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3/1999 International Rice Research Institute

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International Rice Reasearch Notes Copyright International Rice Research Institute 1999

The International Rice Research Notes (IRRN) expedites communication among scientists concerned with the development of improved
technology for rice and rice-based systems. The IRRN is a mechanism to help scientists keep each other informed of current rice research
findings. The concise scientific notes are meant to encourage rice scientists to communicate with one another to obtain details on the
research reported. The IRRN is published three times a year in April, August, and December by the International Rice Research Institute.

About the cover Wild rice species were Editorial Board Production Team
Michael Cohen (pest science and management), Katherine Lopez, Managing Editor
collected in many countries in Asia. Mr. Editor-in-Chief Editorial
Makara Uok of the Cambodia-IRRI- Darshan Brar (plant breeding; molecular and Bill Hardy and Tess Rola
Australia-Project collects wild rice Oryza cell biology)
Design and layout
nivara near a rice field in Kompong Speu, David Dawe (socioeconomics; agricultural
The CPS Creative Services Team:
Cambodia. Inset: Different types of wild engineering)
Albert Borrero, Grant Leceta, Erlie Putungan,
Achim Dobermann (soil, nutrient, and water
and weedy rice were found in Nepal and management; environment)
Juan Lazaro, Emmanuel Panisales
Lao. Bao-Rong Lu (genetic resources) Word processing
Cover photos: Baorong Lu Len Wade (crop management and physiology) Arleen Rivera

Taxonomy of the genus Oryza (Poaceae):
historical perspective and current status
B.R. Lu

Plant breeding

9 Effect of planting time on outcrossing percentage 11 Epistatic QTLs affecting hybrid breakdown
in CMS line seed production of rice in recombinant inbred populations derived
C. Lavanya, R. Vijaykumar, and N. Sreerama Reddy from indica-japonica crosses
Z.K. Li, L.J. Luo, H.W. Mei, D.B. Zhong,
10 Association between simple sequence repeat C.S. Ying, Q.Y. Shu, D.L. Wang, R. Tabien,
(SSR) marker diversity, pedigree record, J.W. Stansel, and A.H. Paterson
quantitative trait variation, and hybrid
performance in rice
12 Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci
(QTLs) associated with whitebacked planthopper
W. Xu, S.S. Virmani, J.E. Hernandez, Z.K. Li, and
E.D. Redoña in rice
P. Kadirvel, M. Maheswaran, and K. Gunathilagaraj


2 December 1999
Pest science & management

15 Effect of organic manures on some predators 18 Predation rates of Atypena formosana on brown
in the rice ecosystem planthopper and green leafhopper
J.C. Ragini, D. Thangaraju, and P.M.M. David L. Sigsgaard and S. Villareal

16 Effect of culture nutrients on the production 19 A procedure for determining the mating status
of Rhizoctonia solani toxins of the yellow stem borer
J. Danson, K. Wasano, and A. Nose A.M. Dirie, M.B. Cohen, and J.S. Bentur

17 Susceptibility of some cereal crops to cyst 20 A genomic library of Xanthomonas oryzae pv.
nematode Heterodera sacchari in West Africa oryzae in the broad host range mobilizing
D.L. Coyne and R.A. Plowright Escherichia coli strain S17-1
L. Rajagopal, S. Dharmapuri, A.T. Sayeepriyadarshini,
and R.V. Sonti

Soil, nutrient, & water management

22 Dual cropping of Azolla substitutes for second 23 Tools for plant-based N management in different
topdressing of N in rice rice varieties grown in southern India
R. Thamizh Vendan, G. Gopalaswamy, and R.M. Kumar, K. Padmaja, and S.V. Subbaiah
S. Antoni Raj

Crop management & physiology

25 Response of organic manures in a rice (Oryza 26 Effect of growth hormones on outcrossing

sativa)–chickpea (Cicer arietinum) crop sequence of cytoplasmic male sterile lines
G.R. Singh, S.S. Parihar, and N.K. Chaure R. Singh



IRRI marks 40th year

IRRI will celebrate its 40th year of founding in April 2000 under the
theme Rice Research for the New Millennium. During this time, the
Institute will reflect on its research accomplishments and focus on
new research thrusts that will ensure global food security in the new
millennium. m
To mark the occasion, the Institute will host the International
w M i ll e n n

Rice Research Conference from 31 March to 3 April; a special Farmer’s

Day on 3 April; and special events on the actual anniversary day of 4
April at which Philippine President Joseph Ejercito-Estrada has been
invited. Other high-ranking government officials, representatives from
other Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR) centers and nongovernment organizations, former IRRI staff, 1960-2000

alumni, and other guests are expected to attend the anniversary

celebration. ce


The IRRI 40th anniversary logo (right) shows stylized leaves and Res r
panicles rising out of a rice bowl, symbolizing four decades of rice earch fo
research that represents increasing quantity and quality of grain output.
IRRI at 40—40 years of achievement and 40 more years of challenges

IRRN 24.3 3

Taxonomy of the genus Oryza

(Poaceae): historical perspective
and current status
B.R. Lu, Genetic Resources Center, IRRI

Dr Baorong Lu, germplasm specialist of IRRI’s Genetic Resources

Center (GRC), collects wild rice Oryza rufipogon in Eastern Nepal.


T he genus Oryza L. is classified under the tribe Oryzeae, subfamily Oryzoideae, of the grass family Poaceae
(Gramineae). This genus has two cultivated species (O. sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud.) and more than 20
wild species distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. The Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa) is an
economically important crop that is the staple food for more than one-half of the world’s population. All the wild
relative species in the genus Oryza, together with weedy rice and different rice varieties, serve as an extremely
valuable genepool that can be used to broaden the genetic background of cultivated rice in breeding programs
(Brar and Khush 1997, Bellon et al 1998). Fuller exploitation of the wild rice genepool will provide many more
opportunities to significantly enhance rice productivity. More effective conservation management and more efficient
use of the valuable genetic diversity in the rice genepool, however, largely rely on the development of an appropriate
taxonomic and biosystematic framework for the genus Oryza.
Species in Oryza have already attracted enormous attention from scientists worldwide because of their
agronomic importance. Many studies on taxonomy, phylogeny, and genetic relationships of the Oryza species
have been conducted (Roschevicz 1931, Sampath 1962, Tateoka 1963, Sharma and Shastry 1965, 1972, Chang
1985, Vaughan 1989, 1994, Morishima et al 1992, Wang et al 1992, Lu et al 1998). Diversity in Oryza is tremendous,

4 December 1999
which is reflected in the different genomes and genomic Table 1. Species of Oryza as recognized by different taxonomists.The
“+” indicates species recognized by the author(s). The italic epithets
combinations in the genus, and in the significant morphological indicate commonly accepted taxa in modern literature; the bold italic
variation within and between species. On the other hand, the epithets indicate taxa that are no longer included in the genus Oryza.
Nonitalic epithets indicate names that are not valid anymore in the
great morphological variation in this genus also causes certain genus Oryza.
taxonomic difficulties, leading to ambiguous delimitation between

Sharma & Shastry (1972)

some Oryza taxa. In addition, different classification systems or

Ghose et al (1965)
Roschevicz (1931)

Chatterjee (1948)
taxonomic treatments have been proposed by authors who had

Chevalier (1932)
Prodoehl (1922)
Linnaeus (1753)

Sampath (1962)

Vaughan (1989)
Baillion (1894)a

Tateoka (1963)

Chang (1985)
access to herbarium specimens representing only certain
geographic regions. This makes the taxonomy of Oryza species
even more complicated. No single system has been generally
O. alta + + + + + +
accepted by scientists from different parts of the world to date. O. australiensis + + + + + + + + +
O. barthii +d +d +d +d +d + + + +
Historical perspective and species enumeration O. brachyantha + + + + + + + +
O. cubensis +
The genus Oryza was first described by Linnaeus (1753), who O. eichingeri + + + + + + +
recognized only one species, O. sativa, based on the samples of O. glaberrima + + + + + + + + + +
cultivated rice from Ethiopia. During the past two centuries, more O. glumaepatula + +i +
than 100 species were published in Oryza by different authors O. grandiglumis + + + + + + + + +
O. granulata +b +b + + +h +b + +
(for review, see Vaughan 1989), which gives this genus great O. latifolia + + + + + + + + + +
taxonomic complexity. Baillion (1894) was the first who tried to O. longiglumis + + + + +
make a more systematic classification of the genus. He recognized O. longistaminata +e +e +e +e + + + +
O. malampuzhaensis + + + +
five Oryza species and divided them into four sections, i.e., Sect. O. meridionalis + + +
Euoryza (O. sativa), Sect. Padia (O. meyeriana), Sect. O. meyeriana + + + + + +g + + + +
Potamophila (O. parviflora), and Sect. Maltebrunia (O. O. mezii +
O. minuta + + + + + + + + + +
leersioides and O. prehensilis). The latter two sections have been
O. nivara + + + +
treated as independent genera in the current taxonomy of the O. officinalis + + + + + + + + + +
tribe Oryzeae (Vaughan 1989). Roschevicz (1931) made a O. perennis + +
comprehensive review and detailed studies on Oryza species, O. punctata +c +c +c + +f +c + + + +
O. rhizomatis +
which were considered as the greatest contribution to Oryza O. ridleyi + + + + + + + + + +
taxonomic research at that time. He established a classification O. rufipogon + + + + +i +
system with 20 species in four sections, i.e., Sect. Sativa (with 12 O. sativa + + + + + + + + + + + +
O. schlechteri + + + + + + + + + +
species), Sect. Granulata (2 species), Sect. Coarctata (5 species), O. stapfii + + +
and Sect. Rhynchoryza (1 species). This system served as a O. angustifolia + +
foundation for Oryza taxonomic studies thereafter, although O. coarctata + + + + + +
O. perrieri + + + + +
some species have been transferred to other genera of the
O. subulata + + + + +
Oryzeae. Since then, the genus has been extensively reviewed O. tisseranti + + + + +
and revised by many taxonomists. Table 1 summarizes the number a
Only includes species currently recognized in Oryza. bO. abromeitiana was recognized. cO.
of species in the major taxonomic treatments of Oryza since its schweinfurthiana was recognized. dNamed as O. breviligulata by the author. eNamed as O.
establishment by Linnaeus in 1753. The number of species varied barthii by the author. fO. ubanghensis was recognized. gIncluding subsp. granulata and subsp.
abromeitiana. hO. indandamanica was recognized. i Including O. perennis.
from 5 to 27 in different systems established at different times.
The delimitation of the genus Oryza also varied through
time in different systems. The earlier taxonomists, such as Baillion
(1894), Roschevicz (1931), Chevalier (1932), Chatterjee (1948), The subdivisional treatment
Sampath (1962), Tateoka (1963), Sharma and Shastry (1965, The subdivision of Oryza into four sections by Roschevicz (1931)
1972), and Oka (1988), offered a wider generic delimitation. had a fundamental influence on subsequent rice taxonomists,
However, I recognize the same generic delimitation of Chang although the sectional epithets have been modified because of
(1985) and Vaughan (1989), in which the genus Oryza is the legitimacy of botanic nomenclature. Sect. Sativa and Sect.
characterized by having a spikelet containing a single terminal Granulata recognized by Roschevicz (1931) correspond to Sect.
fertile floret (composed of a lemma, palea, six stamens, and a Euoryza and Sect. Padia published by Baillion (1894). According
bifid feathery stigma) and two sterile lemmas (sometimes referred to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN),
to as glumes) connected to the base of the floret through a rachilla. however, the type section should be named Oryza, which should
O. coarctata is now in Porteresia; O. angustifolia, O. perrieri, replace both Sect. Euoryza and Sect. Sativa. Sect. Padia is a valid
and O. tisseranti are in Leersia, and O. sabulata is in epithet because it was legally published by Baillion (1894) earlier
IRRN 24.3 5
than Sect. Meyeriana named by Roschevicz (1931). Sect. different complexes had a distinct morphological variation, but
Coarctatae and Sect. Rhynchoryza should no longer be included species within complexes had an ambiguous delimitation.
in Oryza, following the present generic delimitation by Chang Following this concept, Vaughan (1989) developed a classification
(1985) and Vaughan (1989). Table 2 summarizes the subdivisional system and recognized 22 species in four complexes (Table 2),
treatments of Oryza by different taxonomists at different times. with two species, O. brachyantha and O. schlechteri, outside of
Among these treatments, the ones by Sharma and Shastry these four complexes. The significant change in this Oryza
(1965, 1972) and Vaughan (1989) have been more extensively classification system is that, based on a thorough study of target
accepted in different parts of the world. The subdivisional plant materials from all over the world, Vaughan (1989) removed
treatments by Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972) seemed to be a few species from Oryza and made the delimitation of this genus
influenced by that of Roschevicz (1931), but with a significant more reasonable. He also provided distribution maps of all Oryza
revision in terms of the subdivisional ranks and their species species and available genomic data for most species, which largely
inclusion. In the systems of Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972), 26 promoted a better understanding of the species relationships in
species were recognized and included in eight (or nine) series of the genus. In his later publication titled “The wild relatives of
three sections. Species included in Sect. Oryza and Sect. Padia rice: a genetic resources handbook,” Vaughan (1994) provided
by Sharma and Shastry (1965) all conform to the present generic further information for each Oryza species, such as morphological
delimitation of Oryza, but most of the species (including the type characterization, distribution, habitat, and species affinities within
species O. angustifolia) recognized by Sharma and Shastry (1965) the genus. He also included his newly published species, Oryza
in Sect. Angustifolia have no longer been included in Oryza. Only rhizomatis Vaughan from Sri Lanka, in this handbook.
O. brachyantha remains in the genus. Therefore, the epithet
Angustifolia should not be valid as a section in Oryza. Considering A proposed taxonomic treatment
that O. brachyantha is morphologically and genetically very Since the publication of Sharma and Shastry’s taxonomic systems
distinct from all other Oryza species, this species should be (1965, 1972), several newly described species, such as O.
treated as a separate section. meridionalis Ng, O. rhizomatis, and O. neocaledonica Morat,
Vaughan’s classification of four complexes (1989) was have been added to Oryza. On the other hand, some species
obviously influenced by that of Tateoka (1962a). Based on an recognized by Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972) in their systems,
extensive morphological study of all Oryza species from different such as O. cubensis Ekman, O. malampuzhaensis Krish. et
sources, Tateoka (1962a,b, 1963) made a comprehensive revision Chand., O. angustifolia Hubb., O. perrieri Camus, and O.
of the genus Oryza. He divided the Oryza species into two major tisseranti A. Chev., have been either considered as invalid epithets
categories, based mainly on morphological variation. The first or moved from Oryza to other genera of the Oryzeae. The generic
group contained morphologically distinct species, such as O. delimitation of Oryza by Sharma and Shastry (1965, 1972)
schlechteri, O. australiensis, O. brachyantha, O. coarctata, O. therefore needs to be updated to respond to current changes in
angustifolia, O. perrieri, and O. tisseranti, whereas the second the genus. Vaughan’s classification (1989) better reflects the
group included species with taxonomic difficulties. He placed all current circumscription and enumeration of the genus Oryza,
species belonging to the second group into five complexes, i.e., but unfortunately the subdivisional rank “complex” that he
O. latifolia complex (7 species), O. sativa complex (3 species), adopted in his system has no legal standing in the International
O. glaberrima complex (3 species), O. ridleyi complex (2 Code of Botanic Nomenclature (Art. 21.1, Greuter et al 1994). In
species), and O. meyeriana complex (2 species). Species between addition, this classification system leaves two species outside of

Table 2. Subdivisional treatments of Oryza by different rice taxonomists.

Roschevicz Chevalier Ghose et al Sharma & Shastryb Tateokac Oka Vaughanc
(1931) (1932) (1965) (1965, 1972) (1963) (1988) (1989)
Sect. Sativa Sect. Euoryza Sect. Sativa Sect. Oryza O. latifolia Sect. Oryzae O. sativa
Sect. Granulata Sect. Padia Sect. Officinalis Ser. Latifoliae O. sativa Sect. Schlechterianae O. officinalis
Sect. Coarctataa Sect. Sclerophylluma Sect. Granulata Ser. Sativae O. glaberrima Sect. Granulatae O. ridleyi
Sect. Rhynchoryzaa Sect. Rhynchoryzaa Sect. Padia O. ridleyi Sect. Ridleyanae O. meyeriana
Ser. Schlechterianae O. meyeriana Sect. Angustifoliaea Otherse
Ser. Meyerianae Othersd Sect. Coarctataea
Ser. Ridleyanae
Sect. Angustifoliaa
Ser. Brachanthae
Ser. Perrierianae
All or some species in this section are no longer included in Oryza. bThe treatments by Sharma & Shastry in 1965 and 1972 were essentially the same. In the earlier treatment (1965),
Sect. Oryza included the third Ser. Australienses. cThe entity “complex” was used as a subdivisional rank. dFive species were placed outside of any of the complexes. eTwo species were
placed outside of any of the complexes.

