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Overview of photosynthesis Adaptations of the leaf for photosynthesis: Large surface area Arrangement minimises overlapping Thin diffusion

n distance short Transparent cuticle and epidermis to let light to photosynthetic mesophyll cells beneath Long, narrow upper mesophyll cells packed with chloroplasts Numerous stomata for gaseous exchange Stomata open and clos in response to changes in light intensity Air spaces in lower mesophyll layer allow diffusion of CO2 and O2 Network of xylem brings H2O to leaf cells Phloem that carries away sugars produced in photosynthesis

Overall Equation for photosynthesis:

3 main stages of photosynthesis: 1. Capturing of light energy by chlorophyll 2. Light dependent stage Light energy Chemical energy Causes photolysis of H2O into protons (H+), electrons and oxygen Products = NADPH, ATP and O2 3. Light independent Stage Protons (H+) used to reduce CO2 to produce sugars and other organic molecules

Chloroplasts

Grana -

Disc shaped 2 10 um long 1 um in diameter Have a double membrane

Stacks of up to 100 thylakoids Where light dependent stage takes place Chlorophyll in thylakoids Inter-granal lamellae are tubular extensions that join up with thylakoids in adjacent grana

Stroma Fluid filled matrix Light independent stage take place Contains starch grains