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International Rice Research Notes

The International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) expedites communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and ricebased systems. The IRRN is a mechanism to help scientists keep each other informed of current rice research findings. The concise scientific notes are meant to encourage rice scientists to communicate with one another to obtain details on the research reported. The IRRN is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December by the International Rice Research Institute; annual subject and variety indexes are also produced. The IRRN is divided into three sections: notes, news about research collaboration, and announcements.

Contents
December 1995
Germplasm improvement Germplasm improvement Genetics Loci for hybrid sterility in Basmati crosses 4 Diallel analysis of AI toxicitytolerance in rice 5 Breeding methods Maintainers and restorers for cytoplasmic male sterile line lR66707A 5 Biological characteristics of indica-japonica hybrids 6 Grain quality Glutelin banding pattern in rice assessed 7 Stress tolerancedrought Leaf rolling and desiccation tolerance in relation to rooting depth and leaf area in rice 7 Stress toleranceadverse soils Tolerance for AI toxicity in lowland rice 8 Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1, a short-duration hybrid for Karnataka, India 9 Xiangyou 63, a quasi-aromatic hybrid rice with good quality and high yield 9 Zhushan A: a new Honglian-type cytoplasmic male sterile line with good grain quality 10 Integrated germplasm improvementupland Turant Dhan: a very early rice variety released in Bihar, India 11 Integrated germplasm improvementflood-prone Purnendu, a new deepwater (50-100 cm) rice variety in eastern India 12 Jitendra, a new deepwater rice variety for Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, India 13 Seed technology A simple method for producing F 1 hybrid seed for observational yield trials 13

IRRN production team

...............

Crop and resource management


Physiology and plant nutrition Proline content in rice seedlings grown under saline conditions 14 Photosynthetic rate and respiration of some F 1 hybrid rices 15 Fertilizer management Integrated effect of deeply placed urea and Gliricidia green manure on grain yield of transplanted rice 16

Crop and resource management

Editor: Carolyn Dedolph Assistant editor: Teresita Rola Layout and design: Erlie Putungan Production supervisor: Millet Magsino Editorial assistant: Luisa Gelisan Typesetting: Erlie Putungan Cecilia Gregorio Artwork: Jess Recuenco

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Effect of rice hull, biofertilizer, and chemical fertilizers on growth and nitrogen economy of wetland rice 16 Fertilizer managementorganic sources Influence of intercropping green manure in wet seeded rice 17 Crop management Effect of hill density, seedling number/hill, and potassium on late-transplanted sali (rainfed lowland winter) rice yield in Assam, India 18 Integrated pest managementinsects Monitoring variation in brown planthopper biotype in Guangdong, China 19 Integrated pest managementtheir pests Loss of harvested rice due to rodents in central India 20 Farming systems Farmer performance in a rice-based farming system: differences between new and old systems 21 Farm machinery Hand tools used for rice harvesting in South Sulawesi, Indonesia 21 Postharvest technology Multipurpose yard-drying implement for rice 22

Research methodology
Repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Pseudomonas species 23 Pathotypic analysis of Pyricularia grisea using two sets of near-isogenic lines 24

News about research collaboration


INGER celebrates 20 years of successful rice research 26 IRRI celebrates 35 years of rice research 27 International Rice Genetics Symposium 27 IRRI welcomes two major groups of partners 27

Announcements
Rice dateline 27 IRRI group training courses for 1996 28 New IRRI publications 28 New publications 29 Rice literature update reprint service 29 Call for news 29 IRRI address 29

Erratum
Instruction for contributors Instruction for contributors

Inside back cover

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Germplasm improvement
Genetics Genetics
Loci for hybrid sterility in Basmati crosses
Jianmin Wan, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China; H. Ikehashi, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-1, Japan

Massive screening has been conducted in hybrid rice breeding to determine if a set of varieties can be used as maintainers or restorers. If the pollen of an F 1 hybrid between a cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) tester and any given variety is sterile, the variety may be used as maintainer. If the pollen is sound and the panicles of the F1 are

completely fertile, the variety may be used as a restorer. However, interference of hybrid sterility genes with a CMS-restoration factor system very much confounds the criteria used in the screening. Hybrid sterility in indica-japonica crosses is due to an allelic interaction at a gamete abortion locus, S-5, on chromosome 6. Recently, in other groups of rice hybrids, similar allelic interactions were found at loci S-7 on chromosome 4, S-8 on chromosome 6, S-9 on chromosome 7, and S-15 on chromosome 12. All of them cause sterility independent of the others. We found hybrid sterility loci in crosses with Basmati 370, the derivatives of which are frequently used in hybrid rice breeding. Basmati 370 showed hybrid sterility in its

Table 1. Varieties used and their marker alleles at respective loci. a Marker allele and chromosome Parent Chromosome 6 Est-2 Amp-3 (S-5 ) Basmati 370 Akihikari IR36 lR2061-628 lR2061-418 Gilchao 2 Ketan Nangka 1 0 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Cat-1 ( S-8 ) 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 Chromosome 7 Est-9 ( S-7 ) 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 Chromosome Chromosome Chromosome 4 12 1 Est-1 (S-9 ) 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 Sdh-1 (S-15 ) 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 Est-5 b (S-16) 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

a The isozyme allele systems are from Morishima and Glaszmann (1991). bThree hybrid sterility loci are shown under the marker loci.

crosses to several tester varieties. Spikelet fertility levels in some of the crosses were 67.2% in Basmati 370/IR36,61.3% in Basmati 370/IR2061-628,62.8% in Basmati 370/IR2061-418, and 43.2% in Basmati 370/ Akihikari. The F 1 hybrid of Basmati 370/ Ketan Nangka (wide compatibility variety) showed normal fertility of 90.1%. Marker alleles at each of the hybrid sterility loci wereidentified (Table 1). Basmati 370 is closer to japonicas in terms of its isozymes, therefore it is genetically diverse from indicas and should result in pronounced hybrid vigor in its crosses with indicas. The marker genotypes that differentiated the level of spikelet fertility in segregating populations were determined (Table 2). When Basmati 370 was crossed with major indica varieties, such as IR36 and IR2061-628, hybrid sterility was revealed due to an allelic interaction at S-8. In the cross Basmati 370/IR2061-418, hybrid sterility was due to an allelic interaction at S-7. In Basmati 370/Akihikari (a japonica tester), hybrid sterility was affected by at least the alleles at S-5. We believe that the difficulties in using Basmati 370 in hybrid rice breeding programs are caused by its allelic interactions at several hybrid sterility loci. Systematic use of neutral alleles at each locus is recommended to solve the problem.

Table 2. Distribution of spikelet fertility classified by marker genotype of hybrids between Basmati 370 and IRRI lines or a japonica test line. a Genotype Number of plants in spikelet fertility 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2 18 100 0 16 Total mean T-test

Cat-1 2 /Cat-1 1 Cat-1 1/Cat-1 1

Basmati 370/1R36//1R36 2 3 9 10 3 5 3 3 1 2 1 17 2 1 2 1 SF was not differentiated at Est-2, Est-9, Est-1, Sdh-T and Est-5 Basmati 370/lR2061-628//Basmati 370 8 10 1 1 1 1 0 2 2 4 7 9 3 2 8 8 SF was not differentiated at Est-2, Est-9, Est-1, Sdh-1, and Est-5 Basmati 370/IR2061-418//Basmati 370 2 2 3 3 6 3 14 8 4 10 1 1 1 2 1 1 SF was not differentiated at Est-2, Cat-1, Est-1, Sdh-1, and Est-5 0 2 1 1 0 2 0 3 Basmati 370/Ketan Nangka//Akihikan 3 2 14 11 4 2 4 7

40**b 61

52.3** 75.8

Cat-1 2/Cat-1 2 Cat-11/ Cat-12

8 8

6 4 -

38** 55

76.3** 51.7

Est-9 2/Est-9 1 Est-9 1/Est-9 1

5 10

4 6

50** 37

56.3** 74.3

Amp-3 2/Amp-3 1 Arnp31/Amp-31

7 5

5 3

43 33

76.5** 52.3

aNumbers underlined are assumed to be recombinants. b ** = significant at the 1% level.

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Diallel analysis of AI toxicity tolerance in rice


S. Khatiwada, D. Senadhira, and R. S. Zeigler, IRRI; A. L. Carpena and P. G. Fernandez, University of the Philippines Los Baos, Laguna, Philippines

Estimates of genetic parameters for relative root length (AI toxicity tolerance) in 7 7 diallel cross. IRRI, 1995. Genetic parameter (D) Additive effects (H) Dominance effects H1 (due to dominant gene) H2 (due to positive and negative genes) h2 (due to heterozygous loci) (F) Gene distributlon (E) Environmental effects Proportional values (H2/4H1) (KD/KR) b rc r2 (h2/H2) (hns) (hbs)
a*

Estimate SE 0.0167 0.0041 0.0034 0.0002 0.0028 0.0008 0.0005* a 0.0015* 0.0013* 0.0009 0.0015 0.0002*

We studied the genetics of Al toxicity tolerance using a full diallel set of crosses among seven parents with differing degrees of response to Al toxicity. The seven varieties were Moroberekan, IRAT104, and Azucena (tolerant); IR29 and IR43 (moderately tolerant); and IR45 and IR1552 (susceptible). Relative root length of 14-d-old seedlings, determined by growing seedlings in a normal nutrient solution and nutrient solution with 30 ppm Al, was used to characterize the tolerance of test materials. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse at the IRRI Phytotron with 29/21 C day/night temperature and 70% relative humidity. The experimental units consisted of 49 entries (7 7 diallel) in randomized complete block design with four replications. Eight seedlings were sampled for each entry in a replication. Analysis of variance among parents, hybrids, and reciprocals showed highly significant differences among parents and hybrids. Differences between parents and hybrids were not significant. Analysis of variance of the diallels revealed homogeneity of error variance, directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among parents, and that no parent had more dominant genes than did the others. Covariance-variance graphic analysis showed the adequacy of a simple additive-

(H1/D)

Mean degree of dominance Proportion of genes with + or - effects on parents Proportion of dominant and recessive genes in the parents Correlation between (Wr+Vr) and Yr Prediction for measurement of completely dominant and recessive parents Number of gene groups that control tolerance and inhibit dominance Heritability (narrow sense) Heritability (broad sense)

0.4954 0.2082 1.4001 0.6618 0.4380 0.0654 0.8177 0.9106

= significant at P<0.05. b KD/KR = [(4DH 1) + F]/[(4DH 1) - F]. c r = correlation between the sum of covariance of an array with nonrecurring parents and variance of an array (Wr + Vr) and parental means (Yr).

dominance model and partial dominance of the trait. It also showed the presence of dominant genes in tolerant varieties and recessive genes in susceptible varieties. Moderately tolerant to tolerant varieties IR43, Azucena, IRAT104, and Moroberekan appeared to contain similar genes for tolerance. Susceptible IR45 possessed most of the recessive genes for tolerance, followed by IR29 and IR1552. Genetic components of variation and proportional values were estimated (see table). The observed variations were due to additive and dominance effects of genes and the environmental effects. Average degree of dominance was within the range of incomplete dominance. The proportion of dominant and recessive genes in the

parents indicated an excess of dominant genes. Genes with desirable effects (tolerance) were dominant over those with undesirable effects (susceptibility). Only one group of genes with dominance was found to be involved in governing Al toxicity tolerance in rice. The high narrow-sense heritability (0.82) and the small difference between narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability (0.91) indicated the predominance of additive gene action. Results indicated that in breeding populations, selection for Al toxicity tolerance could be carried out in the early generations. Selection efficiency could be enhanced if done under controlled conditions to reduce environmental effects.

Breeding methods Breeding methods


Maintainers and restorers for cytoplasmic male sterile line lR66707 A
S. B. Pradhan and P. J. Jachuck, Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Cuttack 753006, Orissa, India

Since its release in India during 1992, IR64 has become very popular in the irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh,

Orissa, West Bengal, and Maharashtra. It has high yield, wide adaptability, good plant type, long slender grain, intermediate amylose content, and resistance to major insect pests and diseases. IRRI scientists developed cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line IR66707A from IR64 by using Oryza perennis as a cytoplasmic source. Their intention was to use this CMS line to develop high-yielding, good quality hybrid rice. However, hybrids could

not be developed without effective restorers. During 1992-93, we made 50 test crosses with IR66707 A using highyielding varieties adapted to irrigated and rainfed lowland conditions. We found 42 of the varieties to be effective maintainers; one a weak maintainer; five partial restorers; and two, IR21820-38-2 and Mahsuri, to be effective restorers for IR66707 A (Table 1). Unlike in the CMS-wild abortive system,

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Table 1. Maintainers and restorers for lR66707 A. CRRI, Cuttack, India. 1992 and 1993 wet seasons. Male parent 1992 ADT34 Annada B4143 D-PM-51-4 BKS64 CR580-17-3 CR564-8 CR644 CRM 35 Daya IET10158 IET10983 lR1846-300-1 lR25560-109-3-1-3-2 lR1248-242-32 Krishna Mizoram Mizoram Mizoram Mizoram Mizoram 24 35 41 51 61 M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M WM M M M M M PRb PR M/R
a

Table 2. Yield data of two hybrids and check. CRRI, Cuttack, India. Hybrid/check lR66707 A/lR21820-38-2 lR66707 A/Mahsuri IR36 (check) Plant height (cm) 85 84 90 Days to 50% flowering 94 95 95 Yield/plant (g) 36.5 35.7 25.5 Standard heterosis (%) 43.1 40.0

the frequency of maintainers in the CMSO. perennis system was very high and the frequency of restorers very low.

IR21820-38-2 and Mahsuri produced hybrids that yielded about 40% more than check IR36 (Table 2.) lines and japonica wide compatibility lines with the S-5n gene. The hybrids had grain yields of 7.6-10.6 t/ha and significant heterosis of 13.8-83.1% over the average of their parents. More spikelets per panicle in the hybrids caused the sink capacity to increase by 27.0-70.4% over that of the parents, thus contributing to high grain yields. The panicles per area, however, exhibited no heterosis (Table 1). The biomass of the hybrids averaged about 18 t/ha. It exceeded that of the parents by 11.5-41.1% and was the biological basis for the hybrids' high grain yield. High leaf

Biological characteristics of indicajaponica hybrids


Lu Chuan'gen, Gu Fulin, and Zou Jiangshi, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (JAAS), Nanjing 210014, China

Mizoram 62 PN56-665 Panidhan Pusa 33 Rasi Sarasa Suphala Savitri Tulasi V20 Gayatri Mizoram 39 1993 ARC13558 86441-5. MR. 10-1 BR1870-88-11 Col. 155 C1954-24-2 C2757-22-1-1-1 lR49689-84-2-1-2 lR35366-28-3-1-2-2 lR48725-B-B-120-1 lR27315-145-1-3-2 Katarni Pusa 33-303 Vijaya lR49721-127-2-2-1 Raktachandan Tox 3108-43-3-6 lR21820-38-2 Mahsuri
a

Five indica-japonica hybrids and their parents were tested for their biological characteristics. The experiment was conducted in a 40-m2 plot with three replications per variety at the JAAS experimental farm in 1990 and 1991. The hybrids were obtained by crossing indica

Table 1. Grain yield and yield components in indica-japonica hybrids and their parents. a Nanjing, China. 1990-91. Hybrid or parent 3037 3037/02428 02428 916/02428 916 916/M2 M2 JW28 3037/JW28 3037 3037/02428 02428 3037/JW12 JW12 Grain yield (t/ha) 8.1 9.0 (18.4) 7.1 8.3 (46.9) 4.2 7.6 (83.1) 4.1 7.9 9.5 (13.8) 8.8 10.6 (32.5) 7.2 9.3 (14.1) 7.5 Yield differenceb (1%) abc a ab c d d cd Panicles (105/ha) Spikelets/ panicle (no.) 107.5 220.0 (66.4) 157.0 218.4 (70.2) 99.6 203.5 (39.0) 193.3 145.0 217.1 (36.9) 172.2 241.2 (20.5) 228.0 193.7 (18.0) 156.2 Seed set (%) 68.1 69.1 (1.2) 72.5 68.7 (1.3) 67.5 63.1 (6.6) 71.9 95.1 79.0 (13.8) 90.4 78.1 (9.2) 84.2 78.8 (13.4) 93.9 1,000Sink Biomass grain capacity (t/ha) weight (g) (t/ha) 24.3 22.3 (5.7) 23.0 29.2 (15.6) 27.5 28.4 (23.2) 18.6 28.3 26.8 (3.7) 23.4 24.9 (0.0) 26.4 25.4 (4.5) 25.2 10.1 12.0 (27.0) 8.8 12.5 (53.4) 7.5 12.1 (70.4) 6.7 8.0 12.0 (33.3) 10.0 12.2 (29.1) 8.9 11.1 (29.1) 7.2 16.4 18.6 (13.4) 16.4 19.4 (28.5) 13.8 17.7 (22.9) 15.0 15.2 19.6 (38.0) 13.2 18.2 (41.1) 12.6 14.1 (11.5) 12.1

M M M M M M M M M M M M M PR PR PR R*1c R*2d

bc

1990 38.5 24.6 (21.8) 24.4 19.6 (24.3) 27.4 20.9 (8.9) 18.5 1991 19.5 20.7 (6.5) 24.8 20.2 (2.0) 14.8 22.5 (4.7) 18.2

b a

bc d d

M = maintainer (spikelet fertility <1%), WM = weak maintainer (spikelet fertility 1- <25%), PR = partial restorer (spikelet fertility 26-79%), and R = effective restorer (spikelet fertility>80%). b Spikelet fertility = 76.7%. cSpikelet fertility for *1 = 80.2%; *2 = 80.0%.

aData in parentheses represent the heterosis over the average of the parents. b In the third column, yield differences

indicated by different letters are significant at the 1% level.

