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Cebuano Art and Culture The Arts in Cebu Cebu's liturgical art manifests its deeply rooted Catholic

tradition. Relief or threedimensional santos or holy images, murals, and paintings for altarpieces, gold and silver vestments, and altar accessories have always been Cebuano expressions of religiosity that are stylistically similar with those of Bicol. Cebuano folk art includes basketry and the hand-crafting of jewelry and musical instruments. Basketry was developed by the inter island trade which regularly demanded cargo containers. Baskets and planters are made of cocomidrib, rattan, bamboo, or sigid vine. The island's furniture industry is related to this art. Chairs of rattan and buri ribs are fashioned using basket-weaving techniques. Mactan produces guitars and ukuleles from langka or soft jackfruit wood. Cebu's abundant shells and coral can be transformed into ornaments, some of which are set with precious metals. Popular Cebuano arts of the 19th century like sinamay weaving, dyeing, and pottery (especially the alcaaz or water jars of fine red clay), have since declined. Such is the creativity of local artisans, however, that new crafts, e.g., stoneware, are constantly being developed. Painting: Painting was the first secular art that appeared in the mid-19th century. Initially unsigned and undated, they were personal rather than professional. Gonzalo Abellana of Carcar, Canuto Avila from San Nicolas, Raymundo Francia of Parian, and Simeon Padriga were early painters and sculptors who actively participated in the period of transition from religious to secular art. Aside from their works, Cebuano masterpieces include Diosdado Villadolid ("Diovil")'s finger paintings, Oscar Figuracion's paintings of the Bilaan community of Davao, Julian Jumalon's lepidomosaic art, Silvester "Bitik" Orfilla's historical mural entitled Ciudad del Santissimo Nombre de Jesus (City of the Most Holy Name of Jesus), and Carmelo Tamayo's tartanilla series. Aside from these painters, others contributed to the flourishing of Cebuano visual arts in the 20th century: Mary Avila, Jose Alcoseba, Vidal Alcoseba, Virgilio Daclan, Sergio Baguio, Emeterio Suson, and Jesus Rosa. Martin Abellana is the "dean of Cebuano painters." Though primarily a figurative-impressionist, his later works nevertheless show a desire to reconcile the figurative and the abstract. Notable of his works are The Farmer's Son, Job Was Also Man, Rocks, and Korean War. Cebu and the Central Visayas have also contributed to the Manila art scene such artists as Manuel Rodriguez Sr. and National Artist Napoleon Abueva, who are distinguished for their pioneering ventures in Philippine graphic arts and modernism in sculpture, respectively. An important catalyst in the development of the Cebu art scene was the founding of the Cebu Art Association (CEARTAS) in 1937 by Julian Jumalon, in association with artists like Oscar Figuracion, Jose Alcoseba, Emilio Olmos, Fidel Araneta, and others. CEARTAS promoted community awareness of the visual arts as well as the exchange of ideas among artists. In the postwar period, the older practitioners were joined by younger artists like the Mendoza brothers (Sofronio, Teofilo, and Godofredo), Romulo Galicano, Gamaliel Subang, Fr. Virgilio Yap, Jose Yap Jr., Tony Alcoseba, Gig de Pio, and Mardonio

and the lepidoptera and lepidomosaic art collections of Julian Jumalon.thus remarked 17th century Jesuit chronicler Francisco Alzina on the prodigious activity of Visayans in the field of music. which include percussion tubes called . which has showcased new talents from UP Cebu. Edgar Mojares. Although many of the young practitioners for landscapes in the Abellana style. Leocadia Binamira. III:64. Cebuano and Visayan Music Rarely can a Visayan be found. who ceases to sing except when he is asleep". they could-by just playing such instruments as the kudyapi (guitar of lute) and korlong (fiddle). Cebu has what is probably the largest community of artists outside of Manila. and the City Museum established by the city government in 1992. hometown of Martino Abellana. Sofronio Y. There are support institutions and networks in Cebu that keep interest in the visual arts alive. Some of these artists-notably. the photographic collection of Galileo Medalle. College Assurance Plan (CAP) Center. Martino Abellana Jr. notably Fidel Araneta and Ramon Abellana.. A good number of local art patrons. the first formal fine arts school south of Manila. Mariano Vidal. with much amazement. they are also influenced by various modern styles in the country. Manila Artist Jose Joya initiated in 1978 the Annual Joya Art Competition. and Ramon Arcenas. 