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Name : Lidya Class : 7A

The modern version or structural centers on ongoing oppressive social cultures, which are considered real and enduring, though sometimes they are hidden from the consciousness of most people. In contrast, the postmodern version teaches that there is no objectively real structure or center meaning and that oppressive structures are ephemeral. The structural tradition in critical social science is highly "theoretical" in the sense that it presents a standing version of social life to explain how oppressive structures work. The postmodern tradition is rather "antitheoretical" because it denies the existence of any particular structure over time. Marxism The forebear of the modern branch is Marxism. Marx believed that a societys means of production determine the structure of society, called the base-superstructure relationship. Economics drives politics, and this made Marxism often called the critique of political economy. Marcs ultimate goal was revolution, in which workers would rise up against the interests of capital to change the order of society. As a movement, Marxism places great emphasis on the means of communication in society, which communication practices are an outcome of the tension between individual creativity and the social constraints on that creativity. The term ideology is important in most critical theories. An ideology is a set of ideas that structure a groups reality, a system of representations or a code of meanings governing how individuals and groups see the world. In classical Marxism, an ideology is a false set of ideas perpetuated by the dominant political force. In this model, the superstructure (social organization) creates ideology, which in turn affects individuals notions of reality. This superstructure consists of repressive state apparatuses, such as education, religion, and mass media. Marxist theories tend to see society as the grounds for a struggle among interests through the domination of one ideology over another. Hegemony is the process of domination, a process by which one group in society exerts leadership over all others. Hegemony can occur in many ways and in many settings. This can be a subtle process of co-opting the interests of a subordinate group into supporting those of a dominant one. Marxist theory, in contrast with other branches of the critical tradition, is characterized by its identification of actual social structures that determine, or cause, domination and oppression to occur. Jurgen Hebermas and the Frankfurt School One of the longest and best-known Marxist traditions is the Frankfurt School. It is such an important tradition in critical studies that it is often known simply as Critical Theory. Communication takes a central place in this movement, and the study of mass communication has been especially important. Hebermas teaches that society must be understood as a mix of three major interests, which are:

1. Work. It is basically a technical interests. It involves an instrumental rationality and is represented by the empirical-analytical sciences. Consist of the effort to create material resources. Its achieving tangible tasks and accomplishing concrete objectives, work is basically a technical interest. Technology is used as an instrument to accomplish practical results interest and is based on scientific research. 2. Interaction. It is the use of language and other symbol systems of communication. It is called as practical interests because social cooperation is necessary for survival. The interaction interest can be seen in speeches, conferences, psychotherapy, family relations, and a host of other cooperative endeavors. 3. Power. This leads to distorted communication, but by becoming aware of the ideologies that dominate in society, groups can themselves be empowered to transform society. It is called emancipatory interest. The rationality of power is self-reflection, and the branch of scholarship that deals with it is critical theory. Three Interest of Society Type Work Interaction Power Nature of Interest Technical Practical Emancipatory Rationality Technical Practical Self-reflection Associated Scholarship Empirical sciences History/hermeneutics Critical theory

Human life cannot be properly conducted from he perspective of only one interest work, interaction, and power. Any activity is likely to span all three categories. No aspect of life, not even science, is interest free. Hebermas believes that a strong public sphere, apart from private interest, is necessary to ensure this state of affairs. Habermas is especially concerned with the domination of the technical interest in contemporary capitalistic socialites. Ideally, the public and private should be balanced, and the public sector should be strong enough to provide a climate for free expression of ideas and debate. In modern society, however, that climate is stifled. Habermas values communication as essential to emancipation because language is the means by which the emancipator interest is fulfilled. His theory sometimes called as universal pragmatics, establishes universal principles for the use of language. Three validity criteria must be met in order for your audience to take your speech seriously: truthful, sincere, and appropriate. Habermas uses the term of discourse to describe the special kind of communication required when a speakers statements are challenged. Discourse itself is a systematic argument that makes a special appeal to demonstrate the validity of a claim. There are various types, depending on the speech act being defended, such as: 1. Theoretic discourse : emphasize on evidence 2. Practical discourse : emphasize on norms 3. Metatheoretical discourse: when communicators argue what norms are indeed appropriate in the given situation. 4. Metaethical discourse: when the very nature of knowledge itself is under contention and must be argued, a philosophical argument. Habermas believes that free speech is necessary for productive normal communication and higher level of discourse to take place, so he describes an ideal speech situation on which

society should be, modeled. First, it must require freedom of speech; there must be no constraints on what can be expressed. Second, all individuals must have equal access to speaking; their positions must be recognized as legitimate. Finally, the norms and obligations of society are not one-sided but distribute the power equally to all strata in society. Habermas believes that people normally live in an unquestioned life-world, the ordinary, daily activities of life, which constrained by certain social aspects, like money, bureaucracy, and corporate power. Shades of Althusserian ideology in Hebermass theory: the idea that the superstructure creates an ordinary understanding of citizen in their everyday lives. He frames the problems in the life-world as colonization, the power of the system over individuals. When the life-world is colonized by the system, there is less opportunity to use language to achieve positive goals for individuals. There is more opportunity to accomplish emancipation in modern society than in traditional society, because of the relatively greater amount of conflict in modernity. Modern capitalistic also have not yet achieved emancipation and critical theorists have a responsibility to work toward making this possible. Feminist Scholarship in the Modern Tradition Feminist scholarship within the modernist tradition centers around two lines of inquiry: 1. Feminist scholarship that works primarily for the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes 2. That scholarship seeking to dismantle and restructure the social system to make it more emancipatory for woman and men. In most general terms, these can be viewed as liberal and radical feminism, respectively. Liberal feminism based in liberal democracy, justice involves the assurance of equal rights for all individuals. Radical feminism believes that the oppression of woman runs far deeper than political rights. For radical feminism, the problem goes to to heart of our social structure, which is patriarchal. Feminist inquiry in this category seeks to transform society rather than simply just incorporate woman's voice within it. Feminist scholars sought to describe the perspectives and worldviews that womans different discourse created; the different expectations of and patterns for womans communication; and the ways woman accommodated, challenged, and subverted such expectations.

