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Webers Bureaucracy : Weber's (1947) paradigmatic studies on the subject are nothing less than brilliant, and according to his analysis, a proper bureaucracy (bureaucracy in its purest form), from a purely technical point of view, all other things being equal, always displays the characteristics of rational legal authority, as follows:

a continuous organization of official functions with rule boundaries specialization via specified spheres of competence in a division of labor a clearly defined organization of offices based on the principle of hierarchy rules which require qualifications and training to understand and administer impersonality via equality of treatment for all clients of the organization appointment and promotion on the basis of merit and not bias or favor payment on the basis of rank accompanied by pension rights separation of public and private life in terms of interests and finances strict, systematic discipline and control of day-to-day work decisions, acts, and rules formulated and recorded in writing

One is likely to see the above list in various forms, but be advised that when trying to simplify or abbreviate Weber, there is dangerous risk of oversimplification in making Weber seem cold and heartless to such a degree that an efficiently-run Nazi death camp might appear admirable. Weber had a strong belief in the use of logic and reason to improve the human condition (he favored casuistry and typology), and his purpose was clearly to develop an "ideal-type" model that was just that -- ideal -- a standard by which to judge and evaluate all other forms of organization. His model was an abstraction weaving an exaggeration of certain elements of reality into a logically precise conception based on a combination of inductive and deductive analysis, and it has heuristic value even if it does not match any existing instances of the phenomenon in reality (Arora 1972). Shorthand versions of Weber's principles abound; e.g., from Harmon and Mayer (1986): Division of labor -- the principle of fixed delegation of authority and responsibility inside the organization Structure based on hierarchy -- a pyramid of control like in the military where higherlevel officials supervise lower-level officials inside the organization Administration based upon information -- about employees, processes, records, reports, data, etc. Employment which presupposes expert training -- all employees hired by the organization must demonstrate their qualifications for the job through education, training, or experience Employees are full-time career workers -- this fosters increased organizational control over employees Operation of the organization is based upon rigid and impersonal rules of behavior -- this is usually taken to mean that bureaucracy is dehumanized; and from Heady (2001) who says the pivotal elements of Weber's conception are as follows: Hierarchy -- the element which most closely applies rationality to administrative tasks; firmly-graded levels of superordination and subordination in which higher offices supervise lower offices

Differentiation or Specialization -- differentiation is what sociologists mean by roles; specialization is the result of division of labor; both are necessary for cooperation to accomplish complex goals in organizations Qualification or Competence -- neither is the same as professionalism; competence means being a "fit" for the job and qualification means some degree of preparation and education.

Weber's characteristics of a bureaucracy are so pure that few organizations or associations would ever come close to complete realization of all of them. Nonetheless, they stand as the list of things which everyone agrees provides the highest degree of efficiency from among the choices for type of organizational structure (Denhardt 1998). A definition which similarly overemphasizes purposiveness or efficiency is the one provided by Jackson (1982:121): "a bureaucracy is a particular form of organization composed of bureaus or agencies, such that the overall system consists of conspicuously coordinated activities which have been explicitly created to achieve specific ends." What this efficiency-driven approach boils down to is the idea that bureaucracy rests on a notion that the complete ordering of time and space is possible. Think of the concept as a bureau or desk with drawers in it, which seems to call out to you, demanding that everything must fit in its place. Things that are untidy, or do not fit in some place, cannot be tolerated. This way of thinking is the bureaucratic mentality, and ultimately, when we are talking about bureaucracy, we are talking about a mindset, but one which exhibits a lot of variation. One of the areas where this mindset plays out has to do with control -- social control --and its ideal sanctioning system, criminal justice. Often, the following shorthand list of Weber's characteristics of bureaucracy is seen in criminal justice textbooks:

Rulification and routinization -- effort-saving rules and equal treatment Specific spheres of competence -- clear division of labor, specialization The principle of hierarchy -- leave no office uncontrolled Expertise of office holders -- managers to have technical training Written record-keeping -- everything to be recorded and filed; red tape

Since the more we simplify Weber, the more we make bureaucracy sound bad, it might be helpful to examine some of the reasons why Weber (1947) thought bureaucracies were good. The following are those reasons, and they are largely indisputable.

