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English Adverbs

What is an adverb? An adverb is a part of speech that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, clause, or sentence. Adverbs answer the questions "How?", "When?", "Where?", "Why?", "In what way?", "How much?", "How often?", "Under what condition", "To what degree?" The easiest adverbs to recognize are those that end in -ly. Some adjectives end with -ly also but remember that adjectives can modify only nouns and pronouns. Adverbs modify everyting else. An adverb can be placed anywhere in a sentence. Adverbs as modifiers (adverbs in adverbial functions) An adverb modifies a verb He walked quickly. ('quickly' modifies verb 'walked') I accepted new task willingly. ('willingly' modifies verb 'accepted') Mike snored melodically. ('melodically' modifies verb 'snored') An adverb modifies an adjective They were really unhappy. ('really' modifies adjective 'unhappy') My brother is completely fearless. ('completely' modifies adjective 'fearless') I know she is very careful. ('very' modifies adjective 'careful') An adverb modifies an adverb He is almost always hungry. ('almost' modifies adverb 'always') John plays tennis very well. ('very' modifies adverb 'well') You never can work too carefully. ('too' modifies adverb 'carefully') An adverb modifies a clause Perhaps you are correct, but not at first glance. ('perhaps' modifies clause 'you are correct') Surely he will be on time, but I hope not. ('surely' modifies clause 'he will be on time') An adverb modifies a sentence Suddenly, she went home. ('suddenly' modifies a whole sentence) Finally, he will be on time. ('finally' modifies a whole sentence) Today, we can take a vacation.('today' modifies a whole sentence) Adverb Formation Adverbs that end in -ly are formed by adding -ly to an adjective, a present participle, or a past participle. - from an adjective careful - carefully beautiful - beautiful fitting - fittingly - from a present participle

willing - willingly glowing - glowingly surprising - surprisingly - from a past participle assured - assuredly affected - affectedly surprised - surprisedly When adjective ends in -able or -ible, the adverb is formed by replacing final -e with -y horrible - horribly terrible - terribly When adjective ends in -y, the adverb is formed by replacing final -y with -ily happy - happily lucky - luckily When adjective ends in -ic, the adverb is formed by replacing final -ic with -ically economic - economically ironic - ironically Adverbs Position Adverbs can be placed anywhere in a sentence. At the front (prior to the subject) Today we will study adverbs. Lately, I have had lots of phone calls. At the center of the sentence (between the subject and the verb) He seldom goes to movies. I hardly noticed her. At the end of the sentence I learn English slowly. I study adverbs now. Adverbs as intensifiers Adverbs can be used as amplifiers, down toners, or emphasizers. - as emphasizers. I really like him. I literally wrecked my car. - as amplifiers They completely abandoned the city. I absolutely refuse to leave.

- as down toners I somewhat like this movie. Peter almost quit that job.

English in Use/Adverbs
From Wikibooks, open books for an open world < English in Use Jump to: navigation, search Contents (edit template) General: Introduction Parts of speech: Articles - Nouns - Verbs - Gerunds and participles - Pronouns Adjectives - Adverbs - Conjunctions - Prepositions - Interjections Other English topics: Orthography - Punctuation - Syntax Figures of Syntax - Glossary

An adverb is a word added to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb; and generally expresses time, place, degree, or manner: as,

"They are now here, studying very diligently."

Adverbs can modify a verb, a clause, adjective or a phrase.

Contents
[hide]

1 Form 2 Comparative forms of adverbs 3 Kinds of adverbs o 3.1 Adverbs of time o 3.2 Adverbs of degree o 3.3 Adverbs of manner o 3.4 Adverbs of place o 3.5 Conjunctive adverbs 4 A short syntax 5 References

[edit] Form
Adjectives are generally turned into adverbs with the addition of a ly suffix. Ly is a contraction of like, and is the most common termination of adverbs. When added to nouns, it forms adjectives; but a few of these are also used adverbially: as, daily, weekly, monthly. Examples of adverbs are:

"Jack is swimming quickly." "Unfortunately, he lost the race." "We told him to run much faster."

In the first sentence, the adverb modifies the verb swimming. The adjective quick has had a ly added to it to make an adverb. In the second sentence, it modifies the entire sentence and in the final example, the adverb much modifies the adverb faster.

