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# SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual

## ANSI/SMACNA 001-2000 Approved by ANSI July 31, 2000

History
1976 Guidelines for Seismic Restraint of Mechanical Systems
(Sheet Metal Industry Fund of Los Angeles)

1982 Guidelines for Seismic Restraints of Mechanical Systems and Plumbing Piping Systems
(Sheet Metal Industry Fund of Los Angeles and The Plumbing and Piping Industry Council , Inc.)

History
1991 Seismic Restraint Manual Guidelines for Mechanical Systems
(SMACNA) Included larger ducts Included conduit Created Seismic Hazard Level (SHL)

1993 Appendix E
Corrections and Clarifications Specific Requirements for OSHPD OSHPD Approval

History
1998 Second Edition 2000 ANSI Approval 2000 Addendum #1

QUESTION??

## What is the Issue?

Physics!!

PHYSICS

F = Ma

Code Considerations
1.

2.

3.

## All Codes Take the Form of

Fp = Cs Wp Where Cs = A series of constants given in the building code Cs is a measure of acceleration

Current Codes
International Building Code (IBC) 2000-2003 Fp = 0.4ap SDS Wp (1 + 2Z/h) Rp/Ip Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997 Fp = apCaIp (1 + 3hx/hr) Wp Rp

## The Form is the Same

IBC 0.4 apSDS Rp/Ip UBC apCaIp Rp is a measure of acceleration

is a measure of acceleration

Simplifying
IBC Fp = CsWp (1 +2Z/h) UBC Fp = Cs(1 + 3hx/hr)Wp

The Components
IBC (1 + 2Z/h) and UBC (1 + 3hx/hr) Are Adjustments for the Anticipated Force Levels Depending on Location in the Building

Basic Equation
Fp = CsWp Where Cs includes the Location Adjustment Factors

## Rearranging the Equation

Fp
Wp

Cs

The SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual has Tables for Four Values of Cs These Tables are Identified as Seismic Hazard Level (SHL)

## SMACNA SHL Values

SHL C = Cs = .21 SHL B = Cs = .42 SHL A = Cs = .67 SHL AA = Cs = 1.0

## The Design Professional Should

1. 2.

3.

Calculate Cs from the Information in the Applicable Local Building Code Calculate the Values of Cs at the Various Attachment Locations in the Building Indicate the Required SMACNA SHL Tables to be Used at the Different Attachment Locations

General Requirements
1.

2. 3.

Details provide lateral bracing system. Typical vertical supports per local building code must be used. Thermal expansion not given but must be considered. Duct construction to conform to the appropriate SMACNA publications.

General Requirements
4. 5. 6.

Pipes will conform to ANSI/ASME B 31.9 Building Services Piping Code. Brace in-line equipment independently of ducts and pipes. Cold formed angles to conform to the requirements of the latest "Specifications for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members" (AISI) (FY = 33 KSI)

General Requirements
7.

8.

Hot rolled shapes and plates to conform to ASTM A36. Pipes used as braces to conform to ASTM A120 or A53. Cables to have minimum breaking strength. Per Table 3-2. FS = 2.0 FS = 5.0

General Requirements
9. 10.

11. 12.

Bolts to conform to ASTM A307. Expansion anchors per Table 3.3. Proprietary connectors may be used where values are greater. Welding to conform to AWS D1.1 using shielded or submerged ARC method. Brace conduit same as equivalent weight of pipe.

General Requirements
13. 14. 15. 16.

Do not mix solid and cable bracing. Bracing for equipment NOT included. All runs will have a minimum of two transverse and one longitudinal braces. A run is defined as any change in direction except as allowed by offsets.

Bracing of Ducts
1.

2.

Brace all ducts with a cross sectional area of 6 square feet or larger. Brace flat oval ducts the same as rectangular ducts. Exception - Hangars 12" in length or less as measured from the top of the duct to the supporting structure. Hangars must be positively attached to the duct within two inches of the top with a minimum of two No. 10 sheet metal screws.

