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Ecology 1. Which of the following processes does NOT release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere?

A. Photosynthesis
C. respiration

B .putrefaction D. burning

2. Which of the following crop plants is LEAST likely to deplete the soil of nitrates? A. Rice B. wheat C. peanuts D. potatoes

3. Addition of ammonium salts to the soil may lead to increase in its nitrate content. This is due to the action of

A. the putrefying bacteria.

C. the denitrifying bacteria.

B. the nitrifying bacteria. D. the nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Directions: Questions 4 and 5 refer to the simplified carbon cycle shown below:

4. Oxygen is consumed in processes

A. (1), (2) and (3) only.

C. (2), (3) and (5) only. 5. In the cycle shown above, bacteria and fungi are

B. (1), (3) and (4) only. D. (2), (4) and (5) only.

A. consumers.
C. parasites.

B. decomposers. D. producers. B. herbivores D. producers

6. Which of the following organisms occupies the lowest trophic level in a food chain?

A. Carnivores
C. omnivores 7. Which of the following occur in an ecosystem? (1) cycling of energy (2) cycling of materials (3) interaction among organisms

(4) interaction between organisms and the environment

A. (1) and (3) only

C. (2), (3) and (4) only snake

B. (2) and (4) only D. (1), (2), (3) and (4)

Directions: Questions 8 and 9 refer to the diagram below which shows a food web found in a woodland:

bird squirrel fly larva fruit tree 8. Which of the following are carnivorous? spider

A. spiders and birds

B. spiders and snakes

C. snakes and fly larvae

D. squirrels and fly larvae

9. Which of the following correctly describes the relationship between birds and spiders?

A. Competition
C. competition and mutualism 10. Plants and animals living together in a certain area form

B. predation and mutualism D. predation and competition B. a community. D. an ecosystem.

A. a habitat.
C. a population.

11. Which of the following does not show the true relationship between the organisms? Organisms concerned Relationship A tapeworm and man parasitism . B birds and caterpillars predation . C algae and bacteria in mutualism . lichen D barnacles attached to commensalisms . crabs Directions: Questions 12 and 13 refer to the diagram below which shows some of the pathways in the nitrogen cycle: 12. Which of the following represents nitrogen fixation? A. putrefying bacteria. B. nitrifying bacteria. C. denitrifying bacteria. D. nitrogen fixing bacteria. 13. The organisms involved in process 4 are A. putrefying bacteria. B. nitrifying bacteria C. denitrifying bacteria. D. nitrogen fixing bacteria. 14. Why is it necessary to add nitrogenous fertilizers regularly to a vegetable field but not to natural grassland? A. Vegetables are harvested. B. Grass can make use of atmospheric nitrogen. C. Grass grows best in soils with low nitrogen content. D. Denitrifying bacteria are especially active in vegetable fields. 15. The graph shows the yield of maize grain in relation to the amount of nitrogen fertilizer added to the soil:

What conclusion can be drawn from the graph? A. There would be no yield of maize grain without the addition of nitrogen fertilizer. B. The yield of maize grain is directly proportional to the amount of nitrogen fertilizer added.

C. It is not economical to add nitrogen fertilizer beyond 100 kg/ha. D. The addition of nitrogen fertilizer at a concentration of 200 kg/ha has a damaging effect on the environment. 16. The amount of carbon in the carbon cycle

A. is increasing rapidly.
C. is increasing slowly.

B. is decreasing rapidly. D. remains fairly constant.

17. An oak woodland consists of the following organisms in each trophic level: 1st trophic level: oak trees 2nd trophic level: insects and spiders 3rd trophic level: snakes and lizards 4th trophic level: birds Which of the following shows the relative number of organisms in each trophic level in the woodland?

18 . When a large amount of nitrogenous fertilizer leaches into a stream, which of the following graphs shows the likely changes in the populations of algae and bacteria along the stream?