678-69). Javy Villacin. has produced a new generation of artists led by Gabriel Abellana. ranging from the antique collections of Lydia Aznar-Alfonso. Today's crop of artists includes Isabel Rocha. Mendoza ("SYM") and Romulo Galicano. the Shell Collection of Asela Franco. This is indicated by the array of native musical instruments in the Visayas. Today. Wilfredo Cuevas.Cempron. sculpture has had its noteworthy practitioners in the past. not only the fact that Visayans seemed to be singing all the time but that they played musical instruments with such dexterity. The city's private collections are varied. Boy Kiamko. and Luther Galicano. Today. Fred Galan. however. The town of Carcar. to the philatelic collection of Victorino Reynes. Arlene Villaver. Janini Barrera. and Rudy Manero. Cebu is well on its way towards becoming a viable center for contemporary art and no longer is it necessary for local artists to move to Manila to practise and develop their art. Soon after its founding."speak and make love to one another" ((Alzina 1668. young artists like Jet Florendo are making their own innovative expression in this art form. creating a market which enables local artists to survive. The city has a fairly large number of art patrons and collectors. Manual Panares. as well as from abroad.later moved to Manila and foreign countries to gain a much wider reputation and audience. such as Raymund Fernandez. The opening of the Fine Arts Program of the University of the Philippines (UP) College Cebu. and Karl Roque. like those of Jose Blanco of Angono and the late Vicente Manansala. "unless he is sick. have collections of modern art. Cebu City has a good number of art galleries and painting exhibits are regularly held in such places as Casa Gorordo Museum. Although present-day Cebuano art is concentrated on painting. He noted. The field of Visayan and Cebuano music is vast. Apart from the Cebu Art Association and UP Cebu's Fine Arts Program. has dynamized the Cebuano art scene.

American rule also introduced new musical influence into the Visayas. In 1929 for instance. particularly through the public schools. III: 66) notes that in the 17th century Visayans could already play Spanish musical instruments with "notable skill. Hence. Cebuano movies and radio programs also stimulated the creativity of composers and performers. Then. the social calendar was filled with religious festivities that created occasions for musical performances. While there was a tendency towards rigidification in liturgical practices in the Spanish period. Cebuano songs and singers were recorded on phonograph discs. Teatro Junquera (later Oriente) in Cebu City showed Cebuano sarswela and Spanish zarzuelas. also became widely diffused in the Visayas." The Spanish guitar called sista in Cebuano. kandu (epic songs). beginning with the Spanish period. Songs included saloma (sailor songs). dayhuan (drinking songs). Little is now known of Cebuano composers of early liturgical music and no adequate study has been undertaken on the adaptation of this music to the Visayas or of its influence on secular music in the region. drums called guimbal and tugo. ribbon reeds called pasyok and turutot. has acquired a reputation not only for guitar players but for the manufacture of fine guitars. clarinets or lantoy. awit. kanogon (dirges). artistic cross-fertilization undoubtedly took place. Catholic liturgy. like the alpa (harp).nourished the native passion for music. Plays by Buenaventura Rodriguez and Florentino Borromeo were staged with a complement of as large as a 32-member orchestra. to have a local orchestra or band. and hia (work songs). had already cut 27 songs for Disko Odeon while her . In later years. there was a demand for music-and-song performances. jew's harp or subing. violins or litguit. Spanish colonial rule exposed Visayans to Western music traditions. the balitao romansada (song form of the balitao) as well as