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lathe work

COOLANTS OR CUTTING FLUIDS


During any machining or metal cutting process, enough heat is evolved in cutting zone. To remove this heat from cutting zone, soluble oils are used as cutting fluid during machining. Emulsions (also known as soluble oil) cool the work-piece and tool and thus relieves them of overheat. Air circulation is required so as to remove the heat by evaporation. The remaining oil forms a protecting layer over the machined work piece and save it from rust and corrosion. The most efficient method of applying cutting fluids is to use a pump, tray and reservoir, to give a slow continuous stream over the cutting action. Chemical cutting fluids are replacing straight and emulsifiable cutting oils for many applications. If chemical concentrates are mixed in correct proportion with deionized water, chemical cutting fluids provide longer life at less cost than oil base cutting fluids. Other coolants and cutting fluids are cutting wax and kerosene. Some commonly used machining materials require following cutting fluids: Soluble oil Straight, Water base mainly grinding

MATERIAL
Aluminium and alloys Steel Cast iron Brass, Copper and Bronze Mild steel

CUTTING FLUID
Paraffin Soluble oil Heavy duty emulsifiable oil, light duty chemical oil, synthetic oil Light duty oil Heavy duty water soluble oil

Functions of Coolants or Cutting Fluids


Cutting fluid washes away the chips and hence keeps the cutting region free. It helps in keeping freshly machined surface bright by giving a protective coating against atmospheric, oxygen and thus protects the finished surface from corrosion. It decreases wear and tear of cutting tool and hence increases tool life. It improves machinability and reduce power requirements It prevents expansion of work pieces. It cools the tool and work piece and remove the generated heat from the cutting zone. It decreases adhesion between chip and tool; provide lower friction and wear, and a smaller built-up edge.

Safety Precautions while Working on Lathe Machine


One should always be sure that all guards are in place before running the machine. Always clamp the work and tool properly with correct size of work and tool holding device. Always keep the machine clear of tools. Machine should be stopped before making measurements or adjustments.

Lathe work workshop technology for DAE/DMP/DMPT 2011

CONT. lathe work


Wear an apron or a properly fitted shop coat. Goggles should also be used. One should remove necktie, wrist watch and jewellery while working. One should not operate the lathe until he knows the proper procedure. One should check the work frequently when it is being machined. One should check the face-plate or chuck by hand to be sure that there is no danger of the work striking any part of the lathe. Stop the machine and remove chips with pliers. One should not remove the chips by hand.

QUESTIONS
Describe the working principle of the lathe. Name the different types of the lathes available in machine shop? Describe the working of a centre lathe. Explain the parts of a centre lathe using neat sketch. Explain following parts of a lathe by neat sketches: o o o o Lathe Bed Carriage Headstock Tailstock

Name the operations, which can be performed on a lathe. Describe any two work holding devices used on the lathe. What is the use of follower rest and steady rest? Explain the difference between three jaw chuck and four jaw chuck. Using neat sketches, describe the various operations that can be carried on lathe machines.

Lathe work workshop technology for DAE/DMP/DMPT 2011