zak MAN c Kpecekre N Kpecekre P BG4 BG5 BG14 BG24 BG28 BG57 BG67 BG70 BG73 BG131 BG132 BG136 BG142
6 10 1 8 8 9 5 9 6 5 6 5 7 8 9 9 8 8 7 9 6 2 5 7 7 8 6 6 6 8 5 8 9 7 9 9

Varieties (no.) with indicated response S


0 0 6 0 1 0 5 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 6 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0

+4 0 3 2 1 1 0 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 0 1 2 2 2 0 2 2 4 2 3 1 3 3 3 1 5 1 1 2 1 1

Research on blast resistance is most often carried out on Oryza sativa varieties. The African rice species O. glaberrima has not been well studied. We analyzed blast resistance in 99 glaberrima varieties of different origins in Bouake, Ivory Coast. Four-week-old plants were inoculated by injection of 10 strains of Pyricularia grisea (= P. oryzae) (see table), and then isolated. They exhibited different virulence spectra on O. sativa differentials. Symptoms were recorded on a 6-point scale 7 d after inoculation (class 1 = no lesions or only brown pinpoints visible; class 6 = purple grey lesions without a brown margin). The varieties tested could be categorized as resistant (class 1 to 3), susceptible (class 5 to 6), and intermediate (class 4). All but 32 varieties were susceptible to at least one strain. No variety was susceptible to all strains. Only a few varieties reacted like some differential

10 10 10 9 10 10 9 9 8 9 10 8 9 10 9 8 7 7 7 7 8 9 4 9 7 3 9 7 8 6 9 7 7 7 10 7 6 9 7 8 9 9 9 9 6 7 9 8 4 6 8 8 6 7 5 8 7 7 9 7 6 7 5 6

R = resistant, S = susceptible, +- =intermediate. b TG = Tchad To = Togo; DG, EG, HG, LG, MG =Mali; CG, OG, Cas V5 = Senegal; BG = Guinee Bissau; YG = Guinea Conakry, Zapakpale; and Kpecekre = Ivory Coast. c Zakapkale.

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

13

varieties (results not presented). Few O. glaberrima varieties had the same reaction pattern. These results suggest that numerous specific resistance genes are present in O. glaberrima some of them different from those found in O. sativa. Different combinations of these genes imply the diversity of reactions found. The 32 resistant or intermediate varieties identified divide into two groups. TG10, BG155, BG162, BG178, YG12, YG15, YG247, YG304, and MG26 are resistant to all strains used. This means that these varieties have specific resistance genes, and that corresponding virulence genes are rare in the Ivory Coast pathogen population. The 23 varieties that scored 4 could carry a high level of general resistance. The genetic basis of that resistance should be studied.

Assessing rice resistance to SEF, using two methods. Nigeria, 1989 WS. Deadhearts (%) a Genotype 45 DT (X S.E.) ARC 5823 ARC 5912 ARC 5989 ARC 6157 ARC 6619 ARC 6632 ARC 7255 ARC 10331 ARC 10660 Balam Bhumansan BG 276-5 BG 380 Chekhalopoiretal CR57-MR 1523 Kakatiya Moirangphou Parakulam Phodum Rajendradhan T10 T1477 O. sativa (Koko) O. glaberrima Suraksha Vikramarya Suakoko 8 (susceptible check)
a

Method I 60 DT (X S.E.) 21 24 20 I2 20 34 19 5 16 14 16 21 25 10 10 11 16 10 16 11 13 12 33 8 14 17 3 5 3 2 4 3 5 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 2 45 DT (X S.E.) 16 18 18 6 17 20 11 8 15 9 16 13 14 11 10 10 10 5 14 9 16 14 19 5 16 11 3 3 2 2 3 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 4 3 3 2 2

Method 2 60 DT (X S.E.) 22 25 21 I2 20 31 19 5 17 14 16 22 27 10 10 11 16 10 16 11 13 11 33 9 14 17 3 5 3 2 4 4 5 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 4 3 2 2

Pest resistance insects


Comparison of standard evaluation system and Oates method in assessing stalk-eyed fly resistance
R. C. Joshi and M. D. Winslow, International Institute of Tropical Architecture (IITA), Ibadan; and M. N. Ukwungwu National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI), Badeggi, Nigeria

16 _ 3 19 3 18 2 6 2 17 2 22 2 11 4 83 15 3 91 3 16 3 14 2 13 3 13 4 11 2 11 4 10 2 6 3 15 3 10 3 16 1 14 4 19 3 53 16 2 11 2 34 5

32 4

33 5

30 4

Av of 10 replications. DT = days after transplanting. b Percentage deadhearts computed by Standard evaluation system for rice (SES) (1988). c Percentage deadhearts computed by Oate (1965) method as:

where

X = PXnz 100 number of affected hills P = number of hills in the plot (row) number of deadhearts Xnz = number of tillers in the affected hills

The stalk-eyed fly Diopsis longicornis Macquart is an indigenous dipterous rice stem borer found all over Africa. Infestation by the larva causes deadhearts. We evaluated 27 rice genotypes against stalk-eyed fly during 1989 wet season24 from Asia; one O. sativa (Koko) and one O. glaberrima from Africa; and standard susceptible check Suakoko 8. Adult flies collected in the field were released in a screenhouse sited in an irrigated ricefield at IITA. Deadhearts were assessed by Oate's method (normal practice in Africa) and Standard evaluation system for rice (SES) 45 and 60 d after transplanting (DT). No variety was highly resistant (0 damage). ARC10331, Parakulam, and

O. glaberrima scored resistant (< 10% deadhearts) at 45 and 60 DT by both evaluation methods (see table). In all other varieties, more deadhearts were found at 60 DT than at 45 DT, probably because the flies were confined, and additional young tillers became susceptible as the plants

approached maximum tillering. Results of both evaluation methods were comparable at 45 and 60 DT. We recommend that screening be evaluated using SES. It is as precise as Oates method, and is easier and faster. Oates method is practical only when a few genotypes are screened. Vidarbha region, Maharashtra State. We screened 56 promising entries for resistance during 1987-89 wet seasons. Entries were transplanted in 3-mlong rows spaced 20 cm apart. Total number of tillers and affected tillers (silvershoots) 50 d after transplanting were recorded on 10 hills selected randomly in each row. Ten entries were resistant (see table).