religious chants. At the very least. lullabies and children's songs. Hence. one must also consider that. Catholic liturgical music and associated religious songs also became an important part of the music tradition of the Visayas. courtship and wedding songs. tirana (debate songs). superseded indigenous string instruments akin to it and became so popular that the Visayas. hele. In the 1920s and 1930s. Off-theater. Ubiquitous too was vocal music since songs called ambahan. lutes or buktot. particularly Cebu. the premier Cebuano singer of the time. movies and radio. Conception Cananea. Alzina (1668. hila. or biyao were sung for many purposes and occasions. and American-style bodabil in the early 1900s. the phonograph. The Spaniards also introduced the Christmas carol called dayegon and a more Latin touch to the serenade or harana.bayog and karatong. flutes of tulali (Takacs 1975:126-27). The first half of the 20th century saw a flowering of Cebuano music composition. the stage (as in case of vaudeville or bodabil). and even many barrios. and songs that accompanied various types of dances ad performances. the early missionary accounts themselves frequently cite how the Spanish missionaries appropriated native songs and reformed their content to facilitate the communication of new messages. there were open-air plays staged in Visayan villages as well as neighborhood performances of the Cebuano balitao. The 20th century saw the advent of the music recording industry in the Philippines. it was a standard for a town. holo. A major factor was the rise of Cebuano theater in the early 1900s.with the important role played in it by songs and chants. Other instruments. with the sarswela or musical play as the most popular dramatic form. After all. Italian opera.

singing and dancing with a handkerchief. Sencio. The ohong-ohong dance of farmers similarly invokes audience participation. and Tomas Villaflor. Villanueva. Ben Zubiri. Eulalia Hernandez. Brigido. Lakandazon. In addition. Musical activity. composer Manuel Velez. More unique are the la berde wherein a boy dances not with one but two girls. Teodora Siloria. Velez. Manual Villareal. and composed music for Cebuano sarswela. as well as the pasa doble. had 12 songs recorded. In time. (Velez also owned at this time the Santa Cecilia music Store in Cebu City. Cultural and Historical Affairs Commission. and the Cabase brothers (Siux. There are indications that Cebuano music composition may again be entering a new energetic phase in its history. with lyrics by Jose Galicano. Diosdado Alferez. the growing dominance of Western music and the promotion of Tagalog music (favored by the fact that Manila is the capital art and entertainment) eclipsed Cebuano music composition. "Aruy-aruy" by Tomas Villaflor. Rodolfo E. The prolific character of the prewar and immediate postwar period can be inferred from the large number of Cebuano composers: Vicente Rubi. Lilian Velez. which sold musical intruments. and the dalagang gamay or "little maiden" in which a girl. and the maramyon. a dance about fisher folk at work. however. was an all-round music man who played several instruments. a portrayal of the shepherd's adoration of the Child Jesus. the maligonoy of Consolacion. Cebu produced excellent performers and singers: the couple Manuel and Concepcion Cananea-Velez and their daughter. and "Mutya sa Buhat" (Pearl of Labor) by Rafael Gandiongco. This variety features the colorful surtido Cebuano of Bantayan. Lakandazon. Negros Oriental. Children dance and sing the yuletide pastores. "Salilang" and "Dalagang Pilipinhon" (Filipino Lady) by Celestino Rodriguez. Emiliano Gabuya. Dondoy Villalon. and in Cebu the sinulog and Pit Senyor is performed by devotees before the image of the Santo Nino. teachers. and local music schools and radio stations have encouraged composition and performance in Cebu. San Antonio of Padua is honored with the gapnod dance. Pablo Virtuoso. the la berde and the ohong-ohong of Carcar. Estanislao Tenchavez. plays at being a lady. Promotional activities by such groups as the Cebu Arts Council. S. and performers as Pilar B. has remained active in Cebu through the work of such composers. "Garbosong Bukid" by Hermenegildo Solon. Presing Dakoykoy. Rafael Gandiongco. and Pilita Corrales. Narding. The Cebuano penchant for mime