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NLM Catalog Help NLM Catalog

NLM Catalog
Created: July 31, 2007
Updated: October 12, 2007

Overview
The NLM Catalog provides access to NLM bibliographic data for over 1.2 million journals, books,
audiovisuals, computer software, electronic resources, and other materials via the NCBI Entrez
retrieval system. The Entrez retrieval system was developed by the National Center for Biotech-
nology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine, located at the National Institutes of
Health (NIH). Entrez is the text-based search and retrieval system used at NCBI for services includ-
ing PubMed, Journals, OMIM, Nucleotide and Protein Sequences, Protein Structures, Complete
Genomes, Taxonomy, and others.
Updated every weekday, the NLM Catalog is an alternative search interface to the bibliographic
records resident in LocatorPlus [http://130.14.16.152/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?
DB=local&PAGE=First]. For complete information regarding NLM's holdings and an item's circula-
tion status, visit LocatorPlus [http://130.14.16.152/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First] .

Quick Start Guide for the NLM Catalog


To begin:

• Simple searching - enter your term(s) and click GO. Entrez automatically combines (ANDs)
significant terms together.

• Phrase searching - enter your phrase in quotes


• Searching of specific fields by use of Limits (e.g., limit retrieval to a particular language, material
type, date, etc.)

• View how your term(s) were searched using Details


• View and reuse previous searches using History
• See the library's holdings in LocatorPlus [http://130.14.16.152/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?
DB=local&PAGE=First], NLM's online public access catalog by clicking on the NLM ID or using
Links (located to the right of each result).

Searching the NLM Catalog

[www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/viewlet/nlmcat/catalog.html]
Enter one or more search terms in the query box and press the Enter key or click Go.
Search terms may be entered in upper or lower case. The NLM Catalog ignores most punctu-
ation entered for searching. The Features bar beneath the query box provides access to additional
search options.

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Boolean Operators (AND, OR, and NOT)


• Operators must be in upper case (e.g., AND).
• The default operator is AND.
• All operators are processed in a left-to-right sequence.
Note: To change the order in which the operators in a search statement are processed, enclose
search terms in parentheses (Nesting). The terms inside the set of parentheses are processed as
a unit and then incorporated into the overall search strategy.

Examples:
common cold AND (vitamin C OR zinc)
heart disease AND (aspirin OR dilantin)

Subject Searching
Subjects in NLM Catalog records include Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, Personal
Names, and Other Subjects.

MeSH
NLM's Medical Subject Headings [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html] controlled
vocabulary of biomedical terms that is used to describe the subject of each journal article in MED-
LINE. MeSH contains more than 23,000 terms and is updated annually to reflect changes in
medicine and medical terminology.
To search a MeSH term enter the term, followed by the field qualifier [mh].

Example:
diabetes mellitus [mh]

To search a MeSH term with one or more subheadings, enter the term, a forward slash, and
one subheading, followed by the field qualifier. Multiple subheadings are ORed together.

Examples:
Single subheading: multiple sclerosis/drug therapy [mh]
Multiple subheadings: multiple sclerosis/drug therapy [mh] OR multiple sclerosis/complications [mh]

A MeSH term may be one of the main topics discussed in the item (MeSH Major Topic).
Enter the MeSH term followed by the field qualifier ([majr]).

Example:
tumor cells, cultured [majr]

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MeSH terms are arranged hierarchically by subject categories with more specific terms
arranged beneath broader terms. Each term has a tree number that positions the term in the hier-
archy.

Example
Eye [A01.456.505.420]
Eyebrows [A01.456.505.420.338]
Eyelids [A01.456.505.420.504]
Eyelashes [A01.456.505.420.504.421]

By having narrower terms indented under broader terms, a search of a broad term can auto-
matically include the narrower terms. When a term is searched as a MeSH Heading, NLM Catalog
automatically searches that heading and the more specific headings underneath in the hierarchy.
This is called exploding a term.

Personal Name as Subject


Enter a personal name following the format for searching an Author Personal Name. Qualify the
name with the Personal Name as Subject or Personal Full Name as Subject. The qualifiers
[ps] and [fps] are also available.

Examples:
MacDonald RA [Personal Name as Subject]
MacDonald, Roger Allan [Personal Full Name as Subject]

Other Subject searching


Subject terms that are not MeSH or Personal Names are in the Other Subject(s) field. Enter the
term followed by the field qualifier [ot].