Reactions of promising rice cultivars to gall midge (GM)


H. G. Kandalkar, G. N. Bobde, S. B. Datke, and V. M. Wankhade, Nationul Agricultural Research (NAR) Project, Sub Research Station, Sakoli 441802, Maharashtra, India

GM Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) is the most important pest of rice in

14

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

Reaction of promising rice entries to gall midge infestation in the field. 1987-89 wet seasons. Average silvershoots (%) 0-5 Lines CR404-48, CR407-19, CR401-7, CR401-6, Neela, CR404-3-2, CR95-181-2, SKL-99-15-5-25-5, Samalie, and Sarasa Usha, SKL-6-1-23, Chinoor, SKL-11-33-3-9-2, and Sye-4-119-10-3-9-3 N22, Cauvery, Ratna, Sye-23-24, Sye-9-16-10, SKL-37-33-31-19, SKL-10-3, SKL-780-07-32-11-5, SKL-47-12, SKL-3-11, SKL-6950-25-22, SKL-l4-26-1-20-85-5, SKL-47-8, SKL-83-18-23-16-19, Pusa 33, Tuljapur 1, Ratnagiri 24, Tellahamsa, Patel 3, Sye-473-2131-15-1-3-4, Sye-148-95, Sye-75, Sye-1-1 19-39-6-4-5, Sye-1-4841-17, Sye-34-4-39, Sye-228-1025-9-7-18, RP4-14, Pankaj, IR28, Jagannath, and CR407-6-2 SKL-6, Sye-3-43-57, Sye-88-133-31, Sye-1-84-1-17, Sye-17-6-781-31-26-3, Sye-158-32-36-23, Sye-3-43-57, RTN 68-1, TN1, Jaya (check)

5-10 10-20

20 or more

to termite attack among upland varieties. Of 16 International Upland Rice Yield Nursery-Early cultures tested in replicated trials during 1989 wet season (WS), IR47686-4-5-B1 and IR47686-9-4 were highly susceptible to Microtermes sp. Damage was as high as 90%. Of test entries of the International Upland Rice Observational Nursery grown during 1989 WS, ITA257 was susceptible. In 1990 WS, IR47686-4-5-B1, IR47686-9-4, ITA257, and several other promising upland rice genotypes were grown in a four-row observational nursery. Test plots were interchanged to partially eliminate infested plot interference. The test site was surrounded by field borders planted to perennial Lantana species on two sides and maize crop on the other two. Infestation on the three entries was consistent with cumulative reduction in plant population at 50 d after sowing; it

ranged from 47% in ITA257 to 63% in IR47686-4-5-B1. Seedlings were more susceptible to termite attack than were germinating seeds. Reduction in plant population in the other varieties was less than 3%. The selective damage to certain genotypes indicates varietal preference. This could be due to variation in rooting depth. Our preliminary observations indicate that genotypes such as Brown Gora that have relatively deeper root systems are less damaged than genotypes having horizontal root systems. It seems possible to breed for tolerance for termite infestation. IR47686-4-5-B1 could be used as a susceptible check, but a cultivar exhibiting consistently low infestation under high termite pressure is needed for a resistant check. We are working on a mass screening technique to identify suitable donors of termite tolerance.

Integrated germplasm improvement irrigated


Properties of two new rice varieties released in India
M. K. Bhashyam and B. Vidyachandra, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570013, India
Technological properties of Mandyavijaya and IR30864. Quality attribute Grain yield (t/ha) Husk content (%) Milled rice yield (%) Length (mm) Length/breadth ratio Normalized grain weight (mg/cm) a Protein (%) Amylose (%) Cooking time (min) Cooked rice volume (ml/100g) Texture Consistency Appearance of milled rice Overall
a

Pest resistance other pests


Variations in termite susceptibility in rice varieties
M. Variar, J. S. Chauhan, D. Maiti, and V. S. Chauhan, Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (CRURRS), Hazaribagh 825301, India

rice

varieties

Mandyavijaya IR30864 7.5 20.1 73.9 5.7 2.85 22.5 7.8 30.4 17 380 Soft Very fluffy Bright, translucent Highly acceptable 7.5 18.4 75.6 6.85 3.19 27.0 7.1 29.0 16 360 Soft Fluffy Bright, translucent Highly acceptable

Upland ricefields are well suited to infestations by subterranean termites (family Termitidae) because they are not flooded. Damage due to termites is widespread in the upland rice areas of Chotanagpur, Bihar. Infestations are heavier in the red loam soils, especially during drought. We have observed severe infestations at on-farm research sites in several villages. Traditional gora rices are perceptibly less damaged than highyielding rices such as Kalinga III (2.5-50% reduction in plant population). Preliminary investigations at CRURRS indicated differential reaction

Mandyavijaya and IR30864 were recently released for cultivation in Karnataka. We tested grain samples collected from the V.C. Farm, Mandya, for technological properties and consumer acceptability. Mandyavijaya, derived from Sona and Mahsuri, is semitall (average plant height 97 cm), with 140- to 145-d duration and 7-7.5 t/ha yield potential. IR30864 is a selection from the cross 17-38/IR7801-12-1//IR46/Khao Lo with 135-140 d duration, and with 7.5-8 t/ha yield potential. Both varieties largely satisfy the technological norms and cooking and eating qualities desirable under Indian conditions (see table). Husk is in the optimum 18-20% range, with 74% milling outturn. Milled rice is bright and translucent, free of chalkiness. Protein content averages

Normalized grain = 10 kernel weight (mg) weight kernel length (cm)

7.1% in IR30864 and 7.8% in Mandyavijaya. Both varieties have high amylose. Milled rice took an average 16-17 min to cook. Cooked rice was soft and fluffy. Mandyavijaya gave more straw yield than its parents. IR30804 exhibited salt tolerance.

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

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IR66 promising as a short-duration variety for the Mekong Delta


L. T. Du, N. T. N. Hue, P. C. Voc, and N. V. Luat, Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (CLRRI), Omon, Hau Giang, Vietnam

We selected several breeding lines for yield potential and adverse soil tolerance

from the national breeding program and from 1985 IRTP nurseries. Average yield of IR66 in CLRRI trials was the same as or higher than that of commercial check NN6A, especially in slightly acid sulfate soil (Table 1). IR66 was moderately resistant to brown planthopper biotype 2 and blast, and susceptible to bacterial blight (Table 2).

IR66 was advanced to adaptive research trials in farmers fields in 1988. Good grain quality rice varieties (IR64. OM80, Nang huong, Mot bui) are grown on a large scale in export rice-growing areas. IR66 is considered another major rice variety.
Table 2. Reaction of IR66 to insects and diseases at CLRRI. Variety Reactiona to BPH 3 3 3 99 BI 3-5 7-9 1 BB 5-7 7 2 8

Table 1. Yield of IR66 in 1985-88 dry and wet seasons at CLRRI, Omon, Haugiang, Vietnam. Yield (t/ha) Variety 1985 IR66 NN6A (Check) CV (%) LSD (0.05) 5.5 5.2 18.2 0.5 Dry season 1986 4.8 4.5 10.8 1987 6.1 5.8 8.3 ns 1986 5.7 5.2 11.0 0.9 Wet season 1987 5.8 5.2 3.4 0.3 1988 4.8 4.6 5.2 0.6 5.5 5.1 Average

IR66 NN6A Resistant checkb Susceptible check

= IR36 for brown planthopper (BPH), IR8 for blast (Bl), Composelak for bacterial blight (BB). c Susceptible check = TN1 for BPH, NN7A for B1, IR8 for BB.

a By the Standard evaluation system for rice. b Resistant check

Seed technology
Comparison of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and concentration inoculation (CI) in inspecting rice seed for Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola
Xie Guanlin, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou; and Wang Gongjin, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing, China

Bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola is a quarantined plant disease in China. Inspection is

very important when seeds are transported within the country. We compared the efficiency of IRMA with that of CI for testing seed. IRMA had many advantages over CI: It has greater sensitivity and accuracy. and is faster (see table). It took only 4 h to test one batch of samples for bacteria. A smaller 4-g sample could be tested. The results are more stable, and less affected by environment. Seeds can be tested in the laboratory. Seed inspection by CI is often done May-Sep, because temperatures are too low in Oct-Apr. With IRMA, testing can be done anytime.