is demonstrated in the mananagat. and Mane). another pantomime which is accompanied by the singing of dancers or the audience. Domingo Lopez. Hermenegildo Solon. Ingrid Sala-Santamaria. In 1931 there was an Odeon Palace in Cebu City selling phonograph records of compositions by Velez. "Rosas Pandan" and "Kamingaw sa Payag" (Loneliness of the Heart) by Domingo Lopez. acted as local bandmaster and music teacher. a Tagalog who married a Cebuana and settled down in Carcar. and phonographs). the sampaguita of San Fernando. Cebu Popular Music Festival which has done notable work in encouraging Cebuano composition of popular songs. Piux Kabahar. Alvarez Villarino. In Sibalon. Songs composed during this period included "Sa Kabukiran" (In the Mountains) by M. "Wasaywasay" by Piux Kabahar. Dance Cebuano dances are varied. Ramon Abellana. Cebu. Vicente Kiyamko.husband. Cebu Arts Foundation. Sala. Performers of . and the Cebu Symphony Orchestra. sheets.

camisa. or what came to be called linambay in Cebuano. There are as well groups dedicated to the promotion of modern dance forms. La Conquista de Cebu (The Conquest of Cebu). The last two decades of the 19th century are particularly important. Such survivals of precolonial practices as the sinulog. University of Cebu. like the paganito or pagdiwata ceremonial worship. like the pamalaye and kulisisi debates and the pangasi drinking sessions. established by Fe Sala-Villarica in Cebu City in1951. on the life of Santa Barbara in 1609. It reached the height of popularity in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rafael Regis. the Cebuano dance of worship. the women in patadyong. one associated with indigenous practices and the other tied to Catholic religious life. Generally. Southwestern University. with the celebration of the Mass and the rich array of church-related pageants and performances. The komedya flourished with the works of such turn-of-the-century playwrights as Salvador Gantuangco. contain mimetic elements of rudimentary drama. Theater Formal theater had its start in the Spanish period. Early plays include a comedia. and University of the Visayas. Secular theater in the modern manner did not become significant until the 19th century. written by Jesuit Francisco Vicente Puche. and others working in various parts of Cebu and the Central Visayas. the song-anddance debate. presumably in Cebuano and thus the first recorded Western-style vernacular play in the Philippines. as well as festive occasions. The traditional Cebuano dances have been preserved even if their popularity has declined. and panuelo. There were then twin streams of theater in the region. it is rarely performed today because of the general preference for Western dance. Opportunities are provided by festivities like the Sinulog Festival in Cebu City and the work of school-based dance groups. There are hopeful signs. inspired theatrical activity in the Visayas and elsewhere in the Philippines. 1890. Later. that traditional dances like the balitao and sinulog will not only be preserved but creatively adapted by contemporary Cebuano choreographers and dancers. The Catholic religion. and Benigno Ubas. and the men in barong tagalog. Though the balitao was a prewar favorite popularized by Pedro Alfafara and Nicolasa Caniban. began to take root in Cebu. the outward flings and extravagant movements in Cebuano dances manifest the carefree and fun-loving outlook of the Cebuano. The Cebu Ballet Center. Cebuano priests Juan . such as Augustinian Antolin Frias' one-act Spanish play. by Antonio and Pacing Bohol. like those at the University of San Carlos. The moro-moro or komedya. and later. was the first institution outside Manila to promote training in classical ballet and has produced such artists as Noordin Jumalon and Nicolas Pacana. Religious plays were staged. presented in the Cebu Cathedral on the occasion of the inauguration of a Jesuit grammar school in 1598 and a Bohol play. however. and the balitao. The indigenous matrix of Cebuano drama is formed by a host of dramatic and quasidramatic performances associated with religious rituals. first in the Cebu port area and later in surrounding towns and villages. an elaborate costume play dramatizing plots drawn from European metrical romances.these dances are costumed as in other Visayan dances.