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Table 2. Comparison of some physiological traits of Yayou and Shanyou 63. Nanjing, China, 1989. Trait Maximum leaf area index Maximum photosynthetic rate (mol CO2 /m per s) Specific leaf weight in heading (mg/cm 2 ) Chlorophyll content in heading (%) Relative growth rate (g/kg per d) Net assimilation rate (g/m 2 per d) Period leaf activity (d)
a * = significant difference at the 5% level.

Yayou 2 8.2 24.0 4.6 4.9 40.9 9.6 73

Shanyou 63 (check) 7.1 20.9 3.8 4.0 37.8 6.4 54

Compared with check a +15.5% +14.8%* +21.1%* +22.5%* +8.2% +50.0% +35.2%*

area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) caused a high crop growth rate in the hybrids, leading to the higher average biomass than that of the parents. There was no heterosis in harvest index. The grain yield potential increased to 11.1-12.5 t/ha, which was much higher than that for the indica or japonica lines. Seed set, however, was low and unstable compared with that of the parents, although the S-5 n gene was used. High and stable seed set should therefore be the main objective for cultivating and breeding indica-japonica hybrids. An example of an indica-japonica hybrid rice is Yayou 2. It was developed by using a chemical hybridizing agent and by crossing indica line 3037 and japonica wide compatibility variety 02428. We compared some of its traits with check Shanyou 63, a widely cultivated indica hybrid. Yayou 2 showed a grain yield potential of 12 t/ha, 21 t/ha of biomass (1 3% higher than that of the check), and a harvest index

of 0.5, which was 6.4% higher than that of the check. Its LAI increased at a rate of 10.2% per day in the earlier growth stages, which was faster than that of the check, and decreased at 2.0% per day in the later stages, which was slower than that of the check. Its maximum LAI was 1.1 and its LAD 25.5%both higher than those of the check. Yayou 2 had a leaf photosynthetic rate 14.8% higher than the check and a daily bio-mass accumulation of 17.1% more (Table 2). The leaves of Yayou 2 were droopy during the early growth stage but later became erect, resulting in a lower light extinction coefficient and a higher light transmission in the later stages. Compared with the check, Yayou 2 had a higher translocation coefficient of stored substances in the sheath, leaf, and stem; a higher relative growth rate and net assimilation rate in the earlier stages; and a longer active period for the three top leaves.

The different indica varieties showed a similar banding pattern for the major bands. The only exception was the scented variety Kosturi. We observed it to have one mobility variant 6s (Rf = 0.67) for band 6, which contributed to a higher molecular weight than the corresponding band in other varieties (Rf = 0.72). Differences for some minor bands were noticed among subgroups of indica varieties. Similarly, variation for glutelin subunits was not found within japonica varieties. However, indica and japonica varieties showed variation for the major band 6. The japonica varieties also had a mobility variant 6s (Rf = 0.67) similar to that of Kosturi. These findings show that glutelin components in rice are conserved, unlike prolamines of wheat and barley. The similarity between indica variety Kosturi and japonica varieties for the slow migrating band 6s indicates the probability of these being distantly related. A detailed study is needed to conclude whether the presence or absence of minor bands in different rice groups has something to do with varietal characteristics.

Stress tolerance drought


Leaf rolling and desiccation tolerance in relation to rooting depth and leaf area in rice
A. R. Gomosta and M. Z. Haque, Plant Physiology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh

Grain quality Grain quality


Glutelin banding pattern in rice assessed
B. Kalita and G. N. Hazarika, Agricultural Biotechnology Program, Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785013, Assam, India

The high stability of the seed protein profile and its additive nature make seed protein electrophoresis a powerful tool in elucidating the origin and evolution of cultivated plants. The electrophoregram obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of storage proteins is used mostly for

assessing variation in chemical composition among cultivars and populations of land races. Scientists have also established an association between electrophoretic components and quality characters in cereals. Glutelin is the major seed storage protein of rice, contributing 80% of the total endosperm protein. We examined the glutelin banding pattern in 72 japonica and indica rices using the sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE technique. Three were japonica varieties (Jinbu 4, Vailoninano, and Stagaree E) and 69 were indica varieties, classified as nonscented (23), scented (13), glutinous (9), semiglutinous (9), and deepwater (15).

Greater rooting depth is associated with drought tolerance in a rice variety. However, more water is lost from plants with a higher leaf area. A balance between rooting depth and leaf area is perhaps important. This study was done to understand the relative importance of these two traits in leaf rolling and desiccation tolerance. Different rooting depths were created by placing perforated polyethylene sheets at 5, 10, and 15 cm in the soil. One treatment with no polyethylene sheet was used as the control. Fertilizer at 20-40-60 kg NPK/ha was applied before IR5 was dry

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Water saturation deficit, leaf rolling, and desiccation tolerance of rice as affected by rooting depth and leaf area.a Rooting depth (cm) 5 5 10 10 15 15 Control Control CV (%)
a

Leaf area (%) 100 50 100 50 100 50 100 50

WSD b (%) 86.0 a 71.0 b 50.0 c 31.0 d 25.0 de 7.0 f 15.0 ef 6.0 f 23

Leaf rolling (1-5) c 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0 11 a a a a

Desiccation d tolerance (1-9) 9.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 7.0 1.0 4.0 1.0 20 a a a a a b c c

Root zone moisture (%) 4.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 9.0 16
c c bc ab a a a a

b b c

Figures with the same letter(s) do not differ significantly at the 1% level. WSD (water saturation deficit) (%) = Turgid weight field weight Turgid weight oven-dry weight 100.
d Rated

b c

Rated on a 1-5 scale where 1 = no leaf rolling and 5 = leaves severely rolled. desiccation of leaves and 9 = leaves severely desiccated.

on a 1-9 scale where 1 = no

seeded. Seedlings were sprinkled with water for the first 3 wk. The leaf area was clipped to half at 21 d after seeding. The internal water stress of the leaves was expressed as the water saturation deficit

percentage (WSD%), defined as water deficiency relative to when a leaf was 100% turgid in water. This was measured gravimetrically. The WSD% increased with decrease in rooting depth (see table).

The soil moisture percentage around the root zone decreased as rooting depth decreased. Soil moisture was also reduced with increased leaf area, but only at 5- and 10-cm rooting depths. At 15 cm or deeper, leaf area did not affect the root zone moisture. Like rooting depth, the leaf area also significantly determines the plants internal water balance as well as its desiccation tolerance. However, the degrees of leaf rolling and leaf desiccation were significantly reduced with decreased leaf area at 15 cm rooting depth or more. At 5- and 10-cm rooting depths, leaf rolling as well as desiccation tolerance were statistically similar at 100% and 50% leaf area. Thus, less leaf area is more important at greater rooting depths than at shallower rooting depths when desiccation tolerance of a variety is considered.
~~

Stress toleranceadverse soils


Tolerance for Al toxicity in lowland rice
S. Khatiwada, D. Senadhira, and R. S. Zeigler, IRRI; A. L. Carpena and P. G. Fernandez, University of the Philippines Los Baos, Laguna, Philippines

A major production constraint in acid upland soils is Al toxicity. So far, screening rices for Al tolerance has been limited to upland cultivars. However, lowland rice is grown on about 2 million ha with acid sulfate soil conditions. These rices are prone to Al toxicity during dry spells. Several Al-tolerant upland rices have been identified, but their use in acid lowlands as cultivars or as donors for breeding purposes is very limited because they are japonicas. Previous investigations showed that relative root length (RRL) of 2-wk-old seedlings (determined as the ratio of root length in a nutrient solution with 30 ppm Al to the root length in a normal nutrient solution) is a good criterion for selecting Altolerant genotypes. With the objective of isolating AI-tolerant lowland indicas, we used this technique to screen 62 cultivars originating from acid sulfate soil areas of

India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and West Africa. The experiment, which was laid out in a randomized complete block design with two replications, was conducted in an IRRI Phytotron glasshouse with 29/21 C day/ night temperatures and 70% relative humidity. IRAT104 was used as the tolerant check and IR1552 as the susceptible check. Eight seedlings were sampled for each test entry in a replication. The differential tolerance for Al among cultivars was found highly significant (see table). RRL ranged from 0.45 in S-4 to 1.16 in Siyam Kuning. The RRL was 0.83 for tolerant check IRAT104 and 0.57 for susceptible check IR1552. In 17 varieties, RRL was 1.0 or more, indicating that Al did not affect the root growth of these cultivars. Other researchers earlier reported increases in root length and growth of seedlings of tolerant cultivars when exposed to added Al. The difference in RRL means between tolerant check IRAT104 and the two best performing test varieties (Siyam Kuning and Gudabang Putih) was highly significant. This finding suggests that the tolerance of these two cultivars is very much

Relative root length of some traditional rice varieties grown in normal and AI toxic nutrient solution. Variety Siyam Kuning Gudabang Putih Siyam Lemo Khao Daeng Siyamhalus Bjm-12 Ketan Seribu Gantang Bayar Raden Rati Padi Kanji Bjm-13 Batang Pane Bjm-14 Ca Dung Do Bjm-10 Padi Jambi Gablak Cablak Barito Engatek Bjm-15 Siyam Kuning Quisidugo Lua Thuoc Gudabang Kuning Bjm-17 Kutik Putih Kapuas Baiang 6 Pontianak Origin Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Thailand Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Vietnam Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Malaysia Indonesia Indonesia West Africa Vietnam Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia lndonesia Indonesia Relative root length a 1.16 1.14 1.10 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.03 0.96 0.94 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.90 0.90 0.89 0.89 0.85

continued on next page

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Table continued Variety Origin Relative root lengtha 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.81 0.81 0.80 0.80 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.59 0.57 0.45 0.83 0.57 12.5 0.21 0.28

Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated


Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1, a shortduration hybrid for Karnataka, India
B. Vidyachandra, R. M. Radhakrishna, S. Lingaraju, A. H. Krishnamurthy, and V. Bhaskar, University of Agricultural Science, Regional Research Station (RRS), V. C. Farm, Mandya 571405, Karnataka, India

Nang Coi Vietnam Bayar Kuning Indonesia Bjm-11 Indonesia Vietnam Thung Hoa Binh Indonesia Alabio Thailand Khao Seetha Indonesia Gaw Diaw Bow Thailand Khao Taeng Vietnam Lua Thuoc Co Indonesia Talang A Indonesia Mahakam Indonesia Galambong Tai Nguyen Vietnam Indonesia Ketumbar Thom Ran Vietnam Talang B Indonesia Vietnam Duvi Trau Vietnam Can Dung Phen Indonesia Gogo Ranceh Vietnam Doc Phung Vietnam Nang Gao Mansirit Indonesia Indonesia Kapus West Africa Yaca S-1 West Africa Atanha West Africa Nang Co Vietnam Than Nang Do Vietnam Pokkali India Vietnam SOC Nau Silla West Africa S-4 West Africa IRAT104 (tolerant check) lR1552 (susceptible check) CV (%) LSD (0.05) LSD (0.01)
a Mean of two replications.

Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1 (KRH-1) is a short-duration rice hybrid selected at RRS from rice hybrids shared by IRRI through the Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad. Its parents are cytoplasmic male sterile line IR58025 A and restorer line IR9761-19-1 R. KRH-1 matures in 125 d and is 90-cm tall. It produces an average of 460 panicles/ m2 and 168 grains/panicle. The grains are long-slender and straw-colored, the kernels

are white, and the 1,000-grain weight is 23.3 g. It is for use in the irrigated areas of Karnataka. The recommended fertilizer dose for KRH-1 is 100-50-50 kg NPK/ha. The seed rate is 20 kg/ha with single seedlings per hill at 20- 10-cm spacing. KRH-1 recorded a yield advantage of 1.5 t/ha over check Mangala in trials conducted during 1990-93 at Mandya (see table). Similar results were obtained in multilocation trials and in 100 on-farm trials around Karnataka, in which KRH-1 yielded an average 6.8 t/ha with a yield advantage of 1.5 t/ha over Mangala. KRH-1 has moderate resistance to neck blast, sheath rot, and stem borer. The State Variety Release Committee released KRH-1 during 1994 for cultivation in Karnataka State.

Mean yield (t/ha) of Karnataka Rice Hybrid-1 (KRH-1) in different trials in Karnataka, India. 199093. Type of trial Research station (Mandya) Multilocation On-farm Demonstration Mean Year 1990-93 1991-93 1991-93 1993 Trials (no.) 10 18 100 10 KRH-1 7.2 5.3 6.8 6.3 6.4 Mangala (check) 5.7 3.7 5.3 5.0 4.9 Yield advantage 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.5

higher than that of IRAT104. Varieties Siyam, Lemo, Khao Daeng, Siyamhalus, Bjm- 12, Ketan, Seribu Gantang, Bayar Raden Rati, and Padi Kanji also produced significantly higher RRLs than did IRAT104. The tolerance level of the other cultivars was comparable with that of IRAT104. Only three of the 62 varieties expressed sensitivity. The results indicated that tolerance for Al toxicity exists in lowland varieties grown on acid sulfate soils. The cultivars that are more tolerant of Al than upland cultivar IRAT104 may be good donors for breeding Al-tolerant lowland rice varieties.

Xiangyou 63, a quasi-aromatic hybrid rice with good quality and high yield
Zhou Kunlu and Liao Fuming, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center (HHRRC), Changsha 410125, Hunan, China

Xiangyou 63 was developed at HHRRC using aromatic cytoplasmic male sterile line Xiangxiang 2 A and nonaromatic restorer line Minghui 63. It was released to farmers in Jan 1995. Xiangyou 63 is the first quasiaromatic hybrid rice in China, and Xiangxiang 2A, developed from the cross V20A//N20 B/MR365 by HHRRC, is the first aromatic CMS line in China. The hybrid has so far been planted on more than 20,000 ha and seems popular with farmers and consumers. In addition to being aromatic, the hybrid has good grain quality, high-yielding ability, good disease resistance, and wide adaptability.