6 December 1999
any of the complexes, which makes the classification incomplete. O. grandiglumis (Doell) Prod.
I therefore propose a taxonomic system of Oryza basically O. latifolia
following the classification into three sections suggested by O. minuta J.S. Presl. et C.B. Presl.
Sharma and Shastry (1965), but with certain modifications to O. officinalis Wall. ex Watt
match current changes in the genus. In my proposed system, 24 O. punctata Kotechy ex Steud.
species are recognized and placed in three sections, i.e., Sect. O. rhizomatis Vaughan
Padia (with 3 series and 6 species), Sect. Oryza (3 series and 17 6. Ser. Australienses Tateoka ex Sharma et Shastry. (Type:
species), and the newly established Sect. Brachyantha (1 series O. australiensis Domin.).
and 1 species). This classification mirrors appropriately the O. australiensis
enumeration of Oryza species and their relationships, and it also 7. Ser. Sativae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O. sativa L.).
gains support through many morphological, cytological, and O. barthii A. Chev.
molecular studies of the genus. O. glaberrima Steud.
O. glumaepatula Steud.
I. Sect. Padia (Zoll. et Mor.) Baill. (Type: O. granulata Nees et O. longistaminata Chev. et Roehr.
Arn. ex Watt). O. meridionalis Ng
1. Ser. Meyerianae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O. O. nivara Sharma et Shastry
granulata). O. rufipogon Griff.
O. granulata O. sativa
O. meyeriana (Roll. et Mor. ex Steud.) Baill.
O. neocaledonica Morat References
2. Ser. Ridleyanae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O. ridleyi Baillion N. 1894. Histoire des plantes. Vol. XII, Paris.
Hook. f.). Bellon MR, Brar DS, Lu BR, Pham JL. 1998. Rice genetic resources. In:
Dowling NG, Greenfield SM, Fischer KS, editors. Sustainability of rice in
O. longiglumis Jansen
the global food system. Davis, Calif. (USA): Pacific Basin Study Center
O. ridleyi and Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. p 251–
3. Ser. Schlechterianae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: 283.
O. schlechteri Pilger). Brar SD, Khush GS. 1997. Alien introgression in rice. Plant Mol. Biol. 35:35–
O. schlechteri 47.
Chang TT. 1985. Crop history and genetic conservation: rice – a case study.
Iowa State J. Res. 59:425–455.
II. Sect. Brachyantha B.R. Lu, sect. nov. (Type: O. brachyantha Chatterjee D. 1948. A modified key and enumeration of the species of Oryza
Chev. et Roehr.). L. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 18:185–192.
Plantae graciles, annuae; culmi tenues, erecti, glabri; folia Chevalier A. 1932. Nouvelle contribution a l’etude systematique des Oryza.
linearia; inflorescentia erecta, racemosa; rami principes Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 12:1014–1032.
inflorescentiae flexui, nervosi; spicula linearia oblongaque, 8.5-9 Ghose RLM, Ghatge MB, Subramanyan V. 1965. Rice in India. New Delhi
(India): Indian Council of Agicultural Research. 507 p.
× 0.8-1.8 mm; lemmata sterilia glabra, subulata, 1-2 × 8.5-9 mm,
Greuter W, Burdet HM, Chaloner WG, Demoulin V, Nicolson DH, Silva PC,
aliquando absentia; rachila curvata lunae instar; lemma fertilis editors. 1988. International Code of Botanic Nomenclature. Adopted by
mucronatum, 6-8 mm longum, 0.8-1.5 mm latum; aristae robustae, the Fourteenth International Botanical Congress, Berlin, July-August
scabrae, 6-10 cm longae; antherae 1.8-2.5 mm longae. 1987, Regnum Vegetabile.
Plants gracile, annual; culms slender, erect, glabrous; leaves Linnaeus C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Vol. I. Stockholm. Facsimile edition.
linear; inflorescence erect, racemose; main axes of inflorescence Lu BR, Naredo MEB, Juliano AB, Jackson MT. 1998. Taxonomic status of
Oryza glumaepatula Steud. III. Assessment of genomic affinity among
flexuous, ribbed; spikelets oblong-linear, 8.5-9 × 0.8-1.8 mm; AA genome species from the New World, Asia, and Australia. Genet.
sterile lemmas glabrous, subulate, 1-2 mm long, sometimes Resour. Crop Evol. 45:205–214.
absent; rachilla bent in a comma-shape; fertile lemma mucronate, Morishima H, Sano Y, Oka HI. 1992. Evolutionary studies in cultivated rice
6-8 × 0.8-1.5 mm; awns robust, scabrous, 6-10 cm long; anthers and its wild relatives. Oxford Surv. Evol. Biol. 8:135–184.
1.8-2.5 mm long. Oka HI. 1988. Origin of cultivated rice. Tokyo: Japan Science Society Press.
254 p.
4. Ser. Brachyanthae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O.
Prodoehl A. 1922. Oryzeae monographice describuntur. Bot. Arch. 1:211–
brachyantha). 224, 231–256.
O. brachyantha Roschevicz RI. 1931. A contribution to the study of rice. Turdy Prikl. Bot.
III. Sect. Oryza. (Type: O. sativa L.). Genet. Selek. 27(4):3–133.
5. Ser. Latifoliae Sharma et Shastry. (Type: O. latifolia Sampath S. 1962. The genus Oryza: its taxonomy and species
Desv.). interrelationships. Oryza 1(1):1–29.
Sharma SD, Shastry SVS. 1965. Taxonomic studies in the genus Oryza. VI. A
O. alta Swallen modified classification of genus. Indian J. Genet. 25(2):173–178.
O. eichingeri A. Peter

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Sharma SD, Shastry SVS. 1972. Evolution in genus Oryza. Advancing frontiers Vaughan DA. 1989. The genus Oryza L. Current status of taxonomy. IRRI Res.
in cytogenetics. Proceedings of the National Seminar, 1972. New Delhi Pap. Ser.
(India): Hindustan Publishing Corporation. p 5–20. Vaughan DA. 1990. A new rhizomatous Oryza species (Poaceae) from Sri
Tateoka T. 1962a. Taxonomic studies of Oryza. I. O. latifolia complex. Bot. Lanka. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 103:159–163.
Mag. Tokyo 75:418–427. Vaughan DA. 1994. The wild relatives of rice: a genetic resources handbook.
Tateoka T. 1962b. Taxonomic studies of Oryza. II. Several species complex. Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.
Bot. Mag. Tokyo 75:455–461. Wang ZY, Second G, Tanksley SD. 1992. Polymorphism and phylogenetic
Tateoka T. 1963. Taxonomic studies of Oryza. III. Key to the species and relationships among species in the genus Oryza as determined by
their enumeration. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 76:165–173. analysis of nuclear RFLPs. Theor. Appl. Genet. 83:565–581.

4th International Rice Genetics Symposium set for

October 2000

The Fourth International Rice Genetics Symposium (IRGS) will be Scientists interested in attending the symposium should
held at IRRI on 22-27 October 2000. The first IRGS was held in send a registration form indicating their name, academic title, ad-
1985. It led to the birth of the Rice Genetics Cooperative (RGC), dress (phone, fax, email), and tentative presentation title to Dr. G.S.
which aimed to promote international cooperation in rice genetics. Khush at IRRI, MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines (fax:
The same year, the Rockefeller Foundation organized the Interna- 0063-2-761-2404; email: or to Dr. T. Kinoshita,
tional Program on Rice Biotechnology, which has played a major Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9, Nishi 9, Sapporo
role in advancing the frontiers of rice science, international 060, Japan (fax: 0081-11-706-4934; email:
collaboration, and human resource development in rice. During
the second IRGS (held in 1990), a unified numbering system for
Important dates
rice chromosomes and linkage groups was established. More than
1 April 2000 - Deadline for abstracts
500 scientists from 31 countries participated in the third IRGS (held
in 1995). Correct orientation of classical and molecular linkage maps 30 June 2000 - Deadline for full papers
was one of the symposium highlights.
The members of the organizing committee are J. Bennett, D.S. Brar,
Major advances in the genetics and molecular biology of
rice have become apparent during the past 15 years. A high-density S.K. Datta, B. Hardy, M.T. Jackson, G.S. Khush, H. Leung, and Z. Li.
molecular genetic map of more than 2,300 DNA markers has been For more information, contact
developed and several genes of economic importance as well as D.S. Brar
quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been tagged with molecular Chair, Organizing Committee
markers. Synteny relationships between genomes of rice and 4th International Rice Genetics Symposium
several other cereals have been established. Molecular marker- International Rice Research Institute
aided selection is being used to move genes from one varietal MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines
background to another and to pyramid genes. Scientists have Tel.: (63-2) 845-0563 ext. 709
developed BAC and YAC libraries and are using them in the physical Fax: (63-2) 891-1292, 761-2406, 845-0606
mapping of the rice genome. A map-based cloning strategy has E-mail:
been used to isolate agronomically important genes. Regeneration IRRI Web site:
from protoplasts of many indica and japonica varieties has allowed
researchers to introduce novel genes into elite germplasm through
transformation. More recently, biolistic and Agrobacterium-medi-
ated transformation procedures have become available.
International programs on rice genome sequencing and functional
genomics have been established. These developments have opened
new frontiers in rice molecular biology, particularly for
understanding the genetic architecture of traits and their
manipulation, modifying gene expression, genome sequencing,
functional genomics, and gene discovery. Researchers are using
these breakthroughs to develop rice varieties with higher yield
potential and yield stability for feeding 50% more rice consumers
by 2025.
The fourth IRGS will feature plenary sessions, oral presen-
tations, and poster sessions. Participants will discuss the latest de-
velopments in rice systematics and evolution, cytogenetics, classical
genetics, tissue and cell culture, molecular markers, genetic engi-
neering, and genomics. The proceedings will be published.

8 December 1999
Plant breeding

Effect of planting time on outcrossing percentage

in CMS line seed production of rice
C. Lavanya, R.Vijaykumar, and N. Sreerama Reddy, Agricultural Research Station (ARS), Maruteru
534122, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India E-mail:

Commercial exploitation of hybrid rice October 1994 at ARS following standard Data on yield, yield components,
depends on the identification of suitable seed production practices. IR62829A was and daily meteorological information for
heterotic combinations; their stable sown on the first of every month followed 10 d from the initial flowering date are
cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS), maintainer, by staggered sowing of IR62829B at 2-d presented for each set of sowing dates (see
and restorer lines and economically viable intervals, i.e., on the fifth and seventh of table). A simple correlation was estimated
seed production technology; seed every month. Twenty-eight-day-old between outcrossing percentage, seed
distribution infrastructure; and other seedlings were transplanted in each plot yield, and weather parameters.
factors. Although several heterotic of 40 m2 consisting of 24 rows with a row Results revealed that June
combinations with stable CMS lines of IRRI ratio of 4A: 2B lines and a spacing of 15 × flowering (April sowing) was the most
origin were developed at the ARS, seed 20 cm. During transplanting, seedlings of favorable time, followed by August and
production is yet to be perfected. A higher B lines sown during different dates (D1 and September flowering periods. An
outcrossing rate is one of the major factors D2) were planted alternately. Two rows of increasing trend was observed between
contributing to higher seed yield in B lines were planted at the end of each set wind velocity and outcrossing percentage
hybrid rice. Seed yield depends on several as border rows. At initial flowering, flag (r = 0.95**) and seed yield (r = 0.97**).
cultural and environmental factors such as leaves of CMS lines were clipped from the In this study, maximum temperature
planting time and weather parameters top half to one-third to facilitate free (cv 6.7%), minimum temperature (cv
from flowering to maturity. This study movement of pollen. Supplementary 13.3%), and relative humidity (cv 5.2%)
identifies suitable seasons for effective pollination techniques such as pulling a were less variable than wind velocity (cv
and economically viable hybrid seed long nylon rope (5 mm diam) back and 56.5%). Both maximum and minimum
production. forth every 30 min or shaking the pollen temperatures within a range of 28.9/19.6
A trial was carried out at monthly parent with a bamboo pole were followed °C to 36.2/29.4 °C, however, were not
intervals from 1 November 1993 to 1 at peak anthesis for about a week to correlated with outcrossing (r = 0.27, 0.56)
increase outcrossing percentage. and seed yield (r = 0.08, 0.56). Relative

Weather parameters affecting outcrossing percentage in CMS line seed multiplication.

Temperature Relative Wind

Month of Initial Outcrossing Seed yield (%) humidity velocity
sowing flowering (%) (kg ha-1) (%) (m s-1)
Max Min

June 23 Aug 93 22.8 819 31.9 27.5 85.0 2.20

July 17 Sep 93 12.4 408 30.9 26.2 91.7 1.60
Aug 15 Oct 93 9.5 327 32.9 27.3 92.3 0.60
Sep 23 Nov 93 11.9 374 31.4 21.7 88.3 0.90
Oct 24 Dec 93 15.0 492 28.9 19.9 86.1 1.40
Nov 31 Jan 94 11.8 347 30.5 19.6 90.6 0.70
Dec 3 Mar 94 12.3 434 33.2 21.7 89.5 0.80
Jan 24 Mar 94 13.5 459 33.4 22.8 91.9 0.98
Feb 28 Apr 94 15.4 498 36.2 25.8 78.3 1.40
Mar 24 May 94 17.9 514 35.8 27.1 80.0 1.70
Apr 22 June 94 24.6 912 34.9 29.4 86.2 3.14
May 19 July 94 23.3 861 32.2 25.8 87.3 3.08
Mean 15.9 554 32.7 24.6 87.3 1.54
“t” calculated 1.37 0.29

IRRN 24.3 9
humidity was negatively correlated with The outcrossing potential in CMS (mean 1.54 m s -1) prevailing at ARS,
outcrossing (r = –0.47) and seed yield lines, however, was higher in semiarid Maruteru. Seed production of hybrid rice
(r = –0.5). The study indicates that seed zones such as Warangal (43.9%) and Palem may thus be more efficient and economical
production can be taken up in areas of (40.2%) than in a humid zone such as in semiarid zones of the country.
artificial irrigation with tube wells or bore Maruteru (19.4%) in Andhra Pradesh. This
wells during summer months (April and may be due to the relatively higher ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

May) without hindering the normal crop humidity (80-90%) and low wind velocity

Association between simple sequence repeat (SSR)

marker diversity, pedigree record, quantitative trait
variation, and hybrid performance in rice
W. Xu, IRRI and Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Division (PBBD), Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), Nueva
Ecija; S.S.Virmani, IRRI; J.E. Hernandez, Department of Agronomy, University of the Philippines Los Baños; Z.K. Li, IRRI;
and E.D. Redoña, PBBD, PhilRice, Philippines E-mail:

Knowledge of genetic diversity among derived using data on 11 quantitative genetic diversity are not consistently
prospective parental lines is important for characters: days to flowering, flag leaf associated with each other. This confirms
the success of a hybrid breeding program. length and width (cm), plant height (cm), previous reports in durum wheat (Autrique
Genetic diversity is usually measured using number of productive tillers, panicle et al 1996) and barley (Shut et al 1997).
pedigree information, plant phenotypic length (cm), 100-grain weight (g), grain No correlation was observed
data, and molecular markers. In this study, yield per plant (g), grain length and width between the diversity measures based on
we determined the relationship between (mm), and panicle weight (g). SSR assays all SSR markers and F1 performance or
various genetic diversity measures and with 37 primer pairs were made at midparent heterosis for all quantitative
hybrid performance in rice. PhilRice’s Genetic Laboratory. Nei and Li traits measured (Table 2), indicating that
The materials used in this study (1979) coefficients were then derived. molecular diversity in a random set of SSR
were 37 maintainer and 44 restorer lines Correlation analysis between various markers is not useful in predicting
of the WA-CMS (wild abortive-cytoplasmic diversity measures and hybrid midparent heterosis. Prediction power
male sterile) system, which represented performance or midparent heterosis on six should be improved if selected markers are
germplasm of different origins (IRRI, measured traits (plant height, grain yield, linked to quantitative trait loci affecting
Philippines, and China) used in our total plant weight, 100-grain weight, grain heterosis. Genetic diversity measured by
tropical hybrid rice breeding program. The length and width) was performed. the pedigree-based coefficient of
pedigrees of these parental lines could be In the analysis of variance across coancestry was significantly correlated
traced back to ultimate ancestors that had three locations, significant to highly with the F1 mean performance but not with
no known pedigree information based on significant differences were observed for midparent heterosis for highly heritable
published pedigree records (IRRI 1985, all quantitative traits under investigation, traits, inluding 100-grain weight, grain
1995) and PhilRice technical notes. Of except for flag leaf width. The mean length, and plant height. Therefore,
these lines, 10 maintainer and 18 restorer number of alleles per SSR locus was 4.24 pedigree information can be useful in
lines were randomly selected to produce ± 1.71, ranging from 2 to 9. There was one tracing genes of additive action. D 2
34 F1 hybrids in 1997. The hybrids and their locus where more than 5 alleles were estimates based on quantitative trait
parents were evaluated at three field resolved. differences between parents were
locations in the Philippines from the 1997 There was no or poor correlation significantly associated with F1 performance
dry season to 1998 dry season. between different measurements of for plant height and midparent heterosis
Coefficients of coancestry were diversity and the pedigree records for both for total plant weight, plant yield, and 100-
calculated for the parental lines using the B and R lines (Table 1). These results grain weight.
pedigree information. D2 estimates were suggested that the methods for measuring

10 December 1999
Table 1. Correlation coefficients among genetic diversity measures in maintainer (B) and References
restorer (R) lines of rice.a Autrique E, Nachi MN, Monneveux P, Tanksley SD,
Quantitative trait SSR Sorrels ME. 1996. Genetic diversity in durum
wheat based on RFLPs, morphological traits
Pedigree record –0.061 (B) 0.092* (B)
and coefficient of parentage. Crop Sci.
0.216**(R) 0.033 (R)
Quantitative trait 0.025 (B)
0.047 (R) Nei M, Li W. 1979. Mathematical model for
*, **indicate significance levels of P ≤ 5% and 1%, respectively. studying genetic variance in terms of
restriction endonucleases. Proc. Natl. Acad.
Sci. USA 76:5269–5273.
Table 2. Correlation between hybrid performance (F1), midparent heterosis (HMP), and differ- Shut JW, Qi X, Stam P. 1997. Association between
ent diversity measures of parental lines.a relationship measures based on AFLP
markers, pedigree data and morphological
Basis for Plant height Total plant Grain yield 100-grain Grain length Grain width traits in barley. Theor. Appl. Genet.
diversity (cm) weight per plant weight (mm) (mm) 95:1161–1168.
(g) (g) (g)
SSR markers ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

F1 –0.03 –0.02 0.07 –0.04 –0.01 0.09

HMP 0.30 –0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.01
Pedigree record
F1 0.34* 0.19 –0.07 0.43** 0.43** –0.26
HMP 0.30 0.14 0.10 0.01 0.26 0.05
Quantitative traits
F1 0.40* –0.03 –0.18 0.16 0.05 0.32
HMP 0.12 0.38* 0.40* 0.42* 0.23 0.01
*, **indicate significance levels of P ≤ 5% and 1%, respectively.

