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Allegory: the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalizations about human existence.

Ex: Jesus parables Anagnorisis: the point in the plot at which the protagonist recognizes his or her or some other character's true identity or discovers the true nature of his or her own situation. Ex: Oedipus Rex Anaphora: repetition of the initial word(s) over successive phrases or clauses. Ex: That my heart has been troubled, that I have not sought this nomination, that I could not seek it in good conscience, that I would not seek it in honest self-appraisal, is not to say that I value it the less. Rather, it is that I revere the office of the Presidency of the United States. Anti-hero: a protagonist whose character is at least in some regards conspicuously contrary to that of the archetypal hero, and is in some instances its antithesis. Ex: Sam Spade (shady private eyes), Hercules Aphorism: An original thought written in memorable form. Ex: Ars longa, vita brevis (Hippocrates) Apostrophe: when a speaker or writer breaks off and directs speech to an imaginary person or abstract quality or idea. Ex: O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth, / That I am meek and gentle with these butchers! (Julius Caeser) Archetype: a universally understood symbol or term or pattern of behavior, a prototype upon which others are copied, patterned, or emulated. Ex: wizard-as-advisor archetype (Merlin, Gandalf) Aside: A character briefly states what he feels to the audience. Shorter than a soliloquy. Ex: Ferris comments in Ferris Buellers Day Off. Canon: Official material accepted by a base of readers in a series of fictional or historical books. Ex: Biblical Canon, fan fiction. Catharsis: the release of pent-up emotion or energy; it describes an extreme change in emotion, occurring as the result of experiencing strong feelings. Ex: King Oedipus is confronted with ever more outrageous actions, until the catharsis/emptying generated by the death of his mother-wife, and by his own act of self-blinding. Chiasmus: Invented word order (ABBA). Colloquialism: Slang or common word usage. Ex: Yall, gonna, wanna. Conceit: An extended metaphor. Deus Ex Machina: a seemingly inextricable problem is suddenly and abruptly solved with the contrived and unexpected intervention of some new event, character, ability, or object. Ex. Deus ex saves Medea from death penalty and takes her to Athens at the end of Euripides play. Epigraph is a phrase, quotation, or poem that is set at the beginning of a document or component.

Epiphany: the sudden realization or comprehension of the (larger) essence or meaning of something (cf. anagnorisis). Ex: Archimedes Eureka! when figuring out theorem. Epistolary: A work written in the form of a series of letters (or diary entries, email, blogs, etc). Ex: C.S. Lewis Screwtape Letters Frame Story: an introductory main story is composed, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage for a fictitious narrative or organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story. Ex: Odysseus setting up his story to King Alcinous. Hamartia: Hamartia is an injury committed in ignorance (when the person affected or the results are not what the agent supposed they were).[3] In tragedy, hamartia is often described as a hero's fatal flaw. Ex: Creon causing the death of his son, Antigone, and his wife by his decisions. Litotes: understatement is employed for rhetorical effect when an idea is expressed by a denial of its opposite. Ex: Not bad=good, shes not unattractive=attractive. Magical realism: Fiction or a literary style in which magical elements blend with the real world. Malapropism: A malapropism is an act of misusing or the habitual misuse of similar sounding words,
especially with humorous results. An example isYogi Berra's statement: "Texas has a lot of electrical votes."

Metonymy: a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately
associated with that thing or concept. For instance, "Hollywood" is used as a metonym (an instance of metonymy) for American cinema

Monologue: A monologue (or monolog) is when the character may be speaking his or her thoughts
aloud, directly addressing another character.

Pastoral: refers to rural subjects and aspects of life in the countryside among shepherds, cowherds and
other farm workers that are oftenromanticized and depicted in a highly unrealistic manner. The pastoral life is usually characterized as being closer to the Golden age than the rest of human life

Persona: a social role or a character played by an actor, or one used by an author. Picaresque: usuallysatirical and depicts, in realistic and often humorous detail, the adventures of a
roguish hero of low social class who lives by his wits in a corrupt society

Roman a clef: a novel about real life, overlaid with a faade of fiction.[1] The fictitious names in the novel
represent real people, and the "key" is the relationship between the nonfiction and the fiction.

Romanticism: evocation or criticism of the past, the cult of "sensibility" with its emphasis on women and
children, the heroic isolation of the artist or narrator, and respect for a new, wilder, untrammeled and "pure" nature

Stock character: based on a common literary or social stereotype. Stock characters rely heavily on
cultural types ornames for their personality, manner of speech, and other characteristics.

Stream of consciousness: seeks to portray an individual's point of view by giving the written equivalent of
the character's thought processes, either in a loose interior monologue, or in connection to his or her actions.

Subtext: content not announced explicitly by the characters (or author) but is implicit or becomes
something understood by the observer of the work as the production unfolds. Subtext can also refer to the thoughts and motives of the characters which are only covered in an aside

Synecdoche: Part of something is used to refer to the whole thing (pars pro toto), or a thing (a "whole") is
used to refer to part of it (totum pro parte).

Synesthesia: a neurological condition in which one or more sensory modalities become linked. However,
for over a century, the term synesthesia has also been used to refer to artistic and poetic devices which attempt to express a linkage between the senses.

Soliloquy: a device often used in drama whereby a character relates his or her thoughts and feelings to
him/herself and to the audience without addressing any of the other characters

Verisimilitude: The sense that what one reads is real, or realistic/believable. Zeugma: using one verb with two objects, when only one is usually used.