Examples:
Legal Approach [ot]
Walgreen Co. [ot]

Unqualified Terms
Unqualified search terms are processed using Automatic Term Mapping. The term is matched
against a MeSH Translation Table. If a match is found, the term is searched as a MeSH term and
as a text word.

Examples:
Search term: shingles
Query Translation: "herpes zoster"[mh] OR shingles[all]

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If no MeSH match is found, the term is matched against a Journals Translation Table and then
an Author Index. If there is no match, the term is searched in All Fields.
Searching Tip: Click on Details to verify how the search query was translated

Phrase Searching
When a phrase is entered as the search term, it is checked against the translation table that is used
in Automatic Term Mapping. When a match is found, it is searched as a multi-word search term.

Examples:
Search: multidrug resistant tuberculosis
Query Translation: "tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant"[mh] OR multidrug resistant tuberculosis[all]

When a phrase is not automatically identified in the table, you can request a check for the phrase
in the NLM Catalog's index of searchable terms. Either enter the phrase in quotes, e.g., "single cell,"
or qualify the phrase with a search tag, e.g., single cell[ti]. When a phrase in double quotes is found
in the index, it is searched as a multi-word search term and automatic term mapping is not applied.
There is no explosion of MeSH terms.

Examples:
Search: heart beat
Query Translation: ("heart"[mh] OR heart[all]) AND beat[all]
Search: "heart beat"
Query Translation: "heart beat"[all]

Note: If your search phrase is not in the index of searchable terms, the individual terms in the
phrase are processed using automatic term mapping and all terms are ANDed together.

Examples:
Search: repressed emotion
Query Translation: repressed[all] AND ("emotions"[mh] OR emotion[all])
Search: "repressed emotion" - System response: 'Quoted phrase not found'
Query Translation: repressed[all] AND ("emotions"[mh] OR emotion[all])

Send suggestions of phrases to add to this index to NLM Customer Service [http://
apps.nlm.nih.gov/mainweb/siebel/nlm/index.cfm].

Searching with Field Qualifiers


Narrow your search to specific fields by adding the Search Field Label or Tag after the search term.

Examples:
hypersensitivity [mh]
multiple sclerosis [majr]

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Note: Enclose the Label or Tag qualifier in brackets. The qualifiers can be in upper or lower
case (all examples given in help use lower case).

Title Searching
Enter one or more words from the title, with each word followed by the field qualifier [ti].

Examples:
standards [ti] assessment [ti] ambulatory [ti]
Results = 1 record retrieved:
National standards for the development and quality assessment of services initiating insulin therapy in the ambulatory
setting.

Author Searching
You can search for either the name of an individual author (Personal Name) or for the organization
(corporate name) or conference which is considered the author of a work.

Personal name

[www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/viewlet/nlmcat/auth.html]
There are several different options for searching for personal author names.

• Enter the name in the format of last name and up to the first two initials (no punctuation).

Examples:
remington js
miller sd

A name entered using this format initiates a search of the author field. The NLM Catalog auto-
matically truncates the author's name to account for varying initials and designations such as Jr or
2nd. For example, miles m matches miles m and miles ma, miles mf, miles mt, etc.

• Enter the last name qualified with the author tag [au].

Example:
remington [au]

• Enter the Full Author Name. Use of the search tag [fau] is not required. Unlike conventional author
searching (e.g., smith js), full author searching can be in either natural or inverted order.

Examples:
david m oshinsky

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Examples:
oshinsky david m

When searching a full name using the inverted order, a comma following the last name is gen-
erally optional, remove periods after initials, and put all suffixes, e.g., Jr, at the end. For example,
to search for the author Anthony S. Fauci, you may use any of the following formats:

• fauci, anthony s
• fauci anthony s
• anthony s fauci
Although the comma following the last name is generally optional, for some names, it is nec-
essary to distinguish which name is the last name by using the comma following the last name.

Examples:
ryan, james
james, ryan

Full author name searching allows for automatic truncation of the forename. If you don't know
the middle initial, do not use the truncation symbol, enter only the last and first names.

Example:
fauci anthony

Names with multiple middle initials, e.g., Stanley P L Leong, have a space in between the initials.
Using the examples listed below will retrieve the expected results.

Examples:
stanley leong
stanley p leong
stanley p l leong

• Caveat for searching Full Author Name


If the first and middle names consist of only initials it is best to search as for author, using the
last name and the first and second initials, without a comma between the elements. The use of the
qualifier [au] is optional.