Epistatic QTLs affecting hybrid breakdown in recombinant

inbred populations derived from indica-japonica crosses
Z.K. Li, IRRI and Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843 USA; L.J.
Luo, H.W. Mei, D.B. Zhong, C.S.Ying, China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI), Hangzhou; Q.Y. Shu, D.L. Wang,
Department of Agronomy, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou, China; R. Tabien, J.W. Stansel, IRRI; and A.H.
Paterson, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, USA E-mail:

Inbreeding depression (ID), the depressive biomass, which appeared to shed some QTLMAPPER v. 1.0 based on a threshold
effect on the expression of traits, arises light on the genetic basis of HB in rice. of LOD >2.5 (Wang et al 1999).
primarily from increasing homozygosity in A set of 254 F10 recombinant inbred The mean HB of the RILs was –2.7
outcrossing species. Heterosis (H), the lines (RILs) derived from a cross between t ha (–54.6%) and –3.7 t ha-1 (–37.7%),

superiority of F1 performance relative to Lemont (japonica) and Teqing (indica) was ranging from –4.5 t ha-1 (–90.8%) to 2.5 t
parental performance, is associated with used. The parents and RILs were evaluated ha-1 (50.8%) for GY and from –7.6 t ha-1
heterozygosity (Allard 1960, Filho 1999). In for grain yield (GY) and biomass (BY) per (–78.4%) to 4.1 t ha-1 (42.2%) for BY.
quantitative genetic theory, ID and H are plant in a replicated trial conducted The segregation of the RILs for BY
due to nonadditive gene actions and are at CNRRI in 1996. Genotyping was and GY could be largely explained by four
considered as two aspects of the same conducted at Texas A&M University, USA. main-effect QTLs and seven pairs of
phenomenon (Mather and Jinks 1982). A complete linkage map of 182 markers epistatic loci (see table). Four main-effect
Recently, Li et al (1997) suggested that spanned 1,918.7 cM and covered 12 rice QTLs affecting both GY and BY were
hybrid breakdown (HB) in rice is part of chromosomes with an average interval of mapped to chromosomes 2, 3, and 9,
ID due largely to additive epistasis. In this 11.3 cM between markers (Li et al 1999). which unlikely contributed to HB since the
study, we examined HB in a recombinant The values of HB (RILs – MP) for GY and effects of two alleles at each QTL tend to
inbred (RI) population of rice and mapped BY were used as input data, where MP was cancel each other. On the other hand, all
main-effect and epistatic quantitative trait the mid-parent value. A mixed linear model but one pair of the epistatic QTLs had
loci (QTLs) associated with grain yield and was used for mapping epistatic QTLs using significant positive epistatic effects on GY

IRRN 24.3 11
and/or BY. According to Mather and Jinks References Li ZK, Pinson SRM, Paterson AH, Park WD, Stansel
(1982), this indicated that most Allard RW. 1960. Inbreeding depression and JW. 1997. Genetics of hybrid sterility and
interactions between alleles from the same heterosis. In: Principles of plant breeding. hybrid breakdown in an inter-subspecific
New York: John Wiley & Sons. p 213–223. rice (Oryza sativa L.) population. Genetics
parents generally resulted in increased GY 145:1139–1148.
Filho JBM. 1999. Inbreeding depression and
and/or BY, whereas those between alleles heterosis. In: Coors JG, Pandey S, editors. Mather K, Jinks JL. 1982. Biometrical genetics.
from different parents resulted in reduced Genetics and exploitation of heterosis in London: Chapman and Hall.
GY and BY. These results indicated that crops. Madison, Wisconsin (USA): American Wang DL, Zhu J, Li ZK, Paterson AH. 1999.
disharmonic interactions between the Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Mapping QTLs with epistatic effects and
Society of America. p 69–80. QTL × environment interactions by mixed
japonica (Lemont) alleles and the indica
Li ZK, Luo LJ, Mei HW, Paterson AH, Zhao XH. model approaches. Theor. Appl. Genet. (in
(Teqing) alleles at these epistatic loci were press)
1999. A “defeated” rice resistance gene acts
largely responsible for HB observed in the as a QTL against a virulent strain of
RI population. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Mol. Gen.
Genet. 261:58–63. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Main-effect QTLs and digenic epistatic loci affecting hybrid breakdown of biomass (BY, in t ha-1) and grain yield (GY, in t ha-1) in the Lemont/
Teqing RILs of rice.

Trait Chromosome Marker interval i Chromosome Marker interval i LOD a ia aj aij

BY 2 C624x–G45 2.65 1.08***

GY 2.26 0.55***
BY 3 C515–RG348 9.81 –1.86***
GY 8.37 –0.84***
BY 3 G249–RG418 5.50 –1.54***
GY 5.87 –0.82***
BY 9 RG451–RZ404 3.53 –1.03***
GY 2.29 –0.43***
BY 5 gl1–Y1049 11 L457b–G2132b 3.80 - - 0.76***
GY 4.66 - - 0.44***
BY 1 R210–RZ382 5 RG556–gl1 2.58 - - 0.42**
GY 3.98 –0.29* - 0.31***
BY 7 G20–RG30 12 G402–RG20q 5.10 –0.73** - 0.65***
GY 2.52 –0.29* - 0.23**
BY 8 CSU754–G104 10 CDO98–RG752 2.86 - –0.56* 0.52***
GY 3.95 - –0.42** 0.28***
BY 2 RG654–RG256 9 CDO82–CDO226b 4.24 - –0.68** 0.51***
GY 2.66 - - 0.23**
BY 1 RZ382–RG532 11 RG1109–RZ537b 2.50 –0.57* - –0.54**
ai and aj were the main effects of the epistatic loci associated with the Lemont allele, and aij was the epistatic effect between loci i and j. *, **, *** represent the significance levels of P
<0.05, 0.001, and 0.0001, respectively.

Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs)

associated with whitebacked planthopper in rice
P. Kadirvel, M. Maheswaran, Marker-Aided Selection Laboratory, Center for Plant Breeding and Genetics; and K.
Gunathilagaraj, Department of Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641003, India

The whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), identification of five major genes: Wbph 1 broaden the genetic base for resistance to
Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) (Sidhu et al 1979), Wbph 2 (Angeles et al WBPH. The need to identify gene loci
(Homoptera: Delphacidae), has emerged 1981), Wbph 3 and Wbph 4 (Hernandez conferring durable resistance to insect
as a major pest of rice in India and other and Khush 1985), and Wbph 5 (Wu and pests, however, led to the molecular
Asian countries. Classical genetic analysis Khush 1985). These genes have been marker-based QTL (MBQTL) analysis
of selected rice accessions resulted in the incorporated into improved germplasm to involving 96 doubled-haploid lines derived
from IR64/Azucena.

12 December 1999
Parents and 96 doubled-haploid Dry weight of uninfested plant (mg) – dry weight of infested plant (mg)
lines were evaluated by screening at the PDLOSS =
seedling and maturity stage. For seedling Dry weight of WBPH progeny produced on the test line (mg)
screening, the mass screening method was
adopted. Pregerminated seeds of test lines
were sown 3 cm apart in 20-cm rows in 50
× 50 × 10-cm wooden boxes. Each line was phenotypic values of PDLOSS. Data on
planted in a replication across the width PDLOSS were obtained using the formula CDO127
of the seedbox with 15 plants per row. One above (Panda and Heinrichs 1983). RZ638

row each of the susceptible check, TN1, The phenotypic value of this
and the resistant check, PTB33, was sown parameter varied greatly between the
at random in all seedboxes. Ten days after parents (221.6 for IR64 and 377.0 for RG118
seeding, each seedling was exposed to 5-8 Azucena). The doubled-haploid lines Adh-1
first- to third-instar WBPH nymphs. After ranged from 23.3 to 201.3 and had a mean
value of 248.0. TN1 had a value of 98.1. The AG1094
infestation, the wooden seedboxes with
seedlings were covered with wire-mesh frequency distribution of the phenotypic
wooden cages. Test plants were observed values is given in Figure 1. The skewed Npb44
daily for WBPH damage. A damage rating nature of the distribution indicated the RG247
of test plants was made by row when 90% qualitative nature of the trait. The
of the plants in the susceptible check row heritability estimate was high for this
were killed. parameter (72%). The QTL mapped on
For mature plants, the pot screening chromosome 11 was flanked by markers
method was adopted. Pregerminated RG103 and RG167 and explained the RG1109
seeds of each test line and TN1 were sown phenotypic variance of 79% with a LOD
in 16-cm-diam pots. Thirty days after score of 7.31 (Fig. 2). No QTL could be RZ536

sowing, seedlings were thinned to 2 pot-1 detected when phenotypic data of other Npb 186

and covered with cylindrical mylar film parameters were used. The single-marker
cages (13 × 90 cm). Two treatments using analysis for the markers identified for
first-instar nymphs were used for the 35- PDLOSS also indicated the association of Fig. 2. Marker interval indicating the presence
d-old plants: 0 and 50 pot-1. Treatments markers with QTLs. The single-marker of a QTL for PDLOSS.

were replicated twice. analysis for the markers in between and

At 32 d after infestation, visual plant outside the interval of RG103-RG167
damage ratings were taken on all test lines indicated no marker-QTL association,
and the WBPH progenies were collected suggesting the possibility of two QTLs for contributed more toward resistance. We
in glass vials with a suction device. Insects the trait (see table). The analysis of the anticipate identifying newer QTLs when
were dried in an oven at 50 °C for 60 h and phenotypic effect of QTLs identified for additional phenotypic screening methods
weighed. Infested and uninfested test WBPH resistance indicated that IR64 are used for screening rice varieties for
plants (both shoots and roots) were WBPH resistance.
removed from the pots and air-dried for 3
h, dried in an oven at 50 °C for 70 h, and References
Count Proportion per bar
Angeles ER, Khush GS, Heinrichs EA. 1981. New
weighed. From the data, tolerance 40
0.4 genes for resistance to whitebacked
parameters such as functional plant loss planthopper in rice. Crop Sci. 21:47–50.
index (FPLI), tolerance index (TI), 30 Hernandez JE, Khush GS. 1985. Genetics of
antibiosis index (AI), and plant dry weight resistance to whitebacked planthopper in
some rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Oryza
loss per milligram of WBPH dry weight 0.2 18:44–50.
produced (PDLOSS) were computed. Panda N, Heinrichs EA. 1983. Levels of tolerance
10 0.1 and antibiosis in rice varieties having
Phenotypic data gathered for various
moderate resistance to brown planthopper
parameters were subjected to QTL analysis (Nilaparvata lugens Stål.)
0 0.0
using marker data for IR64/Azucena 0 500 1000 1500 Hemiptera:Delphacidae. Environ. Entomol.
doubled-haploid populations. The results PDLOSS 12:1204–1214.
of interval mapping indicated the presence Fig. 1. Frequency distribution among doubled-
of a major QTL on chromosome 11 for the haploid lines of IR64/Azucena.

IRRN 24.3 13
Putative QTLs identified for PDLOSS based on single-marker analysis.a Sidhu GS, Khush GS, Medrano FG. 1979. A
dominant gene in rice for resistance to
No. of Mean of PDLOSS whitebacked planthopper and its
individuals with for DHLsb with relationship to other plant characteristics.
Marker F value Euphytica 28:227–232.
IR64 Azucena IR64 Azucena
allele allele allele allele Wu CF, Khush GS. 1985. A new dominant gene for
resistance to whitebacked planthopper in
RG1094 76 16 242.21 287.65 0.540 rice. Crop Sci. 25:505–509.
RG167 78 12 203.06 339.99 5.600c
Npb44 78 12 247.06 269.27 0.101
RG247 78 12 237.59 269.27 0.213 ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

RG103 52 38 209.17 312.37 4.780c

RG1109 76 16 242.21 287.65 0.540
The markers present in between RG167 and RG103 do not show linkage. bDHL = doubled-haploid line. cSignificant at
1% level.

Web notes Starting this issue, IRRN will feature useful and
interesting listservers and sites on the World
Wide Web on rice and other related or relevant

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Douglas Powell of the University of Guelph, Canada,
Nations operates a list server that sends reports on the includes abstracts of scientific papers, excerpts from
current food situation in several different countries newspaper and magazine articles, and press releases
around the world. These reports are not restricted to from governments, scientific societies, and
rice; they cover the food situation in general. Typically, nongovernment organizations. It provides balanced
the reports are issued in response to crisis situations. coverage of both sides of the intensive biotechnology
The files are sent in zipped form because they are debate. There is news coverage from around the world,
somewhat large, so you must have the capacity to although Canadian news is overrepresented.
unzip files. To subscribe to these free reports, type the Subscription to the AgNet listserver is free.
following command in the body of the e-mail message: Subscribers receive 1-2 e-mails per day, each containing
subscribe GIEWSAlerts-L from 10 to 50 news items.
and send it to this address: To subscribe to Agnet, send mail to

The Economic Research Service (ERS) of the United Leave the subject line blank, and in the body of the
States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prepares message type:
periodic reports on rice, wheat, and maize. These subscribe agnet-L firstname lastname.
reports (a separate one for each commodity) focus e.g., subscribe agnet-L Joe Oryza
primarily on production prospects in the United States,
but the reports also contain substantial information on The International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) in
production and prices in world markets. The reports are Paris maintains a site found at
issued with a frequency of slightly less than once a
month. To subscribe to these free reports, type any This site contains the most comprehensive
number (one, two, or three) of the following commands information on fertilizers and their use in agriculture.
in the body of the e-mail message: Users will find the following:
subscribe rice-outlook - Fertilizer use statistics
subscribe feed - The IFA World Fertilizer Use Manual containing
subscribe wheat recommendations for all crops grown (600-page
and send it to this address: handbook available online) - Information on fertilizer demand and crops
- Analyses of the world’s agricultural situation
Agricultural biotechnology is a very fast-moving field, - Information on fertilizers and environment
with regard to both scientific breakthroughs and - Information on fertilizer trade
sociopolitical controversies. AgNet, compiled by Dr - Links to IFA member companies in all parts of the world
- Events such as meetings

14 December 1999
Pest science and management

Effect of organic manures on some predators

in the rice ecosystem
J.C. Ragini, D. Thangaraju, and P.M.M. David, Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural
College and Research Institute, Killikulam,Vallanad 628252, Tamil Nadu, India

We studied the effect of organic manures (Ophionea sp.), rove beetle (Paederus disperse may fall prey to any of these active
on some predators in field trials at the sp.), coccinellid beetle, and spiders (per predators. Azolla cover may hamper the
Agricultural College and Research Institute, m2 area) at early tillering, active tillering, exit of migrating larvae that make a window
Killikulam, in southern Tamil Nadu under and maximum tillering stages. on the internodes, mostly at the base.
lowland irrigated conditions. ASD16, a Results showed that the predator The possible effect on the stem borer
popular rice variety, was planted at 10- × population was higher in plots with Azolla, population, however, requires further
8-cm spacing. Plot size was 10 × 2 m2. Trials with or without neem cake (see table). The study.
were laid out in a randomized block design mean predator population of Ophionea
with five treatments: T1—farmyard manure indica, Paederus fuscipes, coccinellid References
(FYM), T2—FYM + neem cake, T3—FYM beetles, and Lycosa sp. was significantly Raguraman S, Rajasekaran B. 1996. Effect of neem
+ Azolla, T4—FYM + neem cake + Azolla, higher in Azolla-applied plots. The Azolla products on insect pests of rice and the
predatory spider. Madras Agric. J.
and FYM + NPK as the control. In all mat on the water may have provided a
treatments, FYM at 12.5 t ha-1 was applied favorable niche for colonization of beetles Reissig WH, Heinrichs EA, Litsinger JA, Moody K,
basally. Neem cake was applied at 1.5 t ha-1. and spiders. The higher number of Fielder L, Mew TW, Barrion AT. 1986.
Azolla was applied 20 d after transplanting predators may have helped control rice Illustrated guide to integrated pest
and allowed to multiply for about 15-20 d. pests, including stem borer larvae (Reissig management in rice in tropical Asia. Manila
Visual counts m-2 were made on some et al 1986, Raguraman and Rajasekaran (Philippines): International Rice Research
Institute. 411 p.
common predators such as ground beetle 1996). Early instar stem borer larvae that
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Effect of organic manures on some predators in the rice ecosystem.a

Mean (± SE) no. of insects m-2
Ophionea indica Paederus fuscipes Coccinellid beetles Lycosa sp. Tetragnatha sp.

T1—FYM at 12.5 t ha-1 600.0 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 6.0 ± 1.0 5.0 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.1
(2.55) bc (1.47) c (2.55) b (2.34) b (1.08) a

T2—FYM at 12.5 t ha-1 + 400.0 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.3 6.3 ± 0.8 5.7 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.3
neem cake (NC) at (2.12) c (1.35) c (2.61) b (2.48) b (1.08) a
1.5 t ha-1

T3—FYM at 12.5 t ha-1 + 16.7 ± 0.4 5.3 ± 0.3 14.7 ± 0.3 8.0 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.1
Azolla at 5 t ha-1 (2.12) a (2.42) ab (3.89) a (2.92) a (1.47) a

T4—FYM at 12.5 t ha-1 + 15.7 ± 0.7 6.7 ± 0.8 12.3 ± 0.3 8.3 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 0.1
NC at 1.5 t ha-1 + (4.02) a (2.68) a (3.58) a (2.97) a (1.47) a
Azolla at 5 t ha-1

Control—FYM at 12.5 t ha-1+ 10.0 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 0.4 8.0 ± 0.4 7.0 ± 0.3 2.3 ± 0.2
NPK at 150:50:50 kg ha-1 (3.24) b (2.06) b (2.92) b (2.74) a (1.68) a

Mean 10.4 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 0.3 9.5 ± 0.3 6.8 ± 0.03 1.4 ± 0.3
(3.31) (2.06) (3.16) (2.70) (1.38)

Mean of three replications, numbers in parentheses are square roots of (x + 0.5) – transformed values. In a column, means followed by the same letter are not significantly different
at the 5% level by Duncan’s multiple range test.