Comparison of IRMA and CI in seed inspection for detecting X. c. pv. oryzicola. Description Concentration needed (cells/ml) Time required (h) Accuracy (%) Sample weight (g) Precision Efficiency Factors affecting results Results Test site Detection time IRMA 5 10 2 - 10 3 4 96 4 High High Few Stable Laboratory Anytime CI 105 98 63 30 Low Low Many Variable Field or greenhouse May-Sep

CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Soils
Effect of soil moisture on boron availability and uptake
J. C. Katyal and B. Singh, All-India Coordinated Scheme of Micronutrients in Soils and Plants, Punjab Agricultural University. Ludhiana 141004, India

We explored the effect of changing soil moisture from aerobic (field capacity) to anaerobic (saturation or continuous

flooding) on boron (B) availability. This moisture cycle occurs in rice grown on permeable coarse-textured soils with frequent irrigation. Porcelain pots (34 cm diameter 29 cm height) with a leaching outlet on the side near the bottom were filled with 15 kg sandy loam soil (pH 8.6, 0.10% organic C, electrical conductance 0.30 dS/m in 1:2 soil water ratio, 0.57% CaCO 3) treated with 60, 25, 25, and 1 mg N, P, K, and B (as H3BO 3)/kg soil.

Six 40-d-old PR106 seedlings were transplanted in each pot. Moisture treatments were continuous flooding to 5-cm depth with no leaching. Field capacity was maintained by adding water on alternate days. Soil solution was collected by suction from all pots at 7, 14, 22, and 28 d after transplanting (DT) and pH, Eh, , and electrical conductivity (EC) estimated. To determine B, an aliquot of the soil solution was mixed with azomethine-H in

16

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

the presence of a buffer-making reagent (this avoided interference due to Al, Cu, and Fe). The intensity of yellow color developed was read at 420 nm on a spectrophotometer. Three rice hills from each pot were harvested 30 DT. Dry matter was recorded and 1 g samples ashed at 500 C for 1 h were dissolved in 20 ml of 0.36 NH2SO4. A 2-ml aliquot of the solution was-analyzed for B following the azomethine-H procedure. High B concentration at the beginning of both water regimes declined over time. The decrease was faster and steeper in field capacity pots. At 7 DT, the soil solution extracted from the pots at field capacity had about 1.5 times higher B concentration than that extracted from the flooded pots. This trend continued for 2 wk, then reversed (see figure). Irrespective of water regime, coefficients of correlation (r = 0.79**) and the closely parallel changes in water soluble B and EC indicate that B closely follows EC. Coefficients of correlation between water-soluble B and pH, Eh, or r CO 2 were not significant. Dry matter yield of rice in pots maintained at field capacity was about

Periodic changes in EC and concentration of B in soil solution under field capacity and under continuous flooding. Ludhiana, India.

40% less than that of rice in flooded pots (see table). Dry matter yield of continuously flooded rice was higher, and soil solution B at 15-30 DT higher, but uptake of B was lower than in rice grown under field capacity. It appears that aerobic conditions favor higher B uptake by rice than do anaerobic conditions. 30.0 C. Temperature of the standing water ranged from 32.2 to 34.4 C in imperfectly drained soil and from 30.6 to 32.8 C in poorly drained soil. Mean daily soil temperature ranged from 26.7 to 37.5 C in imperfectly drained soil and 26.4 to 34.7 C in poorly drained soil (see table). The average maximum soil temperature at 5-cm depth was 35.6 0.4 C at 1500 h in imper-

Dry matter yield and B uptake by 30-d-old rice plants under different soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture Continuous flooding Field capacity S.E. () Dry matter yield (g/pot) 13.2 8.2 0.5 B uptake (g/pot) 290 361 10

Variation in temperature of irrigated rice soils with different drainage characteristics


L. C. Dharmasri and B. V. R. Punyawardena, Division of Soil Science, Agriculture Research Centre, Angunukolapellessa, Sri Lanka

Soil temperatures in irrigated ricefields vary with time of day. We measured soil temperature at two positions in the soil catena representing imperfectly drained and poorly drained sandy clay loam soil in an irrigated transplanted ricefield during March 1989. Soil temperature at 5-cm depth was measured at 1-h intervals from 0700 to 1700 h for five consecutive days during the vegetative growth period, when fertilizer was scheduled to be topdressed. The imperfectly drained field was irrigated once in 4 d; the poorly drained field, once in 6 d. Temperature of the irrigation water ranged from 27.8 to

fectly drained soil, and 34.1 . 0.2 C at 1400 h in poorly drained soil. Soil temperature increased 8.4 C in 8 h from the nighttime minimum in imperfectly drained soil, and 7.2 C in 7 h in poorly drained soil. The widest temperature difference between the two soils was 1.7 C at 1500 h. Maximum soil temperature could be measured 1400 to 1500 h.

Variation in soil temperature of different soil drainage classes. Angunukolapellessa, Sri Lanka. Imperfectly drained soil Time (h) 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Mean daily temperature (C) 27.2 0.2 27.4 0.2 28.2 0.2 29.4 0.2 31.1 0.2 32.9 0.2 34.4 0.4 35.4 0.4 35.6 0.4 35.1 0.3 33.9 0.2 Temperature range (C) 26.7 26.7 27.5 28.9 30.6 32.2 33.6 34.4 35.0 34.4 33.6 28.1 28.3 28.9 29.7 31.7 33.3 36.4 36.9 37.5 36.4 34.7 Poorly drained soil Mean daily temperature (C) 26.9 0.1 27.2 0.2 27.7 0.2 28.7 0.2 30.2 0.4 31.8 0.4 33.1 0.3 34.1 0.2 33.9 0.2 33.7 0.3 32.9 0.5 Temperature range (C) 26.4 26.7 27.2 28.1 29.2 30.8 32.2 33.6 33.3 32.5 31.1 21.2 27.8 28.1 29.2 31.1 33.3 33.9 34.7 34.1 34.4 33.9

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

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Fertilizer management organic sources


Effect of sesbania, rice straw, and pre-incubation on urea hydrolysis in wetland soil
C. S. Khind, A. Garg, and M. S. Bajwa, Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana 141001, India