Examples:
smith ad [au]
smith ad

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Corporate or Conference Name

[www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/viewlet/nlmcat/corp.html]

• Enter the name, without punctuation, qualified with the corporate/conference author tag [cn].

Examples:
American Medical Association [cn]
american medical association. council on drugs [cn]
Conference on Advances in Behavior Therapy [cn]

• Use "Index" in Preview/Index to determine specific spelling for corporate/conference names.


• Authorized forms of names may be found by browsing name and title headings in the Authority
Index.

Authority Index

[www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/viewlet/nlmcat/series.html]

Authority Index

• Provides access to an index of full author names (including dates and name qualifiers),
organizations, conference names, and series titles, associated with the bibliographic records in
the NLM Catalog.

• Offers added value by incorporating rich cross-reference entries for variant forms of names
(includes personal, corporate or conference names) and titles that lead the user from a raw, initial
search to the established form used on bibliographic records in the NLM Catalog.

• Supports searching of names that may have changed over time, providing links to other and
historical names used by authors or organizations and to conference names and series titles that
have changed numerous times. For series titles, additional information regarding NLM's
bibliographic treatment of that series is also provided (see Display of Series Information below).

Using the Authority Index


Click on the new Authority Index tab that appears to the right of the "Details" tab. Enter the name
(includes personal, corporate or conference names) or series title as an unqualified search in the
new search box that is displayed. Click the box labeled "Search" to invoke the search of the index.
Optionally, enter a name of a person, organization, conference, or series title into the main
search box, qualified by [ai]. When this is done, the system automatically invokes the "Authority
Index" tab and the search also appears in the authority index search box.

Results of a Search of the Authority Index


A search of the authority index results in an alphabetic display. The established form of the name
is hyperlinked; clicking on this link retrieves the bibliographic record(s) associated with that name
in the NLM Catalog.

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The advantage of a search of the authority index is that it provides for more specificity in a
search. As an illustration, using the authority index results in retrieval of a single bibliographic record
associated with the name "Smith, J Barker" whereas a search of the name as an author yields
twenty-six (26) bibliographic records that need to be examined to determine the one desired.

Using Cross References in the Authority Index


The authority index also provides access to cross-reference entries for variant forms of names and
titles that can assist the searcher in identifying the form used in NLM bibliographic records and
improve the success and exactness of retrieval. Additionally, links are provided to the different forms
of a name or series title that may have changed over time.

• Searching Variant Forms


Variant forms appear before the word "see", appear in black type, and are not hyperlinked. The
user is led from this other, variant form to the established form of the name (appearing after the
word "see") that is hyperlinked. When a user clicks on the hyperlink for the established form, that
form appears in the authority index search box and at the top of the authority index. Clicking once
again on the established form in the authority index retrieves all bibliographic records associated
with that established name.

• Using Links to Other Forms


The authority index also provides links to earlier, later, and related forms of names and titles,
identified by the label "see also." These "see also" entries provide links to other names used by
persons over time, historical names of organizations, and changes in titles of series.
All established forms used by the organization appear after the phrase "see also" and are
hyperlinked. Clicking on these established forms leads the user to the bibliographic records asso-
ciated with those names or titles.

Display of Series Information


When a series title is searched in the authority index, the display of the series title is prefaced by a
plus sign (+) and the label "Series: ," with the title of the series appearing alphabetically.
Clicking on the plus sign reveals additional information related to the NLM treatment of that
series title. The information provided includes the NLM analysis practice, classification practice, and
classification number (when present). These data appear labeled as:

Analysis Practice: Identifies whether the series title is analyzed at NLM (i.e., whether a
user can expect to find separate bibliographic records in the NLM
Catalog for individually titled volumes that are part of a series).
Parenthetical information related to the analysis practice may
also appear.
Classification Practice: Identifies whether the series title is classified together in one
classification number or whether each bibliographic record in that
series is given a unique subject-oriented classification.
Parenthetical information related to the classification practice
may also appear.

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Classification Number: Identifies the NLM classification number assigned (when one is
available).

Special Considerations

• New and changed authority information is added to the NLM Catalog on a weekly basis; therefore,
the search results may not be comprehensive.

• When an authority index search is performed using the main search box and the qualifier [ai],
the system automatically invokes the "Authority Index" tab, so that the search also appears in
the authority index search box. Here, either pressing the enter key or clicking "Go" invokes a
search.

• When using the authority index search from the "Authority Index" tab, click the “Search”
button.

