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International Rice Research Notes

The International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) expedites communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved technology for rice and ricebased systems. The IRRN is a mechanism to help scientists keep each other informed of current rice research findings. The concise scientific notes are meant to encourage rice scientists to communicate with one another to obtain details on the research reported. The IRRN is published three times a year in April, August, and December by the International Rice Research Institute.

Contents
Vol. 22, No. 3, 1997
Germplasm improvement
Genetic resources Diversity of leaf epidermal structures used in biosystematics of rice species 4 Genetics Heterosis for physicochemical characters in rice 5 Variability and heritability estimates of yield and yield components in some Nigerian lowland rice genotypes 6 Analysis of genetic and genotype environment interaction effects on heterosis of nutrient quality traits in indica hybrid rice 7 Genetic diversity among upland rice varieties from India and Bangladesh 8 Breeding methods Performance of exotic (IRRI) and locally developed cytoplasmic male sterile lines at Kapurthala, Punjab, India 9 Comparison of regeneration frequency of green plantlets from in vitro culture of young panicles of wild rice 10 Determination of suitable time to select trisomics induced from anther culture of autotetraploid rice 11 Grain quality Multisample rice cooker for evaluating eating quality 12 Njavara: a unique rice race of the humid tropics 12 Pest resistance New rice breeding lines with multiple pest resistance 13

Pest resistancediseases Cross-fertility and pathogenicity of the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea Sac. isolated from cultivated and wild rice in Yunnan 14 Performance of midland rice varieties in a blast hot spot 15 Stress tolerancedrought Effect of water deficit on plant water status, growth, and yield of rice 16 Stress toleranceadverse temperature Mass screening and identification of rice germplasm tolerant of light and temperature stress 17

IRRN production team


Editors: Carolyn Dedolph, Domenic Fuccillo, Bill Hardy Assistant editor: Teresita Rola Layout and design: Erlie Putungan Artwork: Erlie Putungan

Stress toleranceadverse soils Variation in salt tolerance among rice mutants and varieties based on yield attributes 18 Water relations in rice seedlings in saline medium 19

IRRN 1997

Integrated germplasm improvementirrigated Te-Shan-Ai No. 2, a high-yielding rice in China 20 Cilosari: a new rice variety released in Indonesia through cross hybridization of the mutant line with IR36 21 FARO 44 and FARO 50: two irrigated lowland rice varieties for Nigeria 21 Xingxiangyou 77, a high-yielding and fine-quality quasi-aromatic hybrid rice 22 Integrated germplasm improvementrainfed lowland New rice varieties for the rainfed lowlands of Cambodia 23 Integrated germplasm improvementupland FARO 45 to FARO 49: two early-maturing and three mediummaturing upland rice varieties released in Nigeria 24 Integrated germplasm improvementflood-prone Saraswati and Jalaprabha: two new deepwater rice varieties for eastern India 25 Seed technology Nucleus and breeder seed production of thermosensitive genic male sterile lines 26

Integrated pest managementdiseases Two Myanma isolates of rice tungro bacilliform virus belong to the Southeast Asian strain 31 Hinosan (0.05%): an ecofriendly fungicide for managing rice sheath blight 32 lntegrated pest managementinsects Record of Aspergillus terreus Thom. on rice grasshopper Hieroglyphus banian (F.) in India 33 Integrated pest managementweeds Weed control practices for improving N use efficiency and productivity of flood-prone lowland rice 34 Water management On-farm water management studies in ricefields of north Bihar, India 35 On-farm water management studies in summer rice 36

Research methodology
Use of the chlorophyll meter in N management of subtropical wheat following rice 37

Crop and resource management


Fertilizer managementinorganic sources Response of promising rice genotypes to N levels in rainfed lowlands 27 Fertilizer managementorganic sources Performance of Azolla hybrids in lowland rice culture 28 Influence of sowing time on biomass production and seed yield of three green manure crops 29 Vermicompost: a potential supplement to nitrogenous fertilizer in rice nutrition 30

Announcement
1998 Calendar of International Training Courses 38

page 4 page 18

Vol. 22. No. 3

Germplasm improvement
Genetic resources
Diversity of leaf epidermal structures used in biosystematics of rice species
Z. Y. Zhang, Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany (LSEB), Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100093, and Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275, China; J. Wen, LSEB, CAS; and B. R. Lu, IRRI

The rice genus contains 24 annual or perennial species, including two cultivated rice species, i.e., the Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) and African rice (O. glaberrima Steud), and 22 wild species in the tropics. In this study, morphological features of the leaf epidermis of 22 rice species (see table) were observed by light microscopy to find characters for

identifying species and to assess systematic relationships in the genus. For example, O. schlechteri, O. ridleyi, O. longiglumis, O. granulata, O. brachyantha, O. officinalis, O. minuta, O. sativa, O. nivara, and O. meyeriana have elliptic stomatal complexes, whereas in other species they are rhombic. The size of papillae on most epidermal surfaces ranged from small (1.5-4.4 m diam) to medium (9-18 m) to large (21-30 m), and their size and distribution were very useful in identifying species. In addition, the number and location of the small papillae in stomatal complexes differed between species. Based on the following combinations of leaf epidermal characters, i.e., the size and distribution of papillae on the abaxial surface of the epidermis, the

International Rice Genebank Collection (IRGC) number, chromosome number, genomic group, and distribution of rice species used in the experiment. Beijing, China.

Species O. O. O. O. O. O. O. O. O. barthii A. Chev. glumaepatula Steud. longistaminata Chev. et Roehr. rneridionalis Ng nivara Sharma et Shastry rufipogon Griff. sativa L. punctata Kotechy ex Steud. eichingeri Peter

IRGC accession no. 103908 105465 101221 101147 102163 100593 105567 36865 104975 101424 105182 105163 100176 100957 (4x) 105448 103879 101395 106241 100962 10370 106468 104990 105562 105973 100877 105172 PNG 1b

Chromosome number Genome 2n = 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 48 a 24 48 48 48 48 24 24 24 48 48 24 48 AA AA AA AA AA AA AA BB CC CC CC BBCC CCDD CCDD CCDD EE GG GG JJHH JJHH FF ??

Country of origin Tanzania Guiana Mali Tropical Australia Taiwan lndonesia China Kenya Uganda Uganda Uganda Thailand India Sri Lanka Philippines Mexico Brazil Guatemala Tropical Australia Lao PDR Malaysia Indonesia lndonesia Thailand Cameroon Papua New Guinea

number and location of the small papillae in stomatal complexes, and the shapes of stomatal complexes, the 22 studied Oryza species could be divided into three main groups. In the first group, which included O. longiglumis, O. ridleyi, O. meyeriana, and O. granulata, neither large- nor medium-sized papillae (in some cases, extremely rare small papillae) were found on the surfaces of epidermis and no small papillae were found in stomatal complexes. All species in this group had elliptic stomatal complexes (Fig. 1). This group included species classified in O. meyeriana and O. ridleyi complexes based on external morphological characters. The second group included O. brachyantha, diploid and tetraploid O. officinalis,O.minuta, O. eichingeri, O. punctata, O. latifolia, O. alta, O. grandiglumis, O. rhizomatis, and O. australiensis. In these species, usually no large papillae were observed, but medium-sized and densely populated small papillae were found to cover the surfaces of epidermis, and at least four small papillae were found in stomatal complexes (in guard cells) of most species. This group contains all species in the O. officinalis complex.

O. officinalis Wall ex Watt O. rhizornatis Vaughan O. minuta J. S. Presl. et C. B. Presl. O. alta Swallen O. grandiglumis (Doell) Prod. O. latifolia Desv. O. australiensis Domin. O. granulata Nees et Arn ex Wall. O. meyeriana (Roll. et Mor. ex Steud.) Baill O. longiglumis Jansen O. rldleyi Hook f. O. brachyantha Chev. et Roehr. O. schlechteri Pilger

a This tetraploid taxon was described as Oryza malampuzhaensis Krish. et Chand., but its morphological features are very similar

to those of O. officinalis. Following the treatment of Vaughan (1989), it is included in O. officinalis. b Field collection number.

1. Abaxial leaf epidermis of O. ridleyi (x1120), showing no papillae on the surface of the epidermis, and elliptic stomatal complexes without papillae.

IRRN 1997

Genetics
Heterosis for physicochemical characters in rice
S. Geetha and A. Ayyamperumal, Sugarcane Research Station, Sirugamani 639115, Tamil Nadu, India

2. Abaxial leaf epidermis of O. nivara (x1 120), showing small and medium-sized papillae on the surface of epidermis, and rhombic stomatal complexes with 6-8 small papillae in subsidiary cells (indicated by arrows).

The third group included O. sativa, O. nivara, O. rufipogon, O. longistaminata, O. lumaepatula, O. meridionalis, O. barthii, and O. schlechteri. The abaxial leaf epidermis of these species was usually covered with large, mediumsized, and small papillae. In addition, more than four (usually 6-8) small papillae were found in guard cells or subsidiary cells of the stomatal complexes (Fig. 2). Most species in the second and third groups had rhombic stomatal complexes. This group is correlated to the morphologic O. sativa complex, except for O. schlechteri, which does not belong to any of the morphologic complexes. These results largely agree with previous biosystematic studies of rice species that apply other methodologies, i.e., species within complexes have rather close relationships whereas those between complexes have a comparatively distant relationship. These results also show that leaf epidermal characters provide additional information for species identification in Oryza.

Reports on heterosis for the physicochemical grain quality characters in rice are limited. We studied the heterotic manifestations in nine grain quality characters in 30 hybrids involving six parenttsIR50, ADT37, ADT41, Duansan, TKM6, and ADT39. The hybrids were created by full diallel mating of these six parents. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications during the 1993-94 dry

season. Each genotype (parents and hybrids) was planted in three 3-m rows at 30- 20-cm spacing. Observations were recorded for five randomly selected plants per replication. Seeds were dehulled in a McGill sample sheller and milled in a Kett rice polisher. Cooking characters were measured as suggested by Juliano and Perez (1984). Amylose content was measured by the method of Juliano (1971), and the protein per grain was estimated by the method of Shenoy et al (1994). The performance of hybrids over mid-parent (relative heterosis) and over the better parent (heterobeltiosis) was estimated following standard procedure (see table). The heterosis for

Summary of heterosis on nine physicochemical characters in hybrid rice.

Relative heterosis Character Range Significant crossesa (no.) 15

Heterobeltiosis Range Significant crosses a (no.) 8 Top-ranking hybrids

Kernel length

-7.98 to 25.36

-18.60 to 19.65

ADT41/IR50 ADT39/ADT37 TKM6/ADT39 TKM6/ADT37 TKM6/ADT39 ADT41/IR50 Duansan/ADT39 IR50/ADT37 ADT41/IR50 Duansan/ADT39 Duansan/lR50 ADT41/IR50 ADT39/ADT41 IR50/Duansan ADT41/IR50 Duansan/ADT39 Duansan/ADT41 ADT41/IR50 ADT39/ADT37 TKM6/Duansan ADT37/IR50 ADT39/Duansan ADT41/IR50

Kernel breadth Kernel L-B ratio Kernel length after cooklng

-40.63 to 18.06 -12.68 to 68.27 -21.34 to 26.43

15 10 14

-44.84 to 15.12 -32.61 to 58.32 -23.48 to 41.36

9 6 6

Kernel breadth after cooking

-9.26 to 31.89

14

-31.79 to 30.64

15

Linear elongation

-27.38 to 41.69

12

-37.79 to 33.82

11

Elongation index

-55.84 to 59.74

13

-55.84 to 59.74

Amylose (%) Protein grain -1

-44.71 to 56.62

22

-44.78 to 42.60

19

-29.03 to 41.59

12

-42.11 to 32.69

a Significant

in the desirable direction.

Vol. 22, No. 3.

the characters studied was considerably high and indicated the possibility of exploiting hybrid vigor for these traits. Among these hybrids, cross ADT41/ IR50 showed desirable heterobeltiosis for seven out of the nine

characters studied. The heterobeltiosis for this hybrid for kernel length was 1.23; kernel breadth, 5.70; kernel length-breadth ratio, 7.13; kernel length after cooking, -13.90; linear elongation, 8.70; elongation index, 22.97; amylose heritabilities can be of value in all three stages. We studied 10 early-duration and 12 medium-duration rice genotypes during the 1994-95 cropping season (Jul-Nov) at the University Experimental Research Station (UERS) to select promising genotypes. The experiment was laid out using a randomized complete block design with 4- 3-m plots and three replicates for the medium-duration genotypes and four for the early-duration genotypes. Observations were recorded on five randomly selected plants per replication. Mean (X), standard deviation (SD), phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) and genotypic

content, 13.6; and protein per grain, 2.44. Duansan/ADT39 was promising for kernel length after cooking, kernel breadth after cooking, and elongation index.

Variability and heritability estimates of yield and yield components in some Nigerian lowland rice genotypes
T. Vange and A. A. Ojo, Crop Production Department, University of Agriculture, PMB 2373, Makurdi, Nigeria

The essential aspects of most, if not all, breeding programs can be divided into three stages: assembly or creation of a pool of variable germplasm, selection of superior individuals from the pool, and use of selected material for creating new populations to be employed as either potential commercial varieties or the base for a new cycle of selection. Estimates of genetic variance and

Genetic parameters for 12 traits in selected lowland rice genotypes. University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, 1994-95.

Trait Medium duration 50% heading (d) Plant height (cm) Tillers m -2 (no.) Panicles m -2 (no.) Panicle length (cm) Branches panicle -1 (no.) Panicle weight (g) Seeds panicle -1 (no.) Seed weight panicle-1 (g) 1000 weight (g) Dry biomass yield (t ha -1) Seed yield (t ha -1 ) Early duration 50% heading (d) Plant height (cm) Tillers m -2 (no.) Panicles m -2 (no.) Panicle length (cm) Branches panicle -1 (no.) Panicle weight (g) Seeds panicle -1 (no.) Seed weight panicle-1 (g) 1000 seed weight (g) Dry biomass yield (t ha -1) Seed yield (t ha -1)

Mean (X)

Standard deviation

Genotypic coefficient of variation 70.64 65.68 1376.46 322.02 1.24 0.24 0.17 127.27 0.44 9.95 2.46 0.76 5.21 8.25 12.64 10.53 3.12 12.80 15.04 10.95 19.11 8.75 18.33 30.14

Phenotypic coefficient of variation 10.06 11.91 24.77 14.73 6.94 7.81 16.77 17.13 30.58 13.35 43.05 37.00 5.88 10.68 18.96 19.13 8.00 15.46 43.49 21.61 30.62 10.76 24.97 39.69

Broad sense Genetic heritability advance 2) (h as % of mean 91.18 74.64 52.00 42.00 43.00 36.00 37.78 21.00 40.00 83.00 49.00 37.00 78.50 59.61 44.43 30.31 15.19 68.50 11.97 25.68 38.95 66.16 53.89 57.67 18.92 18.33 26.57 12.76 6.16 5.80 13.07 7.42 13.30 22.87 43.52 28.32 9.58 13.11 17.36 11.94 2.50 21.82 10.72 11.43 24.57 14.66 27.71 47.15

87.5 78.8 207.7 188.3 24.5 10.4 4.0 142.2 3.43 25.8 5.21 3.85 79.60 73.40 205.88 173.80 23.79 9.36 3.10 127.40 2.89 25.69 4.00 3.00

10.80 8.15 28.00 33.80 1.04 1.04 0.50 19.30 0.76 2.85 0.97 0.96 4.03 6.22 39.20 25.55 1.10 1.18 0.59 17.26 0.61 2.30 0.78 0.78

coefficient of variability (GCV), broadsense heritability (h 2), and genetic advance as percentage of mean (GA%) were calculated for 12 traits (see table). Considerable differences were observed for all the traits in both medium- and early-duration rice genotypes, indicating wide variability and room for improvement through selection. The PCV was generally higher than the GCV in both early- and medium-duration genotypes The differences were low for days to 50%, heading, however, and plant height in the medium-duration rice group and panicle weight, panicle length, and seed weight panicle-1 in the earlyduration group. A moderate amount of variability (10-20%) was observed for days to 50% heading, plant height, panicles m-2, panicle weight, number of seeds panicle-1, and 1000-seed weight in the medium-duration category, whereas in the early-duration category plant height, tillers m-2, panicles m-2, branches m-2, seed weight panicle-1, and 1000seed weight showed a moderate amount of variability. The medium-duration rice genotypes had very low GCV for panicle length and branches panicle-1, whereas the early- duration rice had very low GCV for days to 50% heading and panicle length. High h2 as well as high GA%, for the medium- duration group was observed for days to 50%) heading, plant height, 1000-seed weight, and tillers m-2. Dry biological yield and seed yield had high GA% while in the early-duration genotypes, seed weight panicle-1, dry biological yield, and seed yield had high h2 and GA%. High h2 coupled with high GA% indicates a predominance of additive gene effects.

IRRN 1997

Analysis of genetic and genotype environment interaction effects on heterosis of nutrient quality traits in indica hybrid rice
Chunhai Shi and Jun Zhu, Agronomy Department Zhejiang Agricultural University (ZAU); Yonggui Yu, Xiaoe Yang, and Jianming Xue, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, ZAU, Hangzhou 310029, China

Mean (range) of heteroses for nutrient quality traits of F2 seed in indica hybrid rice. Hangzhou, China, 1994-95.