From Cebu City. the Spanish zarzuela was introduced into Cebu. Sugat (meeting) dramatizes the reunion of the resurrected Christ and the Blessed Mother. Lorenzo Alerre. warehouses and city playhouses. They also supplied talent to the making of soap operas and musical variety programs in Cebu's radio stations in the postwar period. Nevertheless Cebu's Lenten and other Catholic rituals have never lacked dramatic flair. like Emiliano Gabuya and Leox Juezan. An important event was the establishment in 1895 of Cebu's first permanent playhouse.Alcoseba. Alberto Ylaya. as though following Christ's path up Calvary. on 1 January 1902. and Anatalio Saballa. and others also wrote and staged religious and doctrinal plays. Talamban. The sinakulo. Silverio Alaura. Manuel Velez. The linambay lived on. in the rural areas. the sarswela spread to other places like Carcar and Barili in southern Cebu. There were also attempts to organize theater artists into professional groups. Later called Oriente. Sotto went on to write other plays and his example was quickly followed by other Cebuano playwrights. this theater became a focus of theatrical activity. cockpits. albeit fitfully. did not become as popular in Cebu as it did in the Tagalog provinces. the first Cebuano language play in the modern. continued pursuing the art by bringing their companies of performers to towns and villages in the southern provinces. In the early 1900s events of the sarswela were incorporated into the minoros or opereta bisaya. Galileo Varga. Florentino Borromeo. In performing the kalbaryo. new playwrights emerged. It was here that Vicente Sotto staged his Ang Paghigugma sa Yutang Natawhan (Love for the Native Land). There continued to be avid audiences in the towns to the plays of writers like Diosdado Alferez. a shortened and localized form of the komedya. performed first by visiting Spanish troupes from Manila and later by local aficionados. Playwrights of the "golden period" of Cebuano theater from 1900 to 1930 included Buenaventura Rodriguez. Antonio Kiyamko. actors and other theater artists included Sabas Veloso. open-air stages. The postwar period failed to recapture the high creativity of the early 20th century. and Victorino Abellanosa. Plays were staged in makeshift.also led to the eclipse of Cebuano theater. Yet. Teatro Junquera on Colon St. and troupes that went on giving Cebuano playwrights exposure over a large geographical area. at the end of which the Los Tres Reyes pageant graces the feast of the Three Magi. Jose Sanchez. Such Manilabased zarzuela companies as those of Navarro and Balzofiori performed in Cebu in the 1890s. realistic manner. 1902. Jose Galicano. Ismael Paras. Composers. paricularly during town fiestas. Zacarias Solon. Old plays continued to be staged. Nativity plays called tambola and pastora are staged during the Christmas season. Vicente Alcoseba. Francisco Labrador. the advent of these new forms of mass entertainment-movies and radio. there . In the 1880s. a dramatization of the Passion and death of Christ. Celestino Rodriguez. Isabelo and Jose Rosales. Cebuano theater artists also played an important role in early attempts in the prewar period to produce Cebuano movies. creating a period of intense dramatic activity in Cebu and other places in the region. Sebastian Lignatong. the earliest attempt perhaps being Vicente Sotto's Compania de Aficionados Filipinos. Eulalia Hernandez. However. devotees climb Ditta. A spectacular procession in Bantayan Island highlights the semana santa. Piux Kabahar. and some of the older artists. an integral part of the Easter Day celebration in Minglanilla. Concepcion Cananea.