• To inactivate the "Authority Index tab," click "Go" next to the main search box.
• When the desired established form is selected from the authority index, the system automatically
enters a number with the qualifier for the authority index id number [aiid] in the main search box.

• The "Details" tab contains the authority index id number [aiid] for the search, not the literal of
the name(s) or series title(s) that the user has entered.

• When searches are done against the authority index, the "History" tab contains the trail of
authority index id number(s) [aiid] retrieved and it is not possible to view the history of the names
or series titles searched. As for other searches in the NLM Catalog, the number in the
"Results" column refers to the number of bibliographic records associated with that authority
index id [aiid].

For detailed information see the NLM Technical Bulletin [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/techbull/


nd05/nd05_nlm_catalog.html].

Truncation / Wildcard
Truncation or wildcard searching allows you to search a root word and all of its variations that might
prove valuable to your search (for example, using 'flavor' to find all terms that begin with flavor:
flavored, flavorful, etc.).

• Place an asterisk at the end of a term to search for all words that begin with it, e.g., flavor* to
find flavor, flavored, flavorful, etc.

• This truncation feature is limited to the first 600 variations found. If the search retrieves more than
the 600 variations, you will be shown the following warning message:

Wildcard search for term* used only the first 600 variations.
Lengthen the root word to search for all endings.
Note: Truncation turns off automatic term mapping and automatic explosion of a MeSH term.

Single Record Matcher


Use this feature to find the citation for any resource in the NLM Catalog (e.g., book, book chapter,
audiovisual material or serial).

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• Enter information in any or all of the search boxes.


• For author, enter the name in the format last name and up to the first two initials (no
punctuation).

Examples:
remington j
miller sd
Note: You can also search using full author name in the Single Record Matcher

Search Features
The following search features are located on the NLM Catalog Features bar.

Limits
This feature limits or restricts your search by:

• Language
• Publication Type
• NLM Collection
• Full Text
• Publication Year
• Material Type
• All Fields
Language
The feature provides a list of the most frequently searched languages.
You may also search for a language by entering the language name in the query box and
qualifying it with the search field tag [la].

Examples:
amharic [la]
welsh [la]

The complete list of languages used is based on the official list of languages provided in the
MARC Code List of Languages, [http://www.loc.gov/marc/languages/langhome.html] a standard
maintained by the U.S. Library of Congress.
Publication Type
The pull-down menu contains a list of frequently searched physical formats (items) and resource
types.
A more complete list of publication types:
Table 1

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NLM Collection
Items owned by NLM - identifies items owned by the National Library of Medicine. For specific
holdings, view the LocatorPlus [http://130.14.16.152/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?
DB=local&PAGE=First] record by using the link in the NLM ID or, on the Expanded Display, the
NLM Holdings in LocatorPlus icon. The link opens a new window to display the record. Close the
LocatorPlus window to return to the NLM Catalog results.
Full Text
This feature will limit your search to full text documents.
Publication Year
Use the "From" and "To" boxes to specify a range of dates. For a single year, enter the year in both
boxes. If no date is entered in the "To" box, the NLM Catalog searches the date in the "From" box
through the Year 3000. If no date is entered in the "From" box, the NLM Catalog searches all dates
preceding the one in the "To" box, starting with year 1.

Examples:
Publication Year from 1995 to 2001
Publication Year from 1995 to 1995 - Single Year
Publication Year from 1995 to ____
Publication Year from ____ to 1995

Material Type
The most common material types are listed in the drop-down menu. For a material type not on the
list, enter it in the query box, qualified by the search field name Item Type [item] and Resource Type
[res type].

Examples:
map [item]
videorecording [res type]

All Field
You can search any field within an NLM Catalog record.

Preview/Index
Preview
Displays the number of results for a search of the term(s) in the query box or of a term qualified by
field:

• Select a field from the All Fields pull-down menu.


• Enter search term in the adjacent box.
• Click on Preview; or

• Add the term to the query box by selecting a Boolean operator (AND, OR, or NOT) and start the
search.

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• Click on the result number to display the NLM Catalog records.


Index
Allows you to build a search, selecting from a list of terms within a search field:

• Select a field from the All Fields pull-down menu.


• Enter a term in the adjacent box; click Index for an alphabetic list of terms for the selected field.
• Select one or more terms from the list (multiple terms are ORed).
• Click AND to add the term(s) to the query box.
• When you have completed selecting terms from field(s), click on Preview to see the number of
results orclick on Go to see the NLM Catalog records.