Interest in using leguminous green manure (LGM) crops has increased in the face of high costs of chemical fertilizers and growing concern for maintaining long-term soil productivity and ecological sustainability. Short-duration LGM crops can be inserted into intensified cropping systems, for incorporation before the main crop. The large amounts of residue from high-yielding cultivars also are being burned or incorporated. LGM crops or crop residues usually are allowed to decompose for different lengths of time before the main crop is sown with N fertilizer application. The transformation of applied N may be influenced by incorporated LGM crops and crop residues. We studied the effect of incorporating sesbania and rice straw residue, and the length of decomposition, on urea hydrolysis in a wetland soil. Experimental soil was loamy sand (Typic Ustochrept) with pH 8.1, EC 0.16 dS/m, 0.34% organic C, 0.06% N, and CEC 8.3 meq/l00 g. Ten-g soil samples were treated with 0.2% sesbania green manure and 0.5% rice straw (dry weight

basis). The soil samples were submerged and incubated at 30 1C for 1, 7, and 14 d. After incubation, soil samples were treated with a urea solution at 200 g N/g soil. Two samples from each treatment were taken 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after urea application and extracted with 2 M KCl containing 5 g phenylmercuric acetate (PMA)/milliliter. Urea concentrations in the KCl-PMA extract were determined by the diacetyl monoxime method. Urea hydrolysis proceeded more rapidly in soil treated with rice straw than in soil treated with sesbania. It increased with higher concentrations of amend-

ments and with longer periods of incubation. Urea hydrolysis was calculated as ln ( a-x ) = ln( a ) - Kt where a = initial concentration of urea-N, x = decrease in urea-N concentration up to time t, and K = specific rate constant. Plots of the logarithm of concentration of urea left unhydrolyzed against time t showed linear relationships, indicating that, irrespective of sesbania and rice straw treatment, urea hydrolysis followed first order kinetics. The average time for half the hydrolysis to occur ( t 1/2) varied from 0.37 to 1.86 d; the reaction coefficient for the soil varied from 0.373 to 1.875/d (see table).

Regression equations of log ( a-x ) (Y) versus time ( X), R 2, reaction-coefficient ( K), and t 1/2 for soil treated with sesbania and rice straw. Soil treatment a 1-d incubation LGM (0.2%) LGM (0.5%) RS (0.2%) RS (0.5%) 7-d incubation LGM (0.2%) LGM (0.5%) RS (0.2%) RS (0.5%) 14-d incubation Regression equation Y = 2.43 Y = 2.37 Y = 2.25 Y = 2.32 Y = 2.35 Y = 2.40 Y = 2.27 Y = 1.19 .024 X .027X .017 X .031 X .035 X .036 X .033 X .026 X .029 X .027 X .025 X .019 X R2 0.955 0.956 0.662 0.904 0.932 0.989 0.916 0.699 0.794 0.622 0.536 0.565 K (day-1) 0.373 0.504 0.447 0.639 0.732 0.746 0.777 1.131 1.009 1.217 1.468 1.875 t1/2 (d) 1.86 1.38 1.55 1.09 0.95 0.93 0.89 0.61 0.69 0.57 0.47 0.37

LGM LGM RS RS

(0.2%) (0.5%) (0.2%) (0.5%)

Y = 2.05 Y = 1.93 Y = 1.75 Y = 1.53 -

a LGM

= leguminous green manure (sesbania), RS = rice straw.

Multiplication of azolla associated with rice


D. P. Kushari, Ecology Laboratory, Botany Department, Burdwan University, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal, India

Multiplication of azolla is limited by several constraints. We studied producing inoculum in a part of a ricefield for multiplication as an intercrop. On the day rice was transplanted, an area 25 m 2 of 225-m 2 plots was fenced with a coconut cord tied with Aeschynomene

stems (to make the cord buoyant on the floodwater). The wet season experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four treatments and three replications. Plot A: Half of 250 g single superphosphate (SSP), 10 g carbofuran (CF), and 10 g phorate- 10-G (Ph) was spread on the fenced area (the additional inputs were kept in the middle of the plot in three open polythene bags). Plot B: Half of 500 g SSP, 20 g CF, and 20 g Ph were applied the same way as in Plot A.

Plots C and D: control for plots A and B, respectively. The additional SSP was applied at 7-d intervals, the additional CF at 16 d after transplanting when insect infestation on azolla occurred. No insecticide was applied to the rice. Twenty kg fresh biomass of azolla hybrid (IRRI strain No. 4030) was used as inoculum in plots A and B. Half the azolla present in plots A and B was harvested at 4-d intervals and inoculated to plots C and D. Azolla biomass production was high, with no remarkable difference between

18

lRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

plots A and B. Although insects and snails in plots C and D reduced production, 78-79.5 kg inocula produced more than 225 kg biomass within 16 d, fully covering the plots for the first incorporation was (see table). The second incorporation was at 30 d, when about 85 kg biomass (64 kg inoculum + about 10 kg leftover mass in plots A and B + residual mass in plots C and D) also produced about 225 kg biomass. The 25-m2 area generated adequate inocula that multiplied rapidly, to fully cover the entire field twice in 30 d. Cost was 650 g SSP, 15 g CF, and 10 g Ph.

Biomass production potential of azolla in a ricefield. West Bengal, India, 1990 wet season. Parameter Fresh biomass (kg) Plot A B C D A B C D A B C D 4d 25.3 21.0 1.6 x x x x x x 6 4 0.56 8d 16.1 16.3 1.1 x x 3 2 0.56 x x 7 x 1.13 12 d 20.5 20.1 2.3 5 3 4 4 0.56 2 x 5 7 0.56 16 d 16.3 16.1
a a

20 d 20.0 20.5 1.5 x x 22 17 1.69 2 x 9 9 1.69

24 d 18.2 18.0 1.4 x x 5 6 0.65 x x 8 12 1.41

28 d 16.5 16.5 1.4 x x 7 12 0.85 x x 10 14 1.13

30 d 9.3 9.0
a a

SE Insects (no./m 2)

SE Snails (no./m 2 )

SE
a

1.5 12 9 19 22 1.13 2 x 9 9 1.69

1.0 x x 7 12 1.13 9 3 10 13 0.94

All biomass incorporated.

Fertilizer management - inorganic sources


Plastic-coated urea (PCU) as a nitrogen source for lowland rice
E. Tajuddin, M. A. Salam, S. M. S. Hameed, Y. Thomas, K. Varghese, and B. Mathew, Kerala Agricultural University, Cropping Systems Research Center (CSRC), Karamana 695002, India

We compared the response of rice to N from a new PCU (4.5% plastic coating with 44% N) supplied by IFDC and from prilled urea (PU), urea supergranules (USG), urease-inhibited urea (UIU), neem-coated urea (NCU), and rock phosphate-coated urea (RPCU) Jun-Oct 1987 (southwest monsoon) and the residual effect in Oct-Feb 1987 (northeast monsoon) at CSRC (11 N, 77 E, 30 m altitude).