The hybrid, which produces only some aromatic grains on each plant, has some advantages over aromatic inbred or hybrid rices. In China, aromatic inbred and hybrid rices are usually mixed before cooking with nonaromatic rice to lessen their intense aroma. Xiangyou 63 grain, however, is already mixed due to F2 segregation. Another advantage is that its grains are not as easily attacked by insect pests and rats as are those of aromatic rices, and that it is also relatively easier to store than aromatic rice. All of Xiangyou 63s quality characters, except brown rice percentage, meet the first and second class standards of fine quality rice issued by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (Table 1). It has been endorsed as a fine quality rice in Hunan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guizhou, Shaanxi, and Henan provinces. Xiangyou 63 yielded an average of about 6.9 t/ha in various trials during 198789. For example, in the 1988-89 Hunan

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Table 1. Grain quality performance of Xiangyou 63. Hybrid/ standard Institutesa doing the testing (year) Xiangyou 63 Chinese Ministry of Agriculture standard 1st class 2nd class HRRl (1988) CNRRI (1990) SGBA (1992) Brown Milled rice rice (%) 81.6 80.7 82.6 >81 >79 (%) 73.0 72.5 71.4 >74 >72 Head rice (%) 64.0 38.1b >59 >54 Kernel Length (mm) 7.0 7.03 6.5-7.5 5.6-6.5 L-W ratio 3.0 3.0 >3.0 2.5-3.0 Chalkiness Rice (%) 24.2 51b <5 <10 Area (%) 7.4 9.1 3.0 <5 <10 Gelatinization temperature (alkali value) Gel consistency (mm) Amylose content (%) Protein content (%)

6.4 >4 24

54 40 >60 41-60

22 20.6 17-22 <25

7.55 8.6 >8 >8

aHRRI = Hunan Rice Research Institute, CNRRl = Chinese National Rice Research Institute, and SGAB = Shaoguan Agricultural Bureau. b Xiangyou 63 did not mature very well in

1990 because of late sowing, which gave lower head rice and higher chalky rice percentages than the other results.

Table 2. Agronomic characters of Xianyou 63. Hunan Rice Variety Regional Trial, China, 1988. Hybrid Hybrids Locations tested (no.) (no.) 15 15 10 10 ReplicaPlant Spikelets/ Filled 1,000- Grain tions Maturity height panicle spikelets grain yielda (no.) (d) (cm) weight (t/ha) (no.) (%) (g) 3 3 126 127 99 88 91.9 94.5 81.1 80.4 28.1 26.6 6.7 ns 6.6

Xiangyou 63 Weiyou 6 (check)


a

ns = yields not significant by Duncan's SSR test.

Rice Variety Regional Trials, it yielded a mean 6.8 t/ha with a growth duration of 126 d, which was comparable with that of check Weiyou (Table 2). It has also been cultivated in farmers fields and grown in demonstration plots in 19 provinces in

China. For example, as a single crop grown on 23.5 ha in Bingchuan,Yunnan, in 1994, it yielded 1 1.9 t/ha. The hybrid was evaluated for blast resistance in Hunan. It scored 4,4, and 0 for seedling, leaf, and neck blast, respectively, sterile (CMS) lines, such as Zhenshan 97 A and V20A, has contributed to retarding the production of high-quality hybrid rices in China. Our goal was to breed high-quality CMS lines to improve the grain quality of hybrid rice. In 1982 autumn, high-quality variety Shuangzhuzhan was used as the maternal parent in a cross with wild rice S7539 (O. sativa f. spontanea), which has multiple pest resistances. The F1 generation was

on the 1-9 scales of the Standard evaluation system for rice. It had good field resistance to rice blast and bacterial leaf blight. Xiangyou 63 has wide adaptability and can be grown as either a late crop in the double rice-cropping areas on which Weiyou 6 is commonly planted, or as a single crop in the single rice-cropping areas planted to Shanyou 63, the most popular hybrid in China. When planted as late rice in the double-cropping system in Hunan, it was about 100 cm tall with strong tillering ability. Its seed set was more than 75% with a mean of 100 spikelets/panicle and a 1,000-grain weight of 28 g. crossed with bacterial blight-resistant cultivar Gushan in 1983 spring. The best line, Zhushan, was developed from this multiple cross in 1986. From 1987 spring onward, Zhushan was used as the recurrent parent in a backcross to Guang 41 A, a Honglian-type CMS line. Zhushan A, a new Honglian-type CMS line, was bred in 1991. We conducted a series of experiments under irrigated lowland conditions in Zhanjiang (N2110) during 1991-93 to

Zhushan A: a new Honglian-type cytoplasmic male sterile line with good grain quality
Zhang Jianzhong, Liu Kangping, and Peng Junhua, Zhanjiang Agricultural College, Zhanjiang 524088, China

Grain quality is one of the important objectives in hybrid rice breeding. The poor grain quality of leading cytoplasmic male

Table 1. Heading date, fertility, and general combining ability (GCA) effects for grain quality characters of Zhushan A, Zhenshan 97 A, and Guang 41 A. Zhangjiang, China. 1991-93. Trait CMS linea Days to headingb Fertility (%) Pollen Stained sterile pollen 9.7-63.3 3.0- 6.8 8.2-55.1 Spikelet Chalkiness d Relative value of GCA effects (%) c Length e (cm) 3.9* 1.5 2.4 1.6 Width f (cm) 8.3** 6.0** 2.3 2.0 Length-width ratio 12.6** 7.15 5.5 4.5 Milling rate of polished head rice (%) 3.2** 1.4 1.8 1.2

Zhushan A Zhenshan 97 A (check) Guang 41 A (check) SE for GCA value

78 12 69 12 86 16

0-0.1 0-0.1 0-0.1

0-0.2 0-0.1 0-0.1

10.3* g 7.2** g 3.1* 1.3

aZhenshan 97 A is a leading wild abortive CMS line in China. Guang 41 A is a leading Honglian-type CMS line in Guangdong Province, China. b Mean values across 16 seeding times from 3 Feb to 13 Aug 1992. c The six restorer lines, R59, R56, R892, Zaoteqing, Gujinyang, and 771, that can restore the fertility of both Honglian-type and wild abortive-type CMS lines were used in an Incomplete diallel experiment. dMeasured using the Standard evaluation system for rice. e Sum of the length of 10 brown rice grains. f Sum of the width of 10 brown rice grams. g *, ** = significant at the 5 and 1% level, respectively.

10

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

observe the traits of Zhushan A, to test its general combining ability (GCA) effects on some grain quality characters, and to determine the yield capacity of the new hybrids from Zhushan A. Zhushan A has good plant type and is about 85 cm tall. It has dark green leaves, erect flag leaves, and long-slender grain (9.1 mm long 2.6 mm wide). Its heading date was 78 d, which was 9 d longer than that of Zhenshan 97 A and 8 d shorter than that of Guang 41 A (Table 1). Pollen fertility was 0-0.1%. Like the Honglian-type CMS line Guang 41 A, Zhushan A had 9.7-63.3% stained sterile pollen. The sterility of Zhushan A is acceptable for commercial hybrid rice production in southern China. In a 3 6 incomplete diallel experiment, the relative values of GCA effects of the parents were estimated by Bulmer's method. Zhushan A had higher GCA effects for grain length, length-width ratio, and milling rate of polished head rice than did Zhenshan 97 A and Guang 41 A, but lower GCA effects for chalkiness and grain width. Therefore, Zhushan A could be used to produce hybrids with lower chalkiness, grain length, grain width, length-width ratio in grain, and milling rates of polished head rice (Table 1). Yield trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four of the hybrid crosses from Zhushan A yielded 8.0-8.4 t/ha during the early cropping season (5.6-10.7% more than the national check Shanyou 63) and 6.9-7.1 t/ha during the late cropping season (2.5-5.4% more than the provincial check Shanyou 64) (Table 2). For the four hybrids, grain length was 6.1-6.8 mm; length-width ratio, 2.5-3.2; chalkiness, 0-1; amylose content, 19.7-23.5%; and grain quality, grade 1 or 2. In the 1993 early cropping season, Zhuyou 61 (Zhushan A/R61) yielded 7.7 t/ha, ranking first among 14 crosses in the united test of high-quality hybrid rice of southern China. Zhuyouqing (Zhushan A/Meiqing) ranked second in a regional test during the early cropping season in Guangdong Province. Zhushan A has greater GCA for grain quality characters than do other CMS lines. The hybrid crosses derived from Zhushan A have good grain quality and higher grain yield, making the line valuable for use in breeding programs.

Table 2. Grain yield and grain quality of several Zhushan A hybrids. Zhanjiang, China. 1991-93 early and late cropping seasons. a Hybrid
Character

Zhushan A/Meiqing Zhushan A/R61 Early Late 7.1 5.4 6.7 2.7 0-1 21.1 1 Early 8.2 8.1 c 6.5 2.7 0-1 23.5 2 Late 7.0 4.0 6.8 3.0 0-1 21.0 1

Zhushan A/R903 Early 8.3 8.7* 6.6 3.0 0-1 20.8 1 Late 7.0 3.7 6.8 3.2 0-1 21.3 2

Zhushan A/R54 Early 8.4 10.7** 6.4 2.8 0-1 19.7 2 Late 6.9 2.5 6.6 3.1 0-1 21.8 1

Grain yield (t/h) Checkb Grain quality Grain length (mm) Length-width ratio Chalkiness Amylose content (%) Quality grade d

8.0 5.6 6.1 2.5 0-1 22.0 2

standard of high-quality rice in China, quality grade 1 = milling rate of brown rice >81% and that of polished rice >72%, half-transparent rice grain, length-width ratio is >3.0, and amylose content = 17-22%. Quality grade 2 = milling rate of brown rice >79% and that of polished rice >72%, half-transparent rice grain, length-width ratio = 2.5-3.0, and amylose content <25%.

a Early crop was seeded in February, late crop was seeded in July. b Shanyou 63 was the check for the early crop and Shanyou 64 for the late crop. c *, ** = significant at the 5 and 1% level, respectively. d According to the national

Integrated germplasm improvementupland Integrated germplasm improvementupland


Turant Dhan: a very early rice variety released in Bihar, India
R. Thakur, A. K. Singh, R. S. Singh, and M. Mishra, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa 848125, Samastipur, India; and R. C. Chaudhary, IRRI

Flood or drought periodically affects rice in Biharespecially in the northern areas. Sometimes floods and droughts occur at the same time in different parts of the state. Farmers require rice varieties that are suitable for preflood and postflood conditions and for intermittent drought to enable a harvest on the available rainfall.

Varieties that are very early-maturing are the obvious choice for these situations. Sattari, Prasana, and Heera, which all have 70-75 d durations and were released in recent years, have not been accepted by farmers because of their poor yield and susceptibility to diseases and insect pests. We began working to develop very early rice varieties in the early 1980s. Numerous early-maturing cultures from IRRI were evaluated. A hybridization program was undertaken that made use of available very early germplasm. Culture ES18-5-1, with 70-75 d duration, was developed from the cross Sattari/ Rasi. The culture consistently outyielded

Table 1. Yields of ES18-5-1 in uniform varietal trials at different locations in Bihar, India. 1989-95. Year 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 Location Dhangain Pusa Dhangain Sabour Pusa Dhangain Sabour Pusa Dhangain Sabour Pusa Bikramganj Sabour Pusa Patna Pusa Pooled mean Yield (t/ha) (preflood) ES18-5-1 3.1 2.4 2.8 2.2 2.0 3.1 2.3 1.3 2.1 1.9 2.6 4.3 1.5 3.8 1.6 2.9 2.5 Sattari 2.3 1.7 2.7 1.9 1.2 2.2 1.6 1.1 2.5 1.2 1.8 4.3 1.1 3.0 2.3 2.0 Prasana 1.4 1.9 2.1 1.2 1.7 1.1 1.3 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 2.7 1.4 1.5 Heera 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.7 0.5 2.3 0.5 2.0 1.2 CV (%) 12.6 16.0 11.9 19.9 8.8 15.4 14.6 13.1 nsa 11.1 10.4 13.9 16.8 11.8 ns 13.8 LSD (5%) 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.8 0.05 0.6

1994-95
a

ns = not significant.

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995) 11

Table 2. Yield (t/ha) of ES18-5-1 in on-farm trials sown on different dates around Bihar, India. 1991-95. Year 1991-92 1992-93 1994-95 Pooled mean 10 Jul ES18-5-1 2.6 3.6 3.2 3.1 Sattari 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.2 Heera 1.6 1.5 1.7 1.6 ES18-5-1 2.4 3.4 2.7 2.8 25 Aug (postflood) Sattari 1.5 2.1 1.8 1.8 Heera 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2

check varieties in multilocation state uniform varietal trials (very early) from 1989 to 1994 under preflood conditions. The pooled averages exhibited a 20.8%

yield increase over Sattari, 38.4% over Prasana, and 41.7% over Heera (Table 1). Under late sown conditions (Aug 25) in on-farm trials, ES18-5-1 outyielded checks

across 3 yr. Yield increases were as high as 133.3% over Sattari and 55% over Heera (Table 2). The culture was released as Turant Dhan for preflood and postflood conditions as well as for use under upland conditions. It is a semidwarf (90-95 cm) indica with sturdy stems. Turant Dhan has field resistance to brown spot and bacterial blight and is suitable for double cropping during the wet season.

Integrated germplasm improvementflood-prone


Purnendu, a new deepwater (50-100 cm) rice variety in eastern India
S. Mallik, C. Kundu, S. K. B. Roy, S. D. Chatterjee, and B. K. Mandal, Rice Research Station (RRS), Chinsurah 712102, West Bengal, India
1986 PVT-5 a Patna, Bihar Pusa, Bihar Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) Chinsurah, West Bengal PVT-5 Pulla, Andhra Pradesh Chinsurah, West Bengal CRRI, Orissa UVT-5 b Pulla, Andhra Pradesh CRRI, Orissa N. Lakhimpur, Assam Patna, Bihar Pusa, Bihar Sabour, Bihar Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh UVT-5 Chinsurah, West Bengal Patna, Bihar Pusa, Bihar Sabour, Bihar CRRI, Orissa Pulla, Andhra Pradesh UVT-6 c N. Lakhimpur, Assam Chinsurah, West Bengal Kamardanga, West Bengal Pusa, Bihar AVT-DW d Pusa, Bihar Chinsurah, West Bengal N. Lakhimpur, Assam AVT-DW Chinsurah, West Bengal Pusa, Bihar AVT-DW Motto, Orissa Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh 3.6 2.4 2.0 1.0 2.6 2.6*e 5.1* 3.4* 2.3* 3.0* 4.2 2.2 0.8* 2.6 1.7 4.2 3.9* 3.8* 4.5 3.4 3.4* 4.07 2.17* 3.19* 2.67* 2.22* 1.80* 4.01* 2.32* 2.70 3.42* 4.73* Performance of Purnendu in national trials in India. 1986-92. Year Trial/site Yield (t/ha) Purnendu Standard check Tilakkachari 1.5 2.3 1.8 0 2.0 0.8 2.2 2.1 Sabita 1.4 1.4 3.3 1.6 0.5 2.6 1.6 3.8 0.9 1.4 3.9 3.3 2.4 Jalamagna 3.42 0.62 1.41 1.35 1.61 1.32 3.12 0.50 2.16 1.67 2.75 Maximum water depth (cm) NAb 40 25 90 100 75 75 85 90 80 103 70 170 60 64 55 70 50 75 90 80 110 65 65 125 95 50 100 70 NA 125 141

We developed the new variety Purnendu (CN573-221-7-1) by pedigree selection from the cross Patnai 23/Jaladhi 2. Purnendu is suitable for intermediate and deepwater conditions where water is 50100 cm deep or more. Pumendu was evaluated as IET10029 across 36 locations in the national varietal testing program for several years. Its mean yield was 3.0 t/ha, with a potential yield of 5.3 t/ha. The mean yield of Purnendu was 78% more than that of Tilakkachari across 8 locations, 38% more than that of Sabita across 17 locations, and 67% more than that of Jalamagna across 111 locations (see table). In national testing, it ranked first in the 1987 preliminary variety trial-5 and second in the 1989 uniform variety trial-6 and 1990 and 1992 advanced variety trials-deepwater. It was approved for release in 1994 in Orissa, West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Assam. Purnendu is strongly photoperiodsensitive and flowers around the end of October. It has very good tolerance for submergence with nominal elongation (similar to that of FR13A) and good kneeing ability. The variety possesses resistance to sheath blight, yellow stem

1987

1988

1989

1989

1990

1991 1992

aPVT-5 = Preliminary variety trial-5. b UVT-5 = Uniform variety trial-5. b NA = not available. c UVT-6 = Uniform variety trial6. d AVT-DW = Advanced variety trial - deepwater. e*Significantly superior to standard checks at the 5% level.

12

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

borer, and leaffolder and moderate resistance to sheath rot, brown spot, and gall midge biotype 1. Purnendu has strong seed dormancy for about 3 mo. Grain is golden with purple

apiculi. Mean grain dimensions are 7.9 2.8 mm with a test weight of 18.9 g. Kernels are white with a length-breadth ratio of 2.5. Hulling percentage is 79.5 and milling percentage is 73.5. Both alkali value (5.6)

and amylose content (26.1) are high. A large amount of seed has been distributed through the minikit program to make the variety available to farmers.