History
Displays the search strategies and results of your searches.

• To view the results of a search, click on the result number.


• Use the pound sign (#) before the search number(s) to build on a search and to combine
searches.

Examples:
#3 AND laser therapy
#5 AND #7

• Search result numbers may not be continuous. Some numbers are assigned to intermediate
processes, e.g., displaying a record in another format.

Clipboard
This feature stores selected items from one or more searches. (To store items see “Send To” in
Search Results.)

• Stored items can be sorted, displayed, printed, e-mailed, and saved to file.
• After 8 hours of inactivity, the contents of the clipboard will be deleted.
Details

• Displays your search as it was translated by the NLM Catalog.


• Allows you to save a search query.
• Allows you to edit and resubmit a search query.
• May display error messages or notes.

Search Results
Display
Display Order:

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Records in the NLM Catalog are displayed in reverse publication date order, latest to earliest, except
the most recent week's additions which appear at the top. Records that do not contain a date of
publication sort at the bottom. See FAQ: Search Results Display . There are five display formats
available in the NLM Catalog:

• Summary
• Brief
• Expanded
• Full
• XML
For the fields displayed in each type see:
Table 2
Sort

• Select a sort field from the Sort pull-down menu (NLM ID, Author, or Title)
• Click on Display
• Author and Title displays are sorted A to Z: Author sort, secondary sort is Title. Title sort,
secondary sort is Author.

Send To
Provides ways to process search results through several options (Text, File, Clipboard, E-mail):

• Display selected or all search results as plain Text


• Save selected or all search results to a text File.
• Store search results on the Clipboard
• E-mail search resultsSelect E-mail from pull-down menu and click on Send to.Select Format and
display (HTML or text) for the items.Select Sort.Select number of items to be sent.Enter e-mail
address.Optionally, enter text (e.g., a message) in the 'Additional text' box.Click on Mail.

Note: Please see the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Jour-
nals [http://www.icmje.org/] and provided examples [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_require-
ments.html] for information on standard citation formats used in biomedical journals.
Print - several print options available:

• Use the Print function of your Web browser to print the information on the Web page.
• Select 'Text' on the Send to pull-down menu and click on Send to. Use the Print function of your
Web browser to print the text.Note: Use the Show pull-down menu to change the number of items
displayed on a page.

Links (located to the right of each result)

• LocatorPlus: a link to the individual record in NLM LocatorPlus. Use your browser's Back button
to return to the NLM Catalog results.

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Cookies
What is a "cookie"?
A "cookie" is information sent by a Web site server (e.g., NLM Catalog) to your computer. In the
case of the NLM Catalog, it is information about your interactions that may be needed later to perform
a function. Cookies allow the NLM Catalog to provide more interactive features such as Preview/
Index, Clipboard, History, and My NCBI. Cookies placed by NLM Catalog are removed from your
computer after a set time period.
How can I tell if my system accepts cookies?
Cookie-dependent features of the NLM Catalog include Preview/Index, History, Clipboard, and My
NCBI. To use these features, your system must be able to accept cookies. If you still have problems
using cookie-dependent features of the NLM Catalog even after enabling cookies, possible reasons
may include:

• Cookies are blocked by your provider or institution. Check with your Internet provider and/or the
system administrator at your institution to see if cookies can be accepted. Even if you have them
enabled in your Web browser, if they are blocked by your provider or institution (e.g., by a firewall,
proxy server, etc.), cookie-dependent features of the NLM Catalog won't work.

• Your computer's date and time settings are incorrect. Check your computer's time settings to
ensure that they are correct.

Enabling Cookies
Given the number of possible combinations of computer platforms, operating systems, and Web
browser versions, we are unable to provide instructions for enabling cookies on your computer.
Consult your browser's Help for information on enabling cookies.

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Table 1 List of Publication Types