Soil was sandy clay loam, riverine alluvium deposited over laterite, containing 0.7% organic C, 120-8-68 ppm available NPK, pH 5.1, and EC 0.3 dS/m. The experiment was laid out in a splitplot design with five N levels (0, 37.5, 75.0, 112.5, 150 kg N/ha) in the main plots and six sources (PU, USG, UIU, NCU, PCU, and RPCU) in the subplots, with 3 replications. PU and UIU were applied in three equal splits (basal, 20 d after transplanting [DT], and 40 DT); USG was placed at 6 DT; NCU, PCU, SCU, and RPCU were basally incorporated at planting. A uniform basal dose of 26 kg P and 25 kg K/ha was applied. Jaya was the test variety. In the second season, Jaya was transplanted in the same field without altering the layout. A uniform 45-26-25 kg

NPK/ha was applied as PU, superphosphate, and muriate of potash (45 kg N/ha is half the recommended N). Responses to N rate and N sources in the first season were significant (Table 1). A fertilizer testing model (FTM) was fitted to the data on grain yield as
Y = a 1 + b 1 N + g 1N2 + d 2N2 + h d T NT + h T NT 2 + x b 1>0, g 1<0
2N2
2

........

The FTM tested whether response curves for USG, UIU, NCU, PCU, and RPCU were significantly different from response curves to urea. Regression coefficients di, hi, i = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, estimating parameters d i, h i, and their significant levels (Table 2) represent additional effects due to a particular source over the effects of PU. An F test for the additional sum of squares resulting from
Table 2. Fertilizer testing model (FTM) regression coefficients (significance levels and R 2 ). Source PU Additional effects Additional effects Additional effects Additional effects Additional effects Regression coefficient a a bl C1 of USG d2 h2 of UIU d3 h3 of NCU d4 h4 of PCU d5 h5 of RPCU d6 h6 R2 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2.61631 0.02124** -0.00009** 0.01519** -0.00005 0.00446 -0.00004 0.00049 -0.00001 0.02555** -0.00013** 0.00016 -0.00001 0.9122**

Table 1. Influence on grain yield of level and source of nitrogen. Karamana, Trivandrum, India. Grain yield (t/ha) N level (kg N/ha) PU USG Control 37.5 75.0 112.5 150.0 Mean 2.1 3.3 3.8 4.0 3.9 3.6 2.1 3.8 4.5 5.2 4.9 4.2 1987 wet season 1987 dry season

UIU NCU PCU RPCU Mean PU USG UIU NCU PCU RPCU Mean 2.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.6 2.7 3.4 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.5 2.7 4.2 4.9 5.3 4.9 4.4 2.7 3.1 3.9 4.1 3.9 3.5 2.7 3.6 4.1 4.4 4.2 2.7 3.6 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.7 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.3 2.7 3.1 3.3 2.9 2.7 3.0 2.7 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.7 3.5 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.6 2.7 2.6 3.0 2.9 3.4 2.9 2.7 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.1

For comparing N levels (main plot) N sources (subplot) N sources at a fixed N level N levels at a fixed or different level

LSD (0.05) 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3

LSD (0.05) ns 0.2 0.5 0.7

a ** = significant at the 0.01 level.

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Table 3. Mean squares and F test for additional sum of squares corresponding to N sources. Source of additional sum of squares USG UIU NCU PCU RPCU Error
a **

Parameter d 2h 2 d 3h 3 d 4h 4 d 5h 5 d 6h 6 s 2 (df)

Mean square a 0.785 0.015 0.010 1.175** 0.005 0.27 12

= significant at the 0.01 level.

including parameters d ih i = 2 to 6, in FTM is given in Table 3. The significant regression coefficients d 5 h 5 indicate that the response curves of PCU and urea are different. The values d5 > b1 and h5 = c1 indicate that the response of rice to the N in PCU was larger than to that in PU. The effect of PCU was greater than that of all other sources tried.

Carryover effects of N on the succeeding northeast monsoon crop depended on the source of N. PCU at 112.5 kg N/ha had the most carryover effect. The least carryover effects were with RPCU, NCU, UIU, and PU. Total grain yield for both seasons was highest with PCU at 112.5 kg N/ha in the first crop and PU at 45 kg N/ha in the second crop.

Effect of N source on irrigated rice yield in Cameroon


A. C. Roy and J. B. Fokou, IRA-Dschang, P.O. Box 44; and S. B. C. Wanki, UNVDA, P.O. Box 25, Ndop Plain, Cameroon

Irrigated rice has been grown in Ndop Plain, Western Cameroon, since the early 1970s without any specific fertilizer recommendation. To fertilize their rice crops, most farmers use a 20- 10- 10 complex recommended for coffee. We compared the effect on rice yield of three locally available N-fertilizer products (urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), 20-10-10 complex) applied as basal, followed by urea or ammonium sulfate (AS) topdressed during 1987-89 wet seasons (mid-Jul to mid-Dec). Experimental soil was Tropaquept, clay loam texture, pH 5.1, 3.08% organic C, 0.23% total N, 4.5 ppm available P (Bray 1), 39% base saturation, CEC 16.6 meq/100 g, 4.12 meq/100 g Ca, 1.63 meq/100 g Mg, and 0.67 meq/100 g K (NH 4OAc extractable). N (80 kg/ha) was

applied in three equal splits: basal, 21 d after transplanting (DT), and at panicle initiation. A common 26 kg P, 33 kg K/ha were applied as triple superphosphate and muriate of potash. P and K rates were adjusted for the amount of P and K applied with DAP and 20-10-10. Basal fertilizers were broadcast and incorporated before transplanting rice. Fertilizer was topdressed by broadcasting in plots with 5-6 cm standing water, followed by hand stirring into the soil. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Four-wk-old seedlings of IR7167-33-2-3 were transplanted in 20m 2 plots at 25- 15-cm spacing 2 d after basal fertilizer application. The plots were continuously flooded from transplanting to the late dough stage. A 12.56m2 area in the middle of each plot, leaving two border rows on all sides, was harvested for yield measurements. N treatments did not differ significantly in two of the three years (see table). DAP applied basal followed by urea or ammonium sulfate topdressing gave the highest yields.

Effect of neem extract-coated urea on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency of transplanted rice
S. S. Tomar, S. C. Sharma, and A. Sharma, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Agricultural Research Station, Borkhera, Kota 324001 (Rajasthan), India

We evaluated prilled urea (PU) and neem extract-coated urea (NECU) at 90, 120, and 150 kg N/ha during 1988-89 wet seasons. Urea was coated with neem extract in 100: 1 ratio on weight basis. Experimental soil was a deep black Vertisol, with pH 7.7, 0.6% organic C, 25.1 kg available Olsens P/ha, 240.7 kg available K/ha, and 0.2 ppm available Zn. Half the PU was incorporated before transplanting and half in equal topdressings at tillering and panicle initiation. NECU was applied half before transplanting and half at tillering. All plots received 26.4 kg P, 33.2 kg K/ha. Rice variety Jaya was transplanted at 20 10-cm spacing, 3 seedlings/hill. Grain yield was significantly higher with 150 kg N/ha applied as NECU in
Influence of NECU and PU on grain yield and number of productive tillers. Kota India.