If you wish for more interactive experience.. These sources provide Cebu with predictable 220V AC electricity at stable prices. by local art associations. Cebuano theater still has to fully break out of its postwar stagnation. beginning with the 1970s and 1980s. These urban institutions and individuals have also played a role in presenting to local audiences modern Western plays in English. Covering a wide-range of travel-related topics. Except for stateless-persons and those from countries with which the Philippines has no diplomatic relations. of renewed interest in Cebuano-language with the revival of Cebuano sarswela by university theater guilds.. however. theater has become an occasional activity. Cebu Lifestyles will provide you with an extensive amount of information and resources. as the early inhabitants called the island. ALL visitors may enter the country without visas and may stay for 21 days. the efforts of playwrights and theater artists like Rodolfo Villanueva. supplemented by thermal and diesel generating plants. Read more. to help make your travel in Cebu a magical experience. please check the forum section. and by dedicated theater persons.. or Neil Simon..to which Cebu belongs .. Allan Jayme Rabaya. Claudio Evangelio. Today. Airport Information ENTRY REGULATIONS Valid passport. Read more. with over 100 informative articles on Cebu. kept minimally alive by colleges and universities staging annual plays. and the work of nationalist cultural organizations linked to other groups in the country dedicated to the promotion of a "national theater movement. . The main source is geothermal energy.was a slackening of theatrical activity as plays in Cebuano lost the prestige of the days of Buenaventura Rodriguez and Piux Kabahar. There are interesting signs.has three main power baseloads which are interconnected into one grid with capacity of over 2. Bertolt Brecht. Read more. We hope you enjoy our site.. Delia Villacastin. Post questions or sift through the large resource full of information on this divine island paradise. Power Sources and Infrastructure in the Visayas The Visayas island group . engaged in a thriving trade and commerce with neighboring Malay countries and reached as far as Thailand and China. such as those by Tennessee Williams.200MW of electricity. A Quick History Lesson on Cebu Zebu or Sugbu. and Orlando Magno." Reproduced from Wikipedia 2006 About Cebu Welcome to Cebu Lifestyles.

and paintings for altarpieces. and altar accessories have always been Cebuano expressions of religiosity that are stylistically similar with those of Bicol. and beautiful jewelry. Cebu's History In the early 16th century. The reality..The people lived in log houses with nipa roofs and used porcelain wares and earthen jars to store wine and water. a spluttering of car rental stands and a couple of decent waiting areas for a few of the 5-star resorts. wine-bowls. embroidery. gold and silver vestments. Some women were bare from the waist up but they made up for it with painted lips and nails. wore a loose sack-lined blouse. food shops. gongs. The women on the other hand... Want To Bring Your Pet To Cebu From Overseas? Tel: (632) 928-2743/2836 Fax: (632) 928-1778 All dogs and cats must have an import permit to enter the Philippines. Read more. They adorned themselves with stunning gold jewelry and embellished their clothes with beautiful ornaments. called chambarra. Getting To Cebu This (relativley) modern facility in Philippine terms. cafés. Read more.. business centers.. The PR blurb states it has lots of amenities including a shopping center. a letter or application of request to import should be sent or faxed to the AHD. and beauty & health services. covered their heads with silk turbans and decorated their bodies with tattoos. communication facilities. serves both international and domestic flights and boasts of a comprehensive list of facilities. The settlement also had small foundries producing mortars. the natives of Cebu under Rajah Humabon. flowers and colorful turbans on their hair. hotel and resort reservations. a couple of souvenir shops. Read more. The men wore bahagui on the lower torso. and ornaments were traded. on top of a square length cloth skirt wrapped around the waist. Species Number of Animals Sex Age . no shopping center. Relief or threedimensional santos or holy images. According to the AHD. cast-bronze utensils. engaged in an active trade where bartered woven-cloth.. souvenir shops. and rice measures. inlaid boxes of betel... car rentals. Quezon City. pestles. Cebuano Art and Culture The Arts in Cebu Cebu's liturgical art manifests its deeply rooted Catholic tradition. banking facilities. Read more. duty-free shop. murals.