2.Difference between Maslow and Herzberg : Similarities:


Both use a hierarchical scale..where one stage must first be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage. Both are based on the argument that "we behave as we do because we are attempting to fulfill internal needs." i.e. needs theory

They both specify the criteria as to what motivates people. However, this is controversial because entrepenuers and people from different cultures have different values and norms, and therefore have different criteria or have criteria which are percieved as more important e.g. Greek and Japanese employees stated that safety and physiological needs are more important to them, where as employees from Norway and Sweden saw belongingness needs as being more important. Herzberg's hygiene idea corresponds with Manslow's Physiological, Safety and Belongingness needs i.e. they both have the same critieria (basic pay, work conditions etc...) Also, Herzberg's motivators idea corresponds with Manslow's Esteem and SelfActualisation needs i.e. they both have the same criteria (recognition, growth, achievement etc...). Both theories are influenced by environmental conditions, employee attitudes and as a result, their motivation. These influence an employees performance.

Differences:

Maslow says that each stage of the 5 must be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage..however, Herzberg suggested that there were only 2 stages (hygiene and motivators) instead of 5. Maslow said that fulfilling each stage is a motivator, however Herzberg said that fulfilling the hygiene stage only results in an employee being in neutral state and that satisfaction and motivation only comes from the 2nd stage (motivator).

Rest u take from anjali ghanekar 3. Management Principles developed by Henri Fayol:
1. DIVISION OF WORK: Work should be divided among individuals and groups to

ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization. 2. AUTHORITY: The concepts of Authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility.
3. DISCIPLINE: A successful organization requires the common effort of workers.

Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort.


4. UNITY OF COMMAND: Workers should receive orders from only one manager. 5. UNITY OF DIRECTION: The entire organization should be moving towards a

common objective in a common direction.

6. SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS TO THE GENERAL

INTERESTS: The interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole.
7. REMUNERATION: Many variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified

personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a workers rate of pay.
8. CENTRALIZATION: Fayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the

subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working.
9. SCALAR CHAIN: Managers in hierarchies are part of a chain like authority scale. Each

manager, from the first line supervisor to the president, possess certain amounts of authority. The President possesses the most authority; the first line supervisor the least. Lower level managers should always keep upper level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful.
10. ORDER: For the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to

a specific kind of work should be treated as equally as possible.


11. EQUITY: All employees should be treated as equally as possible. 12. STABILITY OF TENURE OF PERSONNEL: Retaining productive employees should

always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and Selection Costs, as well as increased product-reject rates are usually associated with hiring new workers.
13. INITIATIVE: Management should take steps to encourage worker initiative, which is

defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self direction.


14. ESPIRIT DE CORPS: Management should encourage harmony and general good

feelings among employees.

What is Stress? Meaning:

Stress is a general term applied to various mental and physiological pressures experienced by people feel in their lives. Definition of Stress: Stress may be defined as "a state of psychological and / or physiological imbalance resulting

from the disparity between situational demand and the individual's ability and / or motivation to meet those demands."

Causes of organizational Stress : 1. Career Concern 2. Role Ambiguity 3. Rotating Shifts 4. Role Conflict 5. Occupational Demands 6. Lack of Participation in Decision Making 7. Working Conditions 8. Organizational Changes 9. Work Overload (Qualitative work overload & Quantitative work overload) 10. Work Underload Causes of Non-organisational stress : 1. Civic Amenities 2. Life Changes 3. Frustration 4. Caste and Religion Conflicts 5. Personality 6. Technological Changes 7. Career Changes 8. Family 9. Personal 10. Relocation

Managing stress :

Guided Imagery Self-Hypnosis Autogenics Journaling Meditation Yoga Breathing Playing Games Laughter Biofeedback Music Therapy Take a Walk

Drink in Moderation Dont Procrastinate

Refer to anjali ghanekar for further