Parameter

Genetic heterosis

Interaction heterosis in 1994

Interaction heterosis in 1995

Protein content Direct heterosis Cytoplasmic heterosis Material heterosis Protein index Direct heterosis Cytoplasmic heterosis Maternal heterosis Lysine content Direct heterosis Cytoplasmic heterosis Maternal heterosis Lysine index Direct heterosis Cytoplasmic heterosis Maternal heterosis

0.02 (0.02 ~ 0.05) 0.03 (0.09 ~ 0.04) 0.04 (0.21 ~ 0.11) 0.01 (0.02 ~ 0.04) 0.02 (0.07 ~ 0.13) 0.00 (0.09 ~ 0.15)

0.17 (0.03 ~ 0.36) 0.04 (0.07 ~ 0.15) 0.01 (0.27 ~ 0.21)

0.06 (0.21 ~ 0.13) 0.08 (0.16 ~ 0.04) 0.08 (0.36 ~ 0.14)

0.13 (0.00 ~ 0.38) 0.10 (0.06 ~ 0.27) 0.06 (0.25 ~ 0.39)

0.05 (0.22 ~ 0.15) 0.07 (0.19 ~ 0.01) 0.06 (0.35 ~ 0.13)

Nine cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and five restorer lines of indica rice were used in an incomplete diallel cross (9 5) for 2 yr. The CMS lines were Zhexie 2 A, Xieqingzao A, Zhenan 3 A, Gangchao 1 A, Yinchai 1 A, Erjiuqing A, V20A, Zuo 5 A, and Zhenshan 97 A and the five restoring lines were T49, Cezao 2-2, 26715, 102, and 1391. They were randomly sampled from a reference population. Seedlings of parents and F1 s with three replications were planted in the field experimental farm at ZAU. Seeds were sown on 28 Mar 1994 and 3 Apr 1995, and single plants of 31-d-old seedlings were transplanted at 20- 20cm spacing, 24 plants in each plot. Seed samples of parents and F1 and F2 plants were derived at maturity from eight plants in the middle part of the plot. The F1 seeds which were harvested from female parents were obtained by crossing CMS lines to restorer lines at flowering. Quantitative traits of rice nutrient quality (see table) were measured with three replications for each sample of parents, F1 s, and F2 s. The components of heterosis of seed traits for F2 over the mean of parents were predicted for various types of heterosis (see table). We found that nutrient quality of milled rice from these hybrids was influenced by seed, cytoplasmic, and maternal heteroses (see table). Interaction was larger than genetic heteroses, and was associated with increased nutrient quality traits in 1994 but not in 1995; similarly total heterosis was larger in 1994 than in 1995. Maternal heterosis (-0.04) and

0.02 (0.07 ~ 0.15) na 0.01 (0.12 ~ 0.09)

0.16 (0.12 ~ 0.75) 0.13 (0.11 ~ 0.39) 0.11 (0.45 ~ 0.83)

0.08 (0.50 ~ 0.28) 0.16 (0.39 ~ 0.04) 0.17 (0.76 ~ 0.60)

0.02 (0.14 ~ 0.19) na 0.01 (0.22 ~ 0.21)

0.11 (0.15 ~ 0.66) 0.19 (0.08 ~ 0.58) 0.18 (0.41 ~ 0.96)

0.06 (0.46 ~ 0.33) 0.14 (0.38 ~ 0.14) 0.13 (0.79 ~ 0.60)

cytoplasmic heterosis (0.02) were the main components in genetic heterosis for protein content (PC) and protein index (PI), respectively. For interaction heterosisin 1994, direct interaction heteroses were larger for PC, PI, and lysine content (LC) traits, but cytoplasmic interaction heterosis was larger for the lysine index (LI) trait. Otherwise, interaction heterosis in 1995 mainly came from cytoplasmic

heterosis for PI and LI, maternal and cytoplasmic interaction heterosis for PC, and maternal interaction heterosis for LC. Crosses such as V20 A/26715, which had significant genetic and interaction heteroses in 1994, could increase PC and PI. Crosses such as Yinchao 1 A/T49 and Zhexie 2 A/ 26715, which had significant genetic interaction heteroses in 1994, could increase LC and LI, respectively.

H=[F2 P1+P2 ]/ 2

Vol. 22, No. 3

Genetic diversity among upland rice varieties from India and Bangladesh
B. Courtois, IRRI/Centre de coop ration internationale en recherche agronomique pour le developpement, departement des cultures annuelles; P. K. Sinha, K. Prasad, Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station, Hazaribagh, India; and S. Carandang, IRRI

Isozyme analysis is a simple and powerful tool to examine genetic diversity of rice varieties for neutral markers. Rice germplasm was classified into six groups based on allelic associations across 15 isozyme loci. Understanding the pattern of variation existing among varieties grown in a given ecosystem is important for breeders and could help to optimize the choice of parents for hybridization.

We analyzed 64 upland rice varieties from India and Bangladesh (see table), traditional and improved, for their isozyme variation at 14 loci Adh1, Amp1, Amp2, Amp3, Amp4, Cat1, Est1, Est2, Est5, Est9, Icd1, Pgi1, Pgi2, and Sdh1. For each variety, we analyzed 10 coleoptiles that allowed us to assess within-sample diversity. Five among the 14 tested loci were monomorphic ( Amp4, Est5, Icd1, Adh1, Cat1). The 64 varieties were classified using an algorithm based on the alleles present at 5 loci ( Pgi1, Pgi2, Amp3, Amp2, Amp1 ). Thirty-five belonged to the indica group (mostly improved varieties) and 22 belonged to the aus group (partly traditional, partly improved varieties) as defined in the classification established by Glaszmann (1987). This grouping reflects the strategy developed by Indian upland rice breeders who favor recombina-

tions between indica and aus types in their selection programs. The aus group brings good adaptation to the aerobic soil conditions prevailing in the upland ecosystem, whereas the indica group is used for its yield potential. Several samples, notably among the traditional varieties, were mixtures of different types for one or several loci. This phenomenon is frequently encountered in traditional varieties and can be observed even in varieties that are phenotypically homogeneous, but induces some difficulties in the classification, notably when the samples are mixtures for the classifying loci. Five varieties could not be assigned to a varietal group (noted with ? in the table). The classification in groups is meaningful mostly for the traditional varieties. Because of the recombinations occurring in improved varieties,

Classification of upland rice varieties from India and Bangladesh into isozyme groups. a Variety Type Country of origin IND IND BGD BGD BGD IND IND IND IND BGD BGD IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND Isozyme groupb 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 ? 1 1+6 2 1 1 2 1+6 2 ? 2 1* 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 Within-sample diversity c M M M M M M M (3) (2) (1) (2) (1) (1) (2) H Variety Type Country of origin IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND IND Isozyme groupb 1 1 1 1* 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1* 2 1* 1* 1* 2 1 1* 1 1 1 2 2 ? ? 2 1 1 ? Within-sample diversity c H H H H H H H H H M (1) M (1) M (1) H M (1) M (1) H M M M M M (1) (1) (2) (1) (1) H

Akashi Annada Aus196 Aus257 Aus454 Bala Birsadhan 101 Blrsadhan 102 Black Gora BR20 BR4290-3-3-5 Brown Gora Cauvery CH45 Charka Gora CO 13 CR143-2-2 Dehula Dular Dumai Hira Jonga Kalakeri Kalinga III Kalyani 2 Karhni Lalnakanda 41 Laloo 14 N22 Nagpur 26 Neela Prasanna

IMP IMP TRAD TRAD TRAD IMP IMP IMP TRAD IMP IMP TRAD IMP TRAD TRAD IMP IMP TRAD TRAD TRAD IMP TRAD TRAD IMP IMP TRAD TRAD TRAD TRAD TRAD IMP IMP

M (4) M (2) H M (2) H H M (1) H M (1) M (7) M (1) H H H H M (1) H M (1) H H H H M (1) H

Rasi RP2220-111-84-20 RP2235-35-40-5 RR13-51 RR137-83-5 RR139-1 RR149-177 RR151-3 RR151-85 RR151-91 RR159-90 RR165-1160 RR166-645 RR167-982 RR174-1 RR180-1 RR19-2 RR2-6 RR20-5 RR227-8 RR235-64 RR50-128 RR50-3 RR51-1 RR6-1 Saita Sattari Sathi 34-36 Surjamukhi Vanapraba Vandana VHC 1253

IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP IMP TRAD IMP TRAD TRAD IMP IMP TRAD

M (1) H M M M M (2) (4) (6) (7) H H H

M (4)

a TRAD = traditional variety, IMP = improved variety (includes selection from or mutant of a traditional variety); IND = India; BGD = Bangladesh, H = homogeneous sample; M = mixture of types. b 1 = indica; 1* = close to indica; 2 = aus; 1+6 = recombinatlon of indica and japonica alleles, ? = unclassified. c Number in parentheses indicates the number of loci with several alleles. The classification

of varietal groups is based on the most frequent allele.

IRRN 1997

Breeding methods
Performance of exotic (IRRI) and locally developed cytoplasmic male sterile lines at Kapurthala, Punjab, India
R. K. Gautam, T. S. Bharaj, Om Vir, H. S. Muker, H. S. Randhawa, and R. S. Sekhon, Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Regional Rice Research Station (RRRS), Kapurthala, Punjab 144601, India

some samples presented an allelic combination that did not allow a clearcut classification (CO 13 and BR4290-33-5 assigned to group 1+6). From allelic variation at the polymorphic loci, we established a dendrogram clustering 62 of the varieties (Sattari and Sathi 34-36 excluded) according to their genetic similarity based on Euclidean distances

(see figure). This tree shows the same clear-cut differentiation into two groups corresponding roughly to the two varietal groups. The aus group appears less diverse than the indica group. The dendrogram can be used as a tool to help breeders choose parents on the basis of their genetic distance to maximize potential genetic progress.

Stability of a cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line is of the utmost importance for hybrid rice to be commercially useful. In this study, 20 IRRI CMS lines (IR66707A carrying Oryza perennis cytoplasm and all others carrying wild abortive [WA] cytoplasm imparting male sterility) and 13 locally developed CMS lines (all WA-derived) were evaluated for male sterility, days to 50% flowering, plant height, anther color, and grain type at PAU in Kapurthala during the 1996 kharif (wet season). The seeds of CMS lines were produced by hand pollination on a paired plant basis. Each CMS line was planted in paired rows of 12 plants. Spacing between rows and among plants was 20 cm. During flowering, anthers of 510 spikelets from two tillers of each plant were squashed and pollen grains were stained with 1% IKI solution and observations for sterile (unstained) pollens were made from five or six microscopic fields. Two panicles of each plant were also bagged before anthesis to study their spikelet fertility at maturity. Based on the degree of male sterility, a CMS line was termed as completely sterile, highly sterile, sterile, partially sterile, or partially fertile. Of the locally developed CMS lines, Pb CMS 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 8A, 10A, 11A, 12A, and 13A were completely sterile; 7A, highly sterile; and 5A, 6A, and 9A, partially sterile. Among the IRRI-bred CMS lines, 11 were completely sterile, three highly sterile, and the remaining six partially sterile to partially fertile (see table).

Vol. 22, No. 3 9

Pollen/spikelet sterility scores and other features of local and IRRI CMS lines at Kapurthala.

CMS line

Sterility reaction a Pollen Spikelet CS CS CS CS S PS HS CS PS CS CS CS CS CS CS S CS CS HS CS PS CS PS CS PF S CS PF CS PF CS CS CS

Days to flowering A line 110 110 104 110 106 110 109 104 102 105 112 104 110 73 97 101 104 104 112 114 100 104 114 95 105 99 88 88 100 98 101 106 103

Plant height (cm) B line Percent reduction 18.6 11.9 12.0 18.1 19.8 19.0 19.0 15.1 10.2 10.5 18.0 20.9 20.4 17.1 23.1 17.6 19.8 33.0 26.5 27.0 14.4 12.4 16.3 14.4 13.0 20.5 9.6 9.8 22.0 23.2 17.8 14.4 5.9

Anther color and shape

Grain typeb

Pb CMS 1A PB CMS 2A Pb CMS 3A Pb CMS 4A Pb CMS 5A Pb CMS 6A Pb CMS 7A Pb CMS 8A Pb CMS 9A Pb CMS 10A Pb CMS 11A Pb CMS 12A Pb CMS 13A V20A IR58025A IR62829A IR64607A IR64608A IR66707A IR67683A IR67684A IR68275A IR68280A IR68281A IR68886A IR68887A IR68888A IR68891A IR68895A IR68897A IR68899A IR68902A IR69628A

CS CS CS CS HS PS HS CS PF CS CS CS CS CS CS PS CS CS HS CS PS HS PS CS PF HS CS PF CS PF CS CS CS

83 89 88 86 81 85 81 84 97 85 91 72 86 68 73 70 85 79 86 81 83 92 82 89 87 93 84 92 78 76 83 89 95

102 101 100 105 101 105 100 99 108 95 111 91 108 82 95 85 106 118 117 111 97 105 98 104 100 117 93 102 100 99 101 104 101

Yellowish White shrunken White shrunken White shrunken White White White White shrunken Yellowish White shrunken Brownish White shrunken White shrunken White shrunken White shrunken White shrunken White shrunken Yellow shrunken White shrunken White shrunken White shrunken Yellow shrunken Yellow plump White shrunken White Yellowish White shrunken White shrunken Yellowish Yellowish Yellowish White shrunken White shrunken

LS LS LS LS LS LS MM LS LS LS LS LS ELS MM LS MS LS MS LS LS ELS MM LS LS LS MS MS MM LS LS LS LS LS

a Completely sterile (CS) = 100% pollen/spikelet sterility, highly sterile (HS) = 99-99.9%. sterile (S) = 95-98.9%, partially sterile partially fertile (PF) = <70%, b LS = long slender, LM = long medium, ELS = extra long slender, MM = medium

IPS) = 70-94.9%, medium, MS = medium slender.

Genetically diverse lines included in the study displayed wide variation for days to flowering (73-114). Therefore these lines can be used to develop rice hybrids with desired maturity. The lines Pb CMS 12A, V20A, IR58025A, IR62829A, IR64608A, IR68895A, and IR68897A were typically dwarf in stature (<80 cm). The WA cytosterility reduced height by 5.9-33.0%) compared with the respective maintainer lines, whereas O. perennis cytoplasm resulted in a plant height decreased by 26.5% compared with the maintainer IR66707B. The white anther trait in the completely sterile CMS line is desirable because it facilitates visual discrimination between fertile and sterile plants at anthesis for practical hybrid seed production. Considering male sterility and anther color, Pb CMS 2A, 3A, 4A, 7A, 8A, 10A, 12A, 13A, V20A, IR58025A, IR64607A, IR66707A, IR67683A, IR68281A, IR68888A, IR68902A, and IR69628A are desirable CMS lines. From these, all except Pb CMS 7A, V20A, and IR68888A possess long slender grains. These CMS lines are also being screened for panicle and stigma exsertion rate, outcrossing potential, combining ability, and disease resistance, all traits that can render them commercially usable. (method 2). In the first culture method, the induced calli for 16 accessions of nine species of wild rice were transferred onto the differentiating medium. Green plantlets were obtained from six species (see table). The genomes of the species with regenerated plantlets were AA, A1 A1 , CC, CCDD and O. meyeriana with an unnamed genome. Until now, we have not obtained regenerated plantlets from O. eichingeri O. punctata, and O. brachyantha via callus redifferentiation. Green spots were observed on the calli of these species. Variation in the regeneration frequency also occurred among the accessions within the species. The regeneration frequency

Comparison of regeneration frequency of green plantlets from in vitro culture of young panicles of wild rice
Guangxuan Tan, Xiaohui Yin, Lihui Shu, Guangchen He, and Lanjie Liao, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

Wild Oryza species compose an important germplasm pool of high level genetic diversity and a number of economically important genes. However, most wild Oryza species prove recalcitrant in tissue and cell culture, which is an obstacle to the genetic manipulation of the valuable

germplasm. Recently, we cultured the young panicles of wild rice on different media and confirmed that the young panicles of wild rice have two development tendencies: dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. In both cases, green plantlet regenerations with high frequency were obtained for some species. Nine species of wild rice were used in the experiments. The young panicles (0.1-1.5 cm in length of the inflorescence) were plated either on the callus-inducing medium containing N6 + 2 mg 2,4-D L-l + 4.5% sucrose, pH 5.8 (method 1) or on the differentiating medium containing MS + 2 mg 6-BA L -1 + 0.5 mg NAA L -1 + 3% sucrose, pH 5.8

10

IRRN 1997

Plant regeneration frequency from wild rice inflorescence cultured by two different methods. Wuhan, China.

Method 1 Species Genome Origin No. Calli transferred (no.) 8 18 18 13 17 15 20 12 14 16 34 15 18 21 15 24 Regenerated plants (no.) 0 0 2 0 10 0 4 0 0 0 10 0 10 3 0 14 Regeneration frequency (%) 0 0 11.1 0 58.8 0 20.0 0 0 0 29.4 0 55.6 14.3 0 58.3

Method 2 Panicles cultured (no.) 20 22 35 15 17 37 30 27 23 15 Regenerated plants (no.) 18 21 26 8 13 0 12 18 12 12 Regeneration frequency (%) 90.0 95.5 74.3 50.0 76.5 0 40.0 66.7 52.2 80.0

Oryza rufipogon

AA

China

O. longstaminata O. punctata O. officinalis

A1A1 BBCC CC

Stolon Philippines Zambia India China

2 3 4 5 6

O. eichingeri O. alta O. latifolia O.brachyantha O. meyeriana


a - not tested.

CC CCDD CCDD FF ?

Sri Lanka Brazil Mexico Zambia China

was only 11.1% in the normal type of O. rufipogon (number 5), but 58.8% in the stolon type of the same species. In the second culture method, plantlets regenerated directly from the young panicles of wild rice that were cultured on the differentiating medium. Six species including 10

accessions were tested. Plantlets were obtained from five species except O. officinalis. The regeneration frequency was generally higher in this method than in the method via callus differentiation. Compared with plantlet differentiation via callus, direct regeneration of young panicles was much simpler

and the time needed shorter. Direct regeneration might present less risk to somatic variation than is common in in vitro tissue culture of the plant. Therefore, this method has potential in micropropagation, genetic manipulation, and cryopreservation of Oryza germplasm.

Determination of suitable time to select trisomics induced from anther culture of autotetraploid rice
Wu Minsheng, Genetic and Breeding Department, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China

Relationship between auricle distance and frequency of anthers in various phases.

Metaphase Trisomic Auricle distance (cm) a Observed number (bottle)


a

Metaphase Diploid 59 (%) 68.1

Abnormal (%) 31.9

20

-1.5 to + 1.5

Distance between auricle of the flag leaf and that of the next leaf from the flag leaf.

Use of primary trisomics has played an important role in genetics and breeding of rice. A great number of trisomics could be induced through anther culture of autotetraploid rice. In earlier work, trisomics of rice selected according to auricle distances from -2.5 cm to + 2.5 cm resulted in low selection efficiency. This paper reports on an efficient time to select trisomics.

From 116 bottle anthers of young panicles of autotetraploid rice, we selected 100 panicles randomly per bottle. The results were as follows: 1) when auricle distance was from -1.5 cm to + 1.5 cm, all anthers were in metaphase and trisomics or diploids could be determined; 2) when auricle distance was from -2.5 cm to + 2.5 cm,

only 68.1% of the anthers were in metaphase; and 3) when auricle distance was from -2.5 cm to -1.5 cm or from + 1.5 cm to + 2.5 cm, no anthers were in metaphase (see table). We concluded that an auricle distance from -1.5 cm to + 1.5 cm was better than from -2.5 cm to + 2.5 cm for selecting trisomics.

Vol. 22, No. 3 11

Grain quality
Multisample rice cooker for evaluating eating quality
Hae Yeong Ryu, Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea

Preparing cooked rice of several varieties or breeding lines to evaluate their eating quality characteristics is a difficult task. The error across samples is often high because each test entry must be cooked separately, usually at different times and using different apparatuses. To reduce this error, we developed a special cooker that uses indirect heat through water to subject the samples to the same conditions (see figure). One unit can cook nine samples simultaneously. This cooker may also be used to test the quality of small samples or samples from a single plant. Grains and the appropriate amount of water are placed in the cooking cup. The base pan is filled with water to provide indirect heat for cooking. Cooking is done in two stages: first with water in the base pan for 20 min, then by removing the water and applying direct heat to the rice cups for 5 min. With two units, the cooking process of many samples can be continuous, with one having water in the base pan and the other without. About 120 samples can be evaluated in 1 d using two units.

Multisample rice cooker.

Njavara: a unique rice race of the humid tropics


M. V. Menon and N. N. Potty Agronomy Department, College of Horticulture, Vellanikkara, Thrissur 680654, Kerala, India

Njavara is a unique land race of rice valued for its medicinal properties. It is used in treating circulatory, respiratory, and digestive ailments in ayurvedic medicine.