IRRN 24.3 15
Effect of culture nutrients on the production
of Rhizoctonia solani toxins
J. Danson, K. Wasano, and A. Nose, Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, Honjo-1, Saga 840-8502, Japan

Sheath blight disease caused by detected by high-performance liquid development has not been established
Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, an economically chromatography using a Sim-pack CLC- (Vidhyasekaran et al 1997). Determining
important disease of rice, produces ODC (60 × 150 mm) at 250 nm and suitable culture media for toxin production
phenylacetic acid (PAA) and its hydroxy identified by coinjection with authentic by the rice sheath blight pathogen will
derivatives ortho (o-OH-PAA), meta (m- standards. Data are means of three samples facilitate studies on the specific role of
OH-PAA), and para (p-OH-PAA) hydroxy for each treatment. toxins in disease development and disease
phenylacetic acid toxins in culture filtrates. Weinhold medium, Modified resistance mechanisms against the
Extracts from rice infected by R. solani are Fries medium, and potato dextrose pathogen.
reported to contain PAA and m-OH-PAA supplemented with asparagine and
that may be involved in lesion symptom phenylalanine all produced the three References
development (Vidhyasekaran et al 1997). derivatives of PAA, o-OH-PAA, m-OH-PAA, Pringle RB, Scheffer RP. 1963. Purification of
This study reports on the effect of medium and p-OH-PAA (see table). Potato sucrose selective toxin of Periconia circinata.
Phytopathology 53:785–787.
nutrient composition on the production supplemented with both phenylalanine
Vidhyasekaran P, Ruby Ponmalar T, Samiyappan R,
of PAA derivative toxins in culture filtrates and asparagine, however, produced m- Velazhahan R, Vimala R, Ramanthan A,
of R. solani isolated from infected rice OH-PAA only, whereas potato sucrose and Paranidharan V, Muthukrishnan S. 1997.
plants. potato dextrose supplemented with Host-specific toxin production by
Rhizoctonia solani isolate Rck-1- asparagine produced p-OH-PAA. Weinhold Rhizoctonia solani, the rice sheath blight
2, a member of anastomosis group AG 1, et al (1969) demonstrated that asparagine pathogen. Phytopathology 87:1258–1263.
Wasano K, Hirota Y. 1986. Varietal resistance of
was obtained from a naturally infected rice in pathogen nutrition increased the rice to sheath blight disease caused by
variety, Koshihikari, grown at the Kyushu virulence of R. solani. The final pH of the Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, by the syringe
Agricultural Experiment Station, Chikugo, culture media after 15 d became more inoculation method. Bull. Fac. Agric. Saga
Japan (Wasano and Hirota 1986). The alkaline because of fungus growth. Toxic Univ. 60:49–59.
isolate was maintained on potato sucrose metabolites from R. solani that inhibit seed Weinhold AR, Bowman Tully, Dodman RL. 1969.
Virulence of Rhizoctonia solani as affected
agar and sclerotia were used to inoculate germination and seedling growth have
by nutrition of the pathogen.
50 mL of different culture media. The been isolated from various plants, but their Phytopathology 59:1601–1605.
following culture media were tested: role in rice sheath blight disease ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

potato sucrose broth (200 g potato, 20 g

sucrose) without or supplemented with
phenylalanine and/or asparagine, potato
Production of toxins by the rice sheath blight pathogen in different culture media.
dextrose broth (200 g potato, 20 g
dextrose) without or supplemented with Mycelia Crude
Culture Initial Final dry weight toxin Retention time of toxins b,c (min)
phenylalanine and/or asparagine, mediuma
pH pH (mg) (mg) o-OH-PAA m-OH-PAA p-OH-PAA
Weinhold medium (Weinhold et al 1969)
supplemented with phenylalanine and Weinhold medium
+P+A 5.3 8.2 658 ± 6 99 ± 18 9.9 ± 0.19 7.9 + 0.13 6.8 ± 0.13
asparagine, and Modified Fries No. 3 basal Modified Fries
medium (Pringle and Scheffer 1963) medium + P + A 5.3 8.2 649 ± 17 86 ± 4 9.8 ± 0.02 7.8 ± 0.15 6.7 ± 0.22
supplemented with phenylalanine and Potato dextrose (PD) 5.8 7.5 549 ± 13 62 ± 3 nd nd 6.6 ± 0.14
PD + A 5.7 8.3 722 ± 40 80 ± 8 nd nd 7.0 ± 0.14
asparagine. PD + A + P 5.2 8.3 883 ± 59 57 ± 11 9.8 ± 0.01 7.9 ± 0.16 6.8 ± 0.04
Pathogenicity and virulence were Potato sucrose (PS) 5.9 7.6 508 ± 18 72 ± 6 nd nd 6.6 ± 0.01
determined before media inoculation. The PS + A 5.9 8.2 770 ± 28 76 ± 7 nd nd 7.0 ± 0.09
50 ± 1 7.9 ± 0.28
fungus was grown in still culture at 25 °C PS + A + P
Standard toxins
5.2 8.2 741 + 33 nd
9.71 ± 0.10
7.85 ± 0.10 6.86 ±0.20
and harvested after 15 d. The mycelia a
P = phenylalaline, A = asparagine. bMean of three samples. cnd = not detected.
weight was determined after drying at
80 °C for 48 h. All compounds were

16 December 1999
Susceptibility of some cereal crops to cyst nematode
Heterodera sacchari in West Africa
D.L. Coyne, Natural Resources Institute, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, and R.A. Plowright, CABI Bioscience,
Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK E-mail:

The sugarcane cyst nematode, Heterodera Leaf dry weight was measured after oven- population densities on rice. Multiple
sacchari, is a parasite of rice throughout drying and root fresh weight was recorded cropping, if carefully managed, would
West Africa (e.g., Babatola 1984, Coyne after rinsing each root system and dabbing more likely provide some level of control
1999). In Nigeria, it is considered it dry. All data were analyzed using ANOVA. of H. sacchari in rice. Such a practice can
potentially important on rice (Babatola Each crop in the study was suppress the development of nematode
1984). Babatola (1983) demonstrated its susceptible to H. sacchari (see table). Cyst populations that are more capable of
high pathogenicity on susceptible upland number pot -1 increased in all crops, reproducing on a susceptible crop or
rice in pots. Cropping systems in West although significantly larger populations cultivar (Wallace et al 1995). Practices that
Africa are diverse, reflecting the low-input developed on rice. The fecundity of cysts are implemented to manage one
management systems of subsistence on sorghum and maize was lower than on nematode should not, however,
farmers, who produce the majority of rice. either rice or millet. encourage the development of other
Maize, sorghum, and millet are commonly Cereal crops commonly cultivated potential pest nematodes. For instance,
intercropped, relay-cropped, or cultivated in cropping systems with rice in West Africa intercropped maize may facilitate the
in rotation with rice. The host status of were poor hosts of H. sacchari. The buildup of Pratylenchus zeae around rice
these crops for H. sacchari is unknown. multiplication factor (Pf:Pi, final cyst roots (Coyne et al 1998).
Two seeds of local varieties of population:initial cyst population)
maize, millet, and sorghum and of a indicated that total egg populations References
susceptible rice check (IDSA6) were sown declined on each cereal host. Although the Babatola JO. 1983. Pathogenicity of Heterodera
in steam-sterilized sandy soil (9% clay, 15% decline was greatest on sorghum, the sacchari on rice. Nematol. Mediterr. 11:21–25.
silt, 75% sand) in 8-L plastic pots. Seedlings reduced root weight in inoculated pots Babatola JO. 1984. Rice nematode problems in
shows that sorghum was not resistant to Nigeria: their occurrence, distribution and
were thinned to 1 pot-1 at emergence. The pathogenesis. Trop. Pest Manage. 30(3):256–265.
experiment was arranged on benches in H. sacchari. Each crop supported some Coyne DL. 1999. Epidemiology and crop loss
the screenhouse in a completely cyst production, suggesting that each assessment of rice nematodes in West Africa.
randomized design with five replications. would maintain H. sacchari in the soil. PhD thesis, University of Reading, UK. 213 p.
Treatments comprised uninoculated The occurrence of cysts with eggs Coyne DL, Ndongidila A, Oyediran I, Heinrichs EA,
on these crops may indicate variability in Plowright RA. 1998. Pratylenchus zeae in
controls and 200 cysts pot-1 (25 cysts L-1 upland rice as influenced by the ratio of
soil). Cysts were derived from mature virulence within the inoculum. Hence, intercropped maize. Int. Rice Res. Notes
IDSA6 plant roots following several selection for ability to multiply on poor 23(3):27–28.
generations in pots in a screenhouse. hosts may occur in later generations. Wallace MK, Orf H, Steinstra WC. 1995. Field
Inoculum was mixed into the upper 5 L of Intercropping, relay, or rotation cropping population dynamics of soybean cyst
of maize, sorghum, or millet with rice is nematode on resistant and susceptible
soil by hand prior to sowing. soybeans and their blends. Crop Sci. 35:703–707.
At harvest, plant height, grain likely to reduce this selection pressure. It
weight, cyst density in soil, and mean is also likely that such cropping practices
number of eggs per cyst were determined. would not lead to higher H. sacchari ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Susceptibility of maize, millet, sorghum, and rice in sandy soil to Heterodera sacchari.a
Pi Height RFW LDW Grain Pf Pf Pf:Pi Pf:Pi
Crop (cysts L-1 (mm) (g) (g) weight (cysts L-1 (eggs cysts eggsb
soil) (g) soil) cyst-1)
Maize 0 1,584 19.8 18.3 – – –
25 1,512 17.2 16.9 – 80.0 13.8 3.2 0.28
Sorghum 0 2,103 14.8 14.9 1.9 – -
25 1,941 8.8** 14.0 1.6 45.6 6.5 1.8 1.07
Millet 0 1,828 13.4 32.3 4.3 – -
25 1,597 7.5 23.1* 4.0 31.2 90.0 1.2 0.71
Rice 0 948 14.0 9.3 3.5 – -
(IDSA6) 25 712* 5.2*** 4.3** 1.6* 760.0 157.0 30.4 30.40
LSD (P = 0.05) – – – – 185.2 57.7 –

RFW = root fresh weight, LDW = leaf dry weight, Pf = final cyst population density, Pi = initial cyst population density. bAssuming that egg content of cysts at inoculation was the
same as at harvest (i.e., 157 eggs cyst-1). *, **, *** = means significantly different from that of uninoculated control at P = 0.05, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively.

IRRN 24.3 17
Predation rates of Atypena formosana on brown planthopper
and green leafhopper
L. Sigsgaard and S.Villareal, IRRI Email:

Atypena formosana (Oi 1997) (Araneae: same experimental setup as above, but for GLH may be attributed to differences
Linyphiidae) and Pardosa pseudoannulata with 50 BPH and 50 GLH in each cage; and in prey preference. In cages with equal
(Boesenberg and Strand) (Araneae: (c) assessment of preference in a 24-h ex- numbers of GLH and BPH, 73% (confi-
Lycosidae) are the most common spiders periment in the same experimental setup dence interval 62–84%, n = 75) of A.
in irrigated rice fields in the Philippines. as above, but with 40 preys in varying pro- formosana’s encounters with prey were
A. formosana is already in the rice field portions of GLH and BPH. Prey preference with BPH. However, an equal number of
shortly after crop establishment (Sigsgaard a was analyzed following the method of the two prey species were eaten (5 each).
et al 1999). It may be a significant preda- Chesson (1983), which allows for prefer- An equal number of encounters were ob-
tor of small-bodied pests such as hopper ence analysis in experiments with food served at a prey ratio of 1:4 (BPH:GLH). At
nymphs, being a possibly important part depletion (i.e., where the number of prey this prey ratio, A. formosana preferred
of the natural enemy complex that checks available is not assumed to be constant GLH (a= 0.794, SE = 0.123, t = 3.75,
hoppers in unsprayed irrigated rice. This during the experiment). P<0.01). At less extreme proportions, no
study focused on the predation of A. A. formosana attacked many of the significant preference was observed.
formosana on the brown planthopper nymphs within 24 h, with more second Brown planthoppers aggregate on the
(BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: instars than third instars being eaten. The lower stem. Thus, once a predator enters
Delphacidae) and the green leafhopper best fit was obtained with a Hollings type the lower part of the stem, its chances of
(GLH) Nephotettix virescens (Distant) II equation using the random predator encountering BPH will be higher. In the
(Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). model and n-weighted means (Rogers field, A. formosana webs are most often
Functional response is defined as 1972) (see figure). The attack rate was found in the lower portion of the rice plant.
the number of preys eaten per predator at highest for the second instars, the handling These observations support the higher at-
different prey densities. A functional re- time was lowest for the GLH nymphs, while tack rate found on BPH. Heong and Rubia
sponse has two essential components: the the handling times for the second- and (1989) also found a higher attack rate on
instantaneous attack rate a and the han- third-instar BPH did not differ significantly. adult BPH than on adult GLH when they
dling time Th. The functional response of Of the second instars, the handling time assessed the functional response of adult
A. formosana adult females exposed to for GLH was the shortest (mean ± SE; sec- female P. pseudoannulata, which also
hopper nymphs was assessed in the insec- ond-instar BPH: a = 0.308 ± 0.045, Th = primarily searches the lower parts of the
tary (60–80% relative humidity, 24–29 °C, 0.018 ± 0.002, R2 = 0.98; second-instar stems.
12 h light:12 h dark). The spiders were GLH: a = 0.280 ± 0.017, Th = 0.003 ±
captured from rice fields and starved for 0.001, R2 = 1.00; third-instar BPH, a = 0.090 References
3 d. Twenty-four hours before the experi- ± 0.014, Th = 0.012 ± 0.008, R2 = 0.99). Chesson J. 1983. The estimation and analysis of
The dry weights of the second-in- preference and its relationship to foraging
ments, hoppers were introduced into 30– models. Ecology 64(5):1297–1304.
40-d-old potted TN1 plants. Plants were star GLH and BPH were not significantly
Heong KL, Rubia EG. 1989. Functional response of
pruned to four tillers. The mylar cages different; thus, the shorter handling time Lycosa pseudoannulata on brown
were 13 cm in diameter and 50 cm tall and planthoppers (BPH) and green leafhoppers
each enclosed one hill. Functional re- Number of hoppers eaten in 24 h (GLH). Int. Rice Res. Notes 14(6):29–30.
60 Rogers D. 1972. Random search and insect
sponse was evaluated at densities of 2, 4, population models. J. Anim. Ecol. 41:369–383.
8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 hoppers per Sigsgaard L, Villareal S, Gapud V, Rajotte E. 1999.
cage. The experiments lasted for 24 h. The 40 Directional movement of predators between
functional response of A. formosana was 30
the irrigated rice field and its surroundings. In:
fitted to Hollings type I, II, and III func- Hong LW, Sastroutomo SS, Caunter IG, Ali J,
20 Yeang LK, Vijaysegaran S, Sen YH, editors.
tional response equations.
Biological control in the tropics, towards
Supplementary studies included (a) 10
efficient biodiversity and bioresource
determination of dry weight of BPH and 0 management for effective biological control.
0 50 100 150 200 250
GLH taken from 20 samples of 20 individu- Initial number of hoppers Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological
als each; (b) recording of the encounter Control in the Tropics. Malaysia: CAB
and success rates in 1-h observations of six Functional response of A. formosana (mean ± International. p 43–47.
SE) to second-instar BPH ( ), third-instar BPH
individual A. formosana females in the ( ), and second instar GLH (∆) ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

18 December 1999
A procedure for determining the mating status
of the yellow stem borer
A.M. Dirie, M.B. Cohen, IRRI; and J.S. Bentur, Department of Entomology, Directorate of Rice Research, Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh, India E-mail:

Determining the mating status of a female “refuge” fields (Gould 1998). The mating Female adult S. incertulas were
insect (i.e., whether the insect has mated status of a female Lepidopteran is generally collected from a greenhouse-reared colony
and, if so, how many times) is important determined by examining the bursa and from light traps located in the field and
for various studies of insect ecology and copulatrix (a storage sac for sperm) for the were dissected in the laboratory under a
pest management. We are studying presence of a spermatophore (a packet of dissecting microscope. To obtain virgin
strategies to delay the evolution of yellow sperm transferred by the male during females, female pupae were collected from
stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas mating). Kapur (1964) and Chakravorty the colony and kept separate from males.
(Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), (1986) provided a partial description of the Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the
adaptation to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) reproductive organs of S. incertulas but female reproductive organs. We deduced
toxins in transgenic rice (Cohen et al 1997). did not describe the appearance of the the female mating status from the shape
One of our activities is to examine the spermatophore. This note provides a full of the bursa copulatrix and the presence
timing of mating in relation to adult description of the spermatophore and the or absence of a spermatophore within the
dispersal to determine whether Bt- female reproductive organs to assist bursa. The posterior one-third of the
resistant insects will mate at random with researchers in determining the mating abdomen was removed using dissecting
susceptible insects emerging from non-Bt status of female S. incertulas. scissors and placed in a petri dish
containing 70% alcohol. The bursa
copulatrix was teased out from the
abdomen by pulling the ovipositor out
with fine-pointed forceps and holding the
rest of the abdomen steady with a needle.
The bursa copulatrix of a virgin
female is translucent, collapsed, and cup-
shaped (Fig. 2). The bursa of a mated
female is glossy, distended, and bulb-
shaped with a milky content (Fig. 2). The
bursa of a mated female that has laid eggs
(Fig. 2) again becomes collapsed and is
more sclerotized than the bursa of virgin
A and mated females. The spermatophore
can be seen if the bursa is teased open
(Fig. 2). Opening the bursa to look for a
spermatophore can provide confirmation
of the mating status of a female if this
cannot be confidently determined from
the shape of the bursa.


Fig. 1. Reproductive structures of female

G Scirpophaga incertulas: (A) ovary, (B) common
oviduct, (C) accessory gland, (D) accessory
gland reservoir, (E) ostium oviductus
E (ovipositor), (F) spermathecal gland, (G)
I spermatheca, (H) bursa copulatrix, (I) ostium
H bursae (vulva).