19. If nitrogen-fixing genes can be transferred from leguminous plants into other crop plants, this can A. reduce the use of fertilizers. B. reduce the use of insecticides. C. increase the sugar content of the crop of plants. D. increase the resistance of crop plants to fungal infections. 20. Which of the following correctly identifies the three groups of organisms? X Y Z A decomposers consumers producers . B consumers decomposers producers . C producers consumers decomposers . D producers decomposers consumers . 21. Which of the following events can increase the nitrate content of soil?

(1) (2) (3)

lightning cultivation of wheat addition of humus

A. (1) and (2) only B. (1) and (3) only C. (2) and (3) only D. (1), (2) and (3) 22. Three food chains in an aquatic ecosystem are shown below:

(1) (2) (3)

algaelarge fish algaeshrimpslarge fish algaeshrimpssmall fishlarge fish

Which of the following statement is correct? A. In food chain (3) the large fish are at the third trophic level.

B. In food chain (3) the number of small fish is greater than that of the shrimps.
C. If the three food chains have the same energy input, food chain (3) can support the largest number of large fish. D. Sunlight is the ultimate source of energy of all the food chains.

23. The diagram below indicates the relative number of organisms at three different trophic levels in a food chain:

Which food chain can be represented by the above diagram?

A. B. C. D.

grassgrasshoppersbirds pond weedfishtapeworm grasssheeptapeworm treecaterpillarsbirds

24. The following graph shows the changes in the numbers of two species of organisms in the same habitat over a period of time:

The probable relationship between species A and B is A. commensalisms. B. competition. C. mutualism. D. predation. 24. A continuous supply of energy is essential for the maintenance of a stable ecosystem because A. it provides a warm environment for the organisms to carry out their activities. B. energy is constantly lost to the surroundings through various activities of the organisms. C. animals need a lot of energy to maintain a high metabolic rate. D. animals are independent on green plants for their food supply. Directions: Questions 25 and 26 refer to the diagram below which shows a simplified nitrogen cycle:

25. Which of the following processes does not involve the action of microorganisms? A. (1) B. (3) C. (6) D. (7)

Directions: Questions 26 and 27 refer to the following food chain found in the grassland:

26. As energy is transferred from grass to grasshopper, energy is lost as a result of

(1) Respiration. A. (1) only

C. (1) and (2) only

(2) Photosynthesis

(3) Transpiration. B. (3) only D .(2) and (3) only

27. The grasshopper and the mantis are green. This is an example of

A. Predation.
C. Commensalism.

B. Competition. D. Protective coloration.


A. B. C. D.

P Animal proteins Urea Animal proteins Nitrate

. What are P and Q? Q Nitrate Nitrate Urea Urea

28. Three food chains are shown below: 1: grass cow lion 2: tree beetle parasite of beetle 3: flowering plant butterfly bird They can be represented by the three pyramids of number X, Y and Z below:

29. Which of the following combinations correctly matches the food chains and the pyraminds? Pyramid X Pyramid Y Pyramid Z A. 1 2 3 B. 2 1 3 C. 2 3 1 D. 3 1 2 30. Which of the following processes helps to reduce the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

A. Respiration
C. decomposition

B. deforestation D. photosynthesis

31. What is the ecological relationship between P and Q?

A. Predation
C. Commensalism

B. Competition D. Mutualism

Directions: Questions 32 and 33 refer to the following food web: 32. Which of the following animals are tertiary consumers? A. B. C. D. Small bird and hawk Praying mantis and snake Grasshopper, caterpillar and rat Praying mantis, small bird and hawk

33. What is the relationship between hawk and snake? A. B. C. D. Competition and predation Competition and mutualism Predation and commensalism Commensalism and mutualism

34. The photograph below shows some egrets standing on the back of buffaloes: The egrets feed on insects in the grass, which the buffaloes disturb as they move around in the grass. The association between the egret and the buffalo is an example of A. B. C. D. predation. parasitism. competition. commensalism