We conducted an experiment to investigate the types of amino acids and the amounts of each in Njavara grain of the black-glumed and goldenglumed grain types grown under rainfed upland and lowland cropping situations compared with the commonly grown traditional variety PTB20 during 1994-96 (see table). The blackglumed type had 192% more free amino acid content and the goldenglumed type 16% more than that of

PTB20 grown in the lowlands. The land races medicinal property appears to be attributable to the sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, which is involved in the metabolic pathway of the biosynthesis of thiamine (Vitamin B1), the deficiency of which causes beriberi. Black-glumed Njavara is richer than pulses in free amino acid content, entitling it to be called a proteinaceous cereal.

12

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1997

Total free amino acid content and some probable amino acids present in Njavara as compared with PTB20 grain.
Duration (d) Amino acids identified Total free amino acid content (mg g -1 )

Condition

Black-glumed Njavara Wetland Open upland

99 94

50-70% shaded upland

93

20-40% shaded upland Golden yellow-glumed Njavara Wetland

93

DL-2-amino-N-butyric acid and DL-isoleucine L-histidine monohydrochloride. L-leucine, DL-methionnine and L-proline DL-2-amino-N-butyric acid, L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate, DL-methionine and DL-isoleucine DL-threonine, DL-methionine and L-leucine L-histidine monochloride. L-ornithine monohydrochloride and DL-isoleucine DL-2-amino-N-butyric acid. L-proline, DL-methionine and L-leucine DL-threonine, DL-methionine and DL-isoleucine DL-threonine, DL-methionine and L-leucine DL-serine

0.316 0.670

0.814

0.334

103 95

0.089 0.424

Open upland

50-70% shaded upland 20-40% shaded upland PTB20 in wetland situation

102 99 120

0.169 0.164 0.183

Pest resistance
New rice breeding lines with multiple pest resistance
D. J. Pophaly A. Gupta, and G. R. Sahu, Entomology Department, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur 492012, India

Brown planthopper (BPH) ( Nilaparvata lugens), gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), and

bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae [Xoo]) are widespread in the Chhattisgarh region of Madhya Pradesh. To overcome this major constraint to selecting proper varieties in the integrated pest management program, we sought to develop new breeding lines with multiple pest resistance.

Seven promising breeding lines of the F8 generation were studied for stability to pest resistance and agronomic characters during the 1993-95 monsoon seasons. In the field, 30-d-old seedlings of these test lines were transplanted at 10- 20- cm spacing in two 2-m rows along with checks TN1 (susceptible) and Ptb33 (resistant). At maximum tillering stage, all plants were inoculated with Xoo by clip inoculation method. Recommended agronomic practices were followed to raise the crop. Observations were recorded for all hills 50 d after transplanting when gall midge incidence peaked. Likewise BLB-inoculated plants were observed for disease symptoms at maximum disease pressure. At harvest, grain was collected for resowing the next wet season. Grain and plant characters were also recorded. In the glasshouse, these lines were screened against N. lugens; feeding and probing mark studies were also carried out. Except for pureline IET6286, all seven breeding lines were derived from a widely cultivated variety Ruchi, which is resistant to gall midge and moderately resistant to BLB (Table 1). IR64 is resistant to the Raipur BPH insect population. RM1 (Raipur mutant), also used as a donor, is resistant to BLB but susceptible to gall midge. IR19661-23-3-2 and IR27325111-2-1 are gall midge-susceptible but

Table 1. Agronomic characters of advanced breeding lines. Breeding line Parentage Test weight (g) 1,000 seed 33 31 23 24 28 27 26 31 23 18 Duration (d) 125 125 155 125 125 125 130 128 120 185 Hull color Light golden Light golden Deep golden Straw Straw Straw Straw Light golden Straw Straw Kernel color White White White White White White White White White White Grain dimension a LS LS LS LS LS LS LS LS MS LS Plant type b SD SD T SD SD SD SD ST D T Plant color Green Green Green Green Purple Purple Purple Purple ring in green plant Green Green

R712-1-65-1-1 R710-3-37-1-1-1 IET6286 R746-2-34-1-2-1 R714-2-9-3-2-2 R714-1-19-1-5-1 R720-1-91-2-1-1 R714-3-103-1-3-2 TN1 (susceptible check) PTB 33 (resistant check for BPH and BLB)

Ruchi/lR19661-23-3-2 Ruchi/IR27325-111-2-1 IR64/Ruchi RMl/Ruchl RMl/Ruchi Ruchi/RM1 RMl/Ruchi -

a LS = long slender, MS = medium slender. b SD = semidwarf, T = tall, D = dwarf.

Vol. 22, No. 3

13

Table 2. Reaction of rice breeding lines against brown planthopper, gall midge, and bacterial leaf blight. Brown planthopper Plant damage a score Rating b Av feedc (mm 2 female -1 in 24 h) 15 26 Av probing d marks seedling-1 35 33 30 20 22 24 17 25 18 42 Gall midge (1993-95) e Score Rating Bacterial leaf blight (1993-95)e Score Rating

Breeding line

R712-1-65-1-1 R710-3-37-1-1-1 IET6286 R746-2-34-1-2-1 R714-2-9-3-2-2 R714-1-19-1-5-1 R720-1-91-2-1-1 R714-3-103-1-3-2 TN1 (susceptible check) PTB33 (resistant check for BPH and BLB)

1.00 2.58 3.20 3.31 3.87 3.94 4.15 4.30 9.00 1.08

R R MR MR MR MR MR MR S R

99

57 160 10

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 9

R R R R R R R R S S

3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 9 1

MR R MR R R R R R S R

aBased on 4-7 replications. b R = resistant, MR = moderately resistant, S = susceptible. c Based on 16-22 females. d Av based on 5-6 seedlings. e Based on 120 plants.

resistant to BLB disease and are used as donors of BLB resistance. All seven breeding lines were found resistant to Raipur gall midge populations (Table 2). For BPH, two varieties, R712-165-1-1 and R710-3-371-1-1, were resistant. The BPH insect feeding on these two varieties was much reduced (15 and 26 mm2 in 24 h) compared with susceptible check TN1

(160 mm2 in 24 h). These breeding lines may possess an antifeedant chemical. Consequently, they also exhibited the highest probing marks (35-36 seedling-1) compared with TN1 (18 seedling-1). We speculate these lines may have built-in genetic resistance to BPH. Only R710-3-37-1-1-1 is resistant to gall midge, BLB, and BPH and has all the desirable agronomic characters. It is

a semidwarf with white kernels and long, slender grains. Its hulls are light gold. It matures in 125 d, and its 1000seed weight is 21 g. Breeding lines R746-2-34-1-2-1, R714-2-9-3-2-2, R714-1-19-1-5-1, E7201-91-2-1-1, and R714-3-103-1-3-2 are moderately resistant to BPH and resistant to gall midge; IET6286 is moderately resistant to BLB.

Pest resistancediseases
Cross-fertility and pathogenicity of the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea Sac. isolated from cultivated and wild rice in Yunnan
Li Chengyun, Yang Qinzhong, Zhen Fengping, Lou Chaoxi, and Li Jingbin, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650205, China; and Kazou Ise, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan
Table 1. Perfect state formation of Magnaporthe grisea isolate from several plants in Yunnan.a

Host plant Cultivated rice Wild rice Goose grass Finger grass Finger millet

Cultivated rice +

Wild rice +

Goose grass + +

Finger grass + +

Finger millet + + + +

a+ = formation; = no formation.

Table 2. Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe grisea isolates from several plants in Yunnan. a

Host plant Cultivated rice Wild rice Goose grass Finger grass Finger millet

Cultivated rice S R R R R

Wild rice S S R R R

Goose grass R R S R S

Finger grass R R R S R

Finger millet R R S R S

Yunnan Province of China, a cradle of Asian cultivated rice, abounds in germplasm of both rice and rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). Many field races on Japanese differential rice varieties, and some field isolates from upland rice, can form the sexual stage under laboratory conditions (Li et al 1993).
14 IRRN 1997

aS = pathogenic; R = nonpathogenic.

We made more than 3000 combinations by using the strains of M. grisea isolated from cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.), common wild rice (O. rufipogon ), goose grass (Eleusine indica Gaertn.), finger grass ( Digitaria sanguinalis Scop.), and finger millet ( Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) in Yunnan Province. The results show that cross-fertility of strains isolated from upland rice is higher and wider than those isolated from lowland irrigated rice, but only one strain isolated from wild rice produced ascospores when crossed

with the strain isolated from lowland irrigated rice, and the mating type was MATI-1. Strains isolated from wild rice were crossed with strains isolated from goose grass, finger grass, and finger millet, too, but no ascospores were made in these combinations (Table 1). Cross-fertility and pathogenicity of strains isolated from common wild rice were identical to those of strains isolated from rice (Table 2). We speculate that strains isolated from common wild rice are nearer to those isolated from cultivated rice than in other plants in cross-fertility and pathogenicity.

Fifteen hermaphroditic isolates have been found in Yunnan Province, and 13 of these have been isolated from upland rice. The hermaphroditic isolates of MATI-1 were crossed with the hermaphroditic isolates of MATI-2. Half the combinations produced mature perithelia, and 2-3% of the ascospores were viable. Through a series of backcrosses with field isolates, 20-30%, viable ascospores were obtained. These field isolates and laboratory strains can be used in the study of inheritance of pathogenicity and the genetic analysis of avirulence in the fungus.

Performance of midland rice varieties in a blast hot spot


H. K. Ramappa, N. Shivakumar, N. M. Poonachha, Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Ponnampet, Coorg District; and T. B. Anilkumar, Regional Research Station, VC Farm, Mandya 571405, Karnataka, India

Reaction of midland varieties to neck blast.a ARS, Ponnampet, India. 1992-94. Neck blast incidence (%) Genotype 1992 IRLON90/18 KHP2 IYT (SHW) 91/10609 IMRYT91/1708 CTH6 IET7/7191 RR12 KHRS55 Jaya IRLON90/140 Karna KHRS26 IRLON90/98 Intan Mean of 3 yr Comparison 2 T Y Mean 9.77 18.39 3.71 20.33 0.83 22.50 16.23 28.40 21.67 15.38 40.41 33.45 25.55 56.43 ctg dct g ct fg cde dg bcd cde dg b bc cd a 1993 9.67 12.32 5.14 8.25 16.02 7.66 20.10 37.26 12.79 17.31 67.64 59.66 14.12 68.43 cd cd d cd cd cd c b cd cd a a cd a 1994 23.87 15.25 8.22 7.08 9.72 13.17 4.39 14.63 16.72 6.90 31.57 24.87 100.00 83.24 cd de e e e de e de de c c cd a b Mean 14.43 15.32 5.69 11.89 11.19 14.44 13.57 26.76 17.06 13.20 46.54 39.33 46.56 69.37 1992 3.9 3.4 3.1 2.9 4.2 2.3 2.2 2.9 2.0 2.0 1.2 1.4 2.3 1.2 ab abc bcd cde a def dg cde cfg cfg g fg def a 1993 4.9 3.0 2.8 3.2 1.6 3.1 2.7 2.0 2.3 1.9 1.3 0.9 3.9 0.9 a bc cd bc atg bc cd def cde dg fg g b g 1994 3.0 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.1 2.9 3.7 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.5 0.1 0.9 ab ab ab ab a ab ab a ab ab ab b c c Mean 3.9 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.2 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.4 2.3 1.8 1.6 2.1 1.0 Rice yield (t ha -1)

Blast (Pyricularia oryzae) is a major problem in almost all rice-growing areas in Karnataka, particularly in the highrainfall malnad region where it is a major reason for low yields there. To find high-yielding, blast-resistant varieties, 27 rice genotypes were evaluated over 3 yr at ARS in Ponnampet, a hot spot for blast. Thirteen midland varieties with the standard local variety Intan were sown on 10 Jun 1992, 22 Jun 1993, and 22 Jun 1994 and transplanted on 28 Jul 1992, 30 Jul 1993, and 29 Jul 1994, respectively. Heavy rainfall, a common occurrence, delayed transplanting. The genotypes were planted in a randomized complete block design in plots 10 7.5 9 m. Neck blast incidence was recorded twice during the grain development stage. The plot yields were converted to t ha-1. The mean neck blast incidence was significantly highest for Intan (69.37%), with the least incidence for IYT(SHW)91/ 10609 (see table). Among the varieties, mean yield was significantly lower for

Blast incidence SE 5.94 LSD (%) 11.82 SE 444.49

Yield LSD (%) 884.18

aWithin a column, figures followed by a common letter are not significantly different from each other at the 5% level.

Intan, with the exception of Karna and KHRS26. In contrast, IRLON90/ 18 had a mean yield of 3915 kg ha-1 and was on a par with KHP2, IYT(SHW)91/ 10609, IMRYT91/1708, and CTH6. Because IYT(8HW)91/10609 consistently had a low blast score and yielded the same as IRLON90/18, it should prove a good genotype for the midland region of Karnataka. IRLON90/18 is a cross between BKNFR76106-16-0-1 and IR19961-131-

1-2, IYT(SHW)91 /10609 is a cross between Ratna and ARC10659, and KHP2 is a cross between BG90-2 and IR8263-28-1. These genotypes IRLON90/18, IYT(SHW)91/10609, IMRYT91/1708, and CTH6consistently yielded more than 3 t ha-1 under very high disease pressure over three seasons, making them extremely useful for Karnataka. Blast can cause up to 80%) yield loss when the disease severity is 9.

Vol. 22. No. 3

15

Stress tolerance drought


Effect of water deficit on plant water status, growth, and yield of rice
P. K. Sharma, G. Singh, and R. M. Bhagat, Soil Science Department, Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur 176062, India

Recent research has challenged the traditional concept of keeping ricefields flooded throughout the cropping season. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to investigate the limit to which rice plants can be water-stressed without incurring significant yield losses. Our aim was to find ways to lessen the amount of water needed for irrigating rice. Air-dried silt loam soil, passed through a 4-mm screen, was packed into 0.82-m-long and 0.50-m-diam metal drums, and given two wetting and drying cycles for proper settling. The soil had 264 kg available N ha-1, 24.7 kg Olsen's P ha-1, and 281 kg 1 N ammonium acetate-extractable K ha-l. Twenty-five-day-old seedlings of cultivar HPU741, two seedlings hill -l and five hills drum-1, were transplanted. Each drum was fertilized with 100 kg N ha-1 as urea, 17 kg P ha-1 as superphosphate, and 33 kg K ha-1 as potassium chloride. The soil in each drum was kept submerged with 30 mm water for the first 7 d. Thereafter, irrigation was regulated to achieve four water regimes in the root zone30 mm continuous submergence of soil, and irrigation to the same water depth

Relationship between xylem water potential of rice and soil matric potential at 15 cm depth.

when matric potentials at 0.15 m soil depth reached -10, -20, and -30 kPa, as measured with mercury tensiometers. The xylem water potential of rice plants was determined before each irrigation at 0700 h with a pressure chamber apparatus (Soil Moisture Equipment Corp., Santa Barbara, USA). A relationship was developed between soil matric potential and xylem water potential. Root and shoot growth, grain and straw yield, and yield parameters were determined. Root mass density (RMD) was determined at harvest by collecting soil cores, 0.15 m long and 0.10 m diam, 1 drum-1, from the central plant in each drum. The xylem water potential was positively correlated with soil matric

potential at 0.15 m depth (see figure). With every unit decrease in soil matric potential, the xylem water potential of rice plants decreased by 17.7 kPa. The xylem water potential of continuously watered plants was around -200 kPa. Shoot growth rate, plant height, panicle weight, spikelet sterility, 1000grain weight, and grain and straw yields of rice did not differ significantly at saturation and -10 kPa matric potential, but decreased at or below matric potentials of -20 kPa (see table). The RMD decreased progressively with the increase in water deficit. But lower RMD at -10 kPa compared with continuous soil submergence did not affect grain and straw yield of rice. The results indicate that ricefields do not

Effect of different soil water regimes on growth and yield of rice. Palampur, India.

Matric potential (kPa) 0 10 20 30 CD (0.05)

Shoot growth rate (mm d -1 ) 1-8 WATa 12.8 12.6 11.8 11.6 0.3 8-12 WAT 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.2 0.2

Plant height (cm) 103.8 103.0 101.0 99.0 0.8

RMD b (kg m -3 ) 3.0 2.8 1.8 1.6 0.2

Panicle weight (g) 3.5 3.6 3.1 3.1 0.3

Spikelets panicle -1 (no.) 117 114 113 109 5

Spikelet sterility (%) 6 6 9 11 1

1000-grain weight (g) 32.2 32.5 25.8 25.7 1.8

Grains (g hill -1 ) 13.9 13.5 12.7 12.6 0.6

Straw (g hill -1 ) 29.8 29.1 27.4 27.2 0.9

Total water use (mm) 485 418 372 322 22

a WAT = weeks after transplanting. b RMD = root mass density.

16

IRRN 1997

need to be continuously flooded throughout the cropping period; a rice crop can be safely irrigated at -10 kPa matric suction without causing any

decline in rice yield. This suction, as observed in some field experiments, arrives in about 3-4 d in mediumtextured soils in subtropical climates.

The procedure saved about 16% of the water used to keep soil continuously submerged under 30 mm of water.

Stress toleranceadverse temperature


Mass screening and identifica. tion of rice germplasm tolerant of light and temperature stress
Li Xia and Jiao Demao, Institute of Agrobiological Genetics and Physiology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
Photooxidation and shading tolerance in different rice varieties.