Bracing of Ducts
3. 4.

Transverse and longitudinal bracing per tables (Chapters 5, 6 and 7). Ducts may be grouped. Select bracing requirements based on combined weight. Minimum of two sides to be attached to horizontal or vertical angles.

Bracing of Ducts
5.

## Bracing of Pipes - Conduit

1.

2.

Brace fuel oil, gas (such as, fuel gas) medical gas and compressed air as per local codes. Brace piping in boiler, mechanical equipment and refrigeration mechanical rooms 1 " inch or larger.

## Bracing of Pipes - Conduit

3. 4.

Brace all pipes 2 inch nominal diameter or larger. Exception - Pipes suspended from individual hangers 12" or less as measured from the top of the pipe to the supporting structure. For pipes on a trapeze, the 12" exception is measured from the upper face of the horizontal trapeze member or the bottom of the pipe.

## Bracing of Pipes - Conduit

5. 6.

Transverse and longitudinal bracing as per tables (Chapters 5, 6 and 7). Provide joints/connections capable of accommodating seismic displacements where pipes pass through building seismic or expansion joints or where pipes connect to equipment with vibration isolators.

7.

## Branch lines may not be used to brace main lines.

Vertical risers not specifically engineered will be laterally supported with a riser clamp at each floor.

DEFINITIONS
TRANSVERSE BRACE - those designed and installed to restrain movement in the direction perpendicular to the piping or duct run

DEFINITIONS
LONGITUDINAL BRACE - those designed and installed to restrain movement in the direction parallel to the piping or duct run RUN (Piping or Duct) - a straight length with no changes in direction except as allowed by offsets

## Elements of a Seismic Restraint

Brace Attachment to the Component Attachment to the Structure

Bracing Members
RIGID Angles Pipes Strut Channels NON-RIGID Cables

Ducts Pipes

## FIGURE 4-8 FLOOR SUPPORTED DUCT

FIGURE 4-9 SINGLE HANGER SPACING FOR ROUND DUCTS 33-36 INCHES (838-900 MM)

FIGURE 4-10 SINGLE HANGER CABLE BRACING FOR ROUND DUCTS 33-36 INCHES (838-900 MM)

## FIGURE 4-22 FLOOR SUPPORTED PIPES

Tables

TABLE 5-1 SIDE BRACING FOR RECTANGULAR DUCTS, SHL A, L=2' 8" (MAX.)

TABLE 5-2 SIDE BRACING FOR RECTANGULAR DUCTS WITH ROD HANGERS, SHL A

## TABLE 8-1 SCHEDULE FOR TYPICAL CONNECTIONS TO STRUCTURAL SUPPORTING MEMBERS

Miscellaneous Connections

## FIGURE 9-20 288-POUND (MAX.) VARIABLE AIR VOLUME TERMINAL

PROJECT: SIZE: COST: TIME: MECHANICAL: PIPING/SHEET METAL: SEISMIC RESTRAINT COST: SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS: SEISMIC DESIGN (Mechanical): SEISMIC SOURCES:

Getty Center - Brentwood, California 6 Buildings, 110 Acres, 100 Year Life, 945,000 SF 1 Billion Start 1989, (1992), Complete 1997 4350 Tons Cooling - Central Plant 30 Million (No Equipment) 3 Million 10.0 Richter Earthquake Contractor/Consultant SMACNA Guidelines/Consultant

Other Resources
ASHRAE A Practical Guide to Seismic Restraint

Other Resources
FEMA
1. 2000 Provisions (FEMA 368) 2. 2000 Commentary (FEMA 369) 3. Installing Seismic Restraints For Mechanical Equipment (FEMA 412) 4. Installing Seismic Restraints For Duct & Pipe (FEMA 414) FEMA Distribution Center 1-800-480-2520