Grain yield of irrigated rice as affected by nitrogen source. Ndop Plain, Cameroon. 1987-89 wet seasons.a Treatment b Basal None Urea 20-10-10 20-10-10 DAP DAP LSD (0.05) CV (%)
a Av

Topdress 1 None Urea AS Urea AS Urea

Topdress 2 None Urea Urea Urea Urea Urea

N rate (kg/ha) 0 80 80 80 80 80

Grain yield (t/ha) 1987 2.5 3.4 3.5 3.9 4.3 4.3 1.0 18.1 1988 4.6 6.0 5.5 5.5 5.8 6.2 0.8 10.0 1989 5.1 6.7 6.3 5.4 6.9 6.9 0.8 8.4 Mean

Treatment 4.1 5.4 5.1 4.9 5.7 5.8 Control (no N) 90 kg N/ha, PU 120 kg N/ha, PU 150 kg N/ha, PU 90 kg N/ha, NECU 120 kg N/ha, NECU 150 kg N/ha, NECU LSD (0.05)

Grain yield (t/ha) Mean productive tillers (no./m 2) 1988 1989 3.6 5.0 5.7 6.0 5.7 6.0 6.3 0.4 3.5 5.0 5.6 5.9 5.7 5.9 6.3 0.3 214.0 284.0 294.6 318.6 292.1 306.0 335.9 20.1

of 4 replications. bAS = ammonium sulfate.

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IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

both seasons, except with 150 kg N/ha as PU and 120 kg N/ha as NECU in 1988 (see table). NECU at 90 and 120 kg N/ha gave yields similar to those of PU at 120 and 150 kg N/ha. The superiority of NECU to PU is also shown by the quadratic response functions:

for PU, Y = 3543 + 18 N - 0.011 N 2 , R2 = 0.99; for NECU, Y = 3556 + 31 N - 0.056 N 2 , R2 = 0.99, where Y is yield in kg/ha. The correlation (r = 0.98**) between productive tillers and average grain yield was significant and positive.

Integrated pest management diseases


Outbreak of leaf and neck blast in boro rice crop in Bangladesh
A. K. M. Shahjahan, H. U. Ahmed, M. A. T. Mia, M. A. Hossain, N. R. Sharma, and N. S. Nahar, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh

Epidemics of blast caused by Pyricularia grisea have been recurring in Bangladesh every 3 or 4 yr. In the 1990 dry season (boro) crop, leaf (LBl) and neck blast (NBl) on both local and modem cultivars were higher in some locations than they had been the previous 2 yr. NBl incidence during rice crop maturity (Mar-Apr 1990) was so severe, we surveyed outbreaks in different regions. Disease incidence (%) was assessed in 25-35 fields/region by counting the number of infected and healthy tillers or panicles of 3 3 hills in 9 sampling spots taken in a diagonal direction per field. Severity was rated on a 0-9 scale. The cultivars grown and prevailing tempera-

ture, humidity, and rainfall also were recorded. The outbreak covered an average 45% of the area planted to boro rice, although its intensity varied across locations. Incidence and severity were higher in the northeastern part of the country than in the northern and southwestern parts. Disease occurred on crops growing on all types of land and soil types (see table). In region I, plots with severe NBl were also affected by low temperature. During Jan-Mar 1990, humidity was higher at 0600 h and 1200 h, and the difference between maximum and minimum temperature was less than in 1989 (see figure). The high humidity was unusual, and frequent but light rainfall during the period kept rice leaves wet for longer periods in the morning. This favored blast development. The cultivars grown in the different regions had not changed during the last few years. The reason for the 1990 blast outbreak appears to be related to weather.

Prevailing relative humidity (RH), temperature, and number of rainy days, Jan-Mar 1989 and 1990.

Effect of plant extracts in controlling rice tungro


C. Selvaraj and P. Narayanasamy, Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

Incidence and severity of leaf and neck blast in 1990 dry season crops in some regions of Bangladesh. Region a I II III IV V All Area planted (x 103 ha) 179 605 339 215 139 1477 Fields Area examined infected Land type (no.) (%) 28 35 25 34 27 149 22.8 94.1 4.5 19.4 50.0 44.7 Low medium high Low medium high Low medium Low medium Low medium high Low-high Soil type Incidence (%) LB1 NB1 10-100 1-20 1-75 1-30 5-50 1-100 Severity (0-9) LB1 5-9 3-9 2-9 1-3 4-9 1-9 NB1 3-9 2-5 5-9 1-2 1-3 1-9

Clay loam 5-100 to clay Sandy loam 3-50 to clay loam Clay loam 1-85 Sandy loam 2-10 Clay loam 5-100 to clay Sandy loam 1-100 to clay

a I =Greater Dhaka district, II = Greater Tangail and Mymensingh districts, III = Greater Sylhet district, IV = Greater Rangpur and Dinjpur districts, V = Greater Khulna and Jessore districts. Cultivars grown: I = BR1, BR2, BR11, BR14, IR8, Pajam, and locals; II = BR1, IR8, BR14, Pajam, Purbachi, and locals; III = BR3, BR14, BR17, BR18, IR8, Pajam, and locals; IV = BR9, BR14, and locals; V = IR50, Purhachi, Ratna, and locals.

We screened 32 plant species belonging to 23 familes for their ability to control tungro (see list). Extracts were prepared by grinding plant tissues with sterile water, at 1 ml water/g of tissue, in a mortar and pestle. The macerate was expressed through cotton wool and diluted by adding sterile water to 10% concentration (wt/vol). Detergent was added at 1 ml/liter of extract and the mixture sprayed on 15-d-old ADT31 rice seedlings. Seedlings were inoculated with viruliferous green leafhoppers Nephotettix

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

21

virescens Dist. at 2 insects per plant 24 h after spraying. Control plants were sprayed with 0. 1 % detergent solution alone. Two replications of 10 plants each were maintained for each treatment. Number of plants infected and incubation period were recorded. All plant extracts tested reduced tungro infection. Seed extract of T. terrestris was most effective in reducing tungro infection, followed by leaf extracts of V. negundo var. purpurascens, Catharanthus roseus, and Aloe vera, and stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (see table). The same extracts significantly prolonged incubation. Plants whose extracts were tested for tungro control: Andrographis panniculata (Burm.f) Wall ex Nees. Agave americana Linn. Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold.