[edit] Comparative forms of adverbs


Adverbs have no modifications, except that a few are compared, after the manner of adjectives: as, soon, sooner, soonest; long, longer, longest; fast, faster, fastest. The following are irregularly compared: well, better, best; badly or ill, worse, worst; little less, least; much, more, most; far, farther, farthest; forth, further, furthest.

[edit] Kinds of adverbs


Adverbs may be reduced to four general classes; namely, adverbs of time, of place, of degree, and of manner. Besides these, it is proper to distinguish the particular class of conjunctive adverbs.

[edit] Adverbs of time


Adverbs of time are those which answer to the question, when? how long? how soon? or how often? Of time present: as, now, yet, today, nowadays, presently, instantly, immediately, straightway, directly, forthwith. Of time past: as, already, just now, lately, recently, yesterday, formerly, anciently, once, heretofore, hitherto, since, till now, long ago, erewhile, erst. Of time to come: as, tomorrow, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward, by-and-by, soon, erelong, shortly.

Of time relative: as, when, then, first, just, before, after, while, whilst, meanwhile, as, till, until, seasonably, betimes, early, late, whenever, afterward, afterwards, otherwhile, otherwhiles. Of time absolute: as, always, ever, never, aye, eternally, forever, perpetually, continually, incessantly, endlessly, evermore, everlastingly. Of time repeated: as, often, oft, again, occasionally, frequently, sometimes, seldom, rarely, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, annually, once, twice, thrice, or three times. Above thrice, we use only the phrases four times, five times, six times, etc. Times, for repetitions, or instances, may be supposed a noun; but such phrases often appear to be used adverbially.

[edit] Adverbs of degree


Adverbs of degree are those which answer to the question, how much? how little? or to the idea of more or less. Of excess or abundance: as, much, more, most, too, very, greatly, far, besides; chiefly, principally, mainly, mostly, generally; entirely, full, fully, completely, perfectly, wholly, totally, altogether, all, quite, clear, stark; exceedingly, excessively, extravagantly, intolerably; immeasurably, inconceivably, infinitely. Of equality or sufficiency: as, enough, sufficiently, competently, adequately, proportionally, equally, so, as, even, just, exactly, precisely. Of deficiency or abatement: as, little, less, least, scarcely, hardly, scantly, scantily merely, barely, only, but, partly, partially, nearly, almost, well-nigh, not quite. Of quantity in the abstract: as, how, however, howsoever, everso, something, anything, nothing, a groat, a sixpence, and other nouns of quantity used adverbially.

[edit] Adverbs of manner


Adverbs of manner are those which answer to the question, how? or, by affirming, denying, or doubting, show how a subject is regarded. Of manner from quality: as, well, ill, wisely, foolishly, justly, wickedly, and many others formed by adding ly to adjectives of quality. Of affirmation or assent: as, yes, yea, ay, verily, truly, indeed, surely, certainly, doubtless, undoubtedly, assuredly, certes, forsooth, amen. Of negation: as, no, nay, not, nowise, noway, noways, nohow.

Of doubt or uncertainty: as, perhaps, haply, possibly, perchance, peradventure, maybe. Of mode or way: as, thus, so, how, somehow, nohow, anyhow, however, howsoever, like, else, otherwise, across, together, apart, asunder, namely, particularly, necessarily, hesitatingly, trippingly, extempore, headlong, lengthwise.

[edit] Adverbs of place


Of place in which: as, where, here, there, yonder, above, below, about, around, somewhere, anywhere, elsewhere, otherwhere, everywhere, nowhere, wherever, wheresoever, within, without, whereabout, whereabouts, hereabout, hereabouts, thereabout, thereabouts. Of place to which: as, whither, hither, thither, in, up, down, back, forth, aside, ashore, abroad, aloft, home, homewards, inwards, upwards, downwards, backwards, forwards. Of place from which: as, whence, hence, thence, away, out, off, far, remotely. Of the order of place: as, first, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, etc. Thus, secondly means in the second place; thirdly, in the third place; etc.

[edit] Conjunctive adverbs


The conjunctive adverbs are those which perform the office of conjunctions. The following words are the most frequently used as conjunctive adverbs: after, again, also, as, before, besides, consequently, else, ere, even, furthermore, hence, how, however, moreover, nevertheless, as well, otherwise, since, so, still, till, then, thence, therefore, too, until, when, where, wherefore, whither, while. The adverbs of cause: why, wherefore, therefore; but the last two of these are often called conjunctions. The pronominal compounds: herein, therein, wherein, etc.