Dry weight plant-1 (g) Variety Natural light (N) 5.37 5.15 5.19 3.26 4.33 4.38 5.14 6.32 4.90 5.75 8.56 6.35 6.06 3.85 5.56 6.88 5.58 3.80 4.65 4.42 6.29 14.60 15.50 13.70 12.10 13.90 14.40 18.00 16.20 8.70 10.50 28.01 16.05 11.50 8.50 11.40 7.00 4.60 8.70 7.00 16.10 0.12 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.65 0.53 0.21 0.25 0.13 0.11 0.25 0.35 0.15 0.20 0.12 0.20 0.30 0.17 0.27 0.29 0.21 1.68 2.15 1.89 1.93 2.11 2.99 2.29 2.44 0.53 1.41 3.68 2.97 1.87 0.36 2.16 0.36 0.38 0.47 0.41 2.74 Shading (S) 1995 2.51 0.12 3.48 0.17 1.78 0.12 2.68 0.13 2.31 0.15 3.17 0.21 2.16 0.21 3.33 0.31 1.64 0.11 3.63 0.29 3.29 0.25 1.94 0.15 2.32 0.19 2.46 0.13 1.61 0.10 2.40 0.12 3.03 0.31 1.94 0.17 1.92 0.15 2.81 0.21 2.75 0.19 1994 6.90 0.49 7.90 0.58 8.80 0.70 6.00 0.57 7.40 0.49 6.50 0.35 10.50 1.51 6.20 0.53 1993 5.90 0.52 6.60 0.39 16.15 3.10 5.56 0.29 7.90 0.48 4.30 0.31 3.10 0.30 2.10 0.21 3.30 0.21 2.90 0.19 4.10 0.35 6.20 0.58

S/N100%

Photooxidative treatment Chl content (mg dm-2) 1.45 1.66 2.10 2.53 3.36 1.77 2.84 0.81 1.22 2.49 0.84 1.45 2.24 2.45 2.21 1.99 1.28 1.49 2.58 3.14 2.09 0.10 0.11 0.21 0.17 0.19 0.23 0.29 0.09 0.10 0.14 0.08 0.09 0.17 0.10 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.10 0.15 0.27 0.19 Grade a 5 4 4 3 2 4 3 5 5 3 5 5 4 3 4 4 5 5 3 2 4

Rice adaptation to light and temperature stresses is the basis of stable yield. Few simple and easy techniques exist to test rice germplasm for tolerance for these stresses. We screened rice germplasm for shading tolerance using the method of Murty (1992). We divided the identified varieties into two groups during elongation stage. One group was placed in natural light, the other in the shade (1/5 natural light). After 14 d, the dry weight of the two groups was measured at the booting stage. The ratio of dry weight under shading to that under natural light was used as the shading tolerance index. At the same time, germplasm was screened for tolerance for photooxidation using the method of Jiao (1992). Mature rice leaves were detached at heading stage and submerged in a white tray filled with water containing 5 mol CO2 and 350 mol O2 under sunlight at 30-35 C for 5-7 d. A transparent glass bar covered the leaves to prevent floating. Photooxidation-tolerant varieties whose chlorophyll contents were 3.0-4.78 mg dm-2 were graded 1-2, whereas sensitive varieties whose chlorophyll contents were 0.8-2.2 mg dm-2 were graded 4-5 (see table). From 1993 to 1995, we identified 41 rice germplasm accessions using this technique. Results indicated four photosynthetic ecological types

Yue A (I) Yue A/R3049 (I) R3049 (I) Yue A/R3043 (I) R3043 (I) Yue A/R3034 (I) R3034 (I) Yue A/R3035 (I) R3035 (I) Yue A/R3044 (I) R3044 (I) Yue A/R437 (J) R437 (J) Yue A/J204 (J) J204 (J) Yue A/320500 (J) 320500 (J) Yue A/30152 (I) Yue A/34077 (I) 34077 (I) Yue A/42525 (I)

46.72 67.57 34.24 82.17 53.31 72.44 41.95 52.58 33.54 62.91 38.45 30.59 38.32 64.51 28.92 34.94 54.30 51.05 41.29 63.50 43.80

Liuqianxin S/JW201 (J) Liuqianxin S (J) JW201 (J) JW207 (I) Liuqianxin S/JW207 (J) 276 (J) Liuqianxin S/276 (J) Pelai 64S (I) 02428 (J) Yayou 2 (J) B HX-3 (I) Minghui 63 (I) Shanyou 63 (I) D Jin gang 30 (I) Xiangxian (I) F Tsukushibare (J) C Corn-rice (I) Nanjing 14 (I) E Wuyugeng (J) A Peiai 64S/JW201 (J)
a

47.30 51.00 64.20 49.60 53.20 45.10 58.30 38.30 67.80 62.90 57.66 34.61 68.70 50.60 27.20 30.30 71.70 33.30 58.60 38.50

3.50 3.31 3.03 2.21 2.33 3.28 1.48 1.91 4.78 3.93 2.56 2.27 1.73 1.03 1.20 3.03 1.36 2.75 3.78 1.40

0.25 0.30 0.25 0.18 0.10 0.27 0.09 0.11 0.35 0.59 0.19 0.21 0.17 0.16 0.11 0.31 0.10 0.17 0.43 0.10

3 3 3 4 3 4 5 4

1 2 3 3 4 5 5 2 5 3 2 5

Grades (scores): 1 = green; 2 = tip is yellowish; 3 = 1/3 is yellowish; 4 = 1/2 is yellowish; 5 = whole leaf is yellowish. Shading period was from elongation to booting. Photooxidative treatment was conducted at booting stage for 6 d.

adapted to light intensity. One was adapted to a wide range of light intensities, including japonica rice 02428, Wuyugeng, and indica-japonica

hybrid rice YueA/ R 3043, Yayou 2. During the heading stage, photosynthetic rate at high (40 C) and low temperatures (15 C) was determined

Vol. 22, No. 3

17

Differences in photosynthetic rates of six rice varieties under low (15 C). A = Wuyugeng, B = Yayou 2, C = Tsukushibare, D = Shanhou 63, E = Nanjing 14, F = Xiangxian.

using a Clark O2 electrode and compared with the photosynthetic rate at optimum temperatures of 30-35 C. The

ratio of photosynthesis under high and low temperature to that of optimum temperature was represented as a highor low-temperature tolerance index. Six varieties were selected for their tolerance for temperature stress (see figure). The results showed that japonica rice Wuyugeng and indicajaponica hybrid Yayou 2 were tolerant of both high and low temperatures. Their photosynthetic rates were stable. Under field conditions, japonica rice Wuyugeng is tolerant of light and temperature stresses and its yield has been relatively stable at more than 9 t ha-1.

Wuyugeng is now one of the main rice varieties in Jiangsu Province, China. On the contrary, indica rice Xiangxian, which is sensitive to light and temperature stresses, has not been grown in Jiangsu. In general, the types adapted to wide ranges of light and temperature were mostly japonica and indicajaponica rice varieties. In the region near the middle or lower reaches of the Yangtze River, selecting japonica rice and indica-japonica hybrid rice varieties adapted to wide ranges of light and temperature stresses may be an approach for rice breeders to use for obtaining high and stable yield.

Stress tolerance adverse soils


Variation in salt tolerance among rice mutants and varieties based on yield attributes
L. M. Gonzalez, R. Lopez, and R. Ramirez, Nuclear Laboratory, Agricultural Research Institute Jorge Dimitrov, Gaveta Postal 2360, Bayamo 85100, Granma, Cuba
Clustering pattern among 28 rice genotypes and cluster means based on the saline stress tolerance indexes for different characters.

Cluster

Strains in each cluster

Saline stress tolerance index (%) based on Panicle length 100 92 Panicle weight 100 90 Filled grains panicle-1 100 90 1000-grain weight 100 88 Grain yield 100 50

A B

Around 100,000 of the 160,000 ha determined to be suitable for rice production in Cuba are affected by salt. We have therefore focused our rice breeding program on obtaining salttolerant genotypes. We evaluated 9 mutants obtained from the J-112 variety through gamma radiation and 19 varieties for salttolerance field studies. The genotypes were studied in specially designed 3- 3- 1-m test plots in saline soil (plastic dark Gley Typic, with pH 7.44, 2000 ppm of total soluble solids, 0.90% organic matter, 0.003% N, 5.51 mg P100 g-1 soil, and 11.68% mg K 100 g -1 soil), and in nonstressed productive soil over two seasons. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. The crops were managed following local practices. Data on agronomic attributes (panicle length, panicle weight, filled grains
18 IRRN 1997

D E

Theoretical check RM12, RM62, RM41, RM66, RM114, RM157, RM72, RM120, RM153 IACUBA-26, Caribe I, lR5931, IR42, J112, 4024,2006, CP3-C2, J104 Amistad-82, 6140 2005, 4014, IR8, 4032, 4034, MI-48, Perla

88

80

85

83

45

70 62

52 45

80 72

77 70

39 34

panicle-1, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield) were collected from 10 randomly selected plants in each replication. For all dates collected in the experiment, the saline stress tolerance index was calculated. To study the genotypic variation in the above characters, the data were processed further by using cluster analysis through Euclidian distance, including a theoretical check (100%) for all saline stress tolerance indexes). In general, salinity markedly reduced agronomic attributes in all genotypes. Based on the Euclidian distance values, the population of 28 genotypes was grouped in 4 clusters (B, C, D, E) (see figure), indicating a great

Routine research. Reports of screening trials of varieties, fertilizer, cropping methods, and other routine observations using standard methodologies to establish local recommendations are not ordinarily accepted. Examples are singleseason, single-trial field experiments. Field trials should be repeated across more than one season, in multiple seasons, or in more than one location as appropriate. All experiments should include replications and an internationally known check or control treatment.

variability for salt tolerance. Cluster B, consisting of 9 mutants from the J-112 variety, had the highest mean for all attributes (see table), as well as the minimum value of intercluster distance with a theoretical check (cluster A), a result indicating that the mutants grouped in it were the most tolerant of those tested. Clusters C and D consisted of 10 and 2 genotypes, respectively. These genotypes were intermediate in salt tolerance. Seven genotypes comprised cluster E. These genotypes present a lower value of means for all attributes and a maximum intercluster distance value with cluster A (theoretical check), indicating they are the most susceptible. In this cluster were two varieties (MI 48 and IR8) that many breeders use as a susceptible checks. This finding confirmed our method used in varietal tolerance evaluation. Our results indicated that the mutants grouped in cluster A were higher than the parent and other varieties for salt tolerance, indicating the possibility of generating heritable variation for this attribute in rice through gamma radiation. The varieties hold promise in salt-affected areas and may also serve as donor parents in breeding for salt tolerance.
Dendrogram of clustering for radiomutants and varieties based on saline stress tolerance index for yield and yield attributes.

Water relations in rice seedlings in saline medium


L. M. Gonz lez and R. Ram rez, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Agricultural Research Institute Jorge Dimitrov, Gaveta Postal 2360, Bayamo 85100, Granma, Cuba

We evaluated the seedling water content (SWC), leaf relative water content (LRWC), transpiration intensity (TI), and the cell sap concentr ation (CSC) in four rice varieties, differentiated by the degree of their salt tolerance. Pokkali and IR24 were tested

for salt tolerance and MI 48 and Perla for susceptible behavior. Seedlings of four varieties were sown in nutrient solution under controlled laboratory conditions using Hoagland nutrient solution (control) and Hoagland nutrient solution

Effect of salinity on some water relation variables in rice seedlings. Granma, Cuba. a

Variety

Seedling water content (%) Control Stress 82 80 71 69 1.16** 0.68** 0.46*** 0.48***

Leaf relative water content (%) Control 88 87 86 85 0.12 0.51 0.23 0.82
b

Transpiration (mg H2O mg DW -1 h-2) Control 5.1 4.8 6.0 5.4 0.10 0.65 0.10 0.38 3.6 3.2 2.7 1.9 Stress 0.52** 0.45** 0.22*** 0.06***

Cell sap concentration (% TSS) b Control 5.9 5.5 5.2 5.1 0.06 0.22 0.10 0.20 9.1 8.9 8.2 8.3 Stress 0.17*** 0.03*** 0.20*** 0.47***

Stress 80 78 69 69 0.90** 1.25** 0.12** 0.70**

Pokkali IR42 MI 48 Perla


a

89 87 89 92

0.84 0.76 0.47 0.47

** and *** = significant differences for P <0.01 and P <0.001 by the Student-t test.

TSS = total soluble salts.

Vol. 22, No. 3 19

enriched with NaCl (0.7%,). The pH was kept at 5.0. The SWC, LRWC, and TI were determined by gravimetric methods and the CSC by refractometry in five replications at 21 d after planting. The SWC, LRWC, and TI significantly diminished under salinity stress in all varieties (see table) because plants could not absorb adequate water. The TI was more pronounced than SWC or LRWC. Plants adjust their

T1 as a defense mechanism to compensate for water loss. Salt-tolerant varieties Pokkali and IR42 had a reduction of 6-7% for SWC, 6-8% for LRWC, and 29-30% for TI, whereas in the salt-sensitive MI 48 and Perla, SWC decreased by 18-20%, LRWC by 16-17%, and TI by 60-67%. Varietal differences in salinity tolerance can be measured using these three plant water parameters.

CSC is another important factor to be considered in plant-water relations. An increase (66-67%) of CSC was observed in all varieties under stress conditions. Increase in CSC is attributed to an extensive accumulation of hydrophilic, osmotically active ions in cells and should not be regarded as a defense mechanism of seedlings under stress conditions.

Integrated germplasm improvementIrrigated


Te-Shan-Ai No. 2, a high-yielding rice in China
S.-C. Zhou, R.-W. Miao, W. Ke, Y.-H. Jiang, J.-W. Chen, Rice Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China

Te-Shan-Ai No. 2 (TSA), a high-yielding rice variety with wide adaptability, was developed by researchers at the Rice Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It was released for cultivation in China in June 1996. In the 1990-91 regional tests in southern China, the mean grain yield of TSA was 8.6 t ha -1 , 14%) more than the local check and 5% more than the hybrid check. In the 1990-93 regional tests in Guangdong and Guizhou provinces, the mean grain yield was 6.9 t ha -1 , 14%) more than the local check in double-cropped areas; mean grain yield was 8.4 t ha-1, 13%) more than the

local check in single-cropped areas (Table 1). TSA was registered in March 1992 and July 1995 by the Guangdong and Guizhou Crop Variety Evaluation committees, respectively. TSA is derived from the cross Teqing /Shan-Er-Ai. It successfully combines the high-yield characteristic of the female and the wide adaptability characteristic of the male. In large-scale demonstrations, TSA has not only given high yields but has also shown wide adaptability in both single- and double-cropped areas in southern China. The variety was planted on 685,500 ha in 1991-96 in southern China. In 1994, it became a new check for regional trials. In 1996, it yielded at least 10% more than all other varieties tested (Table 1). TSA is moderately resistant to blast and resistant to bacterial blight. The average amylose content is 26.4%, and the alkali spreading value is 7.0 (Table 2). One major gene and seven

minor genes located on seven chromosomes seem to control the semidwarf character of TSA. The character grain weight plant -1 is related to five quantitative trait loci located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8. A major gene located on chromosome 4 and a minor gene located on chromosome 2 may control the number of panicles plant -1 (Lin et al 1996).

Table 2. Grain quality characteristics of Te-Shan-Ai No. 2.

Grain length (mm) Grain width (mm) Length-width ratio Chalky grain (%) Chalky area (%) Brown rice (%) Milled rice (%) Head rice (%) Gelatinization temperature (C) a Gel consistency (mm) Amylose content (%) Protein content (%)
a

5.3 2.8 1.9 100.0 12.0 81.3 73.5 58.4 7.0 32.0 26.4 9.2

Indexed by alkali spreading value: low, 6--7; intermediate, 4-5.

Table 1. Performance of Te-Shan-Ai No. 2 (TSA) in regional tests in China. 1990-96.

Character

South China 1990 (8 sites, 5 provinces) 8.8 +5.2 b 139.5 -1.0 104.4 351.0 122.8 101.9 83.0 26.6 1991 (19 sites, 11 provinces) 8.3 +14.1 c 138.2 +1.9 105.6 312.0 127.2 104.0 81.8 26.4

Guangdong 1990 (17 sites) 6.7 +8.4d 136.0 +2.0 97.8 307.5 109.4 93.5 85.5 26.9 1991 (21 sites) 7.2 +19.8d 132.0 +3.0 99.2 388.5 117.7 96.2 81.7 26.6

Guizhou 1992 (8 sites) 9.4 +11.9 c 155.6 +2.7 85.7 294.0 143.8 124.2 86.4 26.9 1993 (8 sites) 7.3 +14.9 c 155.3 +3.5 94.2 297.0 126.4 99.7 78.9 26.9

South China 1996 (16 sites, 10 provinces) 8.4a 139.2 104.6 282.0 132.6 111.6 84.2 27.2

Grain yield (t ha -1) Grain yield over check (t ha -1 ) Growth duration (d) Growth duration over check (d) Plant height (cm) Productive panicles m -2 (no.) Spikelets panicle -1 (no.) Filled grains panicle -1 (no.) Seed set (%) 1000-grain weight (g)

a TSA ranked first and outyielded all other varieties significantly at the 1% level. b Check is Shanyou 63. c Check is Gui-Chao No. 2. d Check is Shan-Er -Ai.

20

IRRN 1997

Cilosari: a new rice variety released in Indonesia through cross hybridization of the mutant line with IR36
~ ~~

Mugiono, National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, Indonesia

We irradiated seeds of variety Seratus Malam with different doses of gamma rays (10, 20, 30, and 40 krad) in 1983. The M2 generation plants were selected for semidwarf stature, and from 50,000 M2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants were

selected. A semidwarf mutant, SM268 /PsJ, selected from the 20-krad treatment, was used for analysis of allelic relationship. In the allelic test, semidwarf mutant SM-268/PsJ was crossed with IR36. However, in the F3 an early maturity line Obs-1647/PsJ was selected and tested for yield potential in the F10 generation. The agronomic characters of Obs-1647/PsJ and the mother varieties are in Table 1. Based on yield trials at 27 locations during 1992-95,Obs-1647/PsJ showed a higher yield potential at several loca-

tions when compared with IR64 (Table 2). The Ministry of Agriculture in Indonesia released this line in July 1996 as Cilosari, a variety for irrigated areas.

FARO 44 and FARO 50: two irrigated lowland rice varieties for Nigeria
E.D. Imolehin, M. N. Ukwungwu, J. K. Kehinde, A. T. Maji, and J. A. Akinremi, National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi; B. N. Singh and O. Oladimeji, West Africa Rice Development Association c/o International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria

Table 1. Agronomic characters of Obs-1647/PsJ (Cilosari) and mother varieties IR36 and SM-268/PsJ.

Character

Parent 1 SM-268/PsJ (mutant) 60-65 110-115 5-7 15-17 22-23 2.0-2.5 Not good Susceptible Susceptible

Parent 2 IR36 70-80 110-120 14-19 23-25 24-25 4.0-4.5 Medium Resistant Resistant

Derived line Obs1647/PsJ (Cilosari) 110-125 110-120 10-15 26-27 20.5-21.0 5.0-6.5 Good Resistant Resistant

Plant height (cm) Maturity (d) Productive tillers (no.) 1,000 grain weight (g) Amylose content (%) Yield (t ha -1) Cooking and eating quality Resistance to BPH biotypes 1 and 2 Resistant to bacterial leaf blight

Table 2. Mean yield of Cilosari in yield trials at 27 locations. 1992-95. a

Location

1992-93 wet season Cilosari 5.70 5.23 8.40 7.30 8.10 7.10 4.90 a a a a a a a IR64 5.20 5.17 8.30 5.90 7.80 5.60 6.40 a a a b a b b

1993 dry season Cilosari 5.99 4.58 5.01 5.45 3.69 4.92 IR64 4.37 4.20 5.33 5.94 3.63 5.38 -

1993-94 wet season Cilosari 6.47 6.55 8.46 10.14 5.82 7.04 IR64 6.43 5.73 8.02 9.68 5.07 5.50 -

1994-95 wet season Cilosarl 9.97 3.63 4.71 6.65 6.83 4.76 IR64 9.68 2.65 2.42 4.45 5.67 2.55

Irrigated lowland rice is grown on around 10% of the 1.77 million ha planted to rice in Nigeria. In August 1996, the National Crop Variety Release Committee in Nigeria released two semidwarf varieties, FARO 44 and FARO 50, for this ecosystem. They are suitable for all the zones except southeastern Nigeria, where African rice gall midge (ARGM) is a major problem. Their detailed characteristics are shown in the table. FARO 44 is the varietal name given to the line SI-692033. It was bred at Chiayi Agricultural Experiment
Agronomic varieties. characteristics of two lowland rice

Madiun Lamongan Ponorogo Bekasi Tulungagung Probolinggo West Sumatera Yogyakarta Banyuwangi Jombang Ponorogo Serang Temanggung Ogankomering North Aceh Central Lampung Bandung South Sulawesi South Lampung Bandung West Aceh lndragiri Hilir Tanjung Jabung Kerinci Bengkalis

Characteristic Designation Cross

FARO 44

FARO 55 ITA230 BG90-2 4/ Tetep 90 110 1 9 9 7 1 7.3 2.2 3.3 Long slender 5 5 28.0 Straw 23.6 5.0 10.0

a a a a a a

a a a a a a

a a a a a a

a a a a a b

a a a a a a

a b b b b b

Sipi 692033 Sipi 661044/ Sipi 651020 Days to 50% flowering 85 Plant height (cm) 105 a 3 Blast resistance 9 ARGMa 9 RYMV a 7 Iron toxicity a a 3 Leaf scald Brown rice length (mm) 6.9 Brown rice width (mm) 2.2 L/W 3.1 Grain type Long slender 0 Chalkinessa Gel temperaturea 7 Amylose % 26.0 Husk color Straw 1000-grain weight (g) 26.5 4.0 Av yield (t ha -1 ) 8.0 Yield potential (t ha -1)
aSES scale, IRRI (1996).

a ln a row in the same location, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different by HSD test at the 5% level.