IRRN 24.3 19
Chakravorty S. 1986. Effects of juvenoids on
morphogenesis of female reproductive system
in the pupae of Scirpophaga incertulas
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Acta Entomol.
Bohemoslov. 83(6):401–410.
Cohen MB, Bentur JS, Aguda RM, Romena AM, Dirie
AM, Alinia F, Schoenly KG, Gould F. 1997. Bt
rice: sustainable use and integration into rice
pest management systems. General Meeting of
the International Program on Rice
Biotechnology, 15-19 September 1997,
Malacca, Malaysia.
Gould F. 1998. Sustainability of transgenic
insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics
and ecology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43:701–726.
Kapur AP. 1964. Taxonomy of rice stem borers. In:
The major insect pests of the rice plant.
Proceedings of a symposium at the
International Rice Research Institute.
Fig. 2. The bursa copulatrix and spermatophore of S. incertulas: (A) bursa copulatrix of virgin Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins
female, (B) bursa copulatrix of mated female, (C) bursa copulatrix of mated female that had
Press. p 3–43.
laid eggs, (D) spermatophore after removal from bursa copulatrix. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

A genomic library of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in the

broad host range mobilizing Escherichia coli strain S17-1
L. Rajagopal, S. Dharmapuri, A.T. Sayeepriyadarshini, and R.V. Sonti, Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad
500007, India E-mail:

We used molecular genetic techniques to of these enzymes are PstI and PvuI, kb, were individually mobilized into Xoo.
identify virulence functions of respectively. Genomic DNA isolated from Plasmid DNA was isolated separately from
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). the BXO1 strain was digested to the E. coli DH5a and Xoo strains harboring
These studies are being conducted on an completion by these enzymes, indicating the pLR17 and pLR18 plasmids.
Xoo strain (BXO1) that belongs to a the absence of XorI and XorII r-m systems Approximately equal amounts of plasmid
pathotype (Ib) that is widely distributed in BXO1. DNA were electroporated into competent
in India. Functional complementation of We assumed that if there indeed cells of BXO1. The frequency of
virulence-deficient Xoo mutants by existed an r-m system in BXO1, then gene electroporation was reduced by at least a
mobilizing a genomic library of BXO1 transfer frequencies would be far higher thousandfold when plasmid DNA was
(Rajagopal et al 1996) requires the transfer when plasmid DNA was introduced from electroporated from E. coli to BXO1
of many individual clones into each mutant BXO1 into BXO1 compared with transfer (Table 1). The pLR17 DNA isolated from
strain. frequencies between E. coli and BXO1. E. coli was also transformed into E. coli
Gene transfer into the BXO1 strain Therefore, two random clones from the DH5a competent cells to confirm that
by triparental matings, wherein a plasmid BXO1 genomic library (pLR17 and pLR18), there were no deficiencies in
(pRK600) in the helper E. coli strain each with an approximate insert size of 35 transformation from E. coli to E. coli or
provides the mobilization functions
required in trans, was extremely low (1 cfu
10-9 recipient cells) and often resulted in a Table 1. Frequency of gene transfer into BXO1.
lack of transconjugants. This suggested the
Donor Frequency of transformants in BXO1 (no. of kanr
presence of a restriction barrier in the colonies µg-1 of plasmid DNA)
BXO1 strain. Two restriction-modification
E. coli/pLR17 2.00 × 102
(r-m) systems have been reported from BXO1/pLR17 4.25 × 105
Philippine strains of Xoo–XorI and XorII E. coli/pLR18 <1
(Choi and Leach 1994). The isochizomers BXO1/pLR18 3.12 × 105

20 December 1999
other artifacts. These results suggest a rate- 12 clones each of this library were made References
limiting process during transformation and can be collectively mobilized into Choi SH, Leach JE. 1994. Genetic manipulation of
X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Int. Rice Res. Notes
from E. coli to Xoo, which might be due mutants of Xoo to identify genes by 19:31–32.
to the existence of a previously functional complementation. Rajagopal L, Yashitola J, Dharmapuri S,
unidentified r-m system in BXO1. This strategy has been used Karunakaran M, Rajeshwari R, Reddy APK,
To overcome this restriction successfully in our laboratory to isolate Sonti RV. 1996. Molecular genetic studies of
the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice in
barrier, we transferred the genomic library clones that complement several India. In: Khush GS, editor. Rice genetics III.
from E. coli DH5a to E. coli S17-1. The interesting Xoo mutants (Table 2). We Manila (Philippines): International Rice
latter strain can serve as a donor in suggest that this approach be used to Research Institute. p 939–944.
biparental matings with Xoo as the trans- isolate genomic clones that complement
acting mobilization functions are other mutants of Xoo. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

integrated into its chromosome. Gene

transfer from S17-1 in BXO1 was
reasonably efficient (1 cfu 10-7 recipient Table 2. Frequency of isolation of clones from X. oryzae pv. oryzae cosmic genomic library.

cells). Therefore, approximately 1,000 Nature of X. oryzae pv. oryzae Frequency of occurrence in X. oryzae pv.
clones of the BXO1 genomic library genes on cloned DNA oryzae cosmic genomic library (no. of clones
identified/no. of clones screened)
(average insert size of 30 kb) were
individually mobilized by triparental Genes for a Type II protein secretion systema 1/312
Shikimate dehydrogenase geneb 1/660
matings from DH5a into S17-1. A gene clusterc encoding putative 1/600
Transconjugants carrying each of the glycosyl transferase and epimerase genes
clones were individually stored at –70 °C a
Required for virulence on rice. bRequired for pigment production and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis. cRequired for
in 96-well microtiter plates. Also, pools of extracellular polysaccharide production and virulence.

Information support system for rice

crop management
TropRice is an information support system of best-bet practices designed to provide practical field-level guides for rice
crop management in the tropics. It aims to help users make informed decisions related to rice production.
It is not a single system for the world. It contains some generic information, but some are site- or region-specific.
TropRice is intended to be a template that could be modified for different environments. As improved systems on
component technologies become available, they will replace or be linked to the system. The present system is aimed
at irrigated rice in a Los Baños, Philippines-type of environment.
TropRice is an ongoing project developed by IRRI scientists and specialists who have contributed to the technical
content. It is intended for intermediary technology transfer agents as a response to the recognition that many farmers
do not have access to information on how to grow rice. Current information technology offers new ways of packaging
and presenting information. The system is being evaluated among three separate groups: nongovernment organizations,
farmers, and the private and public sector.
TropRice will be available in CD soon. Watch out for our announcement.

Web site:

Source: Training Center, IRRI

IRRN 24.3 21
Soil, nutrient, and water management

Dual cropping of Azolla substitutes for second

topdressing of N in rice
R. Thamizh Vendan, G. Gopalaswamy, and S. Antoni Raj, Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai 612101,
Tamil Nadu, India

The integrated use of bioorganic and incorporated at 30 DAT. A layer of Azolla excretes ammonia continuously in
inorganic sources of N is essential in covering a hectare of rice field supplies floodwater during growth. Dual cropping of
achieving higher N use efficiency, increased about 25–30 kg N ha -1 . Trials were Azolla with rice always resulted in a yield
yield, and sustained soil fertility. Biological conducted in a randomized block design increase (Table 2). Grain yield was greater,
N 2 fixation (BNF) through the Azolla- with three replications. Soil samples were however, when the second topdressing of
Anabaena complex is considered to be a taken at 0, 35, and 65 DAT for available N N was skipped, with 6.2 and 5.6 t ha-1 during
potentially useful system because it estimation and grain yield was recorded at the 1995 and 1996 kuruvai seasons,
contributes 40–60 kg N ha-1 in addition to harvest. respectively. A similar trend was seen in the
increasing rice yield at a comparatively low Results clearly revealed that dual thaladi seasons. The yield increase may be
cost. Whenever bioinoculants are used, cropping of A. microphylla with rice due to the release of micronutrients such
fertilizer N should be reduced by 25%. So enhanced soil available N status and grain as Ca, Mg, and S upon decomposition of
far, no specific study has been conducted yield. Available N content increased in the Azolla. Moreover, the development of a
to determine the suitable time for input soil because of the incorporation of A. thick mat of Azolla successfully suppressed
reduction. This study was conducted to microphylla (Table 1). N increase was weeds in rice fields.
learn whether N can be reduced uniformly evident in the treatment where the second At 30 DAT when Azolla is
during all application times or if one topdressing was skipped. Azolla is usually incorporated, topdressing can therefore be
topdressing can be skipped. incorporated at 30 DAT, which coincides skipped. One less topdressing means less
Field experiments were conducted with the second topdressing of N, releasing fertilizer and labor costs. The study clearly
during the 1995 and 1996 kuruvai (June- more ammoniacal N at this time because of indicated the possibility of reducing fertilizer
September) and thaladi (October-March) Azolla mineralization. Furthermore, Azolla N when Azolla is raised as a dual crop.
seasons. The control treatment consisted of ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

applying 12.5 kg ha-1 of urea basally and 25

kg ha-1 as topdressing at 15, 30, and 45 d Table 2. Effect of Azolla dual cropping on rice yield (t ha-1).a
after transplanting (DAT) (Table 1). Azolla
N treatment (kg ha-1) Kuruvai Thaladi
microphylla was applied in combination
with the elimination of any one of the three 0 DAT 15 DAT 30 DAT 45 DAT Azolla 1995 1996 1995 1996
topdressings as well as the uniform 50 25 25 25 – 5.3 c 4.2 c 4.6 d 4.5 d
reduction in N in all applications or at basal 50 – 25 25 + 5.9 ab 5.3 ab 5.4 ab 5.3 b
application only. Phosphorus as single 50 25 – 25 + 6.2 a 5.6 a 5.7 a 5.6 a
50 25 25 – + 5.8 b 5.3 ab 5.2 bc 5.1 bc
superphosphate and potassium as muriate 40 20 20 20 + 5.9 ab 5.2 ab 5.2 bc 5.1 bc
of potash were applied basally at 50 kg ha-1 25 25 25 25 + 5.7 bc 4.9 b 5.2 bc 5.1 c
each. Fresh fronds of A. microphylla were 12.5 25 25 25 + 5.6 bc 4.9 b 5.0 c 5.0 c
inoculated at 1 t ha -1 at 10 DAT and a
Same letters denote parity among respective treatments using LSD.

Table 1. Effect of Azolla dual cropping on soil available N status (kg ha-1).
Kuruvai Thaladi
N treatmenta
(kg ha-1) 1995 1996 1995 1996
0 DAT 15 DAT 30 DAT 45 DAT Azolla 0 DAT 35 DAT 65 DAT 0 DAT 35 DAT 65 DAT 0 DAT 35 DAT 65 DAT 0 DAT 35 DAT 65 DAT

50 25 25 25 – 90.7 130.2 135.4 91.0 133.0 145.6 96.6 120.4 135.8 95.8 126.0 130.2
50 – 25 25 + 141.4 149.8 140.0 151.2 127.4 142.8 131.6 138.6
50 25 – 25 + 148.4 155.2 147.0 156.8 130.2 148.4 135.8 142.8
50 25 25 – + 134.4 145.4 135.8 154.0 126.0 138.6 132.5 137.5
40 20 20 20 + 133.0 142.8 142.8 142.8 126.0 140.0 128.6 134.4
25 25 25 25 + 131.6 140.0 123.2 149.8 127.4 141.4 130.2 136.4
12.5 25 25 25 + 131.6 137.2 128.8 147.0 124.6 138.6 131.6 137.5
LSD (0.05) 5.38 9.63 6.01 7.96 4.99 4.05 7.67 6.41
+ or – indicates presence or absence of treatment, respectively. DAT = days after transplanting.

22 December 1999
Tools for plant-based N management in different rice
varieties grown in southern India
R.M. Kumar, K. Padmaja, and S.V. Subbaiah, Division of Agronomy, Directorate of Rice Research (DRR), Rajendranagar,
Hyderabad 500030, Andhra Pradesh, India E-mail:

Increasing application rates of N fertilizers from each treatment plot and average values planting to maturity. In such cases, a
is very common among Indian farmers, who were recorded. Similarly, color chart uniform SPAD value of 35 cannot be used
attribute rice crop greenness and growth to readings were also taken at the same time. for all cultivars because it would lead to
N application. There is a need to Standard pest management guidelines were insufficient N application.
synchronize N fertilizer application with followed, and 17 kg P ha-1 as well as 33 kg K SPAD and LCC values increased
plant needs to optimize nutrient use and ha-1 were applied to all plots. significantly with a rise in N rate (Table 2).
minimize environmental pollution. Nitrogen application significantly In general, higher SPAD and LCC values
Appropriate diagnosis of N status in leaves influenced grain yield in both seasons. In were observed during the rabi season.
is necessary to decide about the need for the kharif season, the average grain yield of Mean SPAD and LCC values were
topdressing fertilizer N. Tools such as the all varieties was 4.8 t ha-1 with SPAD-based positively correlated at all growth stages
chlorophyll meter (SPAD) or the leaf color management compared with 4 and 4.4 t ha-1 with mean grain yield of cultivars: r = 0.58–
chart (LCC) can be used for dynamic for fixed N rates of 90 and 135 kg N ha-1, 0.70 (P<0.01) and r = 0.36–0.53 (P<0.05)
adjustment of fertilizer N applications based respectively. In the rabi season, grain yields in kharif and rabi, respectively. Correlation
on actual plant N status (Balasubramanian of the N-90, N-135, and SPAD treatments did coefficients between SPAD and LCC
et al 1999). They require testing, however, not differ significantly. Grain yield increased readings at different growth stages ranged
under different environmental conditions by 45% and 43% (mean of seasons) over the from 0.78 to 0.85 (P<0.01) in kharif and 0.78
and adjustment to different rice varieties control for SPAD-N and N-135, respectively. to 0.90 (P<0.01) in rabi (Table 3).
such as those grown in southern India. Across all varieties, the amount of N applied Presumably, topdressing of N can be
We studied the performance of rice with SPAD-based management was 75 and practiced based on either LCC or SPAD
varieties during 1997 kharif and 1997-98 rabi 80 kg N ha -1 during kharif and rabi, readings. The LCC, however, can be
(three high-yielding varieties, Rasi, Vikas, respectively. prepared at low cost and is freely available
and Krishna Hamsa; three hybrids, VRH-4, Among the cultivars averaged over and easy to handle in the field. The
DRH-1, and ProAgro 6201; and three N levels, hybrids recorded higher grain chlorophyll meter is expensive and requires
scented varieties, Kasturi, Pusa Basmati, and yields than conventional high-yielding and technical skill for operation. Also, color
IET13549) to (1) compare different scented varieties. The hybrid ProAgro 6201 charts are well accepted by farmers in
approaches of N management, (2) assess recorded the highest grain yield, 5.0 t ha-1 developing countries such as India. The use
varietal differences in SPAD and LCC in kharif and a yield comparable with VRH- of color charts to determine topdressing of
readings, and (3) correlate SPAD readings 4 during rabi. The average yield increase in N not only reduces the N requirement but
with LCC readings for future work. The hybrids was 38.3% and 24.6% compared also enhances N use efficiency as N is
trials, conducted in a split-plot design, had with scented and high-yielding varieties, applied based on requirement. The lower
five main plot treatments consisting of four respectively. amount of N applied in SPAD-based N
N levels (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg N ha-1, applied Agronomic efficiency (kg grain yield management indicates that 50–55 kg N
in two splits: basal + maximum tillering) increase kg-1 N applied) was larger in SPAD- ha-1 can be saved without any yield loss.
and subplot treatments with SPAD-based N based N application than with N application More research is needed to identify optimal
management with nine cultivars. A at different levels (2-split application). LCC and SPAD values for different variety
threshold SPAD value of 35 was used Partial factor productivity (kg grain kg-1 N groups.
uniformly for all nine varieties. Whenever it applied) was higher for SPAD-based N
fell below 35, N was applied. The application than in the N-50 and N-135 References
experiment was conducted on a typical treatments (Table 1). Balasubramanian V, Morales AC, Cruz RT,
Vertisol at the DRR Farm with a soil pH (1:2) At the same growth stage, varieties Abdulrachman S. 1999. On-farm adaptation
of 8.2, CEC of 43.5 (mol+) kg-1, organic exhibited different SPAD and LCC values. of knowledge-intensive nitrogen
carbon content of 0.58%, KMnO4-N of 165 Among the cultivars, higher SPAD and LCC management technologies for rice systems.
Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 53:59–69.
kg ha-1, Olsen P of 25.52 kg ha-1, and values were recorded in scented varieties Peng S, Garcia FV, Laza RC, Sanico AL, Visperas
exchangeable K (ammonium acetate-K) of at all growth stages compared with high- RM, Cassman KG. 1996. Increased N-use
217.46 kg ha-1 in a surface soil of 20-cm yielding varieties; SPAD and LCC values for efficiency using a chlorophyll meter on
depth. scented varieties were on a par with those high-yielding irrigated rice. Field Crops Res.
SPAD readings were taken at critical for hybrids (Table 2). These higher values, 47:243–252.
Turner FT, Jund MF. 1991. Chlorophyll meter to
crop growth stages for the topmost fully however, had no effect on grain yield, and predict nitrogen topdress requirement for
expanded leaf. A minimum of 10 readings signify the inherent trait of some genotypes semidwarf rice. Agron. J. 83:926–928.
from randomly selected hills were taken to show a consistent greenness from ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

IRRN 24.3 23
Table 1. Effect of variety and N level on grain yield (t ha-1) during wet and dry seasons, 1997-98.

0 kg N ha-1 45 kg N ha-1 90 kg N ha-1 135 kg N ha-1 SPAD-Na Mean

Wet Dry Wet Dry Wet Dry Wet Dry Wet Dry Wet Dry
Rasi 2.2 3.4 2.8 4.4 4.8 4.5 4.3 5.5 5.0 5.0 3.9 4.6
Vikas 2.3 3.2 3.5 4.2 4.0 4.8 4.2 5.5 4.6 5.5 3.7 4.6
Krishna Hamsa 2.1 3.5 4.2 4.2 4.2 6.0 4.4 5.7 4.8 5.8 3.9 5.0
Mean 2.2 3.4 3.5 4.2 4.3 5.1 4.3 5.5 4.8 5.4 3.8 4.7
ProAgro 6201 2.9 3.3 4.4 4.7 5.9 6.4 5.8 6.0 6.3 5.6 5.0 5.2
DRH-1 2.6 3.6 4.3 4.7 5.7 5.5 5.7 5.6 5.9 5.4 4.8 5.0
VRH-4 2.4 3.4 3.8 4.6 5.7 6.4 5.6 5.7 6.0 6.5 4.7 5.3
Mean 2.6 3.4 4.1 4.7 5.8 6.1 5.7 5.8 6.1 5.8 4.9 5.2
Kasturi 1.6 2.3 3.0 2.9 3.2 3.1 2.6 3.3 3.1 3.1 2.7 2.9
Pusa Basmati 2.2 2.2 3.0 2.5 3.4 2.8 3.0 2.4 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.6
IET13549 2.1 2.6 2.8 3.9 3.9 4.4 3.6 4.7 4.4 4.7 3.4 4.0
Mean 2.0 2.4 2.9 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.0 3.2
Mean of N 2.3 3.1 3.5 4.0 4.5 4.9 4.4 4.9 4.8 5.0 3.9 4.4
CD (0.05)
Wet Dry
Nitrogen 0.3 0.4
Variety 0.5 0.4
Interaction SIG SIG
MXS 1.0 0.9
SXM 1.0 0.9
AENb – – 27.77 21.11 25.11 20.33 15.40 13.85 33.73 23.87
PFPc – – 78.22 88.88 50.33 54.22 32.22 36.44 64.00 62.00
SPAD-N = kharif = 75 kg ha-1 and rabi = 80 kg ha-1. bAEN = grain yield of treatment – grain yield of control/fertilizer N. cPFP = partial factor productivity (grain yield of treatment/
fertilizer N).

Table 2. Mean SPAD and LCC values as influenced by variety and N level.