abbreviations editorial outlines


abstracts encyclopedias patents
academic dissertations ephemera patient education handout
account books essays periodical index
addresses eulogies periodicals
advertisements evaluation studies personal narratives
almanacs examination questions petitions
anecdotes exhibitions pharmacopeias
animation fact sheets photoprints
annual reports festschrift phrases
architectural drawings fictional works pictorial works
atlases forms policies official
bibliography funeral sermons popular works
bills of exchange genealogies portraits
biobibliography government publications practice guideline
biography guidebooks press releases
book illustrations guideline price lists
book reviews handbooks problems and exercises
bookplates herbals procedures
broadsides historical article product, program, and project descriptions
caricatures humor programmed instructions
cartoons indexes prospectuses
case reports instruction public service
catalogs interview public service announcements
charts invoices randomized controlled trial
chronology juvenile literature reports
clinical alerts laboratory manuals resource guides
clinical trial lecture notes review
clippings lectures review literature
collected correspondence legal cases review of reported cases
collected works legislation review, academic
collections letter review, multicase
comment letterbooks review, tutorial
commissions library catalogues scientific integrity review
congresses manuscripts scrapbooks
consensus development conference maps sermons
consensus development conference, NIH memoirs speeches
controlled clinical trial meta analysis statistics
database minutes official tables
diaries multicenter study technical report
dictionary news terminology
digital library collections newspaper article textbooks
directory nurses instruction training material and manuals
documentaries and factual films nurses' instruction travel literature
drawings oaths unedited footage
duplicate publications oral histories union lists
orders unpublished works

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Table 2 List of Display Types

Display Formats:

Summary
Author(s)
Title
Source
Edition
Publication information
NLM ID
links to LinkOut and, if included there, Bookshelf.
Brief
Author(s)
Title
NLM ID
links to LinkOut and, if included there, Bookshelf.
Expanded
Author(s)
NASA Affiliation
Investigator(s)
Title Abbreviation
Title
Translated Title
In
Edition
Publication Date(s)
Frequency
Publisher
Continues (Preceding title)
Continued By (Succeeding title)
Series
Other Titles(s)
Description
Language
SuDocs Number
ISBN
ISSN
Electronic Links
Indexed In
Indexing History
MeSH
Person as Subject
Other Subject(s)
Publication Type(s)
Space Flight Mission
Finding Aids
Summary
Notes
Terms of Use
Cite As
Acquisition Source
Provenance
Contents
Report Number
NLM ID
type of resource/resource unit displays unlabelled following NLM ID
links to LinkOut and, if included there, Bookshelf.
Full displays all fields that are searchable in the record.

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Display Formats:

XML presents the complete record information in XML format.

Note: The NLM ID is a link to the record in LocatorPlus, and it opens a new window to display it. When you are finished viewing the record,
close the LocatorPlus window and return to the NLM Catalog results.

My NCBI and the NLM Catalog


See the My NCBI [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?highlight=ncbi,my&rid=help-
pubmed.section.pubmedhelp.My_NCBI] for information about setting up a My NCBI account.
The NLM Catalog offers two filter options through My NCBI

• English
• Internet (Material Type)

Search Field Descriptions and Tags

Abstract/Index Tags [itag] MeSH Subheadings [sh] Publication Type [pt]


All Fields [all] MeSH Terms [mh] Publication Year [dp]
Author [au] NLM Unique ID [nlmid] Publisher [publ]
Corporate/Conference Name [cn] Olio [olio] Resource Type [res type]
Filter [sb] Other Number [other num] Series [ser]
Full Author Name [fau] Other Term [ot] Title [ti]
Item Type [item] Personal Full Name as Subject [fps] Title Abbreviation [ta]
Journal [jo] Personal Name as Subject [ps] URL [url]
Language [la] Place of Publication [pl]
MeSH Major Topic [majr] Publication Status [status]

Abstract/Index Tags [itag]


Used to specify the publications or databases in which a title has been indexed and/or abstracted,
and the status of the indexing if known.
Use "Preview/Index" to identify searchable values for the indexing publications or databases.
These values include but are not limited to:

• Abridged Index Medicus


• Hospital and Health Administration Index
• Hospital Literature Index
• Index Medicus
• Index to Audiovisual Serials in the Health Sciences
• Index to Dental Literature

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• International Nursing Index


• MEDLINE
• NLM Gateway meeting abstracts
• OLDMEDLINE
• PubMed
The searchable values for indexing status are:

• Ceased-publication
• Continued-by-another-indexed-title
• Currently-indexed
• Currently-indexed-Title-changed
• Date-range-of-indexed-citations-unspecified
• Deselected

Examples:
Index medicus [itag]
"Currently-indexed" [itag]
"Currently-indexed" [itag]

All Fields [all]


Includes all searchable NLM Catalog fields.

Examples:
byzantine [all]
herbs [all]

Author [au]
The format to search for an author is: last name followed by a space and up to the first two initials
followed by a space and a suffix abbreviation, if applicable. Do not use punctuation. Initials and
suffixes may be removed when searching. The NLM Catalog automatically truncates on an author's
name to account for varying initials. To turn off the automatic truncation, enclose the author's name
in double quotes and qualify with [au] in brackets.