Vol. 22. No. 3.

21

Station, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, introduced through International Rice Testing Program nurseries in 1981, and further evaluated by the International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice-Africa and in multilocational coordinated rice evaluation trials (CRET) in Nigeria. After 3 yr in CRET, the line was further evaluated in farmers' fields by the National Ac-

celerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP). FARO 50 is a varietal name given to line ITA230. It was selected from the F4 lines introduced from the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Colombia. As line 6902, it was selected for yield potential and blast resistance at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan. The line was

evaluated in CRET and NAFPP prior to its release. Both FARO 44 and FARO 50 are resistant to leaf blast and leaf scald, but are susceptible to iron toxicity, ARGM, and rice yellow mottle virus. They have long, slender grains and high amylose content. Both are popular in irrigated rice areas of north and central zones of Nigeria.

Xingxiangyou 77, a highyielding and fine-quality semiaromatic hybrid rice


Zhou Kunlu and Liao Fuming, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center (HHRRC), Changsha 410125, Hunan, China

Xingxiangyou 77 was developed at HHRRC using aromatic cytoplasmic male sterile line Xingxiang A and nonaromatic restorer line Minghui 77. It was extensively tested and approved for release to farmers by the Hunan Provincial Crop Variety Release Committee in February 1997. Xingxiang A, improved from the first aromatic CMS line Xiangxiang 2A, is another aromatic

CMS line developed by HHRRC. The new line has stable male sterility and better outcrossing characteristics than Xiangxiang 2A. Minghui 77, developed by the Sanming Agricultural Institute, Fujian, China, is a popular strong restorer line with good grain quality. The cross between these two parents was first made in 1993. In 1994, the hybrid was tested in the Hunan Rice Variety Multilocational Trial and yielded 6.9 t ha-1 on average at all five locations, 5.5% higher (significant at 5% level) than check Weiyou 64. In the same year, it gave a mean yield of 5.9 t ha-1 at six locations in the trial of new commercial fine-quality rice varieties of Hunan Province with a yield advan-

tage of 2.9% over check Xiangwanxian 1. Tested in the Hunan Rice Variety Regional Trials of 1995 and 1996, it gave a mean grain yield of 6.8 t ha-1 over 14 and 12 locations, respectively, with yields of 2.3% and 5.6% higher than those of check Weiyou 64 (Table 1). In the on-farm trials and demonstration plots, it generally yielded 6.8 to 7.7 t ha-1 when grown as late rice in a double-cropping system. Most of the variety's grain quality characters met the 2nd class standards of fine-quality rice issued by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (Table 2). Furthermore, because its CMS line Xingxiang A is aromatic and its restorer line Minghui 77 is nonaromatic,

Table 1. Agronomic characters of Xingxiangyou 77. Hunan Rice Variety Regional Trial, China.

Hybrid Xingxiangyou 77 Weiyou 64 (check)

Year 1995 1996 1995 1996

Locations (no.) 14 12 14 12

Hybrids tested (no.) 10 11 10 11

Maturity (d) 114.0 114.8 114.0 113.3

Plant height (cm) 99.1 96.0 97.0 91.0

Spikelets panicle -1 (no.) 108.7 105.6 98.0 100.7

Filled spikelets (%) 69.2 77.8 72.2 74.9

1000-grain weight (g) 27.4 28.3 28.5 29.3

Grain yielda (t ha-1) 6.8 ns 6.9 ns 6.6 6.5

ans = yields not significant by Duncan's SSR test (in 1995) or by Fisher's PLSD test (in 1996). The experiment used three replications.

Table 2. Grain quality performance of Xingxiangyou 77. Institutesa doing the testing (year) CNRRI (1995) HRRl (1995) HRRl (1996) Brown rice (%) Milled rice (%) Head rice (%) Kernel Length (mm) 58.4 56.0 61.0 7.1 7.2 7.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 L/W Chalky Rice (%) 46 61 58 Area (%) 50 26 26 Gelatinization temperature (alkali value) 6.8 62 24.0 12.2 Gel consistency (mm) Amylose content (%) Protein content (%)

Hybrid/ standard

81.6 81.0 81.0

73.6 77.5 66.8

Xingxiangyou 77

CMA standard

1st class 2nd class

>81 >79

>74 >72

>59 >54

6.5-7.5 5.6-6.5

>3.0 2.5-3.0

<5 <10

<5 <10

>4 >4

>60 41-60

17-22 <25

>8 >8

a CNRRI: Chinese National Rice Research Institute; HRRI: Hunan Rice Research Institute: CMA: Chinese Ministry of Agriculture.

22

IRRN 1997

Xingxiangyou 77 is considered a semiaromatic hybrid rice. It produces only partially aromatic grains on each plant (owing to F 2 segregation for aromatic genes). Consumers prefer semiaromatic rice to pure aromatic rice.

Using the 1-9 scales of the Standard evaluation system for rice, the hybrid scored 6 for leaf blast, 7 for neck blast, and 7 for bacterial leaf blight. When planted as late rice in the double-cropping system in Hunan,

Xingxiangyou 77 matured in about 115 d (Table 1). It was about 98 cm tall with strong tillering ability. Its seed set was 75%) with a mean of 105-110 spikelets panicle -1 and a 1000-grain weight of 27-28 g.

Integrated germplasm improvementrainfed lowland


New rice varieties for the rainfed lowlands of Cambodia
Makara, S. Sovith, P. K. Hel, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries; E. L. Javier and G. S. Sidhu, Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project (CIAP), Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Table 1. Yield (t ha -1) of photoperiod-sensitive, traditional medium- and late-duration rice varieties and checks a for rainfed lowland ecosystem in Cambodia. Medium-duration CAR 1 1990 PYT (0, 1991 PYT (1, 1992 AYT (9, 1993 AYT (9, 1994 AYT (6, Mean % Increase over check 2) 3) 6) 8) 10) 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.1 11 CAR 2 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.3 18 varieties CAR 3 3.8 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 18 MS 3.2 2.8 2.9 2.6 2.8 0 CAR 4 4.2 5.2 4.2 3.6 3.7 4.0 29 Late-duration varieties CAR 5 3.3 4.4 4.0 3.5 3.4 3.7 19 CAR 6 3.9 4.6 4.0 3.4 3.6 3.8 23 TS2 3.4 3.7 3.9 2.6 2.8 3.0 0

Year

Trlal b

The rainfed lowland rice ecosystem is highly diverse in Cambodia. Several niches exist within the ecosystem, each of which may require different rice varieties of early, medium, or late maturity. The Varietal Recommendations Committee (VRC) of the Cambodian Department of Agronomy approved the release of three modern, photoperiod-insensitive, early-duration (less than 120 d) and three modern, photoperiod-insensitive, medium-duration (120-150 d) varieties selected by CIAP between 1990 and 1993. In 1995, the VRC approved the release of six pureline selections from traditional Cambodian varieties for cultivation in the rainfed lowland ecosystem. The six selections originated from the traditional varieties Pram Bei Kuor (PPD679), Sambak Kraham (PPD597), Sraem Choab Chan (Germplasm B293), Changkom Ropeak (Germplasm 90B-528), Kantuy Touk (PPD156), and Sae Nang (Germplasm 90B-429). The VRC decided that all varieties released in Cambodia will be assigned continuous numbers following the letters CAR, which signify Cambodia rice. So these selections were named CAR1CAR6, respectively. In the early 1970s, Cambodia's rice germplasm collections were sent to IRRI headquarters in the Philippines for safekeeping. Many of these varieties were subsequently lost in Cambodia

aChecks for medium- and late-duration trials are Mahsuri (MS) and Toul Samrong 2 (TS2). b PYT = preliminary yield trial, AYT =

advanced yield trial. The first and second values in parentheses refer to the number of locations involved in medium- and lateduration trials, respectively.

Table 2. Date of 50% flowering, growth duration, and plant height of photoperiod-sensitive, traditional mediumand late-duration varieties and checks. 1993-94 wet seasons. Cambodia. Date of 50% flowering Variety 1993 Medium-duration CAR1 CAR2 CAR3 MS Sowing time Late-duration CAR4 CAR5 CAR6 TS2 Sowing time 1994 1993 1994 Growth durationa (d) Heighta (cm) 1992-94

4 7 1 9 22

Nov-3 Dec Nov-9 Dec Nov-3 Dec Oct-4 Dec Jun-31 Jul

13 Nov-1 Dec 22 Oct-10 Dece 7 Nov-26 Nov 8 Oct-15 Nov 21 Jun-17 Jul

160 162 156 150 22

(145-172) (146-178) (138-172) (128-170) Jun-31 Jul

166 165 162 142 21

(150-180) (150-182) (150-175) (135-151) Jun-17 Jul

127 126 122 113

(95-180) (90-178) (89-167) (81-156) -

15 17 13 25 18

Nov-4 Dec Nov-10 Dec Nov-5 Dec Nov-12 Dec Jun-14 Jul

14 Nov-28 Nov 16 Nov-1 Dec 14 Nov-28 Nov 18 Nov-6 Dec 15 Jun-20 Jul

171 (162-182) 173 (162-182) 171 (161-183) 182 (171-195) 18 Jun-14 Jul

174 177 174 182 15

(160-186) (166-190) (161-187) (169-196) Jun-20 Jul

132 134 129 125

(93-161) (93-184) (94-183) (96-194) -

aThe first value is the mean. Values in parentheses represent the range.

because of the lack of cold storage facilities and the civil unrest in the 1970s. In the 1980s, the collections were returned to Prey Phdau Station at the governments request. The source populations for CAR1, CAR2, and CAR5 belonged to these collections and could have been completely lost if they had not been conserved at IRRIs International Rice Genebank. The source populations for the other varieties released were part of the CIAP

germplasm collection obtained through the joint efforts of the Department of Agronomy, provincial agriculture offices, nongovernment organizations, and CIAP. On the basis of preliminary yield trials (PYT) and advanced yield trials (AYT) conducted for several years at multiple locations, CAR1 yielded 11%) more than the check Mahsuri while CAR2 and CAR3 yielded 18% more (Table 1). CAR4 has a yield advantage of

Vol. 22 No. 3 23

29%; CAR5, 19%,, and CAR6, 23%, over check Toul Samrong 2. The new varieties are photoperiodsensitive. They can be sown between May and August and still flower at a given range of time. CAR1, CAR2, and CAR3 are medium-duration varieties. CAR1 and CAR3 can flower as early as the first week of November while CAR2 can flower as early as the third

week of October (Table 2). CAR4, CAR5, and CAR6 are late-duration varieties. They can flower as early as the second week of November. Their mean growth duration is about a week longer than that of CAR1, CAR2, and CAR3. In general, they are taller than the medium-duration varieties. A sensory test using 94 evaluators showed that the raw and cooked rice

qualities of the six varieties were acceptable. The raw milled rice acceptability for CAR3 was 75%. It was at least 90% for the other varieties. Cooked rice acceptability was 87% for CAR1 and CAR2 and more than 95% for the other varieties. All six varieties have medium-sized grains, with length-breadth ratio ranging from 2.49 for CAR3 to 2.99 for CAR4 and CAR6.

Integrated germplasm improvementupland


FARO 45 to FARO 49: two earlymaturing and three mediummaturing upland rice varieties released in Nigeria
E. D. Imolehin, M. N. Ukwungwu, J. K. Kehinde, A. T. Maji, J. A. Akinremi, National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi; B. N. Singh and O. Oladimrji, West Africa Rice Development Association c/o International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

northwestern and northeastern zones,

upland rice varieties for different agroecological zones in Nigeria. Their characteristics are shown in the table. FARO 45 is more suited to the

Upland rice is grown on 30% of the 1.77 million ha planted to rice in Nigeria. In August 1996, the National Crop Variety Release Committee released two earlymaturing and three medium-maturing

while FARO 46 is recommended for all the five agroecological zones of the country. Both are harvested at around 100 d after seeding. FARO 47 is recommended for the southeastern zone, and FARO 48 and FARO 49 are suitable for hydromorphic areas of the Niger, Benue, and Plateau states in central Nigeria and upland areas of southwestern Nigeria. These three varieties have durations of 115120 d.

All varieties are ITA lines selected from the crosses made in IITA, Ibadan. FARO 45 is ITA 257 line, selected in F4 generation from a three-way cross made in 1979. It involved parents such as IRAT 13, Dourado Precoce, LAC 23, IET1444, OS 6, CP-SLO, and TN1. FARO 46 is ITA 150 line, selected in F5 from a single cross made in 1976. It involved parents such as 63-83, ROK 1, SE363G, and Dourado Precoce. FARO 47 is ITA 117 line, selected in F5 from a cross made in 1975. It involved parents such as 13A, CP-SLO, TN1, and OS 6. FARO 48 is ITA301 line, selected in F8 from a three-way cross among IRAT13, Dourado Precoce, and Padipayak

Agronomic characteristics of two early- and three medium-maturing upland rice varieties. Ibadan, Nigeria.

FARO 45 Designation Line Cross Year of hybridization Plant height (cm) Days to 50% flowering Blast resistance a Drought tolerance a Leaf scald a Brown rice length (mm) Brown rice width (mm) Brown rice L/W Brown rice shape Chalkiness a Gelatinization temperature a Gel consistency a Amylose (%) Husk color 1000 grain weight (g) Av grain yield (t ha -1) Yield potential (t ha -1)
a

FARO 46 ITA150 TOX502-41-1-1 63-83/Multiple parent#23 b 1975 110 75 1 1 1 7.5 2.6 2.9 Long bold 1 5 5 22.5 Golden 33.5 2.0 3.0

FARO 47 ITA117 TOX356-1-1-1 13A2-18-3-1-3/ 1529-430-3/ TOX7-4-2-5-2 1975 105 85 1 3 1 7.2 2.2 3.1 Long slender 1 5 5 19.5 Straw 26.5 2.5 3.5

FARO 48 ITA301 TOX854-101-3-201-1-1-1 IRAT13/Dourado Precoce// Padipayak 1978 100 98 1 1 5 7.4 2.4 3.1 Long slender 5 5 5 16.4 Straw 29.5 2.5 3.5

FARO 49 ITA315 TOX936-397-9-1-2 lR1529-430-3/ lguape Cateto 1979 100 90 1 1 7 7.0 2.7 2.6 Long bold 9 3 1 16.2 Straw 30.5 2.0 3.5

ITA257 TOX1011-4-1 IRAT13/Dourado Precoce/TOX490-1 1979 100 70 1 1 3 6.5 2.9 2.2 Medium bold 1 3 3 17.4 Golden 31.0 2.0 3.5

SES scale (IRRI 1996). b Multiple parent #23: ROK1, SE 363G, and Dourado Precoce.

24

IRRN 1997

made in 1978. FARO 49 is ITA315 line, selected in F6 from a single cross made in 1979. It involved parents such as Sigadis, TN1, Peta, Dee-geo-woo-gen, CP-SLO, and Iguape Cateto. All five varieties are resistant to leaf blast. FARO 45 and FARO 46 are resistant to leaf scald. These are the

major problems affecting upland rice in Nigeria. FARO 45 and FARO 46 also have drought tolerance and escape drought damage because they mature early. The lines were evaluated in multilocational coordinated rice evaluation trials (CRET) in Nigeria. After 3 yr of

superior performances in these trials, they were evaluated in farmers fields. The varieties are location-specific. FARO 45 is not suited for the acidic uplands of the humid forest zone. The WARDA Lowland Rice Breeding Unit at IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, is producing breeder seed of all varieties.

Integrated germplasm improvementflood-prone


Saraswati and Jalaprabha: two new deepwater rice varieties for eastern India
S. Mallik, B. K. Mandal, C. Kundu, S.K.B. Roy, B. Banerjee, S.K. Dutta, and S. D. Chatterjee, Rice Research Station (RRS), Chinsurah, 712102, West Bengal, India
Table 1. Performance of Saraswati in national trials in India. 1989-94.

Year

Trial a /site

Yield (t ha -1) Saraswati 4.5 b 4.6 2.6 4.3 1.8 b 3.7 2.0 b 4.2b 3.5 2.1 a 3.6 b 3.2 1.9 1.1 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.2 b 2.4 4.1 b 1.6 b 4.1 b 2.9 1.10 2.7 b 3.1 b 3.9 2.5 b 2.5 b 3.5 1.7 2.3 b 3.2 b 1.7 2.9 2.6 b Utkal Prabha

Maximum water depth (cm)

1989

PVT5 Patna, Bihar Pusa, Bihar Karimganj, Assam Pulla, Andhra Pradesh IVT-SDW Chinsurah, West Bengal Sabour, Bihar Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh Canning, West Bengal North Lakhimpur, Assam AVT-SDW Ranital, Orissa Chinsurah, West Bengal Karimganj, Assam Patna, Bihar Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh AVT-SDW Pulla, Andhra Pradesh CRRI, Orissa Chinsurah, West Bengal Sabour, Bihar Karimganj, Assam AVT-SDW CRRI,Orissa Chinsurah, West Bengal Patna, Bihar Pusa, Bihar Sabour, Bihar Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh Karimganj, Assam AVT-SDW Ranital, Orissa Chinsurah, West Bengal Gosaba, West Bengal Patna, Bihar Sabour, Bihar Masodha, Uttar Pradesh Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh Canning, West Bengal Karimganj, Assam

2.1 3.7 2.4 2.6 Nil 3.2 1.2 Nil 3.3 1.8 2.3 2.3 1.5 0.5 1.3 1.4 1.4 0.2 2.4 3.5 0.7 1.6 2.2 Nil 1.9 2.3 3.8 1.3 1.1 2.9 1.5 0.7 1.8 1.5 2.6 2.1

65 55 25 80 70 na c na na na na 65 na na na na 60 100 55 45 25 na 75 na 75 na 30 31 50 50 50 na na 60 50 na na

The State Variety Release Committee, West Bengal, approved the release of two varieties, Saraswati (CN584-31110) and Jalaprabha for deepwater ecosystems (50-100 cm) in June 1996. Saraswati is a pedigree selection from the cross Pankaj/Patnai 23, done at RRS. It was evaluated as IET11271 in national trials during 1989-94 (Table 1). The pooled average yield across 36 locations was 50% more than national check Utkal Prabha. In national testing, it ranked fourth in the 1989 preliminary variety trial, eighth in the 1993 advanced variety trial-semideep water, and second in the 1994 advanced variety trial-semideep water, tested over 13 locations. The varietys mean yield was 2.7 t ha-1 with yield potential of 4.6 t ha-1. The All-India Rice Workshop suggested it for use in the deepwater areas of Assam, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Orissa. Saraswati is tall, photoperiodsensitive, and flowers around the end of October. Its submergence tolerance is mainly through elongation, and it has very good kneeing ability. Panicles are well exserted with short, bold golden grains and purple apiculi. Kernels are about 5.5 2.6 mm. Hulling percentage is 78.5 and milling percentage is 68.5.