Kharif Rabi
Treatment 30 DAT 60 DAT 90 DAT Mean 30 DAT 60 DAT 90 DAT Mean

Rasi 33.95 4.36 34.39 4.45 34.12 4.52 34.15 4.44 34.94 5.00 34.62 4.70 34.61 4.55 35.21 4.70
Vikas 34.53 4.51 34.39 4.76 33.63 4.69 34.18 4.65 35.85 4.98 35.08 4.95 35.81 5.00 35.83 4.99
Krishna Hamsa 34.40 4.46 34.17 4.78 34.02 4.80 34.20 4.68 35.80 5.08 35.02 5.13 34.56 5.13 35.64 5.11
Mean 34.29 4.44 34.32 4.66 33.92 4.67 34.18 4.59 35.53 5.02 34.91 4.93 34.99 4.89 35.56 4.94
ProAgro 6201 34.69 4.85 34.56 5.31 33.78 4.86 35.75 5.07 35.49 5.11 36.16 5.56 35.44 5.64 37.48 5.65
DRH-1 35.87 5.12 35.34 5.23 35.04 4.91 35.42 5.09 36.52 5.28 37.04 5.81 35.68 5.60 36.70 5.49
VRH-4 37.05 5.23 35.74 5.16 34.43 5.01 34.34 5.01 36.64 5.35 37.38 5.85 37.52 5.80 35.98 5.46
Mean 35.87 5.07 35.21 5.23 34.42 4.93 35.17 5.05 36.22 5.25 36.86 5.74 36.21 5.68 36.72 5.54
Kasturi 35.67 5.19 34.82 5.53 34.60 5.00 35.03 5.24 35.77 5.45 38.10 5.98 38.87 5.82 36.44 5.70
Pusa Basmati 35.80 5.17 35.66 5.47 34.37 4.88 35.28 5.17 36.50 5.11 38.44 5.85 36.61 5.76 36.88 5.54
IET13549 34.68 5.21 35.38 5.53 34.09 4.89 34.72 5.21 36.80 5.28 36.43 5.79 36.12 5.64 36.53 5.45
Mean 35.38 5.19 35.29 5.51 34.23 4.92 35.01 5.21 36.36 5.28 37.66 5.87 37.20 5.74 36.62 5.56
Overall mean 35.18 4.90 34.94 5.14 34.19 4.84 34.79 4.95 36.03 5.18 36.47 5.51 36.14 5.44 36.30 5.35
CD (0.05) 0.81 0.17 0.79 0.21 1.17 0.26 0.83 0.22 1.15 0.20 0.77 0.27
N-0 28.01 3.29 26.87 3.42 29.55 3.06 28.14 3.26 26.35 3.84 28.77 3.86 29.67 3.70 29.87 3.80
N-45 34.76 4.46 35.94 4.45 33.82 3.87 34.84 4.26 36.39 4.37 35.78 5.05 35.38 5.13 35.85 4.85
N-90 37.42 5.14 36.76 5.58 35.98 5.46 36.72 5.39 38.08 5.51 37.53 5.88 37.86 5.83 37.82 5.74
N-135 37.75 5.82 37.66 6.10 35.99 5.59 37.13 5.84 39.23 6.05 41.50 6.38 40.19 6.13 39.12 6.19
N-SPAD 37.98 5.78 37.46 6.13 35.83 6.21 37.09 6.04 40.12 6.13 38.80 6.38 37.57 6.39 38.84 6.30
Mean 35.18 4.90 34.94 5.14 34.23 4.84 34.79 4.96 36.03 5.18 36.47 5.51 36.14 5.44 36.30 5.37
CD (0.05) 0.52 0.17 0.88 0.21 0.69 0.16 0.59 0.17 1.31 0.10 0.98 0.32

Table 3. Correlation coefficient valuesa between SPAD and LCC values during kharif and rabi
at 30, 60, and 90 d after transplanting.

1997 kharif 1997-98 rabi

SPAD30 0.85 0.84 0.84 0.81 0.84 0.89
SPAD60 0.83 0.81 0.81 0.80 0.87 0.90
SPAD90 0.80 0.78 0.84 0.78 0.81 0.84
Significant at P = 0.05 and P = 0.01.

24 December 1999
Crop management and physiology

Response of organic manures in a rice (Oryza

sativa)–chickpea (Cicer arietinum) crop sequence
G.R. Singh, S.S. Parihar, and N.K. Chaure, Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural
Research Station, Bilaspur 495001, Madhya Pradesh, India

The rice-chickpea cropping system prevails were applied only to rice. IR36 was chickpea, as incorporation of organic
in the eastern part of India, where transplanted on 1 July 1995 and harvested materials generally increased the soil
nitrogenous fertilizers are both costly and on 22 October 1995. organic carbon (SOC) content, available N,
scarce. Therefore, various organic To study the residual effect of and available P significantly in both seasons
materials were tested for their beneficial fertilizer N sources on chickpea yield after compared with the mineral fertilizer
effects on rice and chickpea yields as well the rice harvest, chickpea (JG-74) was treatment. The highest SOC contents were
as on soil nutrient levels. A field sown at 80 kg ha-1 without fertilizer in zero observed in the S. rostrata, sunn hemp,
experiment was carried out during the tillage on 14 November 1995 and harvested poultry manure, and Nadep compost
kharif (direct effect) and rabi (residual on 4 March 1996. Both the rice and treatments. Available N was highest in the
effect) seasons of 1995-96 on an Alfisol soil chickpea were grown in irrigated plots of poultry manure, neem cake, and S.
with pH 7.1, organic C content of 0.53%, 10 × 5 m. rostrata treatments. The poultry manure
available N (alkaline KMnO4) of 230 kg The application of organic and FYM treatments had slightly higher
ha-1, available P (Olsen) of 30 kg ha-1, and materials to the soil significantly enhanced available P than the other treatments.
available K (flame photometry) of 440 kg the grain and straw yields of rice and Across all treatments, SOC content
ha-1. Eight treatments replicated four times chickpea relative to the unfertilized control was significantly and positively correlated
in a randomized block design were used: (see table). Further, most organic materials with yield of chickpea (r = 0.81, P< 0.05)
T1 = control, T2 = Sesbania rostrata at had a significant residual effect on chickpea but not of rice. The correlation with
75 kg seed ha-1, T3 = sunn hemp at 75 kg yield relative to chemical fertilizers (T8). available soil N was highly significant for
seed ha-1, T4 = poultry manure at 5 t ha-1, Only the neem cake (T7) treatment chickpea yield (r = 0.93, P< 0.001) but
T5 = farmyard manure (FYM) at 5 t ha-1 resulted in significantly higher yields in weaker for rice yield (r = 0.67, P< 0.10).
using local method (cow dung kept in an both rice and chickpea, while all other Correlations of available P with yield were
open pit to decompose), T6 = Nadep organic materials except FYM, the local not significant for either rice or chickpea.
compost (crop residue and cow dung kept method (T5), resulted in significantly Apparently chickpea yield was more
in a brick-constructed tank and fully higher yields only for chickpea. dependent than rice yield on soil C and
covered by dung and mud slurry) at 5 t Higher nutrient availability under available N levels, while neither crop was
ha-1, T7= neem cake at 5 t ha-1, and T8 = these treatments might have contributed greatly limited by P supply.
80-22.7-25 kg NPK ha-1. These treatments to higher yields of rice and especially ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Direct and residual effects of organic manures on yields of rice and chickpea and soil nutrients.

Rice (direct effect) Chickpea (residual effect)

Treatment Grain Straw Organic Available Available Grain Organic Available Available
yield yield carbon N P yield carbon N P
(t ha-1) (t ha-1) (%) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1) (t ha-1) (%) (kg ha-1) (kg ha-1)

T1 3.2 3.3 0.55 231 13 1.1 0.60 228 13

T2 4.9 5.1 0.73 261 15 1.5 0.75 253 14
T3 3.9 4.1 0.72 254 16 1.4 0.77 249 15
T4 4.5 4.3 0.75 266 20 1.7 0.78 258 19
T5 4.7 3.8 0.68 247 20 1.2 0.71 242 19
T6 3.9 4.2 0.72 255 20 1.4 0.76 250 16
T7 5.3 5.9 0.68 266 19 1.4 0.68 253 17
T8 4.6 4.7 0.60 243 18 1.2 0.61 238 16
CDa (5 %) 0.4 0.5 0.06 11 1 0.1 0.07 9.0 1
Linear correlation between yield of rice or chickpea and SOCb, N, and P
SOC GYc = 1.7 + 3.89 X, r = 0.40, r2 = 0.16 SOC GY = 0.17 + 2.17 X, r = 0.81, r2 = 0.65
N GY = 5.0 + 0.04 X, r = 0.67, r2 = 0.45 N GY = –3.13 + 0.02 X, r = 0.93, r2 = 0.86
P GY = 2.2 + 0.12 X, r = 0.49, r2 = 0.24 P GY = 0.85 + 0.37 X, r = 0.36, r2 = 0.13
CD = coefficient of determination. bSOC = soil organic content. cGY = grain yield.

IRRN 24.3 25
Effect of growth hormones on outcrossing
of cytoplasmic male sterile lines
R. Singh, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Science, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi 221005, India E-mail:

Several artificial substances, such as growth In general, it was observed (based treatments. Cytosterile lines PMS 10A, PMS
hormone gibberellic acid (GA3), are on mean performance of all four CMS 3A, and PMS 2A performed better in terms
applied to increase cross pollination of lines) that all treatments scored much of important floral traits related with
cytoplasmic genetic male sterile (CMS) higher values than the control for outcrossing such as duration of floret
lines in rice. Because GA3 is costly, cheaper characters such as duration of floret opening, angle of opened florets,
alternatives are always being sought. This opening, angle of opened florets, panicle percentage of exserted stigma, and panicle
study was conducted in 1997-98 to confirm exsertion, spikelet length, and seed grain exsertion percentage than IR58025A after
and establish the performance of some yield (Table 1). Growth hormones can be spraying growth hormones. Cytosterile
growth hormones used in previous ranked in terms of effectiveness on floral line IR58025A, however, scored much
experiments. These experiments were and seed yield traits as (1) 60 ppm GA3, higher in seed grain yield, spikelet length,
conducted at Varanasi to establish (2) 60 ppm mangiferin, (3) 40 ppm GA3, and plant height. Similar trends were
mangiferin (extracted from mango plant (4) 40 ppm mangiferin, and (5) the control. observed when control data were
parts malformed by Fusarium mangiferin) The comparative response of different evaluated, indicating an equal response to
as a cheaper alternative to GA3 and involved cytosterile lines was evaluated based on treatments in all four cytosterile lines.
25 treatments on CMS line IR58025A average performance of the five ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

during 1995-97 (data not included).

In this study, experiments were Table 1. Effect of certain growth hormones on different floral traits of four CMS lines of rice.
again conducted at the same location, but
with only five treatments, selected on the Floral traits vs cytosterile linesa
basis of their performance in the first
Cytosterile lines
experiment—60 ppm GA3, 40 ppm GA3, 60 Character
ppm mangiferin, 40 ppm mangiferin, and IR58025A PMS 2A PMS 3A PMS 10A
the control—that were tested on CMS lines
Duration of floret opening 94.7 148.9 159.5 160.8
IR58025A, PMS 2A, PMS 3A, and PMS 10A. (min)
Data on seven characters that may Angle of opened 25.9 28.6 27.6 30.9
influence outcrossing—duration of floret florets (°)
Exserted stigma (%) 90.2 95.1 93.6 92.1
opening, angle of opened florets, Spikelet length (mm) 10.5 9.1 9.6 9.3
percentage of exserted stigma, panicle Panicle exsertion (%) 62.3 71.2 68.8 67.9
exsertion, plant height, grain yield ha-1, and Grain yield (kg ha-1) 2,499 191 223 157
Plant height (cm) 79.5 76.3 76.1 74.4
spikelet length—were recorded. The
pooled data are given in Table 1. The first Floral traits vs growth hormonesb
part of the table indicates the responses Treatments
of different CMS lines to outcrossing- Character
related traits taken over the mean effect GA3 Mangiferin GA3 Mangiferin Control
(60 ppm) (60 ppm) (40 ppm) (40 ppm)
of growth hormones, and the second part
Duration of floret 154.6 143.5 142.6 142.3 121.4
shows the performance of growth
opening (min)
hormones taken over the mean of four Angle of opened 30.2 28.3 28.0 28.0 26.6
CMS lines. Table 2 shows information florets (°)
related to the analysis of each of seven Exserted stigma (%) 94.1 93.8 91.7 94.2 90.0
Spikelet length (mm) 10.0 9.4 9.6 9.5 9.6
characters in the CMS lines along with Panicle exsertion (%) 70.0 68.7 68.7 68.8 62.9
critical differences (5%) and coefficients of Grain yield (kg ha-1) 983 778 701 752 720
variation. Plant height (cm) 80.9 73.0 79.7 72.1 72.3
Shows performance of four cytosterile lines over mean of five combinations of different growth hormones. bShows
performance of treatments for eight floral traits over mean of four cytosterile lines.

26 December 1999
Table 2. Analysis of variance for seven floral and associated characters in four CMS lines.a

Line 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Treatment IR58025A 544.42**c 8.40** 148.64** 27.03** 14.29** 1,104.60** 0.12**

(MS)+b PMS 2A 763.23** 20.27** 2.46 235.80** 66.46** 1.10** 0.35**
PMS 3A 491.14** 53.11** 1.59 130.65** 67.35** 9.27** 0.41**
PMS 10A 128.01 0.81 7.89 3.39** 116.72** 4.23** 0.91**

Error IR58025A 1.07 0.20 4.53 4.30 6.17 21.11 0.04

(MS)+ PMS 2A 10.99 5.54 0.80 0.70 17.67 0.03 0.09
PMS 3A 7.39 2.59 1.16 1.12 27.53 0.05 0.09
PMS 10A 5.89 0.60 2.60 0.32 2.20 0.06 0.09

CD (5%) IR58025A 1.69 0.74 3.48 3.39 4.05 23.73 0.30

(MS)+ PMS 2A 6.25 5.81 1.68 1.57 7.91 0.30 0.58
PMS 3A 5.12 3.02 2.03 1.98 3.30 0.39 0.58
PMS 10A 4.57 1.48 3.04 1.06 2.79 0.46 0.58

CV (%) IR58025A 1.05 1.70 2.43 2.72 4.08 16.69 1.79

(MS)+ PMS 2A 2.23 10.79 0.94 1.09 5.89 8.59 3.36
PMS 3A 1.71 5.84 1.15 1.39 7.62 9.09 3.21
PMS 10A 1.51 2.53 1.75 0.76 2.19 15.41 3.25
1 = duration of floret opening (min), 2 = angle of opened florets (°), 3 = percentage of exserted stigma, 4 = spikelet length (mm), 5 = panicle exsertion percentage, 6 = grain yield
(kg ha-1), and 7 = plant height (cm). bMean square values from respective ANOVA table. c**Significant at 1% level. CD = coefficient of determination, CV = coefficient of variation.

Instructional videos available

The Leaf Color Chart (LCC) (8:20 min)
Farmers generally observe the color of rice leaves to determine a rice crop’s need for nitrogen fertilizer. Dark green rice leaves mean a
high nitrogen content, while pale green rice leaves necessitate the application of more nitrogen fertilizer.
Mere observation, however, holds no absolute guarantee in measurement accuracy. Thus, to better help farmers determine their
rice crops’ need for nitrogen, the Leaf Color Chart (LCC) was developed.
The Leaf Color Chart (LCC) instructional video was produced to familiarize farmers and extension workers with the proper use of
this new and affordable farming implement.
Portable chlorophyll meter for nitrogen management in rice (13:30 min)
In agriculture, excess nitrates can actually be highly damaging to crops and the environment. There is, thus, a need to efficiently manage
the application of nitrogen fertilizers on rice crops.
The Portable Chlorophyll Meter for Nitrogen Management in Rice introduces the features and use of the chlorophyll or SPAD
meter which is capable of measuring the relative nitrogen content in plant leaves through a simple, quick, and nondestructive procedure.
Go break into the code (13:30 min)
Genetic engineering need not be a property of the scientific few. This is what IRRI had in
mind when it produced Go breAk inTo the Code: to make the general public grasp and
understand the seemingly complicated science through a visually stunning, fast-paced, and
entertaining presentation of the genetic code, DNA sequencing, and plant biotechnology.
The video also gives the public a glimpse as to how IRRI scientists are redesigning the
rice plant—that most important food staple, using biotechnology tools.
These instructional videos are available in English, in the 3/4-inch u-matic and VHS
formats, and in the NTSC, SECAM, or PAL systems.

For more information about the videos, contact:

Marketing and Distribution
Communication and Publications Services
IRRI, MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271

IRRN 24.3 27

First record of the wild rice Jaya. O. meridionalis was found in swampy planthopper [Sogatella furcifera
Oryza meridionalis in Indonesia lowlands and forests, along canals and (Horvath)] and rice tungro disease, based
B.R. Lu, Genetic Resources Center, IRRI, ditches, and near or inside farmers’ rice on information from the local agriculture
and T.S. Silitonga, Research Institute of fields. According to local farmers, this extension offices. Because O. meridionalis
Food Crop Biotechnology, Central species occurs abundantly, particularly occurs naturally in this area, it might be
Research Institute for Food Crops
during the wet season (February-May) worthwhile to screen its populations for
(CRIFC), Agency for Agricultural Research
and Development (AARD), Department when water is sufficient. Farmers call this resistance to these pests. Other wild rice
of Agriculture, Bogor, Indonesia wild rice Miyang Padi, which means species, such as O. officinalis, O.
“awned rice,” or Padi Rawa Hitam, longiglumis, and O. rufipogon, were also
Oryza meridionalis Ng is an annual meaning “black swamp rice.” They found and collected in Irian Jaya during the
diploid (2n = 2x = 24) wild species of rice, complain about this wild rice infesting their expedition. The exploration and collection
which has only been reported as endemic rice fields and interfering with fishing, mission was jointly conducted by IRRI and
to the northern parts of Australia. This wild which shows the common occurrence of the Research Institute of Food Crop
rice contains the same AA genome as O. meridionalis in the area. Biotechnology, CRIFC, AARD, Department
cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), and is The traditional staple food crops in of Agriculture of Indonesia.
therefore one of the most accessible Irian Jaya are mainly sago and tuber crops,
genetic resources in the wild rice genepool such as sweet potato, cassava, and taro.
for rice improvement. During a recent Cultivated rice, introduced into the area
exploration and collection mission (29 only in the early 1980s by transimmigrants, Influence of unusual weather
September–9 October 1999) for wild rice is now preferred by many people, on pest outbreaks and rice
species in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, O. particularly those who have moved to Irian production in Bangladesh
meridionalis was found and collected at Jaya from other parts of the country. The Zahirul Islam, Entomology Division,
many sites in Merauke District. This is the most serious rice insect pests and diseases Bangladesh Rice Research Institute
first record for O. meridionalis in Irian occurring in this area are whitebacked (BRRI), Gazipur, Bangladesh

During the past few years, unusual weather

conditions in Bangladesh have directly and
indirectly affected rice production. Rice in
Bangladesh is grown in four overlapping
(Left) A panicle of Oryza meridionalis collected seasons: aus (summer rice), transplanted
near Wasur National Park in Merauke District aman (monsoon rice), deepwater rice
of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (Below) Farmers
helped to collect seed samples from Oryza
(mostly floating rice), and boro (winter
meridionalis plants occurring in their field near rice). More than 93% of the 2.9 million ha
Kuprik at Merauke District. of boro rice is irrigated and is thus less
vulnerable to weather calamities. In
contrast, transplanted aman, which covers
about 5 million ha, is mostly rainfed and is
often affected by submergence and
The 1997 transplanted aman crop
was affected by a severe drought during
the crucial reproductive developmental
stage in October. A widespread outbreak
of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata
lugens (Stål), also occurred in October.
BPH populations probably built up during
August and September, when rainfall was
adequate. The drought and BPH outbreak
caused localized yield losses of up to 50%