Jitendra, a new deepwater rice variety for Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, India
S. Mallik, C. Kundu, S. K. Datta, B. Banerjee, S. D. Chatterjee, and B. K. Mandal, Rice Research Station (RRS), Chinsurah, 712102, West Bengal, India

Performance of Jitendra in national trials. India. 1988-92. Year 1988 Trial/site PVT-5 a Chinsurah, West Bengal Pusa, Bihar Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh Canning, West Bengal UVT-6 b Chinsurah, West Bengal Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh AVT-DM Pusa, Bihar Chinsurah, West Bengal Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh AVT-DW Pusa, Bihar AVT-DW Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh Motto, Orissa
c

Yield (t/ha) Jitendra 1.2 1.0* 1.2 3.1 2.4 5.0 1.7 1.5 3.0* 2.4 4.0* 2.4
a

National check Tilakkachari nil nil 1.1 3.6 Jalmagna 0.6 4.6 1.6 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.8 1.7

Maximum water depth (cm) 85 140 70 90 65 191 95 50 200 nae 141 125

The Varietal Identification Committee of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research approved the release in 1994 of Jitendra (SF432) for deepwater areas in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, India. Jitendra is a pureline selection from land races. It was developed at RRS, Chinsurah. The variety is suitable for water depths of 100 cm or more. The mean yield of the variety in national trials was 2.8 t/ha with a yield potential of 5.0 t/ha. It yielded 46% more than Tilakkachari and 33% more than Jalmagna. It ranked third in the 1992 advanced variety trial-deepwater (AVTDW), fifth in the 1991 AVT-DW, and seventh in the 1990 AVT-DW over the pooled means. At Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh, Jitendra yielded 5 t/ha in 1989 with a maximum water level of 191 cm, and 4 t/ha in 1992 when the maximum water depth was 141 cm (see table). Jitendra is tall, photoperiod-sensitive, and flowers around the third week of October. It has tolerance for submergence, mainly through elongation and very good kneeing ability. Panicles are well exserted with long slender golden grains and purple apiculi. Grain dimension is 10.9 2.9 mm, with a test weight of 31.2 g. Kernels are white with a length-breadth ratio of 3.3. Hulling percentage is 79.7 and milling percentage is 72.5. The rice has intermediate alkali value (2.6) and amylose content (25.0). Seed dormancy is about 3 mo. Jitendra has resistance to neck blast, brown planthopper, and whitebacked planthopper and moderate resistance to leaffolder and gall midge biotype 1.

1989

1990

1991 1992

a d

PVT-5 = Preliminary variety trial-5. b UVT-6 = Uniform variety trial-6. c AVT-DW = Advanced variety trial - deepwater. * = significantly superior over national checks at the 5% level. e na = not available.

Seed techonology
A simple method for producing F 1 hybrid seed for observational yield trials
B. C. Viraktamath and M. I. Ahmed, Hybrid Rice Laboratory, Directorate of Rice Research (DRR), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh, India; C. X. Mao, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha 410125, China

After good hybrid combinations are identified in test-cross nurseries, the next

step is to evaluate their performance in observational yield trials (OYT) before promoting the promising ones to regional or national trials. With the numerous hybrids that need to be evaluated in OYT, it is often difficult to get proper space isolation to produce pure F1 seed at a research farm. However, producing hand-crossed F 1 seed of many hybrids is laborious and often impractical. To overcome these problems, a simple method for producing a small quantity of relatively pure F1 seed for conducting OYT was developed.
1. Layout for production of F1 seed for observational yield trial.

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

13

2. Position of A () and R (x) lines in an isolated chamber.

All of the restorer lines of the hybrids to be produced are sown on the same day. Seedlings for each are transplanted 25-30 d after sowing within a 1-m2 area, and spaced at 15 15 cm in alternate rows, leaving a 20-cm space all around the edge. The A lines of the hybrids to be produced are sown

on five or six different dates at a 6- to 7-d interval starting 2 wk before the seeding of the R lines. The aim is to achieve proper synchronization for the different A and R lines. At the boot leaf stage of R lines, 2-mhigh barriers are erected on three sides of the 1-m 2 plots, leaving a gap of 20 cm from the ground (Fig. 1). The open side is partially covered by the bamer from the adjacent plot. This space can be conveniently used for cultural operations, including supplementary pollination. Just before panicle emergence of the R lines, plants of the desired A line, which are at the same growth stage as the R lines, are moved and planted in the vacant alternate rows. To ensure higher outcrossing, supplementary

pollination using a stick should be carried out at anthesis 3-4 times/d for a week. Within each 1-m2 plot, there are 15 plants of the R line in 3 rows and 10 plants of the A line in 2 rows (Fig. 2). With a very conservative estimate of only 5 tillers/plant of the A line, 80 spikelets/panicle, and only a 40% outcrossing rate, about 1,600 seeds weighing 30-35 g can be easily obtained. For conducting an OYT, 20-25 g of seed are more than adequate. The method proposed can be used to produce many hybrids for OYT. The advantages are comparatively pure seed of numerous F 1 hybrids can be produced in a limited area, the problem of obtaining proper synchronization of parental lines in hybrid seed production can be easily overcome, and F1 seed for conducting OYT can be produced with the very limited quantity of R line seed available initially.

Crop and resource management


Physiology and plant nutrition Physiology and plant nutrition
Proline content in rice seedlings grown under saline conditions
L. M. Gonzales and J. Labrada L., Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Agricultural Research Institute "Jorge Dimitrov," Bayamo 2360, Cuba

Severe salinity stress induces numerous metabolic irregularities in plants. Researchers have assumed that a large (up to 100 times the normal) accumulation of free-

proline is one of the most dramatic characteristics of the stress. We surface-sterilized 20 seeds for each of four rice varieties: salt-tolerant Pokkali and IR42 and salt-sensitive MI 48 and Perla. After sterilization, these varieties were grown in plastic pots filled with gravel and Hoagland nutrient solution enriched with 0.7% NaCl solution. Other seeds were sown under the same conditions without salts. A pH value of 5.0 was maintained for both. Plants were placed in growth cham-

Proline concentration in rice seedlings cultivated under normal and stress conditions. a Proline concentration (mg/g fresh matter) Variety Control Pokkali IR42 MI 48 Perla 7d Stress % over control 189 179 347 224 Control 66.10 c 68.70 b 59.46 d 71.10 a +0.42 1.45 21 d Stress 117.60 d 163.27 b 180.11 a 194.44 c +0.88 0.93 % over control 177 237 302 273

bers with 30/25 C day/night temperature, 14 h of light, and 70% relative humidity. The experiments were laid out in a randomized block design with three replications across three seasons. All measurements were taken 7 and 21 d after transplanting. Plant material (0.5 g) was homogenized in 10 ml of 3% aqueous sulfosalicylic acid solution and filtered. Two ml of filtrate were reacted in 2 ml acid-ninhydrin and 2 ml of glacial acetic acid for 1 h at 100 C. The reaction was terminated in an ice bath. To the reaction mixture, 4 ml of toluene were added and mixed vigorously with a test tube stirrer for 15-20 s. The cromophone containing toluene was aspirated from the aqueous phase, warmed to room temperature, and the absorbance read at 520 nm using toluene for a blank. The proline concentration was determined from a standard curve and calculated on a fresh weight basis as
mmol proline/g fresh weight material= [(mg proline/ml* ml toluene)/115.5 mg/mmol]/ [(g sample/5]

98.87 d 52.11 c 106.00 c 58.98 b 45.03 d 156.68 a 68.19 a 153.28 b +0.54 0.72

SE +0.92 2.84 CV(%)

a Values followed by dlfferent letters are significantly dlfferent at the 5% level according to DMRT.

The proline content for all varieties exposed to salt stress significantly increased (see table). The highest proline concentrations were observed in salt-sensitive varieties

14

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Perla and MI 48 (between 224 and 347% more than the control at 7 d and 273 and 302% at 21 d). Pokkali and IR42 showed proline values of 179-189% more than the control at 7 d and 177-237% at 21 d.

The trials indicated that the salt-tolerant varieties do not necessarily accumulate large amounts of free-proline relative to salt-sensitive varieties. In general, freeproline content increased in salt-sensitive (n-1) leaf 35 d after planting (DAP) and that of the flag leaf (n leaf) at flowering with a LI-6000 photosynthesis system at near saturated light (1,000 E/m2 per s). Maintenance respiration was measured directly from the CO2 evolution rate using a differential respirometer (Gilson, USA). Leaves were excised in the evening and kept in the dark for 12 h. A weighed quantity without the midrib was cut into 1-2 mm pieces and suspended in 1.8 ml of 0.2 M phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 in a Warburg flask. Twenty percent KOH (0.2 ml) was poured into a center well and a filter paper strip was added to the alkali to increase the surface area for rapid CO2 absorption. After greasing the upper rim, the flask was attached to the manometer, and the side arm of the flask was closed with a plug. The flask was then immersed in a water bath at a

varieties compared with that in salt-tolerant varieties and thus may not always be a suitable marker in examining salt resistance in rice.

Photosynthetic rate and respiration of some F1 hybrid rices


M. J. Baig, P. Swain, S. B. Pradhan, P. J. Jachuck, and K. S. Murty, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006, India

We studied the photosynthetic rate (Pn) and maintenance respiration (MR) of 11 hybrids developed from five cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines (IR64 A, PMS3 A, V20 A, Deepa A, and PMS 10 A) and their corresponding pollen parents under field conditions during the 1992 wet season. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Seedlings were transplanted at a spacing of 15 15 cm in 3-m2 plots in the main field. Sixty kg N/ha were applied. We measured the Pn of the second

constant 30 C. The system was shaken to promote rapid gas exchange between the fluid and the gas phase. The manometer fluid fell, indicating the rapid consumption of oxygen in the chamber by the tissue. The rate of respiration was calculated by subtracting the initial reading from the final reading. At each growth stage, four measurements for both Pn and MR were taken per sample for all three replications. The yield and biomass were assessed at harvest (see table). Significant variations in Pn, MR, and Pn/ MR among the hybrids and parents were observed at both 35 DAP and at flowering. However, the means of these three parameters were generally higher at flowering than at 35 DAP and in hybrids than in male parents at flowering stage. Hybrid IR64 A/ Rasi showed high Pn at 35 DAP while IR64

Photosynthetic rate (Pn) and maintenance respiration (MR) in relation to yield and biomass production in rice hybrids. Cuttack, India. 1992 wet season. 35 DAP a Hybrid/restorer Hybrids IR64 A/Savitri PMS3A/IR9828-91-2-3 PMS3A/Saruchina V20 A/IET11057 Deepa A/IET11057 V20 A/IET10463 PMS10A/ARC10339 IR64 A/Rasi IR64 A/Miz. 51 IR64 A/lR25560-109-3-1-3-2 IR64 A/IR1846-300-1 Restorers Savitri lR9828-91-2-3 Saruchina IET11057 IET10463 ARC10339 Rasi Miz. 51 lR25560-109-3-1-3-2 lR1846-300-1 Grand mean Mean of hybrids Mean of restorers CD at 5%
a

Flowering Pn/MR 3.8 6.7 10.6 9.3 8.1 7.5 7.0 10.6 9.2 7.2 10.3 9.7 7.8 3.2 8.0 7.7 4.1 8.4 9.1 10.4 9.5 8.0 8.2 7.8 1.5 Pn (mol CO 2/m2) 26.0 20.2 28.9 21.7 21.1 17.2 27.6 20.0 29.7 17.0 20.8 29.0 31.6 18.6 17.6 12.8 9.5 16.8 19.8 25.1 20.1 21.5 22.7 20.1 1.5 MR/s 2.3 2.0 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.5 3.7 2.5 3.2 2.3 2.8 3.3 2.3 2.0 2.6 1.6 1.8 3.0 2.7 3.2 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.5 0.3 Pn/MR 11.1 10.3 12.1 7.7 8.1 6.9 7.4 7.9 9.2 7.5 7.5 8.8 13.7 9.4 6.7 7.7 5.2 5.6 7.4 7.9 7.6 8.4 8.7 7.3 0.8 TDMb (g/m 2) 981 798 1035 816 916 676 865 616 1001 694 814 1121 863 912 921 729 961 693 942 746 964 860 837 885 29 Yield (g/m 2) 401 396 538 361 312 263 463 246 436 212 316 412 346 402 342 240 424 262 421 242 341 359 343 351 14

Pn (mol CO2/m 2) 14.8 16.2 21.0 19.9 22.5 15.3 16.0 26.5 16.7 16.2 23.8 22.7 18.9 14.1 16.6 21.0 8.1 21.1 17.1 30.2 18.1 18.9 19.0 18.9 3.6
b

MR/s 3.9 2.4 2.0 2.1 2.8 2.1 2.3 2.5 1.8 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 4.5 2.1 2.7 2.0 2.3 2.0 2.9 1.9 2.5 2.4 2.3 0.8

DAP = days after planting.

TDM = total dry matter.

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

15

A/Miz.51 and PMS3 A/Saruchina were more efficient at flowering. PMS3 A/ Saruchina recorded the highest total dry matter (12.1 t/ha) and grain yield (538 g/m 2)

followed by IR64 A/Miz.51. Photosyntheis at flowering, however, was positively correlated with total dry matter (r = 0.430*) and grain yield (r = 0.446*) at harvest.

Unlike PMS3 A/Saruchina, high Pn coupled with low MR and high Pn/MR are desirable for high photosynthetic productivity, which ultimately leads to more grain.

Fertilizer management Fertilizer management


Integrated effect of deeply placed urea and Gliricidia green manure on grain yield of transplanted rice
S. S. Dhane, R. R. Khadse, and H. K. Pawar, Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Karjat, Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Maharashtra 410201, India

Effect of deeply placed urea behind the plow and Gliricidia green manure on grain yield of transplanted rice. Maharashtra, India. 1991-93 wet seasons. Treatment Urea N (kg/ha) 0 25 50 0 0 25 25 50 50 LSD (0.05)
ans = not significant.

Mean grain yield (t/ha) 1991 4.0 4.9 4.5 5.0 4.8 5.2 4.9 5.0 5.4 ns a 1992 2.2 2.8 3.9 2.5 3.0 3.5 3.9 4.6 4.8 0.4 1993 3.7 4.4 3.9 4.2 4.8 4.8 5.1 4.7 5.5 0.4 Pooled mean 3.3 4.0 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.2 0.1

Green manure (t/ha) (kg N/ha) 0 0 0 5 10 5 10 5 10 0 0 0 31.5 63.0 31.5 63.0 31.5 63.0

We studied the integrated effect of organic and inorganic sources of N on grain yield of rice variety PLG-1 (130 d duration) during 1991-93 wet seasons. We compared how deeply placing urea behind the plow and applying Gliricidia sepium leaves as a green manureindividually and in combinationaffected rainfed transplanted rice. Each of the nine treatments in the experiment was laid out in a 50-m2 plot on the RARS farm in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil was clay loam with pH 7.4 (1:2.5 soil:water) and a cation exchange capacity of 35 meq/100 g soil. All of the plots received 21 kg P/ha as single superphosphate and 41 kg K/ha as potassium chloride. Prilled urea (PU) (25 kg N and 50 kg N/ ha) was applied behind the plow, about 5-6 cm deep, at the time of puddling. Gliricidia was spread uniformly over newly puddled soil as fresh green manure at 5 and 10 t/ha (containing 2.7% N on an oven-dry basis)
Effect of integrated use of inorganic and organic N on grain yield of rice. Maharashtra, India.

and pressed below the surface by hand. Three-week-old rice seedlings were planted at 20- 15-cm 2 spacing during the wet season on 24 Jul l991, 20 Jul l992, and 19 Jul l993 and harvested on 10 Nov 1991, 5 Nov 1992, and 3 Nov 1993. The response of the rice crop to the different treatments varied significantly with the season (see table). Applying Gliricidia at 5 or 10 t/ha coupled with the deep placement of urea at 25 or 50 kg N/ha

increased rice grain yield significantly over applying Gliricidia alone. The maximum yield of 5.2 t/ha, which was significantly higher than the rest, was obtained by applying Gliricidia at 10 t/ha and urea at 50 kg N/ha (see table, figure). Thus, the integrated use of inorganic and organic nitrogen can make important contributions to increasing and sustaining rice production.