Effect of some plant extracts on tungro infection in rice. a Source of extract Tribulus terrestris Vitex negundo purpurascens Cissus quadrangularis Catharanthus roseus Aloe vera Control LSD (P = 0.10) Reduction (%) Incubation of infection period over control (d) 45 (42.13) a 41 (39.82) a 34 34 34 0 3 (35.70) b (35.67) b (35.68) b (0.99) c 12.6 a 12.4 a 12.2 a 12.1 a 11.8 a 10.4 b 0.8

a Figures in parentheses are arc sine transformed values. In a column, figures followed by a common letter are not significantly different.

Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. Trida.x procumbens Linn. Cylindropuntia ramosissima (Engler) Kunth. Cassia auriculata Linn. Carica papaya Linn. Cleome gynandra Linn. Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Ipomoea staphylina Roem and Schultus. oryzae) was inoculated at 10, 20, 30, and 40 d after transplanting. Rabcide was applied at 0.5 g/8 m 2 . Grain yield was highest with spraying at early and late booting and after flowering, and at primary infection (see table). Yield was lowest with no treatment and with one spraying after flowering. Neck Bl was lowest when the crop was sprayed three times and highest with only one spraying at early booting. Results indicate a direct relationship between disease incidence and yield. One application of Rabcide, at primarys infection, controlled B1 adequately. Three applications gave the highest yield, but took three times as much chemical and labor.
Grain yield (kg/100 plants) 1989 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.2 1990 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.6 2.1 1.2

Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Croton bonplantianum Bail. Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poier. Synadenium grandii Hook. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Aloe vera Linn. Urginea indica Kunth. Ficus racemosa Linn. Ficus benghalensis Linn. var. benghalensis King. Acacia nilotica (L) Willd. ex. Del. subsp. indica (Benth) Brepan. Areca catechu Linn. Antigonon leptopus Hook & Arn. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Datura metal Linn. Vitex negundo Linn. negundo. Vitex negundo var. purpurascens Sivarajan & Mold. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Tribulus terrestris Linn.

Optimal stage to apply Rabcide 4, 5, 6, 7tetrachlorophthalide for rice blast (BI) control
M. I. Ahmed and T. Raza, Plant Pathology Department, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Integrated pest management insects


Life history of two braconid parasitoids of rice leaffolder (LF) in the laboratory
Guo Yu-jie, K. L. Heong, and R. P. Basilio, IRRI

We studied the optimum stages for treating rice with Rabcide (4, 5, 6, 7tetrachlorophthalide), an organophosphorus pesticide, in 1989 and 1990. Basmati 385 was transplanted at 31 d after seeding in 2- x 4-m plots. Nine treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Pyricularia grisea (= P.

Grain yield and broken necks of rice following Rabcide application against rice blast. a Neck blast/100 Panicles in 1990 2.5 9.5 4.2 7.2 3.2 4.2 4.2 1.5 17.0

Spraying schedule At primary infection At early booting At late booting After flowering At early booting and after flowering At early booting and late flowering At late booting and after flowering At early and late booting and after flowering No spray
a Each figure is a mean of 4 counts.

Two braconids, Cardiochiles philippinensis (Fig. la) and Macrocentrus philippinensis (Fig. lb), are the dominant parasitoids of LF larvae in the Philippines. We studied their life history under 26 3C temperature and 75 10% relative humidity. Newly emerged parasitoid adults were paired and placed in an oviposition cage (23 cm in diameter x 60 cm high) with 20 3d-instar larvae of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis on potted plants. Host larvae were replaced daily until the parasitoid died. Parasitized larvae were reared on potted rice plants for 7 d, then transferred individually into test tubes (16 mm in diameter x 150 mm high). Fresh rice leaves were provided every other day

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IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

1. Females of parasitoid species Cardiochiles philippinensis (left) and Macrocentrus philippinensis (right). Development of Cardiochiles philippinensis and Macrocentrus philippinensis feeding on 3d-instar larvae of C. medinalis under laboratory conditions.

Developmental stage Egg - larva Pupa Adult Total


aExpressed

C. philippinensis No. 16 16 10 Duration a 9.5 2.7 7.2 1.7 5.9 0.3 22.7 3.8

M. philippinensis No. 14 14 10 Durationa 11.2 2.4 6.6 1.2 11.5 1.8 29.4 3.2

Effects of sublethal insecticide application on rice leaffolder (LF)


W. Tevapuchom, Rice Insects Research Group, Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Bangkhen, Bangkok, Thailand; and K. L. Heong, IRRI

in mean days with standard error at 95% confidence.

2. Daily parasitization by Macrocentrus philippinensis (MP) and Cardiochiles philippinensis (CP) on 3d-instar larvae of C. medinalis. Vertical bars show the standard error at 95% confidence.

until pupation. Ten replications for each species were used. The life cycle of Cardiochiles philippinensis feeding on the 3d-instar larvae of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was 22.7 d; that of M. philippinensis, 29.4 d. The difference was due mainly to adult longevity (see table). Cardiochiles philippinensis had a shorter adult period, but its reproduction capacity was close to

that of M. philippinensis. This implies that C. philippinensis may be more efficient. M. philippinensis had a longer parasitization period than C. philippinensis (Fig. 2). Total number of larvae parasitized throughout the lifetime of a female was significantly less for C. philippinensis (16.7 0.2) than for M. philippinensis (20.1 1.1).

Resurgence of LF Cnaphalocrocis medinalis after insecticide application has been frequently reported. We studied the effects of sublethal levels of three insecticides on the fitness of surviving C. medinalis. Insect fitness was taken as survival, development, and reproduction rate. Fourth-instar larvae were treated on the dorsum region with 0.4 l of sublethal insecticide solution, using the Arnold Microapplicator. LD 10 and LD 40 of diazinon and BPMC, and LD 15 and LD 30 of cypermethrin were used. Treated larvae were transferred to 40to 50-d-old IR36 plants and kept to pupation. Emerging moths were sexed and caged in pairs with 40- to 50-d-old plants. Eggs were collected and secondgeneration larvae from each treatment transferred to 40- to 50-d-old IR36 plants. Larval survival, pupal weights, pupation rate, pupal period, adult longevity, oviposition, and second-generation development were recorded. Larval development and survival were significantly affected by exposure to sublethal levels of cypermethrin and diazinon. Pupal and adult developmental periods and pupal weights, however, were not affected (see figure).

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

23

Effect of exposure to sublethal levels of insecticides on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis development, growth, and reproduction. Mean SE at 95% confidence.

Cypermethrin had the most effect on pupation and larval survival; pupal survival was not affected, nor was average number of eggs laid per female survivor.

Females from treated larvae appeared normal and oviposition was not affected. An increase in LF fitness from sublethal doses, therefore, does not account for

insecticide-induced resurgences. Destruction of natural enemies by the insecticides and high recruitment of adults could be possible causes.