Examples:
kovacs g [au]
fauci as [au]
"smith j" [au] - Automatic Truncation turned off

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Examples:

Corporate/Conference Name [cn]


Identifies the corporate or conference name associated with an item. Corporate or conference
names display exactly as they appear in the item. Use Preview/Index to build a search, to verify the
form of name and/or spelling.

Examples:
national institutes of health [cn]
nigerian surgical research society [cn]
multi media productions [cn]
nih symposium on therapeutic oligonucleotides 6th 2002 warren grant magnuson clinical center [cn]

Filter [sb]
Technical tags used by LinkOut [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/linkout/doc/linkoutover-
view.html] . You can view the available filters by using the Preview/Index feature:

• Click on Preview/index on the action bar.


• Under the "Add Term(s) to Query or View Index:" section, select "Filter" from the pull down menu.
• Click the "Index" button .
• The system will display the available filters, in alphabetical order, and, in parentheses, the number
of items associated with that filter.

Full Author Name [fau]


The complete name of the author. The format is last name then a space and the full first name, a
space and middle initial, if applicable.

Examples:
orent wendy [fau]
homsy yvonne m [fau]
camp-sorrell dawn [fau]

Item Type [item]


This field contains data related to the format of the material. Contains one of the following values:

• Book
• Book Chapter
• Collection manuscript
• Collection print
• Electronic Resource
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• Electronic Serial
• Kit
• Manuscript
• Map
• Mixed Material
• Nonmusical Recording
• Serial
• Still Image
• Three Dimensional Object
• Visual Material.

Examples:
book chapter [item]
electronic serial [item]
collection manuscript [item]

Journal [jo] and title abbreviation [ta]


Includes the journal title abbreviation, full journal title, or ISSN number. If a journal title contains
special characters, e.g., parentheses, brackets, enter the title without these characters.

Examples:
J Biol Chem [jo]
The Journal of Biological Chemistry [jo]
0021-9258 [jo]
J Hand Surg [Am] enter as J Hand Surg Am [jo]

You can also search for journals using the title abbreviation [ta] tag in the NLM Catalog.

Examples:
J Biol Chem [ta]
Tuberculosis and Airborne Disease Weekly[ta]

Language [la]

Examples:
chinese [la]
chi [la]
japanese [la]

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Examples:
jpn [la]

The complete list of languages used is based on the official list of languages provided in theMARC
Code List of Languages [http://www.loc.gov/marc/languages/langhome.html], a standard main-
tained by the U.S. Library of Congress.
To see the list of available languages, use the Preview/Index feature:

• Click on Preview/index on the action bar.


• Under the "Add Term(s) to Query or View Index:" section, select "language" from the pull down
menu.

• Click the "Index" button.


• The system will display the available languages, in alphabetical order, and, in parentheses, the
number of items associated with that language.

MESH Major Topic [majr]


A MeSH term that is one of the main topics discussed in an item denoted by an asterisk on the
MeSH term or MeSH/Subheading combination.

Examples:
nursing care [majr]
hiv [majr]
Neurosecretion/physiology [majr]

MeSH Subheading [sh]


MeSH Subheadings are used with MeSH terms to help describe more completely a particular aspect
of a subject. For example, the drug therapy of asthma is displayed as asthma/drug therapy. The
MeSH Subheading field allows users to "free float." MeSH Subheadings automatically include the
more specific Subheading terms under the term in a search. To turn off this automatic feature, use
the search syntax [sh:noexp]. In addition, you can enter the MEDLINE two letter MeSH Subheading
abbreviations [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=helppubmed.table.pubmedhelp.T41]
rather than spelling out the Subheading.

Examples:
hypertension [mh] AND toxicity [sh]
therapy [sh:noexp] - Explosion turned off
dh [sh] = diet therapy [sh]

MeSH Terms [mh]


Notes on MeSH Terms and Major MeSH Topic search fields:

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NLM Catalog Help NLM Catalog

• To search the term only as a MeSH term, qualify it using the search field tags, e.g., [mh] for MeSH
Terms or [majr] for MeSH Major Topic. A qualified term is checked against the MeSH Translation
table [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?
highlight=translation,table,mesh&rid=helppubmed.section.pubmedhelp.Appendices] and
mapped to the appropriate MeSH term. Some concepts may map to two or more MeSH terms.
To turn off this mapping, enclose the MeSH term in double quotes and qualify with [mh], e.g.,
"cold" [mh].