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

a PVT 5 = preliminary variety trial 5, IVT-SDW = initial variety trial-semideepwater, AVT-SDW = advanced variety trial-semideepwater. b Significantly superior to national check at the 5% level. c na = not available.

Vol. 22, No.3

25

Table 2. Performance of Jalaprabha in national trials in India. 1989-94.

Year

Trial a /site Jalaprabha

Yield (t ha -1) Jalamagna

Maximum water depth (cm)

1989

PVT6 Chinsurah, West Bengal North Lakhimpur, Assam IVT-DW Pusa, Bihar North Lakhimpur, Assam AVT-DW Chinsurah, West Bengal Pusa, Bihar AVT-DW Motto, Orissa Ghagraghat, Uttar Pradesh AVT-DW Chinsurah, West Bengal AVT-DW Chinsurah, West Bengal Pusa, Bihar Motto, Orissa

1.9 b 2.1 b 2.5 4.1 b 1.8 b 3.4 b 2.4 3.7 1.6 b 4.0 b 3.8 b 2.8 b

nil 1.2 2.4 2.6 0.5 2.2 1.7 2.7 0.6 0.9 2.5 2.4
b

65 110 nac na 95 na 125 141 100 80 na na


Significantly

1990

1991

1992

1993 1994

a PVT 6 = preliminary variety trial 6, IVT-DW = initial variety trial-deepwater, AVT-DW = advanced variety trial-deepwater. superior to national check at the 5% level. c na = not available.

Both alkali value (6.5) and amylose content (30.0) are high. Saraswati has resistance to blast, sheath blight, sheath rot, yellow stem borer, and whitebacked planthopper.

Jalaprabha was developed by pedigree selection from a composite cross sent by IRRI and evaluated as IET11870 in the national varietal testing program for several years (Table 2). The pooled

averages across 12 locations yielded 73% more than check Jalamagna. The variety's yield potential is 4.1 t ha-1. In national testing, it ranked second in the 1990 initial variety trial-deepwater, first in the 1991 advanced variety trialdeepwater, third in the 1993 advanced trial-deepwater, and first in the 1994 advanced variety trial-deepwater. The All-India Rice Workshop in 1995 recommended it for the eastern Indian states of West Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh. Jalaprabha is tall, photoperiodsensitive, and flowers around the first week of November. Its submergence tolerance is mainly through elongation, and it has very good kneeing ability. Panicles are compact and well exserted with short, bold, golden grains. Kernels are about 5.6 2.4 mm. Hulling percentage is 78.8 and milling percentage is 64.1. Both alkali value (7.0) and amylose content (29.2) are high. Seed dormancy is about 3 mo. It has tolerance for yellow stem borer, leaffolder, sheath rot, sheath blight, blast, and false smut.

Seed technology
Nucleus and breeder seed production of thermosensitive genic male sterile lines
S. S. Virmani, B. C. Viraktamath, and M. T. Lopez, IRRI

Thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines are suitable for developing two-line hybrids in the tropics because temperature variations are found in different seasons and/or locations for maintaining effective sterility and fertility. Research efforts by IRRI and national agricultural research systems (NARS) have resulted in identifying many TGMS lines from four to five sources that can be deployed for developing two-line hybrids. Production of good-quality

pure seed of TGMS lines is a prerequisite for successful use of these lines. Experience in China has indicated that TGMS lines multiplied conventionally by bulking their seeds at a fertility-inducing temperature may tend to segregate for their critical sterility /fertility points. Seed obtained from such lines may not be pure. These lines, when used to produce two-line hybrid seeds, could be a mixture of selfed and hybrid seeds, resulting in unstable hybrids. Nucleus and breeder seed production strategies should, therefore, aim to meet the dual objectives of maintaining complete male sterility during hybrid seed production and higher seed set during TGMS multiplication. We describe here a simple method of producing nucleus

and breeder seed of TGMS lines under field conditions. Seasons / locations suitable for TGMS multiplication and hybrid seed production must be identified based on weather data and the behavior of selected TGMS lines. For example, at IRRI, flowering of TGMS lines in January and February induces fertility and is ideal for multiplication, whereas flowering from mid April to May induces complete male sterility, a condition necessary for hybrid seed production. The proposed method shown in the figure will produce nucleus and breeder seed of TGMS lines. Nucleus seed production of a TGMS line is initiated in a fertility-inducing environment. Seeding of TGMS lines is

26

IRRN 1997

arranged so that the sensitive stage occurs when the temperature is favorable for higher seed set. At flowering, about 100 typical plants are selected from the population of a TGMS line and their panicles are bagged. The selection process is completed within a week. After harvest, selected plants are scored for spikelet fertility (based on the main panicle) and 50 plants with higher spikelet fertility are selected. Progenies of the selected plants are grown in the sterility-inducing environment. About 30 seeds are taken from each of the selected plants to grow single row progenies and the remaining seed is stored carefully. Progenies that are uniform and completely male sterile are marked. The balance seeds of such selected progenies (stored earlier) are bulked to form the nucleus seed (see figure). Nucleus seed is used to produce breeder seed under strict isolation. Breeder seed is produced in the fertility- inducing environment. The whole process of producing nucleus seed is repeated from the breeder seed plot. Fresh breeder seed should be used by seed production agencies to produce foundation seed of TGMS lines. The latter should be used to produce hybrid seeds.
Procedure for nucleus and breeder seed production of TGMS lines.

Crop and resource management


Fertilizer management inorganic sources
Response of promising rice genotypes to N levels in rainfed lowlands
S. K. Singh, Central Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Station (CRLRRS), IIT Campus, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India

Rainfed lowlands in India constitute about 17 million ha, which is about 40% of the total rice area. Rice varieties selected for their nutrient require-

ments, particularly N, have great relevance for boosting overall production of rainfed lowland rice in India. The performances of genotypes IET12199, IET10664, IET8655, IET12777, and IET5914 were compared with that of local check Gayatri at three N levels (0, 40, and 80 kg ha-1). The soil was sandy clay loam (Haplustalf), with a pH of 5.6, 0.40%, organic C, and 230 kg available N ha-1 (Kjeldahl method), 17 kg available P

ha-1 (NH4 F extraction), and 280 kg available K ha-1 (NH 4 OAc extraction). The experiment was laid out in a splitplot design at CRLRRS with the genotypes in the main plot and N in the subplots with four replications. Forty-five-day-old seedlings of different genotypes were transplanted during the first week of August. The recommended doses of 17.6 kg P ha-1 and 16.6 kg K ha-1, along with one-third of the N according to the treatment,

Vol. 22, No. 3

27

Table 1. Yield, yield attributes, N uptake, and agronomic N use efficiency of rice genotypes at different N levels. CRLRRS, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. 1994 and 1995 WS.

Treatment N level (kg ha-1) 0 40 80 LSD (0.05) Genotype IET12199 IET10664 IET8655 IET12777 IET5914 Gayatri LSD (0.05)

Grain yield (t ha -1) 2.1 3.1 3.3 0.2 2.9 2.9 2.2 2.2 3.3 3.4 0.7

Panicles m -2 (no.) 217 235 247 3.47 228 230 227 222 235 255 13

Panicle weight (g) 2.31 2.56 2.70 0.18 2.47 2.48 2.42 2.27 2.70 2.80 ns

N uptake (kg ha -1)

Agronomic N use efflciency (kg grain kg -1 N) 24.0 15.1 -

45.9 70.2 90.7 3.15 62.2 67.3 53.1 49.5 88.4 93.1 5.97

Table 2. Interaction effect of genotype and N application on yield, yield attributes, N uptake, and agronomic N use efficiency. CRLRRS, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. 1994 and 1995 WS.

Variety

N level (kg ha -1)

Grain yield (t ha -1 ) 2.2 3.0 3.4 2.2 3.1 3.4 1.5 2.5 2.6 1.4 2.5 2.6 2.5 3.5 3.8 2.7 3.7 4.0 0.654 0.182 ns

Panicles m -2 (no.) 212 230 242 214 232 244 211 229 241 206 224 236 218 237 249 239 257 269 12.60 3.47 ns

Panicle weight (g) 2.31 2.47 2.64 2.32 2.48 2.65 2.20 2.45 2.62 1.81 2.42 2.59 2.56 2.73 2.82 2.68 2.85 2.88 ns 0.188 ns

N uptake (kg ha -1)

Agronomic N use efficiency (kg grain kg-1 N) 20.0 15.0 22.0 14.8 24.5 13.8 28.5 15.5 25.0 16.3 24.5 15.6

IET12199

IET10664 IET8655

IET12777

IET5914

Gayatrl

LSD (0.05) Between genotypes Between N levels Varietty N level

0 40 80 0 40 80 0 40 80 0 40 80 0 40 80 0 40 80

41.4 63.3 81.8 44.8 68.5 88.6 35.4 54.1 69.9 32.9 50.4 65.1 58.8 89.9 116.3 61.9 94.8 122.4 5.97 3.15 7.71

were applied at transplanting. The remaining two-thirds of the N was applied in two equal splits at maximum tillering and panicle initiation. Grain yield and N uptake increased with each increment of N up to 80 kg ha-1, which registered the maximun yield as well as N uptake (Table 1). Grain yield was observed to be closely correlated with total N uptake (r=0.899). Increase in grain yield occurred mainly through the contribution of number of panicles m -2. Weight of panicle increased consistently up to 80 kg N ha-1, but agronomic efficiency decreased from 24.0 to 15.1 kg grain kg-1 N at 40 and 80 kg N ha-1, respectively. Genotype Gayatri recorded significantly higher yield and N uptake than other genotypes but remained on a par with genotype IET5419. Most of the IET varieties had significantly lower N uptake than the check variety because of less N content in the plant sample and also because of total dry matter production. Yield and yield components also followed similar yield responses for different genotypes. Agronomic N use efficiency was higher in IET5914 and Gayatri than in other genotypes at 80 kg ha-1. The gains may be attributed to the 84% higher yield recorded over that of the control (Table 2). For rainfed lowland rice, none of the new genotypes tested outperformed the check variety Gayatri for high N use efficiency.

Fertilizer managementorganic sources


Performance of Azolla hybrids in lowland rice culture
G. Gopalaswamy and S. Kannaiyan, Agricultural Microbiology Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, Tamil Nadu, India

Field experiments were conducted during the 1993 and 1994 dry seasons (June-September) to compare the effect of inoculation of Azolla hybrids and fertilizer N on rice yield. The experi-

ment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The test soil was silty clay with a pH of 6.4, EC 0.45 dS m -1, organic C 0.57%, 30.20 mol kg-1 CEC, 320 kg available N ha-1, 24.9 kg P ha-1, and 273.9 kg K ha-1. ADT36 rice seedlings were transplanted in 1.5-m2 plots with 15- 10-cm spacing. Superphosphate and potash as muriate of potash at 50 kg ha -1 were applied as a basal dose. Nitrogen at 75 kg ha-1 was applied as urea super granules (USG) alone and with Azolla.

USG was applied at 10 cm deep at 7 d after transplanting in between four hills of alternate rows, and prilled urea (PU) alone was applied in four split doses (40, 20, 20, and 20%) at basal, tillering, panicle initiation, and flowering stages for comparing with USG. Azolla hybrids AH-C1 (A. microphylla 4018 /A. microphylla 4028 (V3)), AH-C2 (A. microphylla 4018 /A. microphylla 4028 (V4)), and AH-C3 (strain of A. microphylla from China), and wild type A. microphylla (from Galapagos Islands) were

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IRRN 1997

Table 1. Biomass production and nutrient content of Azolla hybrids.

Biomass (t ha -1 ) a Treatment 30 DAT 7.68 9.86 7.46 6.68 11.98 12.46 10.64 9.68 3.19 50 DAT 1.36 1.96 1.24 1.16 1.92 2.64 1.74 1.62 0.70

Cumulative biomass (t ha -1 ) 9.04 11.82 8.70 7.84 13.90 15.10 12.38 11.30 -

N (%) 4.18 4.95 3.86 3.26

P (%) 0.88 0.90 0.82 0.70

K (%) 1.96 2.10 1.34 1.16

Control AH-C1 AH-C2 AH-C3 A. microphylla AH-C1 + USG (75 kg N ha -1 ) AH-C2 + USG (75 kg N ha -1 ) AH-C3 + USG (75 kg N ha -1 ) A. microphylla + USG (75 kg N ha -1 ) USG (75 kg N ha-1) PU (75 kg N ha-1) CD
a

0.34

0.17

0.15

largest grain and straw yield for ADT36 in both seasons compared with all other Azolla cultures. These results indicate that AH-C2 has higher N2 -fixing ability and higher biomass production than other Azolla hybrids. Inoculation of Azolla hybrids coupled with USG deep placement further increased the grain and straw yield of ADT36 compared with A. microphylla. Results indicate that the increased N was attributed to Azolla hybrids as well as to the efficiency of USG.

Mean of two seasons.

Table 2. Effect of inoculation of Azolla hybrids and USG application on grain and straw yield of ADT36. Tamil Nadu, India.a

Grain yield (t ha -1 ) Treatment 1993 dry season 6.1 6.6 5.5 6.0 7.4 9.0 6.6 7.9 7.5 6.3 4.2 1.1 2.2 %increase over control 44.1 53.8 28.2 41.0 64.1 110.3 53.8 84.6 76.9 48.7 1994 %increase over dry season control 5.1 6.1 5.2 4.3 6.2 7.3 5.7 5.3 5.2 4.5 3.8 0.5 1.2 42.4 59.9 36.6 13.4 63.4 91.9 51.3 39.5 36.6 19.1 -

Straw yield (t ha -1 ) 1993 % increase over dry control season 7.8 7.5 6.2 6.6 8.1 10.1 7.0 8.3 8.5 7.2 4.9 1.1 2.2 58.2 53.3 26.6 33.3 64.4 104.4 42.6 68.9 73.3 47.1 1994 % increase over dry season control 6.4 7.5 6.4 5.4 7.8 9.9 6.8 6.7 6.5 5.6 4.5 0.6 1.4 41.5 65.9 18.9 19.6 73.2 119.6 51.2 48.8 43.9 24.6

Influence of sowing time on biomass production and seed yield of three green manure crops
L. Thomas and S. P. Palaniappan, Agronomy Department, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

AH-C1 AH-C2 AH-C3 A. microphylla AH-C1+USG AH-C2+USG AH-C3+USG A. microphylla + USG USG PU Control SE CD

aAv of three replications.

inoculated at 500 kg ha-1 on a fresh weight basis at 10 dafter transplanting. Azolla biomass was assessed in 1.5-m2 plots 30 d after transplanting. The entire Azolla mass floating in each plot was harvested, the moisture drained, the net weight recorded, and biomass computed as detailed below. After biomass was determined, Azolla cultures were spread uniformly in each plot under saturated conditions. Nearly 5% of the Azolla was left unincorporated after the first incorporation; this material was allowed to multiply up to 50 d after transplanting and then the biomass was computed. Azolla biomass incorporated was in the range of 9-12 t ha-1 at 30 d and 2-3 t ha-1 at 50 d after transplanting, depending

on the growth rate of the different Azolla cultures inoculated (Table 1). The cumulative Azolla biomass incorporated at 30 d and 50 d after transplanting was about 15 t ha-1. The USG application resulted in higher grain and straw yield than PU and the control for two consecutive dry seasons. The lower efficiency in PU treatments might be attributed to a N loss mechanism. Inoculation of Azolla hybrids and a wild culture of A. microphylla with and without fertilizer N at 75 kg N ha-1 as USG resulted in significantly higher grain and straw yield in ADT36 than in the uninoculated unfertilized control (Table 2). Among the Azolla hybrids, incorporating Azolla hybrid AH-C2 with USG recorded the

Sensitivity of some leguminous green manure species to photoperiod is a major constraint to increased biomass and seed production. We studied the influence of time of sowing on biomass production and seed production of three green manure crops, Crotalaria juncea (sunn hemp), Phaseolus trilobus (Pillipesara), and Stizolobium deeringianum (velvet bean). Pillipesara and sunn hemp are popular green manure crops in India suited for both upland and lowland conditions. Velvet bean is a fodder legume well adapted to areas of low rainfall and poor soil fertility. Sowing was done on the 10th of every month from Oct 1993 to Sep 1994. The experiment was conducted under irrigated upland conditions. The soil was sandy loam with pH of 7.5, EC 0.5 dS m-1, 196 kg available N ha-1, 17.2 kg available P ha-1, and 576 kg available K ha-1 . The spacing was 30 20 cm and all crops received 21.5 kg P ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. The correlation between growing degree days (GDD) and

Vol. 22, No. 3

29

biomass production at 60 DAS was determined, with GDD calculated as

Effect of sowing time on biomass production, days to 50% flowering, and seed yield. Coimbatore, India. 199394. Month of sowing Biomass (t ha -1) 60 DAS Pillipesara 4.9 4.4 4.9 5.8 6.0 5.0 4.7 5.0 4.3 4.6 3.5 3.9 0.1 0.3 Sunn hemp 6.2 6.9 5.2 6.5 8.0 8.0 9.0 9.3 9.8 7.5 7.0 5.8 0.1 0.2 Velvet bean 12.3 12.0 11.0 12.8 15.1 14.6 14.1 13.4 15.6 15.0 13.3 12.1 0.4 0.8 Days to 50% flowering Pillipesara 45.0 46.7 46.0 44.3 44.3 45.7 45.0 48.0 47.0 47.0 46.0 36.3 0.7 1.5 Sunn hemp 48.6 48.3 47.6 48.7 49.7 47.3 49.3 49.0 45.7 47.3 49.3 36.0 0.7 1.6 Seed yield (kg ha -1) Velvet Pillipesara bean 50.3 50.7 63.3 61.7 80.3 81.7 80.7 82.0 84.3 63.6 63.6 59.3 0.6 1.2 346 291 310 376 381 352 349 312 343 311 311 285 6.0 12.6 Sunn hemp 403 388 462 565 713 611 410 367 662 546 546 361 17.7 36.7 Velvet bean 1421 1306 1317 1406 1560 1549 1530 1517 1510 1457 1457 1294 7.4 15.4

where T max , Tmin, and Tbase (10C) are the maximum, minimum, and base temperature, respectively. Biomass production and seed production were significantly influenced by the month of sowing. Velvet bean performed better in all the months compared with sunn hemp and Pillipesara. Both velvet bean and sunn hemp produced maximum biomass when planted in June (see table). The shorter growth period and low temperature restricted vegetative growth, and thus biomass production was the lowest in the winter months. All crops flowered earlier when sown in September. Velvet bean took only 50 d to reach 50% flowering when sowed in October-November, but the crop took 32-34 d longer when sowed in May-July (see table). All crops produced the most seed when sowed in February because of more solar radiation and greater photosynthetic activity during this period. The crops performed better in kharif (monsoon) than in rabi (winter). The correlation between GDD and biomass production was highly significant in velvet bean at 60 DAS (see figure). AGDD greater than 1000 is more favorable for biomass production. When GDD is less than 900, biomass production decreased.