Effect of rice hull, biofertilizer, and chemical fertilizers on growth and nitrogen economy of wetland rice
T. K. Biswas, National Facility for Blue-Green Algal Collection, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi 110012, India; and R. N. Garg, Agricultural Physics Department, IARl

Effect of integrated use of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer N on yield of Pusa Basmati 1. IARI, New Delhi, India. 1992 wet season.

Treatment

Grain yield (t/ha) Rice hullUntreated amended field field 3.5 3.9 4.9 3.8 4.4 5.1 4.9 4.6 5.0 5.2 5.4 0.4 4.6 (0.7) 3.4 3.8 4.7 4.0 4.1 5.0 4.7 3.9 4.8 4.7 5.0 0.5 4.3

We studied the effects on rice yield of using leucaena (Leucaena leucifera), a common leguminous plant in northern India; bluegreen algae (BGA); and ureaindividually and in combinationin a mild alkaline soil with and without rice hull amendment. The soil was sandy loam (mixed, Isohyperthermic Typic Ustocrept) with pH 8.0, EC 4.2 dS/m, 22 kg ESP, CEC 15 cmolc /kg, and 0.46% organic C. Rice hull (0.56% N on an oven-dry basis) was incorporated at 5 t/ha (about 22 kg N)

Control Blue-green algae (BGA) Leucaena Urea (30 kg N/ha) Urea (60 kg N/ha) Urea (120 kg N/ha) Leucaena + BGA Urea (30 kg N/ha) Urea (60 kg N/ha) + BGA 1/2 Leucaena + urea (60 kg N/ha) 1/2 Leucaena + urea (90 kg N/ha) CD (0.05) Pooled mean CD (0.05)

BGA

16

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

during land preparation at the IARI farm during the 1992 kharif (wet) season. Fresh leucaena (2.3% N on an oven-dry basis) was chopped into 2-3 cm lengths and incorporated at 30 t/ha (about 90 kg N) 3 d before transplanting. Soil-based inocula of BGA ( Aulosira, Tolypothrix, Scytonema, Nostoc, Anabaena, and Plectonema) at 30 kg/ha were broadcast at 8 d after transplanting (DT) on standing water. Prilled urea was applied in three splits at transplanting, 35 DT, and at flowering. Pooled data showed that rice hull did not significantly increase the grain yield of Pusa Basmati 1, although a constant increase in grain yield was obtained by adding rice hull regardless of different BGA, leucaena, and

prilled urea treatments (see table). BGA and urea at both 30 and 60 kg N/ha had synergistic effects in fields that received rice hull. In untreated fields, a synergistic effect was observed only for urea at 60 kg N and in BGA treatments. The significant yield increase achieved with BGA and urea combinations when compared with similar levels of urea alone suggests that a starter dose of fertilizer N is important for establishing BGA in mild alkaline soil. Results revealed that BGA contributed about 30 kg N/ha when applied with urea to plots where rice hull was added. No such synergistic effect was noticed with the leucaena and BGA combination. However, cuttings of leucaena

increased rice yield by more than 1 t/ha, with or without rice hull. In northern India, sandy loam soils with low organic matter content are generally poor, both physically and in N status. Rice has been grown increasingly in this region during the past three decades, with burning of hulls near rice mills a common practice. Instead, hulls could be applied on the fields to improve the overall soil physical property and organic matter status. We suggest that farmers should apply rice hulls, combined with leucaena and BGA, to substantially cut down on costly fertilizer N use while improving the soil.

Fertilizer management-organic sources Fertilizer management-organic sources


Influence of intercropping green manure in wet seeded rice
P. Jayapaul, B. Uthayakumar, and S. Purushothaman, Agricultural College and Research Institute (ACRI), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai 625104, Tamil Nadu, India

The effects of incorporating intercropped green manure (GM) in wet seeded rice cultivated during 1992-94 were studied at ACRI. The soil was a sandy clay loam classified as Typic Ultisol. The initial nutrient status was 233 kg N/ha, 17.1 kg P/ha, and 246 kg K/ha in 1992-93 and 226 kg N/ha, 16.2 kg

P/ha, and 244 kg K/ha in 1993-94. Sesbania rostrata usually has delayed germination when sown under puddled conditions. so instead, it was raised separately and 20-dold seedlings were planted. Seeds of S. speciosa were dibbled at 3 kg/ha. Five days after IR20 was sown, both GMs were intercropped in the main field in the empty space of 30 cm and maintained at a 1.5-m interval. Intrarow spacings of 15 and 30 cm and incorporation at 30 and 45 d after planting (DAP)/sowing for the GMs were compared with a no-GM control in a randomized block design with three replications. Fresh green biomass was assessed at incorporation.

More green biomass was obtained when S. rostrata seedlings were planted at 15 cm spacing and incorporated 45 DAP than with the other treatments. When compared with the no-GM control, the yield increase with this method was 38.4% more in 1992-93 and 44.5% more in 1993-94. Because of its initial slow growth rate, S. speciosa biomass was lower than that of S. rostrata. Incorporating green biomass in the standing ricefield positively increased the yield parameters of panicle number, panicle length, and filled grains per panicle, resulting in higher rice yield (see table). Wet seeded rice benefits from intercropping 20-d-old S. rostrata seedlings at intrarow spacing of 15 cm and incorporation at 45 DAP.

Effect of intrarow spacing and time of incorporation of green manure on biomass production, yield parameters, and yield of wet seeded rice. ACRI. Madurai, India. 1992-94. Treatments Green manure lntrarow Time of Fresh spacing incorporation green biomass (cm) (DAP) a (t/ha) 15 15 30 30 15 15 30 30 30 45 30 45 30 45 30 45 1.30 1.64 1.05 0.76 0.14 0.18 0.07 0.09 1992-93 N Panicles input (no./hill) (kg/ha) 42.9 53.5 34.8 25.4 3.6 4.5 1.9 2.5 8.0 8.0 7.8 7.4 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.0 7.0 ns Panicle length (cm) 18.2 18.3 18.2 18.0 17.7 17.6 17.4 17.4 17.0 0.2 Filled Grain grams/ yield panicle (t/ha) (no.) 90.0 91.1 88.0 85.1 83.3 83.2 83.1 83.1 80.1 0.9 3.96 4.04 3.61 3.51 3.31 3.22 3.04 2.98 2.92 0.17 Fresh green biomass (t/ha) 1.23 1.50 0.88 0.73 0.13 0.18 0.06 0.08 1993-94 N Panicles input (no./hill) (kg/ha) 38.7 49.2 29.4 24.5 3.4 4.5 1.6 2.3 7.4 7.6 7.0 6.8 6.4 6.4 6.2 6.0 4.8 0.8 Panicle Filled Grain length grains/ yield (cm) panicle (t/ha) (no.) 17.3 17.3 17.0 17.1 16.8 16.8 16.2 16.2 16.0 0.7 87.1 88.2 87.1 86.2 85.2 85.1 83.1 82.5 78.3 0.2 3.59 3.80 3.51 3.51 3.22 3.10 2.92 2.87 2.63 0.40

Sesbania rostrata

Sesbania speciosa

No green manure CD (P = 0.05)

a DAP = days after planting.

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

17

Crop management Crop management


Effect of hill density, seedling number/hill, and potassium on late transplanted sali (rainfed lowland winter) rice yield in Assam, India
J. K. Choudhary, R. K. Thakuria, and G. R. Das, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Assam Agricultural University, Karimganj 788710, India

Late planting of sali (rainfed lowland winter) rice is common in many parts of the BarakValley zone (Cacher, Karimganj, and Hailakandi districts) of Assam, India. because of flooding during July and August, the normal planting time. Yields are usually low under late planting because of poor tillering and reduced panicle size, resulting from progressive drought and low soil K status. Managing the optimum plant population and K status seems to be

Table 1. Effect of hill density, seedlings per hill, and K levels on productive tillers/plant a and grain yield (t/ha) b of late planted sali rice. Assam, India. 1992-93. Hills/m2 (no.) 1 seedling/hill 20 kg K/ha 2.4 e (5) 2.2 f (6) 2.5 e (6) 3.09 3.3 ef (7) 3.0 g (8) 3.1 fg (7) 3.74 40 kg K/ha 2.5 (6) 2.2 (6) 2.4 (6) e f e 2 seedlings/hill 20 kg K/ha 1992 2.7 d (6) 2.7 d (7) 2.7 d (5) 1993 3.4 de (7) 3.8 bc (8) 3.0 g (7) 40 kg K/ha 2.8 (7) 2.8 (7) 2.7 (6) cd cd d 3 seedlings/hill 20 kg K/ha 2.9 bc (7) 3.0 ab (8) 2.9 bc (6) 40 kg K/ha 3.1 a (8) 2.9 bc (7) 2.9 bc (6)

33 50 66 CV (%) 33 50 66 CV(%)

3.1 fg (7) 3.4 de (8) 3.1 fg (7)

3.5 de (8) 4.0 ab (9) 3.3 ef (8)

3.6 cd (8) 4.1 a (11) 3.5 de (7)

4.1 a (10) 3.8 bc (8) 3.8 bc (8)

aNumbers in parentheses are not significantly different. b Within a year, means either in a column or row followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P=0.05) by DMRT.

Table 2. Grain yield (t/ha) of late-planted rice (KMJ1-52-3) as affected by the interactions of hill density (HD) seedlings/hill (SH) and HD Ka. Assam, India. 1992-93. HD (no./m 2) Seedlings per hill 1 2.5 d 2.2 e 2.5 d 2.4 3.2 c 3.2 c 3.1 c 3.2 3 2.8 b 2.8 b 2.7 c 2.7 3.5 b 3.9 a 3.2 c 3.5 1992 0.1 0.08 5 3.0 a 3.0 a 2.9 a 3.0 3.9 a 3.9 a 3.7 a 3.8 Mean 1992 2.8 2.7 2.7 1993 3.5 3.7 3.3 1993 0.2 0.13 20 2.7 b 2.7 b 2.7 b 2.7 3.4 b 3.7 a 3.2 c 3.4 K (kg/ha) 40 2.8 a 2.6 c 2.7 b 2.7 3.6 a 3.7 a 3.4 b 3.6 Mean 2.8 2.7 2.7

33 50 66

Mean

33 50 66

Mean

3.5 3.7 3.3

LSD(0.05) HD SH means HD K means

a Within a year and an interaction, means either in a row or a column followed by the same letter are not signifi-

cantly different (P = 0.05) by DMRT.

imperative for stabilizing yield under these conditions. We studied the effect of hill density (HD), seedlings/hill (SH), and K levels on late-planted sali rice yield during 1992-93. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (factorial) with three replications. Eighteen treatment combinations of HD (33, 50, and 66 hills/m 2 maintained at spacings of 20 15 cm, 20 10 cm, and 15 10 cm, respectively), SH (1, 3, and 5), and K levels (20 kg/ha and 40 kg/ha) were tested. Bunds were constructed to separate the 24-m2 plots. The soil was clay loam with pH 5.1, 0.87% organic C, 22 kg available P/ha, and 94 kg available K/ha. Fifty-day-old seedlings of KMJ1-52-3, a photoperiodsensitive, semidwarf cultivar, were planted on 25 Sep. Recommended doses of N (40 kg/ha), P (20 kg/ha), and K (per treatment) were applied basally. Rice yield was recorded at 14% moisture. The crop duration was 145-146 d. The treatments involving 33 hills/m2, 5 SH and 40 kg K/ha, and 50 hills/m2, 5 SH, and 20 kg K/ha recorded the best yields (Table 1). The increased productive tillers/plant at 33-50 hills/m2 at 5 SH probably resulted in the better yield performance, although in 1993, 50 hills/m2, 3 SH, and 40 kg K/ha produced equally good yields. The main effects of HD and SH were significant in both years, but for K, in 1993 only (Table 2). Grain yield increased significantly when HD was 33 hills/m 2 in 1992 and 50 hills/m 2 in 1993. In both years, yield increased progressively with increase in SH from 1 to 5. The interaction between HD and SH was significant because the treatments involving 5 SH, irrespective of HD, outyielded the rest except for 3 SH and 50 hills/m2 in 1993. Forty kg K/ha recorded a significant yield increase over 20 kg K/ha in 1993. But HD K interaction was significant in both years, and the treatment involving 33 hills/ m2 and 40 kg K/ha outyielded the others in 1992. In 1993,50 hills/m2, either at 20 or 40 kg K/ha, yielded at par with 33 hills/m2 and 40 kg/ha K. The interaction, HD SH K, however, was significant in both years. Though rainfall was greater in 1992 (903.4 mm) than in 1993 (771.3 mm), less rain during Nov-Dec 1992 (10.8 mm) compared with 1993 (30.4 mm) made a

18

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

difference in the soil moisture status between the years. This might have been the reason for the differential response to K. Plants were adversely affected during the

reproductive and grain-filling stages due to moisture stress, resulting in yield loss, particularly in 1992. Higher yields of late-planted sali rice

may be achieved by planting 5 SH at 33-50 hills/m2. Further investigation is needed regarding K application.

Integrated pest managementinsects Integrated pest managementinsects


Monitoring variation in brown planthopper biotype in Guangdong, China
Zhang Yang, Tan Yujuan, Huang Bingchao, Plant Protection Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China

It is important to monitor the variation in brown planthopper (BPH) biotype when breeding resistant varieties. We have been doing this work since 1979 in Guangdong, China, including yearly testing of BPH biotype variation in Guangzhou and conducting a biotype test with BPH populations in Guangdong Province.

Table 1. Results of biotype test of BPH population of Guangzhou, China. Damage scale of varieties a Year TN1 None 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 1.0 2.8 6.7 6.6 4.5 3.3 3.2 1.1 2.9 5.1 6.8 4.9 5.2 7.0 7.1 IR26 Mudgo Bph 1 1.1 1.0 3.0 2.9 1.2 1.0 1.1 1.1 3.3 1.0 1.0 2.5 5.1 8.8 4.9 1.2 1.0 1.0 5.1 1.0 3.3 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 3.4 2.5 3.1 3.0 3.2 IR36 ASD7 Rathu Heenati bph 2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.0 3.1 3.2 1.0 5.2 1.0 Bph 3 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Babawee bph 4 1.0 1.0 3.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 PTB33 bph 2+Bph 3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.0 1.0

We used the seedling bulk test for all of the BPH biotype-monitoring studies. The population for the yearly test of BPH biotype variation was collected from late rice in the field in Guangzhou. The insects were reared on a BPH-susceptible variety in the greenhouse and tested the following year. The BPH population for the biotype test in Guangdong was collected from Guangzhou, Xinhui (central Guangdong), Lechang (northern Guangdong), Xinxing (western Guangdong), and Gaozhou (southwestern Guangdong) in June and July of every year and tested the same year. Seven BPH-resistant varieties (Table 1) and susceptible check TN1 were evaluated using the Standard evaluation system for rice. In the yearly test of BPH biotype variation in Guangzhou, IR26 had the highest damage score of the varieties including Mudgo, which has the same resistance gene. IR26 was found to be susceptible to BPH in 1992 and 1993 with a score of 7. The score of Mudgo also increased over time. IR36, ASD7, Rathu Heenati, Babawee, and PTB33 had low

1.0 1.0 1.0

3.0 5.0 3.0

aAv of 3 replications.