[edit] A short syntax


Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs: as, "How blessed," except the following cases: independent adverbs, as "No," the word amen, as "These things say the amen," an adverb before preposition, as "All along", and much, little, far, and all, as "Thus far is right."

[edit] References

A part of the text in this article, was taken from the public domain English grammar "The Grammar of English Grammars" by Goold Brown, 1851. The Wikipedia article on Adverb

English Adverbs
Adverbs lists and quizzes. Alphabetical listing of 3732 adverbs Adverbs starting with: a b c d e f g h Adverbs starting with: i j k l m n o p q Adverbs starting with: r s t u v w x y z Adverb Quizzes Adverbs Practice List of random sentences is given. You need to identify each adverb in a quiz by clicking on it. Adverbs Links Adverb Adverbs in English, examples of adverbs in adverbial functions and more BBC - Skillswise Words - Making more interesting sentences using adverbs. Factsheets,worksheets, quizzes Adverb from The Guide to Grammar and Writing. Lots of info and two quizzes. Adverbs can be classified by their functions. Adverb lists that follow each category are only partial ones. Adverbs of manner - answer the question How? I watch them closely. I play well. I walk carefully. List: cheerfully, fast, quicly, slowly, inadequately, healthy Adverbs of time - answer the question When? He has not played chess recently. I arrive late for most appointments. Lately, I have had many sleepless nights. List: early, never, now, often, soon, then, today, tomorrow Adverbs of place (location, direction) - answer the question Where?

What is an adverb? An adverb is a part of speech that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb, clause, or sentence. Adverbs answer the questions "How?", "When?", "Where?", "Why?", "In what way?", "How much?", "How often?", "Under what condition", "To what degree?" The easiest adverbs to recognize are those that end in -ly. Some adjectives end with -ly also but remember that adjectives can modify only nouns and pronouns. Adverbs modify everyting else. An adverb can be placed anywhere in a sentence. Adverbs as modifiers (adverbs in adverbial functions) An adverb modifies a verb He walked quickly. ('quickly' modifies verb 'walked') I accepted new task willingly. ('willingly' modifies verb 'accepted') Mike snored melodically. ('melodically' modifies verb 'snored') An adverb modifies an adjective They were really unhappy. ('really' modifies adjective 'unhappy') My brother is completely fearless. ('completely' modifies adjective 'fearless') I know she is very careful. ('very' modifies adjective 'careful')

An adverb modifies an adverb He is almost always hungry. ('almost' modifies adverb 'always') John plays tennis very well. ('very' modifies adverb 'well') You never can work too carefully. ('too' modifies adverb 'carefully')

I walked downstairs. Have you ever gone there? I will meet you outside. List: above, away, below, down, here, inside, there, up

Adverbs of degree - answer the question How much? An adverb modifies a clause He is totally prepared for his birthday. Perhaps you are correct, but not at I am too tired to play tennis tonight. first glance. ('perhaps' modifies He is completely tired from the journey. clause 'you are correct') List: almost, entirely, little, much, rather, very, too Surely he will be on time, but I hope not. ('surely' modifies clause Adverbs of frequency - answer the question How 'he will be on time') often? He rarely goes by himself. An adverb modifies a sentence She constantly finishes her job first. Suddenly, she went home. always, never, usually, frequently, sometimes, ('suddenly' modifies a whole occasionally sentence) Finally, he will be on time. Conjunctive (connecting) adverbs - connect the ('finally' modifies a whole sentence) ideas expressed in different clauses or sentences. Use of conjunctive adverb between two Today, we can take a vacation.('today' modifies a whole independent clauses requires a semicolon before sentence) the adverb and comma after it. Adverb Formation I want to sleep; however, I need to study. Adverbs that end in -ly are formed by adding -ly to an adjective, a If conjunctive adverb is used at the beginning of a present participle, or a past sentence, comma is used to set it off. note that the participle. period takes the place of a semicolon. - from an adjective The day was over. Therefore, I went to sleep. careful - carefully If conjunctive adverb is placed within a clause, beautiful - beautiful commas are used to set it off. fitting - fittingly The day is over. I will, therefore, go to sleep. - from a present participle willing - willingly Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs: glowing - glowingly accordingly, also, anyhow, furthermore, however, surprising - surprisingly moreover, otherwise, still, therefore. - from a past participle assured - assuredly Interrogative adverbs - used at the beginning of affected - affectedly questions. surprised - surprisedly Why are you so angry? When does the movie start? When adjective ends in -able or List: why, where, how, when ible, the adverb is formed by