Oct 1993 Nov 1993 Dec 1993 Jan 1994 Feb 1994 Mar 1994 Apr 1994 May 1994 Jun 1994 Jul 1994 Aug 1994 Sep 1994 SE CD

Correlation between growing degree days and biomass production in velvet bean at 60 DAS.

Vermicompost: a potential supplement to nitrogenous fertilizer in rice nutrition


R. Rani and O. P. Srivastava, Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India

Integrated use of chemical and organic fertilizer is important to sustain a higher level of soil fertility and productivity. Some species of earthworms

Peionyx excavatus, Perionyx sansibarius, Drazwida willsi, and Dichopster bolauiare efficient users of organic wastes. They convert these wastes into goodquality manure in 45 d rather than 4-5 mo with ordinary composting. Nutrient content of ordinary compost ranges from 0.5 to 1.0% N, 0.17 to 0.34%) P, and 0.66 to 1.2% K. Vermicompost (VC) used in this experiment contained 1.347% N, 1.12% P, and 1.06% K. A pot experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block

design with four replications to study the effect of different combinations of VC and urea fertilizer on yield and N utilization of rice (Saket 4). Experimental soil has pH 7.8, EC 0.165 dS m-1, CEC 11.25 meq 100 g -1 soil, organic carbon 0.56%, and available amounts of 260 kg N ha-1, 9.17 kg P ha-1, and 130 kg K ha-1. Earthen pots were filled with 9 kg soil and 30-d-old seedlings were transplanted. Nitrogen, P2O5, and K2O were applied at the rate of 60, 30, and 30

30 IRRN 1997

ppm. Abasal dose of one-third N and a full dose of P and K were applied at the time of transplanting and the remaining two-thirds applied in two split doses after 20 and 40 d after transplanting (DAT). A significant increase in number of effective panicles (at 55 DAT), plant height (at 55 DAT), and grain yield (g pot -1) was observed with the integrated treatment combination (T2) vs the full dose of fertilizer alone (Tl). Treatment T2 (two-thirds N through fertilizer + one-third N through VC) was on a par with T3 (three-fourths N through fertilizer + one-fourth N through VC) (Table 1). A significant increase in N uptake was also found with treatment T2. When inorganic fertilizer was added in soil along with organic manure, the availability of N in the form of ammoniacal N continued to be higher for a longer period (Table 2), showing better compatibility and efficiency of combined organic and inorganic sources. Agronomic efficiency in terms of increase in grain yield (g) per gram of

Table 1. Effect of different combinations of VC and fertilizer N on rice. Uttar Pradesh, India. 1994 wet season.

Treatment

Effective panicles (no.) (55 DAT) 7.4 20.0 24.6 23.1

Plant height (cm) (55 DAT) 51.0 57.6 62.4 61.3

Grain yield (g pot -1)

Straw yield (g pot -1)

N in straw (%)

N in grain (%) 0.85 1.12 1.19 1.16

N uptake (g pot -1) 0.10 0.34 0.38 0.38

T0 T1 T2 T3

Control Full dose N through fertilizer 2/3 N (fertilizer) + 1/3 N (VC) 3/4 N (fertilizer) + 1/4 N (VC) LSD (0.05)

6.5 16.1 18.6 17.8

9.8 24.7 26.2 27.6

0.42 0.61 0.65 0.63

3.1

3.8

1.8

2.4

0.07

0.09

0.04

added N was 18 for fertilizer N and 21 for fertilizer N + VC, whereas the values of physiological efficiency in terms of increase in grain yield (g) per gram of increase in N uptake were 40 for fertilizer N and 44 for fertilizer N + VC. Combined application of inorganic fertilizer (two-thirds N) and VC (onethird N) is promising for better fertilizer management. Before making recommendations, the performance of these combinations must be evaluated in farmers fields.

+ Table 2. Release pattern of NH 4 -N under waterlogged conditions.

+ NH4 -N (ppm)

Treatment

7d

14 d 43.05 123.10 106.48 130.49

21 d 45.74 125.73 119.07 135.61

Control 38.74 100 ppm N through 118.75 (NH4)2SO4 100 ppm N through VC 72.65 75 ppm N through 124.62 (NH4)2SO4 + 25 ppm N through VC 50 ppm N through 122.75 (NH4)2SO4 + 50 ppm N through VC 25 ppm N through 96.62 (NH4)2SO4 + 75 ppm N through VC

129.01

136.61

118.61

128.02

Integrated pest managementdiseases


Two Myanma isolates of rice tungro bacilliform virus belong to the Southeast Asian strain
A. Druka, John Innes Centre (JIC), Virus Research Department, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom; Thane Htay and Aung Baw, Plant Protection Division, Myanmar Agricultural Service, Bayintnaung Road, West Jyogone, Insein, Yangon, Myanmar; and Roger Hull, JIC

Rice tungro is one of the most devastating rice diseases in South and Southeast Asia. It is caused by two viruses, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). RTBV is responsible for symptom development. Its transmission by leafhopper depends on RTSV which, by itself, does not cause marked symptoms.

Two strains of RTBV have been reported previously, one from the Indian subcontinent, the other from Southeast Asia. The nearest that two RTBV strains were found is Assam in India, Dhaka in Bangladesh (Indian strain), and central Thailand, a distance of about 1500 km. These two regions are not separated by a rice-free area; Myanmar produces considerable rice. Although tungro has been suspected to occur in Myanmar, it has not been identified there. We were interested in seeing which RTBV strain can be found in Myanmar. Samples with tungro symptoms were collected from the fields around Yangon (Baular, Hlegu, Central Rice Model Farm, Tookying) and around Mandalay (Pathenlay, Amarapura, and

Kankank). The quick assay for differentiation of strains is by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), around a 64-bp deletion, which is characteristic for the Indian strain. Degenerate primer sequences used for PCR are as follows: direct 5'GAASAAGTACCATGACCATGAATACN (position 7743-7763 in RTBV genome) and reverse 5'CACCCCGGGKRKWNGCTCTGATACCA (position 17-1 in RTBV genome). The ambiguities are K = G or T, M = A or C, R = A or G, S = C or G, and W = A or T. PCR results have shown that samples collected near Mandalay (Amarapura) and Yangon (Baular) are infected with RTBV; we were not able to detect RTBV in other samples. The size of the PCR products is 280 bp, which indicates no

Vol. 22, No. 3

31

deletion and that the Myanma RTBV isolates belong to the Southeast Asian strain. PCR products of both isolates were sequenced directly using the same PCR primers. Nucleotide sequences were compared with other RTBV isolates (see figure). Only 3 positions (7765, 7768, and 7855), which represent only 1.5% of the region sequenced, of both isolates, were different from the published sequence of the Philippine isolate. The Indian isolate differs significantly from other Southeast Asian isolates, the homology being less than 80%.The Baular isolate has a transition of T (C at position 7853 and a deletion at position 7956, a structure that differentiates it from the Amarapura and other isolates. Ambiguities found at positions 7858, 7870, 7921, 7945, and 7949 may reflect the level of variation of the virus within the isolate. This information is only found if PCR products of viral DNA are sequenced, because cloning would result in selection of only one variant per clone. These results demonstrate that tungro is present in Myanmar. The symptoms were characteristic of the disease and occurred in patches in the fields. The results also support the versatility of this PCR approach in the identification of RTBV itself and the strain of the virus.

Nucleotide sequence comparison across the positions 7758-7982. Jll, JAP, and BEA are published sequences of RTBV isolates from the Philippines. IND is unpublished sequence of RTBV isolate from India (West Bengal), MY6 is the Amarapura isolate, and MY10 is the Baular isolate. White letters indicate differences found in isolates from Myanmar; bold letters are ambiguities expressed as IUB codes found in the sequences of PCR products.

Hinosan (0.05%): an ecofriendly fungicide for managing rice sheath blight


M. S. Ali and A. K. Pathak, Regional Agricultural Research Station, Titabar 785630, Assam, India

Sheath blight (ShB) is a major fungal disease of rice in northeastern India. There are no ShB-resistant varieties for that region, so chemical management is used. Recently, more attention has been paid to chemicals that would not have a negative impact on microorganisms endogenous to the rice crop ecosystem. In 1994 and 1995, we screened fungicides known to be effective against ShB

but harmless to Trichoderma harzianum (Th), which is a well-known biocontrol agent of the causal agent of ShB, Rhizoctonia solani. Seven fungicides were tested: Atemi 50 SL (cyproconazole), Bavistin 50 WP (carbendazim), Contaf (hexaconazole), Indofil M-45 (75% mancozeb), Hinosan (50%, edifenphos), Rhizolex 50 WP (tolelofoxmethyl), and Validacin 3L (validamycin). Treatments included recommended doses and half doses, which were tested in vitro and in vivo. Results of the in vitro experiment indicated that, except for 0.05% Hinosan (8% inhibition), all fungicides showed inhibited Th within the range

of 31.8-92%. Hinosan (0.05%) showed no significant difference in inhibition and was equivalent to the control. When tested against the pathogen in vitro, all fungicides, including Hinosan (0.05%), showed significant inhibition compared with the untreated control (see table). In the following winter rice seasons (Jun-Nov) of 1994 and 1995, two field trials were conducted on rainfed transplanted rice. Variety IR50 was selected and planted in two lines (20 15 cm) for each treatment with 2-m rows replicated three times. In the first trial (A), the same fungicides, doses, and concentrations

32

IRRN 1997

disease severity b of ShB.

Effect of fungicides (in vitro) on the growth of Trichoderma harzianum (Th) and Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) a and

Dose (%) Fungicide Atemi 50 SL Atemi 50 SL Bavistin 50 WP Bavistin 50 WP Contaf 5 EC Contaf 5 EC lndofil M-45 lndofil M-45 Hinosan 50 EC Hinosan 50 EC Rhizolex 50 WP Rhizolex 50 WP Validacin 3L Validacin 3L Control Standard check LSD (0.05) CV (%)

% inhibition of Th (mean) 77.1 cd 31.8 b 79.5 cd 65.1 c 92.0 d 74.5 cd 69.1 c 48.4 bc 43.4 bc 8.0 a 77.2 cd 59.9 c 76.4 cd 41.6 bc 0a 15.82 15.34

% inhibition of Rs (mean) 75.1 de 49.0 c 71.1 d 53.4 c 88.8 f 71.7 d 75.1 de 22.5 b 84.1 ef 78.4 de 72.7 d 58.0 c 87.6 f 54.5 c 0a 7.17 9.1

Disease score A (in vivo test I) 3.7 a 5.0 bc 3.7 a 4.3 ab 3.0 a 4.3 ab 4.3 ab 5.7 c 3.7 a 4.1 a 4.3 ab 5.0 bc 3.0 a 5.0 bc 8.3 d 0.39 11.56 B (in vivo test II) 4.3 b 5.6 d 4.3 b 5.0 c 3.6 a 5.0 c 5.6 d 7.0 e 3.6 a 3.6 a 3.6 a 5.0 c 3.6 a 4.3 b 8.3 f 5.6 d 0.51 14.7

0.2 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.2 0.1 0.25 0.125 0.1 0.05 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 10 6 conidia mL -1

aMeans followed by a common letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. All data are means of three replicatlons. b Scored

using the Standard evaluation system for rice scale 0-9. 1988.

Integrated pest management insects


Record of Aspergillus terreus Thom. on rice grasshopper Hieroglyphus banian (F.) in India
R. Parthasarathy and P. Narayanasamy, Vector Pathology Laboratory, Entomology Department, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608002, Tamil Nadu, India

In a series of surveys on fungal diseases of rice insects in general and leaffolder in particular during the 1996 samba season (October through February) at Annamalainagar, 40% of the rice grasshopper (Hieroglyphus banian [F.]) population was found to be infected with a fungal pathogen. Nymphs and adults were diseased. The cadavers were dull and brownish yellow and were seen holding the rice culms with their legs, with the insects heads pointing toward the shoot tips (see figure). Abundant mycelial growth

Aspergillus terreus infecting the final nymphal instar of rice grasshopper.

was observed at the intersegmental regions of the thorax and the abdomen but not the head capsule. On continued exposure to sunlight, the cadavers dried and the fungal matrix withered off. The cadavers were gathered from the field, surface-sterilized with 0.l% HgCl2 for 1-2 min, and washed in sterile water. The organism was inoculated in Sabouraud maltose agar

were used and the plants were artificially inoculated with R. solani Five sprays were done at weekly intervals beginning from the first appearance of the disease after 7 d of

inoculation. Contaf (0.2 %) and Validacin (0.2%) showed the lowest disease severity, followed by Atemi (0.2%), Bavistin (0.l%), and Hinosan (0.1 and 0.05%) (see table).

In the second trial (B), the above treatments were used in combination with spray of the antagonist (Th) (106 conidia mL-1). The sprays were initiated with the respective fungicides as the disease appeared and after. Thus, out of five sprays, two sprays were made with the antagonist (see table). An additional treatment (standard check) was included in this test where all five sprays were done with the antagonist alone. In this second field test (B), Th alone suppressed the disease compared with the unprotected control. The lowest disease severity was recorded when Th was combined with Contaf (0.2%), Hinosan (0.1 and 0.05%), Rhizolex (0.2%), and Validacin (0.2%). The combined treatment of Hinosan (0.05%) with the biocontrol agent was found to be an exception and Hinosan (0.05%) in both the experiments controlled the disease. As the effect of Hinosan (0.05%) on Th had been documented in an earlier experiment, it is suggested for inclusion in the integrated pest management strategy to control ShB.

(SMA) medium on petri plates and incubated at 251 C for 15 d. The fungal colonies appeared 5 d after inoculation and the culture was initially pale yellow or bright yellow, and ultimately deep brown. Pathogenicity testing of the fungus isolated was done by spraying its spore suspension (107 spores mL-1) over nymphs (second- and third-instar) and adults caged separately on IR50 rice plants grown in pots. The experiment was replicated three times using 10 insects replication-1 and three replications of a control receiving plain water spray. Mean mortality of the grasshoppers was recorded as 85%, in 4-5 d after spraying (see table). The fungus from the diseased cadavers was reisolated in SMA medium and the disease symptoms that developed were identical to those of the original cadavers gathered at the start. The

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33

Pathogenicity of Aspergillus terreus to the rice grasshopper. Treatment Percent mortality due to mycosis (X SD) a 85.4 2.9**b 17.9 6.9

Fungal spore suspension Water (control)

a n = 3 replicates, 10 insects per replicate. b ** Signiflcantly different from control (P<0.01) by LSD test.

pathogenicity of the fungus thus was positive. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus terreus Thom. So far

A. terreus has been known to be a soil fungus of the rice ecosystem and this is the first time it has been observed as an insect pathogen. The presence of the spores in the air of the rice ecosystem made it possible for the fungus to infect the rice grasshopper. Fungus incidence peaked during the first half of Feb 1996 at Annamalainagar, which coincided with the maximum field population of the grasshopper (8-10 nymphs or adults net sweep-1). Nearly 6-8 diseased grasshoppers were detected on the leaf

lamina of rice plants at four locations randomly selected in the field. Climatic factors, such as 95% relative humidity and temperatures of 30 C (max) and 24 C (min), may have promoted the fungal infection. Because of its field adaptability and high infectivity, A. terreus appears to be a potential candidate for developing a mycoinsecticide to biologically control grasshoppers in the future. The CAB International Mycological Institute in London identified the fungus.

Integrated pest management weeds


Weed control practices for improving N use efficiency and productivity of flood-prone lowland rice
A. Ghosh and A. R. Sharma, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006, India

Flood-prone lowland rice in eastern India is mostly dry-sown through broadcasting seeds on poorly prepared fields, a practice resulting in early weed infestation and inefficient use of basally applied fertilizers. Nitrogen use efficiency can be improved by controlling weeds through off-season tillage operations and adopting mechanical or chemical methods in the early stages. We investigated the effects of tillage, weed control practices, and N fertilizer on the performance of rice during 1994 at Cuttack, India. A split-plot design,

Daily variations in flooding patterns in the field during the growing period of rice. Arrows indicate dates of sowing (s), germination (g), beushani/transplanting (t), and harvesting (h) of rice. Cuttack, India.

with tillage in main plots and combinations of weed control and N fertilizer in subplots, was used in three replications. The crop was grown in plots plowed in summer (Mar) and/or before sowing (late May) or transplanting (late July) (conventional tillage) with or without basal application of 40 kg N ha-1. The crop was sown in dry soil on 1 Jun using 400 seeds m -2 at 20-cm row spacing, and sprayed with thiobencarb at 2 kg ha-1 within a week of sowing or subjected to beushani at 42 d after water accumulated in the field. Puddling was also included as an additional treatment for comparison, where 42-d-old seedlings were transplanted at 20- 15-cm spacing using 3-4 seedlings hill-1 . Gayatri, a semidwarf, long-duration, photoperiod-sensitive rice variety, was used in the experiment. Seeds germinated with the monsoon showers. Water started accumulating in the field from mid-July onward following regular monsoon showers (see figure). Water depth fluctuated widely, rising from 0 cm at 22 d after germination (DAG) to 54 cm at 36 DAG and receding to 0 cm at 52 DAG. The crops subjected to beushani or transplanted at 42 DAG at 12 cm water depth established well because the water level remained <10 cm up to 20 d thereafter. Peak flooding of 60 cm occurred in the late vegetative growth stages (78-84 DAG) and the crop

experienced extreme excess water stress for 10 d. Water level showed a declining trend from September and had receded completely by late October. Yield performance of rice was poor because of inadequate crop stand. Excessive flooding at both early and late vegetative stages resulted in restricted tiller production and greater mortality, leading to only 50-70 panicles m-2 at maturity (Table 1). The mean grain yield was significantly more with summer plowing than with conventional tillage because of the beneficial effect on the number and weight of panicles. Weed control efficiency from summer plowing was 56.3% compared with conventional tillage. The rice plants remained short and produced fewer panicles m-2 in the unweeded control than when weeds were controlled. Controlling weeds by chemical or mechanical methods improved grain yield significantly. The grain yield was highest with puddling, a practice that was on a par with the direct-sown crop under beushani but significantly higher than chemical weeding. Increase in yield was associated with a decrease in weed dry weight, which was lowest with puddling. The transplanted crop remained virtually weed-free throughout because growing weeds were incorporated thoroughly during puddling, and subsequent higher

34

IRRN 1997

Table 1. Mean effect of tillage, weed control practice, and N level on performance of rice and dry weight of weeds at harvest. Cuttack, India. Plant height at maturity (cm) Tillage Summer plowing Conventional tillage SE Weed control practice No weeding Chemical weeding Beushani Puddling SE N level (kg ha -1) 0 40 SE Panicles m -2 (no.) Panicle weight (g) Grain yield Straw yield Weed dry weight (g m -2 )

Treatment

(t ha -1 )

(t ha -1 )

115 116 1.2

67 58 2.4

2.79 2.57 0.049

2.78 1.98 0.055

3.12 2.86 0.085

67 142 3.9

113 120 114 115 1.3 110 121 0.9

52 64 62 72 2.5 55 70 1.8

2.47 2.74 2.73 2.78 0.046 2.56 2.81 0.033

1.73 2.33 2.68 2.77 0.062 2.12 2.63 0.044

2.33 3.03 3.14 3.48 0.095 2.41 3.58 0.067

235 105 43 35 3.5 93 116 2.4

Table 2. Interaction between tillage, weed control practice, and N level and effect on grain yield of rice (t ha -1). Cuttack, India. Weed control practice Treatment No weeding Chemical weeding Beushani Puddling Mean

Tillage Summer plowing Conventional tillage N level (kg ha -1) 0 40 Mean

2.11 1.35 1.55 1.91 1.73 SE 0.055 0.062 0.044 0.126 0.126

2.86 1.80 2.02 2.64 2.33

3.02 2.34 2.43 2.94 2.68

3.13 2.42 2.50 3.05 2.77

2.78 1.98 2.12 2.63

Tillage Weed control practice N level Tillage weed control Weed control N level

water depth and fast canopy closure did not allow the weeds to come up. Thiobencarb did not effectively control broadleaf weeds (mainly jointvetch) and late emerging aquatic weeds. Applying 40 kg N ha-1 increased plant height and number and weight of panicles and led to significantly larger grain yields, despite increased weed biomass. Interactions between weed control practices and tillage or N levels were significant for grain yield of rice (Table 2). Inadequate land preparation under conventional tillage resulted in profuse weed growth from the early stages, which greatly reduced yield in the unweeded control and chemical weeding treatment. The differences in yield between summer plowing and conventional tillage, however, narrowed under beushani and puddling because of a considerable increase in weed biomass. Basal fertilization with N encouraged weed growth in the early stages, suppressed the growth of rice plants, and thus did not benefit the crop under the unweeded control. The increase in yield from N was significant, however, when weeds were controlled by either cultural or chemical methods.