Table 2. Results of biotype test of BPH population of Guangdong, China. a Variety Year 1992 1993 1994 1992 1993 1994 1992 1993 1994 1992 1993 1994 1992 1993 1994 1992 1993 1994 Location Guangzhou 7.7 (1.6) a 7.8 (0.9) a 8.8 (0.3) a 6.8 (1.3) b 6.8 (0.8) b 7.4 (1.2) ab 4.9 (1.9) cd 5.9 (0.2) bc 4.9 (1.7) c 3.1 (0.2) e 2.7 (1.5) ef 3.8 (1.1) de 1.0 (0.0) g 1.0 (0.0) g 1.1 (0.2) fg 1.3 (0.6) f 1.0 (0.0) g 1.8 (1.2) f Xinhui 7.6 (1.2) ab 9.0 (0.0) a 9.0 (0.0) a 6.4 (2.2) bc 9.0 (0.0) a 8.3 (0.7) a 4.0 (0.4) d 6.6 (0.2) b 8.8 (0.3) a 1.2 (0.2) e 5.6 (1.1) c 5.0 (2.1) cd 1.1 (0.2) e 1.5 (0.9) e 7.8 (0.6) a 1.0 (0.0) e 1.3 (0.6) e 1.7 (0.8) e Lechang 9.0 (0.0) a 9.0 (0.0) a 9.0 (0.0) a 8.7 (0.3) a 8.9 (0.2) a 8.9 (0.2) a 5.0 (2.3) c 8.2 (0.9) ab 7.5 (1.1) b 1.5 (0.5) de 1.9 (1.0) d 7.0 (0.8) b 1.0 (0.0) e 1.0 (0.0) e 3.8 (0.6) c 1.0 (0.0) e 1.5 (0.6) d 2.3 (1.2) d Gaozhou 8.9 (0.2) a 9.0 (0.0) a 8.6 (0.7) ab 7.4 (1.3) c 9.0 (0.0) a 8.7 (0.5) a 5.3 (1.2) d 8.7 (0.0) a 7.8 (1.4) bc 1.0 (0.0) e 4.1 (0.6) d 4.7 (1.7) d 1.0 (0.0) e 1.0 (0.0) e 3.8 (0.7) d 1.0 (0.0) e 1.0 (0.0) e 1.2 (0.4) e Xinxing 8.3 (0.7) a 9.0 (0.0) a 8.8 (0.2) a 7.9 (1.4) ab 7.2 (1.7) bc 8.2 (0.3) a 5.4 (1.7) d 5.4 (0.5) d 5.9 (1.0) cd 1.7 (0.7) g 2.3 (1.2) fg 4.8 (1.3) de 1.0 (0.0) g 1.0 (0.0) g 3.7 (0.6) ef 1.0 (0.0) g 1.0 (0.0) g 1.1 (0.2) g Shantou 8.3 (0.7) ab 9.0 (0.0) a Huiyang 8.4 (0.5) a 9.0 (0.0) a

TN1

IR26

7.6 (1.0) bc 8.6 (0.6) a

4.7 (1.5) c 8.7 (0.3) a

Mudgo

6.7 (1.2) c 6.5 (0.8) c

6.7 (1.6) b 8.7 (0.6) a

IR36

1.8 (1.3) de 2.3 (1.2) d

4.9 (0.2) c 3.0 (1.5) d

ASD7

1.0 (0.0) g 1.0 (0.0) g

2.3 (1.5)de 1.1 (0.2) e

PTB33

1.0 (0.0) g 1.0 (0.0) g

3.4 (1.4) cd 1.0 (0.0) e

aMeans are the av of 3 replications and are compared by LSD test. Means (SD) within each column with the same letter are not significantly different (P>0.05).

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

19

scores and were resistant to BPH, but IR36, ASD7, and Babawee had higher scores in some years. In the biotype test of Guangdong (Table 2), most of the scores for IR26 were more than 7 across the different locations and years, with some not significantly different from those of TN1. Mudgo scores ranged from 4.0 to 8.8, showing its tendency to be

susceptible. TR36 and ASD7 scores were higher than those of PTB33. The two varieties were particularly damaged by BPH populations in Xinhui in 1994, Gaozhou in 1993, and Lechang in 1994. PTB33 was resistant to every BPH population. The results indicate that the BPH biotype has been changing in Guangdong.

BPH biotype 1 dominated the population before 1989, but in recent years it seems that BPH biotype 2 dominates with BPH biotype 3 mixed into the population. Sources of resistance to these two BPH biotypes should be considered for use in BPH-resistance breeding.

Integrated pest managmentothers pests Integrated pest managmentothers pests


Loss of harvested rice due to rodents in central India
M. Thomas and R. Pachori, AICRP on Rodent Control, Entomology Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur 482004, India

During Oct to Nov in much of central India, harvested rice is stacked up to 6 m high in circular (3-7.6 m diam) heaps on threshing floors. A threshing floor, which covers 0.10.5 ha, is prepared in the field by leveling the ground and then compressing and plastering it with cow dung; size depends on the number of farmers involved and on their holding sizes. Rice often remains heaped for 2-3 mo before threshing because immediately after

the harvest, farmers are busy preparing their fields and sowing the next crop. Limited food and shelter in the harvested fields and disturbances during the preparation force most of the field rodents to move to other places. Some settle under the rice heaps. causing severe damage to the harvested rice. During threshing, they move to the new crops in the field. We assessed the loss of harvested rice to rodents and their burrow patterns under heaps in five villages (see table) of central India. Five threshing floors were surveyed in each village; all were found to be infested with Bandicota bengalensis and Millardia meltada meltada with the former predominating, B. bengalensis constructed 1.2- to 3.9-m long labyrinth-like burrow systems under the heaps. The burrows were like
Burrows of Bandicota bengalensis Gray under rice heaps on threshing floor.

Loss to rodents of harvested rice on threshing floors. Central India. Burrow dimension Village Threshing months Jan-Feb Jan Dec-Jan Dec Jan-Feb Heaps/ threshing floor (no.) 13 11 9 11 10 Burrows/ threshing floor a (no.) 47 (3.6) 29 (2.6) 13 (1.4) 15 (1.4) 35 (3.5)
b

Length (m) 3.5 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.9

Depth (cm) 20.7 15.5 17.9 19.3 21.4

Hoarded grain/ threshing floor (kg) 10.2 0.8 b 4.8 0.4 b 2.9 0.3 b 1.6 0.2 b 13.5 1.4 b

Rodent species B. bengalensis B. bengalensis B. bengalensis B. bengalensis B. bengalensis M. meltada

Amarpur Poudikhurd Tamoria Dhanpuri Sitasarovar


a

Figures in parentheses are burrow densities/heap.

Hoarded grain/burrow.

open canals (see figure). Underground tunnels were rarely observed. The mean burrow depth varied from 15.5 to 21.4 cm; food chambers were located within. The burrow depths under rice heaps were less than those found in fields and along bunds. The burrow density (no. of burrows no of heaps) was the least (1.4) in Tamoria and Dhanpuri villages, where threshing was completed by early January. It was greatest (3.6) in Amarpur and Sitasarovar where threshing lasted into February. The burrow density increased as threshing was delayed. Hoarding loss due to rodents in early threshed areas was 1.6 kg grain/threshing floor and 13.4 kg grain/threshing floor in late threshed areas. Farmers are advised to avoid late threshing to minimize the loss of harvested rice to rodents.

20

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Farming Farming systems


Farmer performance in a ricebased farming system: differences between new and old systems
M. Wijeratne and I. R. N. Abeydeera, Agricultural Economics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ruhuna, Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka

Farmer performance index in two domains. Sri Lanka, 1994.

participating in farmer organizations; and damage by elephants to fields. The managers of the project need to distribute the limited water in an effective manner, considering the existing constraints. Such an effort would help to increase the farmers performance in the new area.

We investigated farmers' performance in an area under a large irrigation project in the southern dry zone of Sri Lanka. The farming system is based on rice cultivation during the wet (maha) and dry (yala) seasons. The irrigation project concentrated on developing the existing fanning system and developing new land for cultivation. A network of irrigation channels was constructed in the newly developed area and institutional support for inputs was provided. We conducted a field survey during AprMay 1994. Rice farmers, 56 from the new area and 48 from the old area, were randomly selected. The farmers technical efficiency was measured using Pingalis farmer performance index, which is the ratio of farmers' yield to the location-specific yield potential. The index explains the extent to which a farmer has exploited the yield potential. If the farmer performance index is less than 100, it means that he or she experiences an unexploited yield potential. The potential yield in the project area is about 4.8 t/ha, based on yields from a series of farmer-managed on-farm experiments carried out for several seasons. Farmers exploited 75% of the yield potential with an average of 3.6 t/ha. Farmers performance, however, differed in the two areas. Farmers in the new area had low performance compared with farmers in the old area. Only 7% of the farmers in the new area and 13% of the farmers in the old area reached the yield potential (see figure). The main limitations in the new area were a lack of water, especially during the dry season, and problems with water distribution. Disparities were encountered with the field location and water distribution was uneven because some farmers extracted water through unauthorized means. Other constraints included soil problems, such as salinity: farmers perceptions toward

Farm machinery
Hand tools used for rice harvesting in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
T. M. Lando and A. Najamuddin, Maros Research Institute for Food Crops, P. O. Box 1173, Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

The ani-ani is a hand-held harvesting knife for cutting rice panicles. When farmers in Indonesia commonly planted traditional varieties, the ani-ani was predominantly used to prevent grain from falling off the panicles. When farmers started to plant different rice types and varieties, they found that the ani-ani was no longer efficient and switched to using unserrated sickles. A study conducted at Sidenreng Rappang, a major rice-producing area in South Sulawesi, showed that farmers predominantly use the unserrated sickle, with some using the serrated sickle. A few still use the ani-ani (see table). Farmers preferences for using unserrated sickles were based only on their familiarity with the equipment. Like the

ani-ani, the unserrated sickle has low capacity and causes high grain losses. The serrated sickle is the most promising in terms of capacity compared with the unserrated sickle or ani-ani. The area harvested with the serrated sickle was significantly larger than the area harvested with the other tools in 1993 (see table). The highest mean harvest capacity was 0.83 ha/sickle (assuming 1 person= 1 sickle) with the serrated sickle, which was 32.7 times higher than with the unserrated sickle, and 189 times higher than with the ani-ani. However, serrated sickles were available only in the subdistricts where rice is not harvested. The serrated sickle is the recommended tool for harvesting rice in South Sulawesi because it is more efficient and incurs less harvesting losses than the unserrated sickle or ani-ani.

Number of harvesting tools and area harvested in Sidenreng Rappang District. a South Sulawesi, Indonesia. 1993 Harvesting tool Location (subdistrict) Unserrated sickle Units (no.) 13,349 16,847 9,134 655 192,188 6,226 238,399 Harvested area (ha) 310.3 5,103.0 100.0 200.0 311.3 6,024.6 Serrated sickle Units (no.) 1,444 3,009 2,813 538 538 445 8,487 Harvested area (ha) 4,514.0 1,403.0 100.0 750.0 250.0 7,017.0 Units (no.) 1,193 230 178 617 182 2,400 Ani-ani Harvested area (ha) 2.5 5.0 3.0 10.5

Panca Lautang Dua Pitue Maritengngae Watang Pulu Baranti Panca Rijang Total

a Source: Food Crops Extension Services. Sidenreng Rappang, 1994.

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

21

Postharvest technology Postharvest technology


Multipurpose yard-drying implement for rice
P. Kumaresan, S. Kumaravel, and A. Dakshinamurthy, Paddy Processing Research Centre, Thanjavur 613005, Tamil Nadu, India

1. Multipurpose yard drying implement (MYDI) for rice.

Despite the introduction of mechanical dryers for drying parboiled rice, yard drying is still practiced in many countries because of the scarcity of electricity and for economic reasons. Sunshine and human labor are readily available most of the year in tropical countries. Yard drying is practical, but it causes nonuniform drying and cracks to form in the grain due to continuous exposure to the sun. In the existing system of yard drying, different types of wooden boards are used for spreading, combing, turning, and floor drying. This requires several laborers to work together. Due to the intensity of sunshine, the laborers must rest frequently as a group, resulting in intermittent turning of the rice. The grain exposed to the sun during these rest periods over-dries, resulting in nonuniform drying. The solution to this problem is to continuously turn the rice, as in a mechanical dryer, while still using the available labor and solar energy. We developed a multipurpose yarddrying implement (MYDI) to achieve this goal (Fig. 1). It has a simple frame made of angle iron and flats that is mounted on two heavy duty bicycle wheels. The front swing of the MYDI is pinned with three kinds of wooden boards, used one at a time (Fig. 2). The toothed board is used for combing and leveling, the triangular board for floor drying, and the angular board for turning the rice. Conventional boards are used for spreading and collection, which involve only a few minutes of effort. Only one laborer is needed at a time to operate the MYDI, so the others can rest while not working. Thus, the MYDI is operated continuously. The boards are interchanged as required. On cloudy days and in winter, parboiled rice is dried to a moisture content where it is ready for milling in 1 d. The MYDI reduces drying time and ensures uniform drying. On normal sunny days in southern India, ambient air temperature goes above 30 C.

2. The three kinds of wooden boards attached to the MYDI.

Continuing the drying beyond the critical moisture of 16-1 8% causes cracks to form in the grain, resulting in many brokens during milling. With the MYDI, both the drying rate is increased and the critical moisture is reached uniformly in all grain after about 4-4.5 h of drying. At this stage. rice is heaped and covered with gunny sacks or tarpaulin for tempering. The laborers may rest during this process while the yard floor absorbs the heat, which is used during the second stage of drying. After 2-2.5 h, the rice is again spread out for about 45 min to 1 h by continuous turning with the MYDI to attain the 14% moisture content that is usually desirable for milling. The MYDI system provides higher head rice yield and fewer brokens (about 5%) compared with the conventional system, which causes brokens of more than 20%. The MYDI helps to increase labor productivity and reduces drudgery. It may also be used, with modifications in the wooden

boards, for other grains that are dried in the yard. A MYDI and 3 persons are neeeded for drying 5 t of parboiled rice. One unit costs about US$80 and can be easily fabricated, repaired, and maintained. Artisans who make conventional boards can make the wooden boards used in the MYDI.
Items not accepted: routine housekeeping information for collaborative groups, research notes, new variety releases, work and trip reports, and personal items. Length. Limit submissions to one page of double-spaced typewritten text. Submission. Send contributions to the editor at anytime. To be printed in a specific issue, items must be received teo and a half months in advence of cover date. Items for the March issue, for example, should be received by 15 Dec.

22

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Research methodology
Repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Pseudomonas species
C. M. Vera Cruz and L. Halda-Alija, Kansas State University (KSU), Manhattan, Kansas, USA; F. Louws, Michigan State University (MSU), E. Lansing, Michigan, USA; D. Z. Skinner, KSU; M. L. George and R. J. Nelson, IRRI; F. J. de Bruijn and C. Rice, MSU; and J. E. Leach, KSU

The utility of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for understanding the population biology and structure of pathogen populations such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacterial blight of rice, has been demonstrated by several groups. Although this procedure shows reliable results, it is time consuming, expensive, and laborious. These problems are compounded in population studies due to the numerous samples required for analysis. Recently, rep-PCR was used to differentiate gram negative soil and plant pathogenic bacteria. The rep-PCR technique is based on DNA amplification using repetitive sequence-based oligonucleotide primers such as ERIC, REP, and BOX. These primers are complementary to interspersed repetitive elements common to many bacteria and enable the amplification of DNA sequences lying between the elements. Using rep-PCR, multiple differently sized DNA fragments can be amplified simultaneously. Our objective was to find a reliable and inexpensive means to characterize bacterial strains. We applied rep-PCR to analyze a set of 31 Xoo strains that had previously been characterized by RFLP analysis using the mobile insertion elements IS 1112 as a probe. In addition, a group of Pseudomonas strains isolated from soil, which has potential as biocontrol agents and natural remediators, was also subjected to rep-PCR analysis. The technique was applied to purified DNA, bacterial cells, and bacterial ooze from fresh and year-old bacterial blight lesions maintained at -20 C. DNA isolation and whole cell preparation. Xoo DNA was isolated by the CTAB

method while those from Pseudomonas strains were recovered by the ammonium acetate method and ethanol precipitation. Xoo DNA was not purified by phenol and phenol-chloroform extraction. DNA was quantified fluorometrically or spectrophotometrically. Seventy-two-hour-old whole cells were obtained by streaking on agar medium (modified Wakimoto's medium for Xoo and tryptic soy agar for Pseudomonas strains). A single colony was picked up with a disposable 1-l plastic loop and mixed into the PCR reaction mixture. Bacterial blight lesions (1 cm 2 mm) were surface-sterilized with 70% ethanol, cut into small pieces, and allowed to ooze in 50 l sterile distilled water. One microliter of the bacterial suspension was added to the PCR reaction mixture. PCR conditions. The primers BOXA [BOX A1R(5' CTACGGCAAGGCGACGCTGACG-3')], REP[REP1R-I (5'IIIICGICGICATCIGGC-3'), REP2-I (5'ICGICTTATCIGGCCTAC-3')], and ERIC [ERIClR (5'ATGTAAGCTCCTGGGGATTCAC-3'), ERIC2 (5'AAGTAAGTGACTGGGGTGAGCG-3')] were synthesized at MSU. Each 25 l PCR reaction contained 50 pmol each of two opposing oligonucleotide primers, 50- 100 ng of template DNA, 1.25 mM of each of four dNTPs (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, and dTTP). and 2 units of Taq DNA polymerase in a reaction buffer with 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The 5X reaction buffer stock solution included 83 mM ammonium sulfate, 335 mM Tris-HC1, 33.5 mM magnesium chloride, 33.5 M EDTA, 150 mM -mercaptoethanol, and 850 g/ml bovine serum albumin, with a pH of 8.8. The remainder of the reaction volumes included HPLC-grade water. A mixture containing water, reaction buffer, DMSO, primers, dNTPs, and thermostable DNA polymerase was made and aliquoted to individual tubes. The template DNA, whole cell suspensions, or bacterial ooze were added, and the tubes were centrifuged for a few seconds. The PCR mixtures were overlaid with 25 l of mineral oil. PCR amplifications were performed in an