28 December 1999
and a 10–15% yield loss in the transplanted the following season. Historical data BRRI will continue to monitor
aman season nationwide. indicated that, after severe floods and loss trends in weather patterns and pest
The 1998 transplanted aman crop of transplanted aman rice, farmers met the outbreaks. If pest outbreaks persist, it may
was severely affected by a long-lasting shortfall by increasing boro rice coverage be necessary to change research and rice-
flood, which reduced the rice-cropped in the following season (see table). breeding priorities in Bangladesh.
area significantly. Widespread outbreaks of Recent abnormal weather patterns
rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood- have perhaps contributed to the unusual
Mason), and sheath blight, caused by outbreaks of BPH, gall midge, leaffolders,
Rhizoctonia solani, occurred in the early and sheath blight in Bangladesh. For insect Farmer participatory research
planted higher lands. When the flood peak pests in 1998, ovipositing females may have for rat management
subsided, farmers transplanted rice aggregated in higher elevation rice fields in Cambodia
in medium-high lands. In some areas, when low-lying fields were flooded. Later P.G. Cox, G.C. Jahn, S. Mak, N. Chhorn,
severe outbreaks of rice leaffolders generations of adults may have migrated Cambodia-IRRI-Australia Project (CIAP),
[Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee), ´ to young rice plants in late-planted fields. P.O. Box 1, Phnom Penh; and S.Tuy,
Catholic Relief Services Cambodia
Marasmia patnalis (Bradley), and M. Two other trends might have Program (CRS), P.O. Box 493, Phnom
exigua (Butler)] occurred on late-planted contributed to the disease and insect Penh, Cambodia
rice fields. A high incidence of BPH and problems: the higher use of nitrogenous
swarming caterpillar, Spodoptera mauritia fertilizers and misuse of insecticides. A In 1998, CIAP researchers worked with a
(Boisduval), was also observed in many positive correlation between levels of N local nongovernment organization (CRS)
areas. The 1998 transplanted aman crop application and sheath blight incidence is to begin a program of farmer participatory
suffered 20–25% yield losses from flood often observed because higher N levels research (FPR) for improved rat
and pest outbreaks. result in increased canopy density. It is well management in Svay Teap District of Svay
In response to the shortfall in established that insecticide misuse can Rieng Province in southeastern Cambodia.
transplanted aman rice production in 1998 cause outbreaks of some pests, such as The research was compatible with the
and the anticipated increase in rice market BPH, because of the disruption in naturally action research process used by CRS as a
price, farmers expanded the boro area in occurring biological control agents. way of empowering local farmers to find

Effect of abnormal high floods on boro (winter) rice coverage and production in Bangladesh.a

Boro rice area planted to modern varieties Modern variety boro rice production
Year Flood situation in
previous monsoon (ha × 103) Change over (t × 106) Change over
previous year (%) previous year (%)
1973-74 Normal flood 589 – 1.6 –
1974-75 High flood 659 11.9b 1.6 1.2
1975-76 Normal flood 642 –2.6 1.6 0
1976-77 Normal flood 492 –23.4 1.2 –27.0
1977-78 Normal flood 589 19.71 1.5 25.2
1978-79 Normal flood 600 1.9 1.4 –7.4
1979-80 Late flood 724 20.7 1.9 36.2
1980-81 Normal flood 747 3.2 2.0 5.8
1981-82 Normal flood 898 20.2 2.5 26.1
1982-83 Normal flood 1,081 20.4 3.0 20.7
1983-84 Normal flood 1,006 –6.9 2.8 –6.6
1984-85 High flood 1,230 22.3 3.4 18.7
1985-86 Normal flood 1,213 –1.4 3.2 –3.9
1986-87 Normal flood 1,340 10.5 3.6 11.8
1987-88 High flood 1,639 22.3 4.3 19.8
1988-89 Very high flood 2,132 30.1 5.4 26.3
1989-90 Normal flood 2,154 1.0 5.7 4.6
1990-91 Normal flood 2,266 5.2 6.0 4.9
1991-92 Normal flood 2,334 3.0 6.4 7.1
1992-93 Normal flood 2,351 0.7 6.2 –2.0
1993-94 Normal flood 2,335 –0.7 6.4 2.9
1994-95 Normal flood 2,410 2.3 6.2 –3.4
1995-96 Normal flood 2,507 4.0 6.8 10.4
1996-97 Normal flood 2,547 1.6 7.1 3.9
1997-98 Normal flood 2,670 4.5 7.8 9.8
1998-99 Very high and 3,500c 31.1 10.0c 27.9
long-lasting flood
Data compiled from Statistical yearbook of Bangladesh (published annually), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dhaka. bEarly phase of modern variety boro adoption. cTentative estimate.

IRRN 24.3 29
solutions to their own problems. They had less): what one farmer does, or does not used to estimate the effectiveness of
already identified rat control as a key issue do, to manage rats affects other farmers different technologies. A visit by a rodent
in the management of rainfed lowland rice in the community. Farmers and ecologist from the Commonwealth
crops. In Cambodia, these crops are usually researchers met to discuss the rat problem, Scientific and Industrial Research
transplanted. The objective was to identify how farmers control rats now, and what Organization (CSIRO) in Australia
weaknesses in farmers’ rat management opportunities exist to do something about provided additional insights into the rat
practices and to work through possible it. Researchers took part in a community species present and the management
improvements with them. rat hunt organized by villagers (both in the implications of behavioral differences
Farmers reported two to five kinds daytime and at night). Night hunting was between rat species.
of rats attacking their crops. Their less effective than hunting and digging Traps and baits were already widely
descriptions coincided with accepted burrows during the day. In three villages, used, but these did not give adequate
rodent taxonomy. Collections of rats made we provided the materials to build a plastic control. Farmers proposed rat hunts as a
by hunting and trapping confirmed the fence with traps around an early wet- possible remedy. The TBS was not used in
presence of three species in, or near, rice season (EWS) rice crop to make an active wet-season rice crops in Svay Teap because
fields: Rattus argentiventer, Bandicota trap barrier system (TBS). Some EWS and it is too expensive, although farmers did
indica, and Rattus exulans. Farmers were dry-season rice farmers in Cambodia agree to help test this technology if we paid
convinced that rat populations are local, already use a plastic rat fence to protect for it. Except for hunting/digging, all the
living in bunds around rice fields and in their crop. Farmers’ existing experiments technologies have limitations (see table).
nearby wooded areas. They did not with EWS rice provided an opportunity to We believed that we could improve the
consider mass migration of rat populations test the TBS technology. They built and effectiveness of baiting and trapping by
to be important in Svay Teap. maintained the TBS and monitored the paying attention to the quality of materials
Researchers considered rat traps. Researchers trained farmers in and through training in techniques. But we
management to be a community issue improved baiting, burrow digging, and rat saw little we could do to improve the
because rats move around the landscape damage assessment in rice crops. Farmers effectiveness of the TBS—the major
so easily and over long distances maintained records of the number of rats problem is the high cost compared with
(individual landholdings are often 1 ha or captured by different methods, which were the losses associated with rat damage. A

Comparison of technologies used in farmer participatory research in Svay Teap District, Svay Rieng Province, Cambodia.

Baiting Traps Hunts/digging TBSa

Initial cost Medium Medium Low High
Labor requirements Low Low Medium High
Effectiveness Low Medium High Low
Durability Days Years NAb A season
Reliability No Yes Yes No
Economies of scale No No Possible impact Yes (cost t-1 depends on
of community field size and shape)
rat management
Provides information No Yes Yes Yes
about rat populations
Requires continuous No Yes No Yes
Environmental hazard Yes No No Unknown
Gender impact Primarily men’s work Primarily men’s work Men, women, and children Men and women
Health impact Unknown No Positive No
Compatibility with No (livestock) Yes Yes No (livestock)
farming system
Complexity Medium Low Low High
Adaptability Farmers modified Novel trap designs Adapted to include Difficult to modify, but
bait stations using were well accepted dogs in the hunt possible use as fish fences
aluminum cans
Relative disadvantage Some rat species Traps do not target May require community High cost; high complexity;
are bait-shy; rats that attack organization need for continuous
presence of cattle rice crops; theft monitoring; incompatible
reduces effectiveness with cattle in the farming
of baiting system; theft
Popularity Individuals Individuals Basis for social interaction Initial interest, but this
TBS = trap barrier system. bNA = not applicable.

30 December 1999
rat hunt in the dry season appears to be a option for wet-season rice crops in in bunds in the dry season, possibly
viable alternative that is comparatively well areas like Svay Teap where yields are as a community activity).
accepted, uses easily available resources, low, and rejection of using the EWS
avoids problems of theft and effects on crop as a trap crop because its timing References
cattle, and can be targeted to small rat does not coincide with high rat Cox PG, MacLeod ND, Shulman AD. 1997. Putting
populations close to rice fields at the end populations. sustainability into practice in agricultural
research for development. In: Stowell FA,
of the dry season. • Identification of immediate
Ison RL, Armson R, Holloway J, Jackson S,
Recent discussions of sustainability opportunities to improve practices, McRobb S, editors. Systems for
(e.g., Cox et al 1997, Röling and e.g., baiting and trapping. sustainability: people, organizations and
Wagemakers 1998, van Veldhuizen et al • Modification of solutions proposed environments. London: Plenum Press.
1997) have emphasized the importance of by farmers as technology is p 33–38.
participatory learning as a way of coming progressively adapted to the local Röling NG, Wagemakers MAF, editors. 1998.
Facilitating sustainable agriculture:
to grips with the complex issues of farming system, e.g., the use of beer participatory learning and adaptive
environmental management. Our cans as bait stations. These are more management in times of environmental
experience with FPR in Svay Teap has durable than coconut shells, and uncertainty. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge
already provided significant gains in terms there is less chance of poisoning University Press. 318 p.
of cattle. van Veldhuizen L, Waters-Bayers A, de Zeeuw H.
1997. Developing technology with farmers:
• An improved basis for the choice of • Identification of an improved strategy
a trainer’s guide for participatory learning.
technology, e.g., dismissal of the TBS for rat management (digging for rats London (UK): Zed Books. 230 p.

Digital Literacy for Rice Scientists

To help rice scientists take advantage of new information and communication technologies, the IRRI Training
Center has developed the Digital Literacy Course for Rice Scientists. The course aims to provide scientists with
information about what resources are available on the Internet and how they can go about accessing these resources.
The course is unique in that, it focuses on the needs of rice scientists, it provides a forum for rice scientists to
share their experiences and Internet resources with other rice scientists online, and it establishes a learner-centered
knowledge network in the form of an online community centered on rice research.
The topics covered by the course include
• What is the Internet
• What is the World Wide Web and what makes it
• Key Internet terminology
• How to use the Internet for communication with
other scientists
• How to use Web browsers
• How to search for information efficiently and
• What are some of the good sources of information
for rice scientists available on the Internet
• How to cite Internet documents
• What training opportunities are available online
Connection to the Internet offers national scientists
with a low-cost communication medium with other scientists
linked to the Internet, gives them access to the ever-growing
body of information available on and through interlinked
computers throughout the world, and provides access to formal and informal training offered
online from virtually anywhere.
The course was developed by Robert T. Raab and Buenafe Abdon of the IRRI Training Center. Watch for
more announcements in subsequent issues of IRRN.

IRRN 24.3 31

Kaewprakaisaengkul C, Gee- Hayami Y, Kikuchi M, Marciano Haddad L. 1999. The income

Clough D. 1998. Evaluation and EB. 1999. Middlemen and earned by women: impacts on
improvement of Thai-made low- peasants in rice marketing in welfare outcomes. Agric. Econ.
lift pumps. Agric. Eng. J. 7:211- the Philippines. Agric. Econ. 20:135-141.
230. 20:79-93.
In the past, traditional economic models
In many rice-producing regions in Asia, It is a common perception that traders and assumed that household decision-making
investment in private irrigation pumps has middlemen use monopoly power to was unitary, that is, household income
a higher priority than mechanization of extract profits from rice farmers. Farmers from all sources was pooled and spending
other farm operations. Therefore, are ostensibly forced to sell their rice at decisions were made according to
irrigation pumps are often among the first very low prices because traders are few and preferences that were common to all
farm machines acquired by farmers. In can control farmers. A study by Hayami et household members. Haddad (1999)
Thailand, the number of locally made al (1999) shows that this perception is not surveys the empirical literature that has
water pumps used in agriculture increases true for a small village in Laguna Province, attempted to test the validity of this
yearly, with more than 1.2 million pumps Philippines, that is well served by assumption and finds that the assumption
used in 1991. About 70% of these pumps infrastructure. has been consistently refuted in many case
are of the low-lift, high-discharge type, with Among a sample of 45 farmers in studies. In general, women’s income tends
the axial flow pump being the most this village, rice was sold to 37 different to be spent to a greater extent on food,
popular because of its low cost and simple buyers—13 different rice mills, 12 education, and health, whereas men’s
design. Because of different designs and independent traders, and 12 commission
income tends to be spent disproportionately
lack of performance characteristics, agents. This implies a tremendous amount
on alcohol and tobacco, among other items.
farmers have difficulty selecting pumps of competition among traders for buying
These findings have implications for the
that are suitable to their requirements. rice, which makes it easy for farmers to
Power and efficiency losses occur as well switch to another trader if they believe that study of the effects of male migration to
because of incorrect design, improper they are being cheated. To keep their mills cities in search of work, which often results
installation, or poor manufacturing. operating at full capacity, millers bought in female-headed households in rural
This paper describes the first rough rice from farmers hundreds of miles farming areas.
controlled performance testing of low- away. Competition among mills with such These differential spending effects
cost, locally made irrigation pumps that are a wide spatial distribution makes it difficult have been found in both economically
used extensively in rice production in for traders to collude with one another. advanced and less advanced countries. The
Thailand. Three main pump types (axial Farmers bought their inputs (fertilizer and empirical literature has been confined to
flow, mixed flow, and radial flow) were pesticides) from many specialized regression analyses of observational data,
evaluated in a performance test that agricultural supply stores, not rice traders, however, and Haddad suggests that
included evaluation of total head, pump making it difficult for traders to link rice studies with an experimental design that
discharge, pump speed, and power input. purchases to input supply. Farmers often randomly transfers income specifically to
Results indicated that axial flow and mixed accepted delayed payment for their grain, men or women might be helpful in
flow pumps are more suitable to the typical implying that they are lending money to convincing some skeptics (if such studies
requirements of Thai farmers. Based on traders, not just vice versa. Several farmers are politically feasible).
test results, improvements in pump design belonged to an agricultural cooperative Many countries have begun to alter
were made, including modifications to the that engages in collective product the design of poverty alleviation programs
drive shaft and impeller. When choosing marketing, but none of these farmers sold in a manner consistent with these findings,
modifications, care was taken so that local their rice to the cooperative. among them Bangladesh, Mexico, and the
pump manufacturers would be able to All of these facts show that the United Kingdom. Besides the benefits of
fabricate them. The improvements marketing system in this area is highly targeting women, however, there are also
resulted in a two- to threefold increase in competitive. The policy implication is that costs to this targeting, and not enough
pump efficiency, along with a 40–50% governments should build transportation
research has been conducted to determine
reduction in required power input. This and communication networks that would
whether the benefits outweigh the costs.
paper illustrates that, with proper testing, allow many private individuals to enter the
analysis, and slight design modifications, trading business, instead of trying to
tremendous improvements in the engage in trading directly to limit the
performance of agricultural equipment can influence of monopolistic traders.
be realized.
32 December 1999
Revsbech NP, Pedersen O, absent from soil from 4.5 mm below its analyses linking landscape structure with
Reichardt W, Briones A. 1999. euphotic, O2-generating surface. the aggregate responses of herbivore and
Microsensor analysis of oxygen Although, in principle, O2-induced natural enemy populations await further
and pH in the rice rhizosphere processes such as microbial oxidation of investigation.
under field and laboratory ammonium and ferrous iron tend to acidify Research projects involving IRRI
the rhizosphere, pH effects in the and collaborators in China, Vietnam, and
conditions. Biol. Fertil. Soils
rhizosphere of irrigated rice (IR72) the Philippines have been examining the
remained negligible. Consequently, any effects of habitat diversity on biological
prediction of rhizosphere effects on control of rice insect pests for the past
Nutrient supply to rice should be affected
nutrient supply will have to consider the several years.
strongly by microenvironmental changes
strong buffering capacities of heavy clay
caused by leakage of O2 from the roots in
soil as this is typical of many highly
anoxic waterlogged soil. Likewise, O2
intensive irrigated rice-cropping systems.
leakage from rice roots is supposed to
Wang Z-X, Yano M, Yamanouchi
offset the toxic effects on rice plants of
elevated levels of reduced inorganic ions U, Iwamoto M, Monna L,
such as Fe2+. Microprofiles of O2 and pH Hayasaka H, Katayose Y, Sasaki
Thies C, Tscharntke T. 1999. T. 1999. The Pib gene for rice
measured directly with microsensors
inside and outside rice roots have led to Landscape structure and blast belongs to the nucleotide-
new insights into the microenvironment biological control in binding and leucine-rich repeat
for nutrient uptake by rice in submerged agroecosystems. Science class of plant disease resistance
anoxic soils. 285:893-895. genes
genes. Plant J. 19:55-64.
The aerenchyma of rice plants
functions like an open tube system without A long-standing debate in entomology is Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen
any restriction to O2 diffusion. Yet, with whether landscape diversity contributes to Magnaporthe grisea, is one of the most
progressive plant growth stages, the export more effective or more stable control of serious diseases in several rice-growing
of O2 into flooded rice soils is gradually insect pests by natural enemies (predators, countries. At least 30 resistance loci have
reduced. Inside the roots of irrigated rice parasites, and pathogens). The paper by been identified in rice and several of them
variety IR72, O2 concentrations were equal Thies and Tscharntke provides evidence have been mapped using molecular
to air saturation close to the root base, that landscape diversity is indeed markers. This is the first report on isolation
whereas only half of this O2 saturation level beneficial. Their study system in Germany of the rice blast resistance gene Pib. The
was retained (8 cm) further down the root consisted of the rape pollen beetle availability of a high-density molecular map
in regions containing rootlets. Outside the (Meligethes aeneus), a pest of oilseed rape and markers in the Pib region provided a
roots of 3-wk-old transplants, O2 gradients (Brassica napus), and three ichneumonid good starting point for chromosome
extended to about 0.4 mm into the (Hymenoptera) larval parasitoids of the walking. The deduced amino acid
surrounding rhizosphere soil. At this beetle. sequence of the Pib gene product contains
vegetative growth phase, rootlets were Beetle parasitism was greater in a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and
surrounded by O2 layers about 150 mm rape fields adjacent to old field margins leucine-rich repeats (LRRs); thus, Pib is a
thick. At the flowering stage and beyond than in fields without such margins, and member of the NBS-LRR class of plant
it, however, O2 export from the roots had greater still in fields that were adjacent to disease resistance genes. A duplication of
come to an end, with minor O2 leakage large, old fallow habitats. Beetle parasitism the kinase 1a, 2, and 3a motifs of the NBS
apparently confined to some rootlets of did not differ near the edges of the three region was found in the N-terminal half of
flowering plants only. types of fields, but was higher in the center the Pib protein. In addition, eight cysteine
Depending on soil-buffering of fields that were adjacent to the old field residues are clustered in the middle of the
capacity and microbial communities, margins or fallow habitats. Parasitism also LRRs, a feature that has not been reported
leaking O2 is rapidly consumed by reduced increased, and plant damage declined, as for other R genes. Pib gene expression was
chemical compounds in the soil and by landscape complexity increased. induced upon altered environmental
microbial biofilms covering the roots. The Landscape complexity was measured as conditions, such as a change in
first in situ measurement of O2 profiles in the percentage of land area covered by temperature and darkness.
flooded rice fields ever accomplished noncrop habitats. Although this analysis
(long-term continuous cropping coupled landscape structure with
experiment at IRRI) revealed that O2 was biological control of M. aeneus, similar