Water management
On-farm water management studies in ricefields of north Bihar, India
U. K. Prasad, S. S. Singh, T. N. Prasad, and S. K. Jain, Agronomy Department, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur 848125, India

We studied the effects of applying improved water management technology during the wet season in canalirrigated ricefields for 6 yr (1989-94) in the Jian minor canal of the Tirhut main canal in Gandak command, Bihar,

India. We irrigated rice to a depth of 7 cm 3 d after ponded water disappeared. This treatment was compared with the usual farmers practice of irrigating according to the availability of water from canals and rain. Farmers generally apply more than 10 cm irrigation water continuously, especially in the head of the minor canal. Six to 18 farms were used in the study each year, with an average field size of 0.4 ha (see table). Soil was silty loam. A stage level recorder at the opening of the minor canal and Parshall flume in each outlet were used to measure irrigation water used.

In the study fields (improved practices), semitall improved rice variety Rajshree with maturity period of 145 d was tested against local photoperiod-sensitive tall aman cv Bakol (maturity 165 d) in the control (traditional practices) fields. Irrigation water varied across years depending on the amount of rain. The water use efficiency (WUE) was expressed as the ratio of grain yield to the amount of irrigation water applied. The yield and WUE of the control and study fields were statistically analyzed in a randomized block design, using number of observations as replications.
Vol. 22, No. 3 35

Effect of improved variety and water management practices on wet season rice crop in north Bihar, India.

Year

Total rainfall in season (cm) 142.0 91.4 89.1 58.4 138.2 96.6

Number of observations in each block Study 18 9 9 6 15 9 3.7 2.8 3.7 2.0 3.2 3.1

Grain yield (t ha -1) in different blocks Control 1.9 1.9 3.2 1.8 2.2 2.4 CD (P=0.05) 0.14 0.51 0.33 0.21 0.31 0.33

Total irrigation on water depth (cm) Study 24.4 19.3 41.3 31.8 18.0 21.0 Control 46.7 29.9 91.0 44.8 32.0 Study 1.4 1.4 0.9 0.6 1.7 1.0

WUE a (t ha -1 cm-1) Control 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.4 1.2 0.6 CD (P=0.05) 0.06 0.07 0.10 0.08 0.04 0.05

Saving in water consumption (cm ha -1) 22.3 10.6 49.7 13.0 0.0 11.0

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994


a

18.0

WUE = water use efficiency.

The results indicated that grain yield in the study fields averaged 34% more than in the control fields. The mean depth of irrigation water ranged from 18.0 to 41.3 cm in the study fields and 18.0 to 91.0 cm in the control fields.

The WUE also differed significantly, with higher values in the study fields than in the control fields. On average, yearly water consumption was 18.1 cm more in the control fields than in the study fields.

Improved rice varieties with improved water management practices can substantially increase yield as well as WUE on farms with irrigation.

On-farm water management studies in summer rice


S. Raman and N. D. Desai, Soil and Water Management Research Project, Gujarat Agricultural University, Navsari Campus, Navsari 396450, Gujarat, India

To demonstrate the significance of improved water management practices in rice cultivation, we conducted one large-scale experiment during the 199093 summer (Feb-May) seasons in farmers fields using one of the minor canals off the main canal of the UkaiKakrapar command area in Gujarat. The clay soil was representative of those in the area for salinity and sodicity. The infiltration rate of the soil was 2.5 mm d -1.

In the study plot (SP), 5 2 cm of irrigation water was applied 1 d after standing water disappeared; in the control plot (CP), farmers practices were followed. Water depth in SP was observed using graduated, colored wooden pegs and the water application was measured using Parshall flumes installed in the canal. Water depth, measured periodically in CP, averaged 102 cm more across the crop growth period. No rain was received during any of the cropping seasons. Based on the mean results (see table), 29% of the irrigation water normally used by farmers was saved, with about 55% higher yield per unit of water applied by adopting the improved water management practices. The yield increase (estimated by a

standard crop-cutting experimental technique) in SP was about 10.3% more than in CP. The increase could be attributed to the alternate wetting and drying in the treated plot, which might have resulted in better nutrient availability and less accumulation of toxic gases. During the past 3 yr, 15% more area was brought under cultivation, especially at the end of the minor canal. Based on this research, irrigation authorities were convinced that the rice crop does not require continuous flooding at the usual higher water depths. Farmers did not experience yield reduction by using less water. Irrigating the extra 15% area used the same quantity of water normally allotted to the minor canal.

Response of rice to water management practices. Gujarat, India. 1990-91 and 1993.

1990 Item SP a 34.2 984 5.988 6.1 37.7 57.7 CP a 10.2 1580 6.037 3.8 SP 28.5 1231 6.715 5.4 30.1 56.6

1991 CP 9.6 1762 6.130 3.5 SP 25.6 1376 7.179 5.2 19.8 52.8

1993 CP 11.1 1717 5.855 3.4 SP 29.4 1197 6.627 5.5 29.0 55.3
c

Mean CP 10.4 1686 6.007 3.5

Total rice area (ha) Total irrigation water (mm ha -1)b Yield of rice (t ha -1) WUEc of applied water Water saved over control (%) WUEc improved over control (%)
a

SP = study plot: CP = control plot. b Irrigation applied excluded the water requirement for raising seedling, puddling the field, and preparing the land.

WUE = water use efficiency.

36

IRRN 1997

Research methodology
Use of the chlorophyll meter in N management of subtropical wheat following rice
Bijay Singh and Yadvinder Singh, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India; and K. F. Bronson, IRRI

In South Asia, researchers have reported that the highest wheat yields can be obtained by splitting the recommended N dose of 120 kg N ha -1. For two splits, basal N at land preparation and an N topdressing at crown root initiation (CRI) or 20-25 d after sowing (DAS) are applied. Additionally, N is sometimes added in a third dose at maximum tillering (MT) or jointing. The CRI and MT stages are times of irrigation, so the N fertilizer is applied just prior to irrigation to improve efficiency of N. Since N fertilizer topdressings are linked to irrigation at CRI and MT, options for topdressing at other times are limited. This practice is quite different from flooded rice culture where N topdressings can be applied at virtually any time. Using a chlorophyll meter in wheat culture, therefore, might have a role not in the timing of N topdressings but in determining whether a topdressing is needed or not, and, if so, possibly to predict how much. This prediction would be most important in the third split at MT because, depending on soil N supply, date of planting, and seasonal temperatures, N supply going into the reproductive stage of subtropical wheat may often suffice. The topdressing at MT can be evaluated as treatments with and without the application. Chlorophyll meter readings can be made on the day of MT topdressing and the grain yield response can be plotted against SPAD (soil-plant analysis development) readings. The critical SPAD reading for MT would be that corresponding to the

least significant grain yield response determined by LSD at P=0.05. Evaluating the response of topdressing of wheat at MT with the chlorophyll meter is probably best done in farmers' fields where a large variation in available N in the soil at MT exists. Doing this study on station probably requires a range of basal N and CRI N to ensure deficiencies in the lower basal rate treatments at MT. Additionally, by varying the amount of N topdressed at MT, we can see whether the chlorophyll meter prior to application can predict the N rate when it "predicts" a deficiency. Taking soil samples at the time of MT for exchangeable NH4 and NO 3 would give additional information related to the need for N at that time. Inorganic N at harvest would be important to know as well since it might be present if MT N is applied when it is not needed. The SPAD reading at MT in wheat, therefore, may have a role in minimizing residual NO3 at harvest which would be lost to denitrification or leaching when the field is flooded for rice. A preliminary field trial evaluating the use of the SPAD meter for determining the need for MT N was conducted at Ludhiana, Punjab, India, in the 1996-97 rabi (wet) season. Wheat cultivar PBW 343 was planted on 28 Nov 1996 in 20-cm rows. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 26.4 kg P ha-1 . Nitrogen was applied in four replicates (see table). SPAD readings were taken at MT on 30 Jan 1997. Ten plants per plot were read, consisting of three readings per leaf. Grain yield increased linearly from 3.3 to 4.6 t ha-1 with basal-plus-CRI-N rates of 60-120 kg N ha-1. Response of grain yield to MT N ranged from -0.12 to 0.95 t ha-1 on plots that received 120 and 60 kg N ha-l of basal plus CRI N, respectively.

Grain yield from plots that did not receive MT N correlated positively with SPAD readings at MT (R2 = 0.65, data not shown). When grain yield response to MT N was regressed against SPAD readings, the relationship was negative (see figure; R2 = 0.60). The LSD for grain yield at P=0.05 for the difference between the 0 and 30 kg N ha-1 MT N treatments was 0.20. This minimum significant grain yield response corresponds to a SPAD reading of 44.0 (see figure). So if the SPAD reading at MT is less than 44, a topdressing of 30 kg N ha-1 should be applied because a response is expected. If the SPAD reading is greater than 44, then no response to N is expected. This procedure needs to be repeated for additional seasons and sites to see how robust the critical SPAD reading at MT of 44 is.
Nitrogen treatments used in the study. Treatment Basal N CRI N Basal N MT N Total N (kg ha -1) (kg ha -1) + CRI N (kg ha -1) applied (kg ha -1) (kg ha -1) 0 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 60 0 30 30 40 40 50 50 60 60 0 60 60 80 80 100 100 120 120 0 0 30 0 30 0 30 0 30 0 60 90 80 110 100 130 120 150

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Relationship

between

wheat

grain

yield

response to N at maximum tillering (MT N) and SPAD readings.

Vol. 22, No. 3

37

Announcement
1998 Calendar of International Training Courses
Course/venue Trainees (no.) Experimental Design and Data Analysis (IRRI) 2-Week Rice Production Training Course (IRRI) New Paradigms and Tools for Socioeconomic Analysis of Rice Production Systems in Asia (formerly Social Sciences Research Methods for Technology Design and Evaluation) lntroduction to SAS for Windows (IRRI) Strategic Research in Integrated Nutrient Management (IRRI) Hybrid Rice Breeding (lRRI) IRRl Stat for Windows GIS Techniques for Agro-Ecosystems Characterization (IRRI) Advanced Experimental Design and Data Analysis (IRRI) Advanced Experimental Design (IRRI)
1 Gender Analysis in Agriculture, Forestry, & Natural Resources (IIRR, Silang, Cavite, Philippines)

Duration (wk) 2 2 8 1 5 8 1 5 2 1 3 1 1 3 4 12 8 5 8 8 6

Inclusive dates 12-23 Jan 19-30 Jan 9 Feb-4 Apr 16-20 Feb 16 Feb -20 Mar 2 Mar-25 Apr 23-27 Mar 30 Mar-1 May 6-17 Apr 4-8 May 11-29 May 11-15 May 18-22 May 25 May- 12 Jun 1-26 Jun 1 Jul-20 Sep 6 Jul -28 Aug 15 Sep-15 Oct 21 Sep-30 Oct 5 Oct-27 NOV 2 Nov-11 Dec*

15 25 12 15 25 25 15 14 15 15 10 15 15 10 12 10 20 15 20 25 25

Analysis of Unbalanced Data (IRRI) Analysis of Categorical Data (IRRI) Soil and Water Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology (IRRI) lnstructional Video Production (IRRI) Rice Seed Health for Crop Management Training Course (IRRI)
2 Integrated Pest Management in Rice (NCPC, UPLB, College, Laguna, Philippines) 3 Genetic Evaluation and Utilization for Rainfed Rice Ecosystems (URRC, Ubon, Thailand) 4 Adaptive Research with a Farming Systems Perspective (FSSRI, UPLB, College, Laguna, Philippines) 5 Rice Production Research (PTRRC, Pathum Thani, Thailand) 6 Engineering for Rice Agriculture (IIT, Kharagpur, India)

* Tentative schedule
Collaborating institutions: 1 International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) and IRRI. 2 National Crop Protection Center (NCPC), University of the Philippines Los Baos (UPLB), Philippine Rice Research lnstitute (PhilRice), Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA), and IRRI. 3 Ubon Rice Research Center (URRC) and IRRI. 4 Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute (FSSRI), PhilRice. UPLB, and IRRI. 5 Pathum Thani Rice Research Center (PTRRC) and IRRI. 6 Indian lnstitute of Technology (IIT) and IRRI. For more information, contact Dr. Robert T. Raab, Head Training Center, lnternational Rice Research lnstitute P.O. Box 933, 1099 Manila, Philippines Fax: (63-2) 891-1292, 845-0606 Phone: (63-2) 845-0563, 812-7686, 844-3351 to 53 Email: Postmaster@irri.cgnet.com

Erratum
Replace true negatives with true positives (box for Criterion 1) and "57.4%) true negatives with "21.5%, true positives (box for Criterion 2) in Figure 2b in Method for detecting rice sheath blight pathogen in soil samples using mungbean, IRRN 22(2):48-49.

38

IRRN 1997

Instructions for contributors


NOTES General criteria. Scientific notes submitted to the IRRN for possible publication should be original work, have international or pannational relevance, be conducted during the immediate past three years or be work in progress, have rice environment relevance, advance rice knowledge, use appropriate research design and data collection methodology, report pertinent, adequate data, apply appropriate statistical analysis, and reach supportable conclusions. Routine research. Reports of screening trials of varieties, fertilizer, cropping methods, and other routine observations using standard methodologies to establish local recommendations are not ordinarily accepted. Examples are singleseason, single-trial field experiments. Field trials should be repeated across more than one season, in multiple seasons, or in more than one location as appropriate. All experiments should include replications and an internationally known check or control treatment. Multiple submissions. Normally, only one report for a single experiment will be accepted. Two or more items about the same work submitted at the same time will be returned for merging. Submitting at different times multiple notes from the same experiment is highly inappropriate. Detection will result in the rejection of all submissions on that research. IRRN categories. Specify the category in which the note being submitted should appear. Write the category in the upper right-hand corner of the first page of the note.
GERMPLASM IMPROVEMENT

genetic resources genetics breeding methods yield potential grain quality pest resistance diseases insects other pests stress tolerance drought excess water adverse temperature adverse soils other stresses integrated germplasm improvement irrigated rainfed lowland upland flood-prone (deepwater and tidal wetlands) seed technology
CROP AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Manuscript preparation. Arrange the note as a brief statement of research objectives, a short description of project design, and a succint discussion of results. Relate results to the objectives. Do not include abstracts. Do not cite references or include a bibliography. Restrain acknowledgments. Manuscripts must be in English. Limit each note to no more than two pages of doublespaced typewritten text. Submit the original manuscript and a duplicate, each with a clear copy of all tables and figures. Authors should retain a copy of the note and of all tables and figures. Apply these rules, as appropriate, in the note: Specify the rice production ecosystems as irrigated, rainfed lowland, upland, and flood-prone (deepwater and tidal wetlands). Indicate the type of rice culture (transplanted, wet seeded, dry seeded). If local terms for seasons are used, define them by characteristic weather (wet season, dry season, monsoon) and by months. Use standard, internationally recognized terms to describe rice plant parts, growth stages, and management practices. Do not use local names. Provide genetic background for new varieties or breeding lines. For soil nutrient studies, include a standard soil profile description, classification, and relevant soil properties. Provide scientific names for diseases, insects, weeds, and crop plants. Do not use common names or local names alone. Quantify survey data, such as infection percentage, degree of severity, and sampling base. When evaluating susceptibility, resistance, and tolerance, report the actual quantification of damage due to stress, which was used to assess level or incidence. Specify the measurements used.

soils soil microbiology physiology and plant nutrition fertilizer management inorganic sources organic sources crop management integrated pest management diseases insects weeds other pests water management farming systems farm machinery postharvest technology economic analysis
ENVIRONMENT SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Use generic names, not trade names, for all chemicals. Use the International System of Units for measurements. For example, express yield data in metric tons per hectare (t ha -1 ) for field studies. Do not use local units of measure. Express all economic data in terms of the US$. Do not use local monetary units. Economic information should be presented at the exchange rate US$:local currency at the time data were collected. When using acronyms or abbreviations, write the name in full on first mention, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Use the abbreviation thereafter. Define any nonstandard abbreviations or symbols used in tables or figures in a footnote, caption, or legend. Each note can have no more than two tables and/or figures (graphs, illustrations, or photos). All tables and figures must be referred to in the text; they should be grouped at the end of the note, each on a separate page. Tables and figures must have clear titles that adequately explain the contents. Review of notes. The IRRN editor will send an acknowledgment card or an e-mail message when a note is received. An IRRI scientist, selected by the editor, reviews each note. Reviewer names are not disclosed. Depending on the reviewer's report, a note will be accepted for publication, rejected, or returned to the author(s) for revision. Comments. If you have comments or suggestions about the IRRN, please write to the editor. Mailing address. Send notes and correspondence to the IRRN Editor, IRRI, P.O. Box 933, Manila 1099, Philippines. Fax: (63-2) 845-0606 E-mail: b.hardy@cgnet.com Home page: http://www.cgiar.org/irri Riceweb: http://www.riceweb.org Riceworld: http://www.riceworld.org