automated thermal cycler (Perkin-Elmer DNA Thermal Cycler or MJ Research, Inc.) with an initial denaturatio (95 C, 7 min) followed by 30-35 cycles that included denaturation (94 C 1, min), annealing for 1 min at 44 C with REP, 52 C with ERIC, or 53 C with BOX primers, and extension at 65 C for 8 min. The final extension cycle was at 65 C for 15 min followed by incubation at 4 C. PCR amplification products were sizefractionated by agarose gel electrophoresis. An 8- 10 l portion of each amplified PCR product was separated at 4 C on 1.5% agarose gels in 0.75X TAE buffer for 10 h at 5v/cm, stained with ethidium bromide and photographed on a UV transilluminator with Polaroid type 55 film. Fingerprints generated from different strains were compared visually and scored for presence or absence of composite bands resulting from BOX, ERIC, and REP amplifications. A pairwise comparison of strains was generated by NTSYS-pc using Jaccard's similarity coefficient. The resulting data were converted to coefficients of dissimilarity and used for multiple correspondence analysis. The first three dimensions accounted for 94% of the variations from rep-PCR and 85% of the variations from RFLP. Clusters based on a consensus among cubic clustering criterion, pseudo F, and pseudo t2 were assigned by Ward's minimum variance method. The clusters derived by rep-PCR, hereafter called groups, were compared with those derived by RFLP analysis. Rep-PCR detects polymorphisms between Xoo strains and places them into genetic groups consistent with those detected by RFLP analysis. Amplification with the BOX primers gave the most conservative pattern (the least variation between strains). Application of ERIC primers alone was sufficient to distinguish strains into genetic groups previously defined by RFLP analysis (Fig. 1). A combination of REP and ERIC primers generated fingerprints that not only distinguished the genetic groups, but also detected more differences between strains when compared with BOX, ERIC, or REP alone. Although RFLP analysis with probe

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995) 23

IS1112 detected more unique fingerprints in the same set of strains, data from both rep-PCR and RFLP consistently assign strains to the same groups (Fig. 2). In the case of Pseudomonas, amplification with the BOX primer generated comigrating PCR products among closely related strains within the Pseudomonas rRNA group I. Such patterns differentiated this group from other soil pseudomonads, and polymorphisms within this group enabled strain-specific identification. Likewise, ERIC and REP primers detected polymorphisms among strains within the same group and such differences may prove

useful in monitoring specific strains within soil populations. TO find a faster but reliable technique for analysis of field samples, cultured whole cells and ooze from bacterial blight lesions were amplified using rep-PCR. DNA amplified directly from cultured cells and bacterial ooze gave patterns similar to those generated from purified DNA. However, the concentration of cells added to the PCR mixture was critical and the use of 1 l inoculation loops facilitated the addition of an optimum cell concentration. The age of culture (48 h for Pseudomonas and 72 h for Xoo) also was critical. collected from temperate and subtropical rice-growing areas since 1976 and to 30 Philippine isolates in a previous study. CO 39 had been shown to be resistant to a subpopulation (lineage 1) of P. grisea in the Philippines. Because lineage 1 is compatible with many japonica varieties, it was hoped that NILS with a japonica genetic background might be complementary to the CO 39 NILs for pathotyping Philippine isolates of the rice blast fungus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of using both sets of NILs for pathotypic analysis of P. grisea in the Philippines. We compared the results of pathotypic analysis using the CO 39 NILs (set l), the LTH NILS (set 2), and the combined set (set 3) using diverse isolates selected based on DNA fingerprinting data. Forty-six isolates of P. grisea representing lineages 1, 4, 7, 14, 17, and 44 were selected. These isolates were mostly collected in 1992 from diverse hosts at the IRRI Blast Nursery and from IRRIs upland screening site at Cavinti, Laguna, Philippines. The isolates were inoculated onto 21 d-old seedlings in a greenhouse. The compatibility of the isolates to the NILs was evaluated on a 0-4 scale. Reactions with a rating of 0-3 were considered to be incompatible (R) and those with ratings of 3.5-4 were considered to be compatible (S). Reactions on LTH line F80-1 were not used for pathotype classification because inconsistent reactions were observed for some isolates. The pathotypic diversities in each lineage were estimated using the Gleason and Shannon indices. The CO 39 NIL set differentiated the 46 isolates into 10 pathotypes, but the LTH

Pathotypic analysis of Pyricularia grisea using two sets of nearisogenic lines


Dahu Chen, IRRI; Zhong Zhuan Ling, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China; and R. J. Nelson, IRRI

1. Rep-PCR analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains showing representative haplotypes with BOX, REP, and ERIC primers. (Strain designations: 1 = PX0198, race 5; 2 = PX083, race 2; 3 = PX087, race 3; 4 = PX0151, race 1; 5 = PX036, race 1.) 2. Comparison of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae groups derived by rep-PCR and RFLP analyses showing consistent assignment of strains to the same groups. Data were analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis and cluster by Wards minimum variance method.

The rice blast fungus, Pyricularia grisea, is known for its pathogenic variability. The need for a set of differential rice lines suitable for pathotyping isolates of the pathogen has long been recognized. For this reason, two sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying individual blast resistance genes have been developed over the past few years. We demonstrate here the utility of using both sets of lines together for pathotypic analysis of Philippine lineages of P. grisea. A set of NILS was developed at IRRI in the genetic background of indica variety CO 39. The CO 39 NILs include lines carrying four resistance genes (Pi-1, Pi-z, Pi-3, Pi-ta, and Pi-ta with an additional, unknown gene) transferred from varieties Tetep, 5173, Pai Kan Tao, and LAC23. In ongoing work at IRRI, additional genes are being added to the CO 39 NIL series. Another set was developed in China in the genetic background of the japonica variety Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH). The available set of LTH NILs includes lines carrying six genes (Pi-b, Pi-k, Pi-k m, Pi-k p, Pi-ta, and Pita 2) transferred from Kiyosawas differentials, which is a set of differential varieties developed in Japan and widely used in temperate countries. LTH was susceptible to several thousand Chinese isolates of the rice blast fungus

24

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Table 1. Reactions of isolates of Pyricularia grisea on CO 39 NILS and LTH NILs. Isolate C923-49 Ca34 C923-11 C923-25 C923-43 C926-19 C926-8 Ca36 C926-20 92520-8 B90103 C9212-19 PO6-6 Ca77 C923-4 NBGA8401 Ca57 Ca79 92315-1 CBN927-4 CBN927-9 9237-3 C9235-10 CBN9217-10 92316-5 9248-6 CBN9214-11 CBN9221-2 9249-3 92319-4 92416-10 92416-9 92329-6 9236-1 92330-5 92310-2 92329-9 92330-11 C9237-41 9239-4 101-7-2-1-1 101-7-2-7-1 101-7-3-1-2 101-7-3-12-1 C9240-1 C9240-8 Lineage 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 14 14 14 14 14 14 17 17 17 17 17 17 44 44 44 44 44 44 Reactions on CO 39 NILS a 1 R R R R R R R R R R R S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 2 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S S R R R S S S S S S S S S R R R R R R 3 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S S S S S S 4 R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R R S R S S R R R R R R S S R R R R S R S S R R R R R S S S S S S S 5 R R R R R R R R R R R R S S S S S S R S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S R R R R R R R Set 1 b pathotype A A A A A A A A A A A L E E E E G O L D E E E E E E G G F F E E G F H H F F F F F C J J J J J J Reactions on LTH NILs c 7 S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S 8 S S R R R R R R R R S S S S S R R S S R S S S S S S S S S S S S S R S S S S S S S S R R R R R R 9 S S R R R R R R R R S S S S S R R S S R S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S R R R R R R 10 R R R R R R R R R R S R R S S R R R S R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S R R R S S S S R R R R R R R 11 R S R R R R R R R R R S S R R R R S R R S S S R R R S S S S S R R R R R S S R R R S R R R R R R 12 R S R R R R R R R R R S S R S S R S S R S S S S S S S S S S S S S R S S S S S S S S R R R R R R 13 S S R* f R* R* R* S* R* S* g S S S S R* S* S R S S S R* R* R* R R* R R* S S S R S S S S S S S S S S S R* R* R* R* R* R Set 2 d Set 3 e pathotype pathotype 1 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 3 2 2 3 8 9 7 2 8 7 2 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 5 4 4 2 6 8 8 8 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 I II III Ill III III III III III Ill V VI VII Vlll IX X XI XII Xlll XIV VII VII VII XV XV XV XVI XVI XVII XVII VII XV XVIII XIX XX XX XVII XXI XXll XXII XXII XXlll XXlV XXlV XXlV XXlV XXlV XXlV

6 R R R R R R R R R R R R S S S S S R R R S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S R S S S S S S

a1 = CO 39: 2 = C101LAC ( Pi - 1 ); 3 = C101A51 ( Pi -Z ): 4 = C104PKT ( pi-3 ); 5 = C101PKT ( Pi - ta ): 6 = C105TTP-4L23 ( Pi - ta + ? ). b Set 1 = CO 39 NILs. c 7 = LTH; 8 = F98-7 (Pi - k m ), 9 = F124-1 ( Pi - ta ); 10 = F128-1 ( Pi - ta 2); 11 = F145-2 ( Pi - b ); 12 = F129-1 ( Pi - k p ): 13 = F80-1 ( Pi - k ). d Set 2 = LTH NILs excluding line F80-1. e Set 3 = CO 39 NILs f R* = most reactions on the lines were incompatible. g S* = most reactions on the lines were compatible.

+ LTH NlLs excluding line F80-1.

Table 2. Pathotypic diversities and virulence complexity of lineages of Pyricularia grisea based on reactions on sets of NILs. Lineage 1 4 7 14 17 44 Total Isolates (no.) 9 10 10 6 6 6 47 Gleason indexa Set 1 c 0.00 2.17 0.87 1.67 0.56 0.00 2.34 Set 2 d 1.37 1.74 0.43 1.12 1.12 0.00 2.34 Set 3e 1.37 3.91 1.30 2.23 1.67 0.00 5.97 Set 1 0.00 1.61 0.95 1.33 0.45 0.00 1.97 Shannon indexb Set 2 1.00 1.56 0.61 0.87 1.01 0.00 1.78 Set 3 1.00 2.30 1.37 1.56 1.24 0.00 2.89 Virulence alleles per pathotype Set 1 0.00 2.33 3.67 4.00 3.50 4.00 3.00 Set 2 2.25 3.40 4.50 4.00 5.33 1.00 3.30 Set 3 2.25 6.30 8.25 7.80 9.00 5.00 6.33 Virulence alleles per isolate Set 1 0.00 2.50 3.40 4.00 3.83 4.00 2.77 Set 2 1.56 3.70 4.70 3.50 5.17 1.00 3.38 Set 3 1.56 6.30 8.10 8.01 9.01 5.00 6.15

aGleason index is used to detect the richness aspect of diversity (i.e., the number of distinct pathotypes present). It was calculated as H = (n-1)/lnN, where n is the number of G pathotypes and N is the number of isolates. b Shannon index is used to detect both richness and evenness (i.e.. similarities of the frequencies of the different pathotypes). It is estimated as H SH = - S j (P j In P j) where J = 1 . . . . n, and p j is the frequency of the jth pathotype in the set of isolates. cSet 1 = CO 39 NILs. dSet 2 = LTH NlLs excluding line F80-1. e Set 3 = CO 39 NlLs + LTH NlLs excluding line F80-1.

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NIL set differentiated the same set of the isolates into 9 pathotypes (Table 1). When the reactions of the composite set of NILs were considered, 23 pathotypes were differentiated for the 46 isolates (Table 1). The pathotypic diversity and virulence spectra inferred for the different lineages and for the total collection tested depended upon the NIL set used, with the combined set outperforming each of the individual sets (Table 2). Sources of potential lineage resistance for lineages 1, 7, and 44 were identified among the genes in the LTH NILs. All of the genes in the LTH NILs showed resistance to all six isolates of lineage 44. Line F128-1, carrying Pi-ta2, showed resistance to all tested isolates of lineages 1 and 7. For lineages 4, 14, and 17, none of the genes in the LTH NILs offered resistance to all the tested isolates. The two sets of NILs showed reciprocal complementarity in detecting pathotypic variation. Since CO 39 was resistant to all of the isolates in lineage 1, the pathogenicity of the isolates in lineage 1 could not be determined on the CO 39 NILs. However, eight of the nine isolates in lineage 1 were compatible with LTH, and four pathotypes of lineage 1 were distinguished using the LTH NILs. Fourteen isolates were classified as pathotype 2 on the LTH NILs; these isolates were shown to consist of eight pathotypes on the CO 39 NILs. Lineage 44 showed many virulence alleles per pathotype or per isolate based on the reactions on CO 39 NILS, but few virulence alleles per pathotype or per isolate were observed based on the LTH NILs and on the two sets of the NILs together. Using either set of NILs, lineage 4 had the highest diversity indices and lineage 44 showed no pathotype differentiation. The reaction pattern of C101PKT, the CO 39 NIL carrying Pi-ta, was different from those of the LTH NILs carrying Pi-ta and Pi-ta2, suggesting that the CO 39 line carried a different allele or possibly a different gene closely linked to Pi-ta. LTH NIL F80-1, considered to carry Pi-k, showed both compatible and incompatible reactions with 16 of the 47 isolates tested in replicated inoculations. The inconsistent reactions of this line suggested that either the line had suffered seed contamination, or it may not be fixed for an additional gene

that is detectable only using the tropical Philippine isolate of P. grisea. Purification of the line F80-1 is under way. Until recently, CO 39 was used as the standard susceptible variety and recurrent parent used for NIL production and other genetic studies at IRRI. However, LTH has shown two clear advantages: it has no known resistance genes and it shows extremely clear susceptible reactions to compatible isolates (all lesions are type 4). Because it is photoperiod sensitive, however, it is diffcult to produce seeds during some parts of the year. Both the

CO 39 and the LTH NILS are currently being improved to increase the number of resistance genes included and to improve the genetic purity of the lines. It may be desirable to have all known resistance genes carried in one genetic background. Meanwhile, the use of the CO 39 and LTH NILs together increases the number of virulence genes that can be assessed. We demonstrate here that this allows for substantial detection of the pathotypic diversity that can be detected for a tropical population of the blast fungus.

News about research collaboration


INGER celebrates 20 years of successful rice research
The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) has proven to be a powerful platform for international cooperation in improving varietal development of rice. For the past 20 years. scientists worldwide have been sharing and evaluating rice germplasm in a highly successful global network. INGER is a cooperative activity between international agricultural research centers, such as the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Centro Internacional de AgricuItura Tropical, and West Africa Rice Development Association and IRRI, and national agricultural research systems (NARS). About 1,000 scientists at 700 experimental stations and research institutions in 95 rice-growing countries participate in INGER. The network provides scientists with efficient mechanisms for evaluating about 2,000 breedings lines annually and solving varietal improvement problems. It is the worlds largest network for rice germplasm evaluation. INGER has served as a mechanism for the genetic flow within and between continents by facilitating the global exchange and evaluation of more than 40,000 breeding lines and varieties since 1975. More than 3,000 breeding lines and varieties from INGER have been used in national breeding programs to improve local varieties. Out of the germplasm shared through INGER, more than 413 entries have been released as 591 varieties in 64 countries. Varieties derived from INGER parents have made significant production increases in many rice-growing countries. In China, Indonesia, and Vietnam, more than 60% of the total rice area is covered by INGERdistributed lines. More than 10 million hectares in China are planted with materials taken directly from INGER nurseries or derived from crosses made with INGER entries. Less developed countries have benefited most from INGER. Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam, for example, have made excellent use of breeding lines developed elsewhere. In Cambodia, most of the rices cultivated are traditional varieties. However, from 1988 to 1993. 12 improved varieties were released with 10 of them coming directly from INGER nurseries.
Format and Submission. Same as for news items. Announcements of workshops, meetings, and conferences need to be received at least 6 months before the date of the event. OTHERS Comments. If you have comments or suggestions about the IRRN, please write to the editor. We look forward to your continuing interest in IRRN. Mailing address. Send all notes, news, announcements, and other correspondence to the Editor, IRRI, P.O. Box 933 Manila 1099, Philippines. Fax: (63-2) 891-1292

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IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

IRRI celebrates 35 years of rice research


IRRI celebrated 35 years of rice research aimed at improving the well-being of rice farmers and consumers in September 1995 at its headquarters in the Philippines. Participants in the 35th Anniversary celebrations included IRRIs donors, partners, scientists, beneficiaries, and employees. IRRI was founded in 1960 by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. It now receives financial support from donor countries, development agencies of governments, and international institutions. IRRI is one of 16 nonprofit international agricultural, forestry, and fishery research centers supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).