Integrated pest management weeds


Agronomic and economic evaluation of herbicides in transplanted rice
S. S. Tomar, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Borkhera, Kota 324001 (Raj.), India
Effect of weed control method on yield and returns to transplanted rice. Kota, India, 1989. Treatmenta Level (kg/ha) 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.75 1.25 0.005 0.010 Panicles (no./m2) 286 290 290 294 281 306 284 279 299 201 11 Grain yield (t/ha) 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 4.9 5.5 5.2 5.2 5.4 4.3 0.7 Weeda dry weight at harvest (g/m2) 100 92 92 57 103 21 78 83 23 206 4 Net return ($/ha) over unweeded control 112.5 150.0 168.8 187.5 112.5 225.0 168.8 168.8 206.3 Cost ($/ha) of weed control 14.6 20.6 16.4 22.8 12.2 18.5 55.2 Benefit cost ratio b 7.7 7.3 10.3 8.2 9.2 12.2 3.7

Labor constraints can make timely weeding of a transplanted rice crop difficult in southeastern Rajasthan. In 1989 wet season, I studied five herbicides, farmer's method of weeding 20 and 40 d after transplanting (DT), and an unweeded control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. All herbicides were applied 7 DT on test variety Jaya. The weed population was 70% grasses, 25% sedges, and 5% broadleaved weeds. Dominant weeds were Echinochloa crus-galli, E. colona, Cyperus difformis, C. iria, Commelina benghalensis, and Eclipta prostrata.

Anilofos (EC) Anilofos (EC) Oxadiazon (EC) Thiobencarb (G) Pretilachlor (EC) Pretilachlor (EC) Pyrazo sulfuron-ethyl (WP) Pyrazo sulfuron-ethyl (WP) Hand weeding 20 and 40 DT Unweeded control LSD (0.05)

aEC = emulsifiable concentrate, G = granules, WP = wettable powder. Cost: anilofos 30 EC = $8.9/liter, oxadiazon 25 EC = $8.5/ liter, thiobencarb 10 G = $2/kg, pretilachlor 50 EC = $6.3/liter, pyrazo sulfuron-ethyl, not available. Labor required for 2 weedings (20 + 20 DT) and herbicide application (2) in man-days/ha and labor charges = $1.38/d. b Grain price = $187.5/t.

Rice grain yield was highest (5.5 t/ha) with pretilachlor at 1.25 kg ai/ ha (see table). This treatment produced significantly more panicles (306/m 2) than other herbicide treatments.

Pretilachlor at 1.25 kg ai/ha had lowest weed dry matter (21 g/m 2 ) and controlled weeds most effectively. Farmers hand weeding had the lowest benefit:cost ratio; pretilachlor at 1.25 kg ai/ha, the highest.

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Integrated pest management other pests


Effect of organic amendments in controlling rice root nematodes
E. I. Jonathan and P. Pandiarajan, Soil Salinity Research Centre, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Trichy-9, India
Rice root nematode population and grain yield after applying organic amendments. a

1987 Treatment Population (no./5 g root) 30 DT Press mud 10 t/ha 3.0 Farmyard manure 25 t/ha 10.0 Neem cake 1 t/ha 2.3 Coir waste 10 t/ha 15.3 Poultry manure 25 t/ha 9.0 Neem leaves 5 tha 5.7 Calotropis gigantea 5.6 leaves 5 t/ha 18.0 Untreated control 2.5 LSD (0.05)
a

1988 Grain yield (kg/plot) 8.57 7.52 8.67 6.98 7.58 8.00 8.00 6.65 0.33 Population (no./5 g root) 30 DT 6.3 14.0 5.7 19.0 13.7 11.0 10.0 24.3 2.7 60 DT 14.7 22.0 13.0 27.0 22.0 18.3 19.0 29.7 2.4 90 DT 15.0 24.0 14.3 25.7 23.3 19.2 22.0 27.0 4.2 Grain yield (kg/plot) 8.68 7.58 8.70 7.07 7.67 8.07 7.77 6.85 0.45

60 DT 7.3 17.0 6.7 19.0 15.7 11.7 12.7 25.3 2.3

90 DT 27.3 31.3 26.0 33.3 30.0 29.3 28.0 37.0 2.5

Rice root nematode Hirschmanniella oryzae is widespread throughout the ricegrowing regions of India and causes economic loss to the crop. We evaluated seven organic amendments for rice root nematode control in field experiments in 1987 and 1988. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Plots were 4 2.5 m. The experimental fields were naturally infested with nematodes. Organic amendments were applied 7 d before transplanting (DT) 40-d-old Ponni

Means of 3 replications. DT = days after transplanting.

seedlings at 15- 10-cm spacing. Root samples were collected 30,60, and 90 DT. The nematode population was estimated by the Baermann pan technique, using 5 g roots/sample.

Neem cake at 1 t/ha and press mud at 10 t/ha significantly lowered nematode populations up to 60 DT (see table). Calotropis leaves and neem leaves at 5 t/ha were the next best treatments.
Simulated and observed grain yield of soybean (ADT1) at TRRI, Aduthurai, India, 1990. Sowing date 1 Jan 2 Feb 1 Mar Yield (t/ha) Simulated 1.0 0.8 0.2 Observed 0.9 0.7 0.3 Agreement (%) , , 90 88 120

Farming systems
Simulation of soybean yield in a rice-based cropping system
M. N. Budhar, A. A. Kareem, and S. Palanisamy, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute (TRRI), Aduthurai, Tamil Nadu, India; and M. J. C. Alagos, IRRI

Simulated and observed grain yield agreed satisfactorily for all sowing dates (see table). The attainable yield of soybean following rice under rainfed conditions can be reasonably predicted by the model, using local crop and weather data inputs.

ERRATA
In the tables in the following issues of IRRN, replace the p with the sign: Aug 1990, p. 13 Oct, p. 7, 8 Dec, last column of the table on p. 20

In the Cauvery Delta zone of Tamil Nadu, traditional rice fallow crops Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata, and Glycine max are grown in an area of about 1.63 million ha. Soybean is slowly being adopted as a rice fallow crop that requires less turnaround time. Soybean seeds are sown immediately after harvest of the preceding rice crop. We used the SOYCROS model developed at IRRI to simulate the yield of soybean following rainfed lowland rice. The model was validated with data from a field experiment at TRRI Feb-Apr 1990. ADTl was the soybean variety; IR20, the rice variety. Crop and weather data were inputs into the model.

In Table 2 on page 14 of the Aug issue, replace the asterisks in all columns with the multiplication () sign. On pages 28 and 29 of IRRN 15 (6) (Dec 1990), replace India in the titles of Table 1 and Table 2 with Pakistan.

ANNOUNCEMENT
New IRRI publications
Publication a training manual, by I. Montagnes Editing and publication a handbook for trainers, by I. Montagnes A farmer's primer on growing upland rice, by M.A. Arraudeau and B.S. Vergara (in Cebuano)

Human geography of rice in Southeast Asia, by R. E. Huke and E. H. Huke Publications of international agricultural research and development centers: 1990 computer edition Field problems of tropical rice (Lao edition)

IRRN 16:2 (April 1991)

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