replacing final -e with -y horrible - horribly terrible - terribly

Comparison of adverbs. Like adjectives, adverbs have three forms of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative. Positive degree expresses the quality without comparison. When adjective ends in -y, the adverb is formed by replacing final - Comparative degree compares two verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. y with -ily Superlative degree compares three or more verbs, happy - happily adjectives or adverbs. lucky - luckily When adjective ends in -ic, the adverb is formed by replacing final ic with -ically economic - economically ironic - ironically Adverbs Position Adverbs can be placed anywhere in a sentence. At the front (prior to the subject) Today we will study adverbs. Lately, I have had lots of phone calls. At the center of the sentence (between the subject and the verb) He seldom goes to movies. I hardly noticed her. At the end of the sentence I learn English slowly. I study adverbs now. Adverbs as intensifiers Adverbs can be used as amplifiers, down toners, or emphasizers. - as emphasizers. I really like him. I literally wrecked my car. - as amplifiers They completely abandoned the city. I absolutely refuse to leave. Adverb comparison Most adverbs are compared by using another adverb. More or less are used to express the comparative degree. Most or least are used to express the superlative degree. I dance gracefully (or horribly). I dance more gracefully (or more horribly). I dance most gracefully ( or most horribly).

Suffix comparison Some adverbs are compared using a suffix er for the comparative forms and est for the superlative forms. I will arrive soon (or fast). I will arrive sooner (or faster). I will arrive soonest (or fastest). Irregular comparison There are also a number of adverbs compared irregularly. These must be remembered. Here are some of them. POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE bad/badly worse worst far farther/further farthest/furthest late/lately later latest little less least much more most well better best Beyond comparison

- as down toners I somewhat like this movie. Peter almost quit that job.

Some adverbs are never compared. They express qualities unsuitable for comparison. Here are some of them: again, almost, before, ever, never, here, there, now, then, there, thus, too, twice, very.

Note The three most common adverbs used in English Language are: not, very, too

Adjectives with Countable and Uncountable Nouns


Summary: This resource provides basic guidelines of adjective and adverb use. Contributors:Paul Lynch, Chris Berry Last Edited: 2010-04-17 05:54:23 The Basic Rules: Adjectives A countable noun is one that can be expressed in plural form, usually with an "s." For example, "cat--cats," "season--seasons," "student--students." An uncountable noun is one that usually cannot be expressed in a plural form. For example, "milk," "water," "air," "money," "food." Usually, you can't say, "He had many moneys." Most of the time, this doesn't matter with adjectives. For example, you can say, "The cat was gray" or "The air was gray." However, the difference between a countable and uncountable noun does matter with certain adjectives, such as the following:

some/any much/many little/few a lot of/lots of a little bit of plenty of enough no

Some/Any: Both "some" and "any" can modify countable and uncountable nouns.

"There is some water on the floor." "There are some Mexicans here." "Do you have any food?"

"Do you have any apples?"

Much/Many: "Much" modifies only uncountable nouns.


"They have so much money in the bank." "The horse drinks so much water."

"Many" modifies only countable nouns.


"Many Americans travel to Europe." "I collected many sources for my paper."

Little/Few: "Little" modifies only uncountable nouns.


"He had little food in the house." "When I was in college, there was little money to spare."

"Few" modifies only countable nouns.


"There are a few doctors in town." "He had few reasons for his opinion."

A lot of/lots of: "A lot of" and "lots of" are informal substitutes for much and many. They are used with uncountable nouns when they mean "much" and with countable nouns when they mean "many."

"They have lots of (much) money in the bank." "A lot of (many) Americans travel to Europe." "We got lots of (many) mosquitoes last summer." "We got lots of (much) rain last summer."

A little bit of: "A little bit of" is informal and always precedes an uncountable noun.

"There is a little bit of pepper in the soup." "There is a little bit of snow on the ground."

Plenty of:

"Plenty of" modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.


"They have plenty of money in the bank." "There are plenty of millionaires in Switzerland."

Enough: Enough modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.


"There is enough money to buy a car." "I have enough books to read."

No No modifies both countable and uncountable nouns.


"There is no time to finish now." "There are no squirrels in the park."