IRRN 24.3 33
Witt C, Dobermann A, up to 11 t ha -1. The model QUEFTS fields were lower than the predicted
Abdulrachman S, Gines HC, (Quantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of optimal ones, mainly because of nutritional
Wang GH, Nagarajan R, Tropical Soils) was adjusted for rice. The imbalances, inadequate irrigation, or
Satawatananont S, Tran Thuc borderlines describing the minimum and problems with pests and weeds. Averages
Son, Pham Sy Tan, Le Van Tiem, maximum internal efficiencies (IE, and ranges of IEs were 59 kg grain kg-1 N
kilograms grain per kilogram nutrient in (27–100 kg kg-1), 354 kg grain kg-1 P (158–
Simbahan GC, Olk DC. 1999.
plant dry matter) of the three major 1,069 kg kg-1), and 64 kg grain kg-1 K (27–
Internal nutrient efficiencies of
nutrients were estimated at 42 and 96 kg 179 kg kg-1) with grain yields ranging from
irrigated lowland rice in tropical grain kg-1 N, 206 and 622 kg grain kg-1 P, 1.5 to 9.9 t ha-1 (mean 5.2 t ha-1).
and subtropical Asia. Field and 36 and 115 kg grain kg-1 K, respectively. This research is an important step
Crops Res. 63:113-138. The model predicted a linear toward developing site-specific nutrient
increase in grain yield if nutrients were management technology for irrigated rice.
This study estimates the N, P, and K taken up in balanced amounts of 14.7 kg The proposed model is valid for all current
requirements of irrigated rice in South N, 2.6 kg P, and 14.5 kg K per 1,000 kg of modern, high-yielding indica cultivars with
and Southeast Asia based on more than grain until yield targets reached about 70- a harvest index of 0.5. Only Ymax is
2,000 on-station and on-farm experiments 80% of the climate-adjusted potential yield required as site- or season-specific
in six Asian countries conducted between (Ymax). The corresponding IEs were 68 kg information when estimating nutrient
1995 and 1997. The authors have grain kg-1 N, 385 kg grain kg-1 P, and 69 kg requirements for a yield target, making the
compiled the most comprehensive grain kg-1 K for balanced nutrition. The model applicable to all irrigated lowlands
database on crop nutrient requirements model predicted a decrease in IEs when in South and Southeast Asia.
available and used the data to model the yield targets approached Ymax. The actual
nutrient requirements for rice yields of IEs of N, P, and K measured in farmers’

International Conference on
Paddy Soils Fertility
The International Conference on Paddy Soils Fertility will be held at the Conference Center of the Holiday Inn Resort,
Clark Field, Pampanga, Philippines, on 24-27 April 2000. The conference theme is Sustainable paddy soil ecosystem: a
global challenge in the next millennium.
The conference aims to
1. critically examine and analyze the role of paddy soils in food supply security,
2. identify and discuss major issues and concerns confronting paddy soils,
3. exchange information on available data about national paddy soil conservation programs and on R&D thrusts, and
4. come up with national and regional action programs on sustainable paddy soil fertility management.
The conference theme revolves around the following topics: role of paddy soils in food security strategies, paddy
soil issues and concerns, general policy scenarios on paddy soils, action program
on paddy soils, and wetland soils and global climatic change.
Practitioners from various disciplines are expected to attend the 4-day
meeting to enhance awareness, exchange research experiences, and share the
success of the demo project relating to paddy soil fertility issues.
For more information, contact the organizers by e-mail:; by fax: (63-2) 920-4318; by mail: Paddy Soils Secretariat,
Bureau of Soils and Water Management, Elliptical Road, Diliman, Quezon City,
The registration fee is US$250 for overseas participants and P3,500 for
local participants.

34 December 1999

World-renowned social scientist

conferred National Scientist

World-renowned social scientist, Dr Gelia

T. Castillo, was conferred the rank and title
of National Scientist by Philippine
President Joseph Ejercito Estrada recently.
Dr Castillo has been an IRRI consultant for
many years. She is known in international
circles for her expertise in the social
sciences and for her work on women in
rice farming.
G.T. Castillo R. Wang
The award recognized her
“distinguished individual achievement in
the social sciences and outstanding
contribution to national development.” Dr National Agricultural Research (The agricultural research programs. He also
Castillo was also cited for her “excellence Netherlands), International Centre for served on the expert advisory panel that
in sociological research and achievements Research in Agroforestry (Kenya), and the drafted China’s national guidelines for the
that have contributed immensely to the International Plant Genetic Resources development of agricultural science and
acceptance and growth of empirically Institute (Italy). technology (2001-2015). He was likewise
based social science both in the Philippines a member of the expert committee
and abroad.” The citation also noted her charged with developing guidelines and
“rare ability to synthesize existing works making strategic plans for the Ministry of
and to elucidate difficult theories and Ren Wang: new IRRI deputy Science and Technology.
concepts so that they become accessible director general for research Before joining CAAS, Dr Wang was
to policymakers and ordinary citizens.” deputy director of the International
The award also highlighted Dr IRRI has a new deputy director general for Institute of Biological Control of the
Castillo’s “commitment to put science in research. Dr Ren Wang, former vice Commonwealth Agricultural Research
the service of equity and ethics, manifested president of the Chinese Academy of Bureaux in the United Kingdom. He was
in her work that puts into practice her Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), joins the also a member of a specialist panel on
belief that the best of science and scientists Institute in January 2000. science and strategy that was part of the
must be devoted to the problems of those Director General Ronald Cantrell Consultative Group on International
who have less in life.” said in an announcement that, “Dr Wang Agricultural Research (CGIAR) System
As IRRI consultant, Dr Castillo, brings to IRRI not only impressive review in 1998. He was a Rockefeller
served as chair of the outstanding Young leadership experience and an excellent Foundation PhD fellow from 1982 to 1985.
Women in Rice Science project in 1994. scientific background but also a direct link In 1991, he received an award for his
She is a member of the Institute’s Ethics to China’s valuable contributions and outstanding contribution to China’s
Review Committee and advises IRRI on the traditions of scientific excellence in rice modernization from the Education
socioeconomic and cultural impact of rice research. His joining the Institute will Commission and the Ministry of Personnel
research and specific country-related undoubtedly strengthen ties between IRRI Management.
issues. and China and provide our research efforts
Dr Castillo is professor emeritus of with an important boost at the start of the
rural sociology at the University of the new millennium.”
Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) and an early Formal links with China were Emil Q. Javier appointed as
advocate of the concept of participatory established in 1982 with CAAS as the lead TAC chair
development. She authored All in a grain agency. In 1987, the China-IRRI liaison
of rice and has served on the board of the office was formally established in Beijing. Former IRRI board member and former
International Development Research As CAAS vice president, Dr Wang president of the University of the
Centre (Canada), International Potato was responsible for strategic planning, Philippines (UP) System, Dr Emil Q. Javier,
Center (Peru), International Service for priority setting, and developing major is the new chair of CGIAR’s Technical

IRRN 24.3 35
Padolina appointed as DDG
for partnerships

Dr William G. Padolina was recently

appointed by the IRRI board as the
Institute’s new deputy director general for
Before this appointment, he served
as IRRI’s director for external relations,
where he led several different units, all of
them involved with the Institute’s many
different partners and collaborators. His
responsibilities included resource
E.Q. Javier mobilization, relations with the E. Javier
Philippines, IRRI’s research activities with
Advisory Committee (TAC) effective other countries, and matters relating to
January 2000. Dr Javier was the unanimous intellectual property rights, training of rice New INGER coordinator
choice of the search committee whose scientists, science publishing, and public
recommendation was fully endorsed by awareness. Dr Edwin Javier was recently appointed as
the CGIAR system. IRRI’s partnerships include relations the new coordinator of the International
Dr Javier’s distinguished national with national agricultural research systems, Network for the Genetic Evaluation of Rice
and international career as a scientist, technology evaluation networks, research (INGER) based at the Genetic Resources
administrator, and government leader and networks and consortia, bilateral national Center, IRRI. Dr Javier was the plant
his involvement with the CGIAR system as and shuttle research programs as well as breeder of the Cambodia-IRRI-Australia
chair of the Secretariat Review Team and joint ventures. Project from 1993 to 1998.
vice chair of the IRRI Board of Trustees, Under Dr Padolina’s leadership,
will help reposition the international panel Prior to that, he served as the FAO
IRRI expects to increase, strengthen, and
as an important mechanism for scientific enhance national research capacities in the rice breeder in Sri Lanka (1981-87, 1989-
research and economic development. region, and ensure greater collaboration 93); FAO consultant to Fiji, Papua New
The CGIAR advisory committee across political borders and national Guinea, and DPR Korea; project leader on
provides independent but strategic barriers. rice activities and tobacco breeding in
scientific advice and guidance to investors Dr Padolina was a former Cabinet several national agencies in the
in setting their agricultural priorities and member in the Philippine government, Philippines; and instructor, assistant and
resource allocations. where he served as secretary of Science associate professor at UPLB.
“Dr Javier is naturally suited to join and Technology from 1995 to 1998. He has The plant breeding and genetics
the eminent line of TAC chairs established also served as assistant to the president of specialist has received several national
by the renowned Australian scientist, Sir the University of the Philippines System, awards for his breeding work and teaching
John Crawford. He is particularly suited to vice chancellor of academic affairs of UPLB, in crop science.
provide the CGIAR with strategic advice and director of the National Institutes of
and guidance as it confronts the challenges Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology
that lie ahead,” said Dr Ismail Serageldin, of UPLB.
CGIAR chair, in formally announcing the Angara and Nemenzo join
appointment in Washington. W. G. Padolina
Dr Javier was president of the UP IRRI Board
System from 1993 to 1999 and served as
Philippine minister of science from 1985 Former Senator Edgardo Angara, secretary
to 1986. He also served as director-general of the Philippine Department of
of the Taiwan-based Asian Vegetable Agriculture, and Dr Francisco Nemenzo,
Research and Development Center and a the new president of the University of the
member of the World Food Prize Selection Philippines System (UP) joined the IRRI
Committee. He is a member of the Board of Trustees as a result of their
Philippine Academy of Science and appointment in their new positions.
Technology, the Third World Academy of Secretary Angara and Dr Nemenzo
Science, and the World Academy of Arts succeeded former Acting Agriculture
and Sciences. Secretary William D. Dar and former UP
President Emil Q. Javier, respectively. Dr

36 December 1999
Javier will assume his new post as chair of
the Technical Advisory Committee of the
Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research (CGIAR) on 1
January 2000, while Dr Dar has been
appointed as director general of another
CGIAR center, the International Crops
Research Institute for the Semiarid Tropics
(ICRISAT) based in India.
In welcoming the two new Board
members, Dr Ronald P. Cantrell, IRRI’s
director general, said that the Institute was
very fortunate to have access to the
E. Angara F. Nemenzo
experience, knowledge, and expertise of
both Secretary Angara and Dr Nemenzo.
“We are looking forward to working with
economics, Indonesia); Dr E.A. Siddiq attention to the livelihoods and nutritional
them because of their excellent security of the poor.
(genetics and plant breeding, India); Dr
educational credentials. I am sure they will Dr Swaminathan’s work in crop
Hiroshi Fujimaki (genetics and plant
make a big difference to the Board and to genetics and sustainable agricultural
breeding, Japan); Ms Angeline Saziso
IRRI’s operations, especially in the development in India and the Third World
Kamba (public service and human
Philippines,” Dr Cantrell said. earned him the first World Food Prize in
resource management, Zimbabwe); Dr
Secretary Angara served as Senate 1987, the Tyler and Honda Prizes in 1991,
Lene Lange (microbiology, Denmark); Dr
president from 1993 to 1995 and is best and the UNEP Sasakawa Award in 1994.
Calvin O. Qualset (genetics and genetic
identified with landmark laws in education, Before joining IRRI, Dr Swaminathan
resources, United States); Dr Siene
health, and culture and the arts. He was had been the director of the Indian
Saphangthong (agronomy, Lao People’s
the principal author of the Agriculture and Agricultural Research Institute (1966-71),
Democratic Republic); Dr Emanuel
Fisheries Modernization Act. He served director general of the Indian Council of
Adilson S. Serrão (agronomy, Brazil); Dr
previously on the IRRI Board of Trustees Agricultural Research (1972-80), and India’s
Jian Song (engineering and education, secretary of agriculture (1980-81). As
(as UP president) from 1981 to 1987 as well
People’s Republic of China); and Dr secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture and
as on the Board of Trustees of the
Mechai Viravaidya (population and Cooperation, he developed a strong food
International Center for Living Aquatic
community development, Thailand). security system in India.
Resources Management.
Dr Nemenzo was dean of the UP After leaving IRRI, he created the M.S.
College of Arts and Sciences from 1976 to Swaminathan Research Foundation initially
1981, a senior research fellow at the using funds from the prizes he received as
Australian National University in Canberra Time names Swaminathan part of the awards. The foundation is
from 1982 to 1985, UP faculty regent from influential Asian devoted to promoting environmental
protection and sustainable agriculture.
1988 to 1989, and served as chancellor of
Dr M.S. Swaminathan, IRRI director general The others on the Time list include
UP Visayas from 1989 to 1992. He
from 1982 to 1988, was named by Time Mohandas Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore,
coauthored the books The Philippines
Magazine as one of the 20 most influential Corazon Aquino, and Emperor Hirohito.
After Marcos (London/New York 1985)
and The Sovereign Quest: Freedom from Asians of the 20 th century. In naming
Foreign Military Bases (Manila 1988). Swaminathan to the exclusive list, Time
Dr Roelof Rabbinge of The editors stated that “as father of India’s Green
Revolution, he brought blessings to the
Netherlands heads the 15-member Board
service of a hungry Asia.”
of Trustees that governs IRRI. Dr Cantrell,
As head of IRRI, Dr Swaminathan was
Secretary Angara, and Dr Nemenzo are ex cited for developing new and innovative
officio members. approaches to training and technology
International experts make up the sharing. He also forged stronger
Board’s other 12 members-at-large. They collaborative research ties with national
come primarily from rice-producing agricultural programs and universities,
countries and donor entities. sharpened the Institute’s focus on
They are Ms Makiko Arima-Sakai sustainability, and had a sincere concern for
(communications and journalism, Japan); the environment, equity, and the role of
Dr Sjarifudin Baharsjah (agricultural women. He was also praised for his constant
M.S. Swaminathan
IRRN 24.3 37
Dr Luisa P. Ejercito-Estrada, Philippine First Lady (on podium), keynoted the Nutrition Conference held at IRRI on 5-7 October 1999. Others in
the photo (from left to right) are Dr Samson C.S. Tsou, director general of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center;The Hon.
Minister Mahiuddin Khan Alamgir, state minister for Planning, Bangladesh; Dr Per Pinstrup Andersen, director general of the International
Food Policy and Research Institute, and Dr Ronald P. Cantrell, IRRI director general.

IRRI hosts nutrition conference advocacy movement on ending hidden policymakers, and representatives from
hunger. international research centers, national
Improving human nutrition through Dr Estrada challenged the agencies, academic institutions, NGOs, the
agriculture: the role of international participants in coming up with strategies donor community, and the private sector
agricultural research was the theme of an for using agriculture as a valuable input in participated in the 3-day meeting.
international conference on nutrition the campaign against micronutrient During the conference, recent
organized by the International Food Policy malnutrition. She enjoined international results from CGIAR efforts to enhance the
Research Institute (IFPRI) at IRRI in research organizations, nongovernment nutrition impact of international
October. The First Lady of the Philippines, organizations (NGOs), the academe, and agricultural research were presented and
Dr Luisa P. Ejercito-Estrada, keynoted the the industry represented in the conference discussed. In particular, the results of 4
opening program. to (1) breed and develop more nutrient- years of work evolving from the CGIAR
In her keynote address, the First dense and nutrient-filled crops, especially Micronutrient Project were featured. This
Lady, a medical doctor, stressed the staples, and (2) promote and encourage project, which involves four CGIAR centers
importance that the government has put the production of micronutrient-rich food (IFPRI, IRRI, CIMMYT, and CIP), seeks to
on nutrition and health concerns. She said products. breed food staple crops that are dense in
that food security is one of the key The underlying goal of the micronutrients.
priorities of the current government conference was to bring international
administration. She cited some of the nutrition and international agricultural
strategies that the government has communities together to evaluate current
undertaken to combat the problem of partnerships and to identify promising
malnutrition, such as various food areas for future partnerships. More than
fortification projects and the national 60 scientists, nutrition experts, Source: Public Awareness Unit and IRRI Hotline

38 December 1999
New IRRI Publications

Genetic Improvement of Rice

Rice Tungro Disease Management for Water-Limited Environments
T.C.B. Chancellor, O. Azzam, and K.L. Heong O. Ito, J. O’Toole, and B. Hardy

The Quest for Nitrogen Fixation

A Rice Village Saga in Rice
Y. Hayami and M. Kikuchi J.K. Ladha and P.M. Reddy


MCPO Box 3127, Makati City 1271, Philippines

Printed Matter

ISSN 0115-0944