IRRI welcomes two major groups of partners


On two special days, IRRI opened its doors to two major groups of people who traditionally have been beneficiariesand sometimes criticsof the Institutes research: nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and farmers. Although many NGO representatives and farmers visit IRRI every year in their individual capacities, this was the first time IRRI had invited them to visit in large groups to see the research being done in Los Baos and to discuss matters of mutual concern. Ninety-one representatives from 34 NGOs attended the NGOs Day at IRRI and made field visits to demonstration stations on the long-term study of biofertilizers, integrated pest management, small farm machines, methane emission and climate change, the rice seed genebank, biotechnology and the transgenic greenNetwork (ARBN). The ARBN was established by IRRI to help countries take advantage of biotechnology to speed up their agricultural research.

house, and the new plant type (super rice). They ended the day with a broad-ranging open-forum discussion. In the forum, IRRIs director general, Dr. George Rothschild, recognized the important work being done by NGOs, especially in helping to shape IRRIs research agenda, and looked forward to increased collaboration between NGOs and IRRI in the future. The Farmers Day at IRRI attracted more than 600 Filipino farmers, provincial and municipal agriculturists, extension workers, and agricultural technicians from four Philippine provinces. The farmers made visits in a program similar to that for the NGOs, and also took part in an open forum afterwards. IRRI emphasized that it was keenly interested in having feedback from farmersspecially on technological problems related to rice productionso that the Institute could be more responsive to their needs.

International Rice Genetics Symposium


The third International Rice Genetics Symposium was held in Manila, Philippines, from 16 to 20 Oct 1995. Scientists from around the world presented their findings on the latest breakthroughs in tissue culture, molecular biology, and genetic engineering in rice. Organized by IRRI, the symposium featured 30 key presentations during the plenary sessions, about 120 technical papers, and more than 160 posters. According to Dr. G. S. Khush, IRRIs principal plant breeder and convener of the symposium, this meeting of about 500 rice scientists from 30 countries aimed to review the latest developments in rice genetics. Among these are the advances in high density molecular mapping for rice and its implications for rice improvement, development of protocols for rice transformation, and the production of transgenic rices with disease and insect resistance. About 120 participants from Japan, all supported by their respective research organizations, attended the symposium. Many participants from developing countries were sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, IRRI, and the Asian Rice Biotechnology Research

Two international symposia in rice genetics were earlier held at IRRI headquarters in the Philippines in 1985 and 1990.

Announcements
Rice dateline
1996 11-18 Jan 15-17 Jan Upland Rice Consortium Meeting ................... J. C. Prot, IRRI Crop and Resource Management Network Technical Steering Committee Meeting ........................................ V. Balasubramanian, IRRI Rice Seed Health for Pest Management Workshop .................................. T.W. Mew IRRI Philippine Rice Research lnstitute-University of the Philippines Los Baos-IRRI Tripartite Work Plan Meeting, PhilRice ......................................................... G. L. Denning, IRRI International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice Project Support Team Meeting, IRRI .......................... R. C. Chaudhary, IRRI Pakistan-IRRI Work Plan Meeting, Pakistan .......................................................... G. L. Denning, IRRI

23-26 Jan 22-24 Feb

11 Mar

15-16 Mar

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

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IRRI group training courses for 1996


IRRI provides a limited number of scholarships for participation in its short-term group training courses. To be considered for an IRRI-funded scholarship, a scientist must be affiliated with a national institution that has an official collaborative agreement with IRRI in a rice-related research and training project. A scientist interested in an IRRI-funded scholarship should apply directly to his or her institution and not to IRRI. IRRI also accepts scientists from other institutions and agencies for the courses if they are working in rice-related areas. Their applications to participate in courses must be endorsed to IRRI by their employer and must specify funding sources to cover costs. IRRIs group course training fee is approximately US$1,200/month: this does not include participants round-trip international airfare, en route expenses, or shipping allowance upon return home. The courses are conducted at IRRI headquarters unless otherwise indicated. For additional information, contact the Head, Training Center, IRRI.

Date 1996 5 Feb-1 Mar 5 Feb-15 Mar 11 Mar-3 May 18 Mar-26 Apr 6-24 May

Course

3-28 Jun 1 Jul-20 Sep 15 Jul-6 Sep 22 Jul-13 Sep

30 Sep-25 Oct 30 Sep-22 Nov 4 Nov-13 Dec

Experiment Station Management Irrigation Water Management a (Kasetsart University, Thailand) Hybrid Rice Breeding Strategic Research in Integrated Nutrient Management Gender Analysis in Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources b (International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines) Instructional Video Production Seed Health for Pest Management Integrated Pest Management c (National Crop Protection Center, University of the Philippines Los Baos, [UPLB]) Adaptive research with a Farming Systems Perspective d (Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute, UPLB) GIS Techniques for Agroecosystems Characterization Rice Production Research e (Pathum Thani Rice Research Center, Thailand) Engineering for Rice Agriculture f (Indian Institute of Technology, India)

a Kasetsart University, International Irrigation Management Institute, and IRRI. b International Institute of Rural Reconstruction and IRRI. c UPLB, Philippine Rice Research Institute, Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture, and IRRI. d UPLB and IRRI. e Pathum Thani Rice Research Center and IRRI. f Indian Institute of Technology and IRRI.

New IRRI publications


Program report for 1994. 1995. 311 pages. US$59.00 in highly developed countries (HDC), US$15.00 in less developed countries (LDC), plus US$8.00 airmail or US$2.00 surface postage. The Program report for 1994 is the definitive record of the past years achievements in research undertaken by IRRI scientists, much of it in collaboration with others. It is intended to account to donors and to make available to rice researchers worldwide current information about the outcome of the activities projected in the Institutes medium-term plan for 1994-98. The report includes brief summaries of research plus discussions of the international programs that interconnect with the research programs. The publication continues to be the primary account of progress made by the Institute.

IRRI 1994-1995: Water, a looming crisis. 1995. 91 pages. US$44.00 in HDC, US$11.00 in LDC, plus US$6.00 airmail or US$1.50 surface postage. IRRIs new corporate report addresses a number of major issues facing the developing worlds rice producers and consumers, and foremost among these is the water crisis that is fast approaching in Asia. Water, a Zooming crisis details the water problems being faced increasingly by Asias rice farmers and describes how research by IRRI and its partners is addressing and trying to solve them. After the lead article, the publication reports on many of the accomplishments of the research programs: irrigated rice, rainfed lowland rice, upland rice, floodprone rice, and cross-ecosystems. Highlights of the work of IRRIs international servicesthe Genetic Resources Center, strengthening international partnerships, training, information activities, finance and administrationare also covered.

Rice-feeding insects of tropical Asia. 1995. 228 pages. US$28.50 in HDC, US$7.50 in LDC, plus US$4.50 airmail or US$1.50 surface postage. Before an intelligent decision about managing insect pests can be made, it is necessary to be able to identify which insect species are pests and which are beneficial. This booklet illustrates examples of some of the more common species of insect pests that attack the rice crop. It can be used with the IRRI booklet Helpful insects, spiders and pathogens: friends of the rice farmer, which provides information about only beneficial species. Scientific language has been minimized so that the descriptions are more easily understood. The pictures provide an easy way to identify pest species, thereby helping to prevent unnecessary chemical treatments. Like Helpful insects, this booklet is designed to facilitate its easy and inexpensive translation and copublication in languages other than English.

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Riceland spiders of South and Southeast Asia. 1995. 716 pages. HDC, please send order to CABI, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, U.K.; LDC, US$32.00 plus US$27.00 airmail or US$3.00 surface postage. This work represents a major contribution to the literature for those interested in spiders or more generally in biological control and crop protection. Spiders are among the most omnipresent and numerous predators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems, and without them insect pest populations would go out of control. Their potential as biological control agents can only be appreciated through a greater understanding of their abundance and species composition in different ecological systems. Therefore. a great need exists for literature providing guidance on spider identification. This volume provides a comprehensive illustrated guide to the spider fauna in South and Southeast Asia. It is designed to be used by both specialists and novices. The majority of the species covered were collected from a diversity of habitats in the Philippines. The bulk of the book consists of keys to the identification of families. genera, and species of Philippine spiders, illustrated by more than 1,000 line drawings, and 92 color photographs. A total of 341 species belonging to 134 genera within 26 families are recognized. Of these, 257

species and 8 genera are new to science. Also provided are distribution maps for individual species and a classification scheme for Philippine riceland spiders. World rice statistics, 1993-94. 1995. 260 pages. US$22.00 in HDC, US$6.00 in LDC, plus US$9.50 airmail or US$2.00 surface postage. World rice statistics, 1993-94, which is published periodically by IRRI, presents comprehensive time series information related to rice. Data on rice production, trade, consumption, inputs, prices, and other related information are compiled from international and national statistical sources, personal communications, and from responses to questionnaires sent by the IRRI Social Sciences Division. The computerized data base system, RICESTAT, is continually revised and updated to facilitate access to global information on rice. This editionwhich brings readers, in many cases, through 1993 and, in some cases, into 1994includes revisions, updates, and additional information. In this edition, efforts were made to expand geographical coverage wherever possible. The section on modern varieties and input use was improved and the most recent data on the costs and returns of rice farming were included.

Rainfed lowland rice: agricultural research for high-risk environments. 1995.248 pages. US$38.00 in HDC, US$10.00 in LDC, plus US$6.00 airmail or US$l.50 surface postage. It has been nearly a decade since IRRI published anything substantive on rainfed lowland rice. Now, this is the first of a number of forthcoming books to focus on the topic. The rainfed lowland ecosystem for rice covers 37 million ha worldwide, about 25% of the total rice area. Rainfed lowlands are heterogeneous in any single location, diverse across locations, and unpredictable everywhere. In 1991, the Asian Development Bank provided a grant to establish a new mode of partnership, called research consortia. As a result, eight institutions in five Asian countries established a research consortium to conduct the decentralized strategic research needed to address the complex issues of the rainfed lowland rice ecosystem. This book describes the research results obtained during the first two years of the Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Consortium. Papers published in the volume were presented during an international symposium in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, 8-13 Feb 1993.

New publications
Rice management biotechnology. Edited by S. Kannaiyan. Order from Associated Publishing Company, New Delhi 110005, India. Fertilizer and integrated nutrient recommendations for balance and efficiency. Micronutrient research and agricultural production. Both edited by H.L.S. Tandon. Order from Fertiliser Development and Consultation Organisation, 204-204 A Bhanot Corner, 12 Pamposh Enclave, New Delhi 110048, India. Fax: 91-11-6435850.

Rice literature update reprint service


Photocopies of items listed in the Rice literature update are available from the IRRI Library and Documentation Service. Reprints of original documents (not to exceed 40 pages) are supplied free to scientists of developing countries. Rice scientists elsewhere are charged US$0.20 for each page or part of a page copied, plus postage. Make checks or money orders payable to Library and Documentation Service, IRRI. Address requests to Library and Documentation Service, IRRI. E-mail: C.AUSTRIA@CGNET.COM.

Call for news


Individuals. institutions, and organizations are invited to tell readers about upcoming events in rice research or related fields in the Rice dateline. Send announcements to the Editor, International rice research notes, IRRI.

IRRI address
International Rice Research Institute P.O. Box 933 1099 Manila, Philippines Tel: (63-2) 818-1926 Fax: (63-2) 891-1292 Telex (ITT) 40890 RICE PM E-mail: Postmaster@IRRI.CGNET.COM.

IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

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Erratum
Effect of climatic changes on rice production in Punjab, India, by S.S. Hundal and P. Kaur, 20:1 (Mar 1995), 32.

In Figure 2, the symbol for normal (330 ppm) CO 2 sample ( ) and that for 630 ppm CO2 sample ( ) were interchanged in the legend box. The legend should have appeared as follows.

Normal (330 ppm CO2) 530 ppm CO 2 430 ppm CO 2 630 ppm CO 2

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IRRN 20:4 (December 1995)

Instructions for contributors


NOTES

General criteria. Scientific notes submitted to the IRRN for possible publication should be original work, have international or pannational relevance, be conducted during the immediate past three years or be work in progress, have rice environment relevance, advance rice knowledge, use appropriate research design and data collection methodology, report pertinent, adequate data, apply appropriate statistical analysis, and reach supportable conclusions. Routine research. Reports of screening trials of varieties, fertilizer, cropping methods, and other routine observations using standard methodologies to establish local recommendations are not ordinarily accepted. Examples are singleseason, single-trial field experiments. Field trials should be repeated across more than one season, in multiple seasons, or in more than one location as appropriate. All experiments should include replications and an internationally known check or control treatment. Multiple submissions. Normally, only one report for a single experiment will be accepted. Two or more items about the same work submitted at the same time will be returned for merging. Submitting at different times multiple notes from the same experiment is highly inappropriate. Detection will result in the rejection of all submissions on that research.

IRRN categories. Specify the category in which the note being submitted should appear. Write the category in the upper right-hand corner of the first page of the note.
GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT

genetic resources genetics breeding methods yield potential grain quality pest resistance diseases insects other pests stress tolerance drought excess water adverse temperature adverse soils other stresses integrated germplasm improvement irrigated rainfed lowland upland flood-prone (deepwater and tidal wetlands) seed technology
CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

soils soil microbiology physiology and plant nutrition fertilizer management inorganic sources organic sources crop management integrated pest management diseases insects weeds other pests water management farming systems farm machinery postharvest technology economic analysis

ENVIRONMENT SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Manuscript preparation. Arrange the note as a brief statement of research objectives, a short description of project design, and a succint discussion of results. Relate results to the objectives. Do not include abstracts. Do not cite references or include a bibliography. Restrain acknowledgments. Manuscripts must be in English. Limit each note to no more than two pages of doublespaced typewritten text. Submit the original manuscript and a duplicate, each with a clear copy of all tables and figures. Authors should retain a copy of the note and of all tables and figures. Apply these rules, as appropriate, in the note: Specify the rice production ecosystems as irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, deepwater, and tidal wetlands. Indicate the type of rice culture (transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded). If local terms for seasons are used, define them by characteristic weather (wet season, dry season, monsoon) and by months. Use standard, internationally recognized terms to describe rice plant parts, growth stages, and management practices. Do not use local names. Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. For soil nutrient studies, include a standard soil profile description, classification, and relevant soil properties. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants. Do not use common names or local names alone. Quantify survey data, such as infection percentage, degree of severity, and sampling base. When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, and tolerance, report the actual quantification

of damage due to stress, which was used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used. Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. Use international measurements. Do not use local units of measure. Express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t/ha) for field studies and in grams per pot (g/pot) for smallscale studies. Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use local monetary units. Economic information should be presented at the exchange rate US$:local currency at the time data were collected. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Use the abbreviation thereafter. Define any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in tables or figures in a footnote, caption, or legend. Tables and figures. Each note can have no more than two tables and/or figures (graphs, illustrations, or photos). All tables and figures must be referred to in the text; they should be grouped at the end of the note, each on a separate page. Tables and figures must have clear titles that adequately explain the contents. Review of notes. The IRRN editor will send an acknowledgment card when a note is received. An IRRI scientist, selected by the editor, reviews each note. Reviewer names are not disclosed. Depending on the reviewer's report, a note will be accepted for publication, rejected, or returned to the author(s) for revision.

(continued on back cover)