Adjectives and Adverbs

Grammar Table of Contents:

Definition - Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They may come before the word they describe (That is a cute puppy.) or they may follow the word they describe (That puppy is cute.). Definition - Adverbs are words that modify everything but nouns and pronouns. They modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs. A word is an adverb if it answers how, when, or where. The only adverbs that cause grammatical problems are those that answer the question how, so focus on these. Examples: He speaks slowly. Answers the question how. He speaks very slowly. Answers the question how slowly.

Rule 1.

Generally, if a word answers the question how, it is an adverb. If it can have an -ly added to it, place it there.

Examples:

She thinks slow/slowly. She thinks how? slowly. She is a slow/slowly thinker. Slow does not answer how, so no -ly is attached. Slow is an adjective here. She thinks fast/fastly. Fast answers the question how, so it is an adverb. But fast never has an -ly attached to it. We performed bad/badly. Badly describes how we performed.

Rule 2.

A special -ly rule applies when four of the senses - taste, smell, look, feel - are the verbs. Do not ask if these senses answer the question how to determine if -ly should be attached. Instead, ask if the sense verb is being used actively. If so, use the -ly. Examples: Roses smell sweet/sweetly. Do the roses actively smell with noses? No, so no -ly. The woman looked angry/angrily. Did the woman actively look with eyes or are we describing her appearance? We are only describing appearance, so no -ly. The woman looked angry/angrily at the paint splotches. Here the woman did actively look with eyes, so the -ly is added. She feels bad/badly about the news. She is not feeling with fingers, so no -ly.

Good vs. Well Rule 3. The word good is an adjective, while well is an adverb. Examples: You did a good job. Good describes the job. You did the job well. Well answers how. You smell good today.

Describes your odor, not how you smell with your nose, so follow with the adjective. You smell well for someone with a cold. You are actively smelling with a nose here, so follow with the adverb.

Rule 4.

When referring to health, use well rather than good. Examples: I do not feel well. You do not look well today. NOTE: Example: You may use good with feel when you are not referring to health. I feel good about my decision to learn Spanish.

Rule 5.

A common error in using adjectives and adverbs arises from using the wrong form for comparison. For instance, to describe one thing we would say poor, as in, "She is poor." To compare two things, we should say poorer, as in, "She is the poorer of the two women." To compare more than two things, we should say poorest, as in, "She is the poorest of them all." Examples: One sweet bad efficient* Two sweeter worse more efficient* Three or More sweetest worst most efficient*

*Usually with words of three or more syllables, don't add -er or -est. Use more or most in front of the words.

Rule 6.

Never drop the -ly from an adverb when using the comparison form. Correct: She spoke quickly. She spoke more quickly than he did.

Incorrect: Correct:

She spoke quicker than he did. Talk quietly. Talk more quietly.

Incorrect:

Talk quieter.

Rule 7.

When this, that, these, and those are followed by nouns, they are adjectives. When they appear without a noun following them, they are pronouns. Examples: This house is for sale. This is an adjective here. This is for sale. This is a pronoun here.

Rule 8.

This and that are singular, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. This points to something nearby while that points to something "over there." Examples: This dog is mine. That dog is hers. This is mine. That is hers.

Rule 9.

These and those are plural, whether they are being used as adjectives or as pronouns. These points to something nearby while those points to something "over there." Examples: These babies have been smiling for a long time. These are mine. Those babies have been crying for hours. Those are yours.

Rule

Use than to show comparison. Use then to answer the question

.01

.when :Examples .I would rather go skiing than rock climbing .First we went skiing; then we went rock climbing

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English grammar (with answers).pdf english - grammar and vocabulary for cambridge advanced and proficiency.pdf English Book - Oxford Guide to English Grammar.pdf English Grammar For All Levels (_English_Course)_(Grammar)_-_Cambridge_University _Press_-_English_Vocabulary_In_Use_-_Upper-Intermed iate_&_Advanced_.pdf (Cambridge University Press) British or American English - A Handbook of Word and Grammar Patterns.pdf English Grammar for Today (G.Leech - M.Deucar - R.Hogenraad).pdf A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Quirk Greenbaum Leech Svartvik.pdf English Grammar - A Modern Course in English Syntax.pdf Collins Publishers - Collin Cobuild English Grammar.pdf Betty Azar - Understanding and Using English Grammar (3rd ed) WORKBOOK.pdf

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