• MeSH terms are arranged hierarchically by subject categories with more specific terms arranged
beneath broader terms. MeSH terms in the NLM Catalog automatically include the more specific
MeSH terms in a search.

• To turn off the automatic inclusion of the more specific terms, use the syntax [field:noexp], e.g.,
hypertension [mh:noexp], or hypertension [majr:noexp], or hypertension/therapy [mh:noexp]. The
latter example turns off the more specific terms in both parts, searching for only the one
Subheading therapy attached directly to only the one MeSH term hypertension.

• If parentheses are embedded in a MeSH term, replace the parentheses with a space and qualify
with [mh].

Example:
MeSH term Benzo(a)pyrene enter as: benzo a pyrene [mh].

• MeSH terms can be selected for searching in the “Preview/Index”. "_Preview/Index" Preview/
Index.

NLM Unique ID [nlmid]


The alpha-numeric identifier for the item that was assigned by NLM's integrated library system
LocatorPlus.

Examples:
101208758 [nlmid]
101217747 [nlmid]

Olio [olio]
Includes: general note, NLM catalog record owner, abstract, contents note, and other abstract.

Examples:
hmd [olio]
anatomical illustrations [olio]
290-02-0022 [olio] - Contract number

Other Number [other num]


Includes: ISBN, government document classification number, LCCN, other id, and report number.

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Examples:
2003004777 [other num]
94-15043 [other num]

Other Term [ot]


Includes: broad journal heading and other subject name.

Examples:
american veterinary medical history society [ot]
nih guidelines [ot]

Personal Full Name as Subject [fps]


Use this search field tag to limit retrieval to where the name is the subject of the article. Search using
the full name; last name comma space and the first name.

Examples:
buck, pearl [fps]
bulgakov, mikhail [fps]

Personal Name as Subject [ps]


Use this search field tag to limit retrieval to records where the name is the subject of the title/material.
Search names following the Author field format.

Examples:
buck p [ps]
bulgakov m [ps]

Place of Publication [pl]


Indicates the country of publication of the item. Geographic regions are not directly searchable. In
order to retrieve records for all countries in a region (e.g., North America) it is necessary to OR
together the countries of interest.

Examples:
bethesda [pl]
germany [pl]
puerto rico [pl]

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Publication Status [status]


Includes the statuses of a serial: open, closed, or unknown.

Example:
open [status]

Publication Type [pt]


Describes the type of material the item represents; see the full list of publication types below.

Examples:
bibliography [pt]
festschrift [pt]
technical report [pt]

List of publication types.

Publication Year [dp]


The year that the item was published. To enter a year range, insert a colon (:) between each year.

Examples:
1998 [dp]
1998:2003 [dp] - date range

Publisher [publ]
Contains the publisher.

Examples:
national academy press [publ]
lippincott williams and wilkins [publ]
department of health and human services [publ]

Resource Type [res type]


This field contains one or more of the following values:

aperture card microfiche projected graphic undifferentiated


comic strip microfilm regalia
diskette microform undifferentiated remote electronic resource
electronic resource undifferentiated microscope slide slide
filmstrip model sound recording
flashcard motion picture text
graphic nonprojected graphic undifferentiated transparency
kit optical disc videorecording

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map picture

Examples:
electronic resource undifferentiated [res type]
map [res type]
sound recording [res type]

Series [ser]
Related items with an overall title for the group; they may be numbered.

Examples:
methods in molecular medicine [ser]
advances in experimental medicine and biology, v. 549 [ser]

Title [ti]
Words and numbers included in the title of an item. Do not use punctuation.

Examples:
clinical scenarios in thoracic surgery [ti]
nurses the essence of quality care a history of nursing at box hill hospital 1956-1991 [ti]
nursing home medical directors survey [ti]

URL [url]
The Uniform Resource Locator or the Web address of a particular item. To search for URLs, the
item must start with http:// and be enclosed in quotes. Also the URL must be the exact address of
the item.

Examples:
" http://www.medinfo.ufl.edu/other/pcnews/ "
" http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/educationkit/ "
" https://www.appi.org/book.cfm?id=62025 "

Customer Support
If you need more assistance, please select "Write to the Help Desk" on the bottom of each NLM
Catalog page.
You may also contact NLM Customer Service at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/contacts/custserv-
email.html.

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NLM Catalog Help NLM Catalog

(888) 346-3656
(888) FIND-NLM

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