Postmodern teaches there is no objectively real structure or central meaning and that oppressive structures are ephemeral. It is a struggle between fluid interests and ideas created in communication practices. Postmodernism tradition is rather antitheoretical because it denies the existence of any particular structure over time. The postmodern branch resists the idea that any one enduring arrangement is responsible for power inequities. Postmodernism is based on the idea that social realities constantly produced, reproduced, and changed through the use of language and other symbolic forms. CULTURAL STUDIES This involves investigations of the ways culture is produced through a struggle among ideologies. The origins of this tradition are usually traced to the writings of Richard Hoggart and Raymond Williams in the 1950s, which examined the British working class after World War II. Today, the name most associated with the movement is Stuart Hall. Although

influenced by Marxist thought, these scholars take a rather different direction in their thinking about oppressive communication. The cultural studies tradition wants to see changes in Western society. They believe that such change will occur in two ways: 1. By identifying contradiction in society, the resolution of which will lead to positive, as opposed to oppresive, change 2. By providing interpretations that will help people understand domination and the kinds of change that would be desirable. The study of mass communication is central to this work, for the media are perceived as powerful tool of dominant ideologies. Media have the potential of raising the consciousness of the population about issues of class, power, and domination. Media are important, but they are nor the sole concern of these scholars, which is why they refer to their field as cultural studies rather than media studies. Cultural studies speak of culture in two ways. The first definition is the common ideas on which a society or group rests. The second definition is the practices or the entire way of life of a group, what individuals do materially from day to day. The general concern of cultural theorists is the link between the actions of societys institutions, such as the media and the culture. For example in application in our daily life, people likes to jog everyday, making them part of a jogging culture. This shared understanding is an ideology determined by numerous, often subtle, influences that come together and make common experience seem real to us. Early Marxist theory taught that the infrastructure is a foundational factor in what gets produced, materially and socially, in a culture. In cultural studies, the forces at play in society are considered to be over determined, or caused by multiple sources. Communication through media has a special role in affecting through the dissemination of information. They are extremely important because they directly present a way of viewing reality. At the same time, the audiences may use their own category to decode the message, and they often reinterpret media messages in ways never intended by the source. Two applications of cultural studies that exist within the postmodern tradition because they look at how categories such as gender and race are created in discourse and how these discourses create domination: 1. Feminists Cultural Studies. This study suggests that power relations are constructed in social interaction of various types and that the language and symbolic forms are constantly creating categories of thought as well as social relationships. They have also become self-reflexive in treating scholarship and scholarly enterprise itself as a cultural text. Feminist scholars seek to devise methods of scholarship that take into account the shifting female subject and its related discourses while also situating it in lived experience. Power relations are examined as they are manifest throughout society as well as in the very academic practices by which such investigations occur. Feminists scholarship undertakes the emancipatory aim of cultural studies, not only for culture generally but for its own scholarship. 2. Critical Race Theory (CRT). At largely CRT took the notion of social justice and from radical feminism, it drew upon the idea that largely unrecognized patterns of social behavior constitute patriarchy and other forms of domination. Proponents of CRT share several beliefs. First, CRT scholars see racism as ordinary, common, or normal-it is usual way society does business and thus it is difficult to address because it appear

ordinary. Second CRT scholars agree that white dominant in the USA functions to serve the psychological and material advantage if dominant groups. This means there are relatively few people genuinely interested in eradicating racism. Critical race theorist want to show, then, how what is seen as normal in fact contains a deep bias toward white culture. CRT posits that race is a social construction race and racism are products of social interaction that society constructs, manipulates, and abandons as convenient. Critical race theorist understands that race is not only a structural category but a fluid and shifting one. Then particularly interested in the stories that get told in a culture in regard to race. A paradox is constructed about race: in order to ameliorate race relations, we need to talk about race, but that conversation itself may reproduce existing pattern of racism. Another set of stories that have interested CRT scholars are like: The different racial groups at different times. Within the communication discipline, critical race theory is still a relative newcomer. Another issue that also involves communication is the tension between the perspectives identified as color-blind and color-conscious. The importance of telling ones story so that these personal stories can serve as counterhistories to many stocks US narratives about immigrants.

A recent extension of critical race theory and another line of work clearly within the postmodern tradition is the study of whiteness. In general these scholar examine what it means to be whit, how whiteness became established legally, how certain groups moved into whiteness, and the privileges that come with being white. Communication scholars have reorganized the difficulty of studying whiteness, because whiteness is at once invisible and yet extremely important. Thomas Nakayama and Robert Krizek attempt to make the cultural construction of whiteness visible by describing six strategies inherent to discourse of whiteness. They found six different constructions of whiteness embedded in the answers they received: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. White is equated with power white means status, majority, and dominance White is a default position if you are not another color, you are white White is a scientific classification fairly meaningless and without social status White means national origin Im an American White means the refusal to label self as any racialized category White means European ancestry.

These varied and at times contradictory mappings of white discursive space suggest how expensive, central, and powerful the concept of whiteness is, even when it is being downplayed. A recent extension of CRT is the study of whiteness. In sum, CRT and research on whiteness provide postmodern examples of how the careful examination of discourse can reveal ways in which society constructs categories that constrain and liberate various groups of people.