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FlightManagement Flight Management

Istas Nusyirwan

Players
Thoseinvolveinresearch,developmentand Those involve in research development and manufactureofaerospacevehiclesand systems. systems ForexampleAerospaceIndustriesAssociation F l A I d i A i i andGeneralAviationManufacturers Association. A i i

ImportanceofAerospaceIndustries Importance of Aerospace Industries


TradeBalance Trade Balance Employment ResearchandDevelopment h d l Impactonotherindustries.

PrincipalProductLines Principal Product Lines


Aircraft Missiles Spacesystems S Powerplant

Forbothcivilianandmilitaryuse. For both civilian and military use

TheCivilAviationMarket The Civil Aviation Market


USA is the largest producer of aircraft for USAisthelargestproducerofaircraftfor civilianmarket. Big players Boeing and Lockheed Martin Bigplayers BoeingandLockheedMartin In1996 $22bilofaircrafthasbeensold. EuroperespondsbycreatingAirbusto competewithUSmanufacturers.

FactorsAffectingtheSaleofConsumer Transport
Economicgrowth Economic growth Inflation Passengerloadfactor l df Replacementaircraft Airlinesabilitytomakeprofit. Economiccycle. Economic cycle

AirTransportIndustry Air Transport Industry


It covers all civil flying performed by Itcoversallcivilflyingperformedby certificatedaircarriersandgeneralaviation. In US the Civil Aeronautics Acts 1938 explains InUS,theCivilAeronauticsActs1938explains aircarriermeansanycitizenwhoundertakes toengageinanairtransport. to engage in an air transport interstateairtransportmean[s]the carriagebyaircraftofpersonsorpropertyasa i b i f f commoncarrierforcompensationorhire.

ContributiontoEconomy Contribution to Economy


No need to explain It is very important Noneedtoexplain.Itisveryimportant. Createjobs. Nourishesbusinesses. ih b i
Quickeronthespotdecisionandaction. Lessfatigueassociatedwithtravel. Greatermobility. Decentralizeproductionanddistribution.

Pleasuretraveltourism

Somehistorybackground Some history background


Air transport has started as early as 1914 It Airtransporthasstartedasearlyas1914.It cameintheformofpostalservicebetween majorcitiesinUS. major cities in US Bigplaneswereintroducedin1933,i.e. Boeing247andDC1. Boeing 247 and DC 1

Andthencame,DC2andDC3. ,

LockheedConstellation

InGeneral:AnAviationIndustry In General : An Aviation Industry


Pilots Theairportsystem Theairnavigationsystem Aviationmanufacturers Scheduledaircarriers Fixedbasedoperators Aviationinterestgroups Generalaviation G l i i Thegovernmentalregulatorysystem

RegulatoryBodies Regulatory Bodies


Each country has their own regulatory body to Eachcountryhastheirownregulatorybodyto maintainsafetyandintegrityofaviation industry. industry Amongothersare:
M l i D Malaysia DepartmentofCivilAviation t t f Ci il A i ti U.S.A FederalAviationAdministration Europe JointAviationAuthorities h Australia CivilAviationSafetyAuthority

DCAofMalaysia DCA of Malaysia


DCAisanacronymforDepartmentofCivil DCA is an acronym for Department of Civil Aviation.Itisanorganisation intheMinistry ofTransportMalaysiaadministeringthe of Transport Malaysia administering the activitiesofaviation.Theactivitiesincludes basicallythetransportationofpassengers, basically the transportation of passengers mailandcargofromandintotheairspaceof Malaysia.

DCA sResponsibility DCAs Responsibility


ThecorebusinessofDCAisenforcementservice toensurethatallaviationactivitiesinits airspaceareregulatedandconductedin accordancetolawsofMalaysia.Italsoprovides accordance to laws of Malaysia It also provides AirTrafficControlservicestoairaircraftinits airspace. TheseactivitiesthatDCAregulatesinclude aircraftcertification,registration,personnel certification,airportlicensing,airoperators certification, airport licensing, air operators certification,airtrafficcontrol,airnavigation equipmentcertification.

GoverningLaws Governing Laws


TheMalaysianGovernmenthasenactedalaw y andregulationsi.e CivilAviationAct1969and CivilAviationRegulation1996thatpersonsor organisations conducting any aviation activites conductinganyaviationactivites shallabidewith. Thenationallawsandregulationsarebasedon theInternationalCivilAviationOrganisation (ICAO),StandardsandRecommendedPractices (SARP).Allnationsconductingaviationactivities (SARP). All nations conducting aviation activities aresorequiredbyittoaccommodatethese standardsintotheirlawsandregulations.

WhymustfollowICAO? Why must follow ICAO?


Airtransportationcrossesmanynational t a spo tat o c osses a y at o a territoriesandairspacesaroundtheglobe.If eachcountryhavedifferentstandardsand procedures,thiswillburdentheoperatorsof d h ll b d h f aircraft.Eventuallyitaffectthesafetyofaircraft andpassengers. and passengers However,whenallnationshavecommon standards,operatorswillhavelessprocedures standards, operators will have less procedures toconductandthuslessentheburden.Safetyof aircraftandpassengerscanthusbeassured.

WhatdoStandardsandRecommendedPractices(SARP) mean?

Thestandardsarespecificationforphysical p p y characteristics,configuration,material, performance,personnelorprocedurethatstates ofICAOmemberswillconforminorderto of ICAO members will conform in order to achievesafeandregularairnavigation. Whereas,theRecommendedPracticesareany specificationforphysicalcharateristics, configuration,material,performance,personnel orprocedurewheretheaplication isrecognised or procedure where the aplication is recognised asdesireable intheinterestofsafetyofair navigation.

HistoryofDCA History of DCA


1911 Firstheavierthanairaeroplane landsatKualaLumpur.(Antoinette MonoplanepilotedbyMr.G.P.Fuller). M l il t d b M G P F ll ) FirstcommercialflighttoMalaya,operatedbyKLM,landsatAlor Star(aFokkerFVII). ( ) ManagementunitforCivilAviationformed,headedbyDirectorof PublicWorksDepartmentSingapore. DCAformedinSingapore.FirstDirector,Mr.S.E.Storror. KLIAatSungaiBesi. AirTrafficControl(ATC)conductedforDCAbyBritishArmy. DCAemplacedunderMinistryofLands,Mines&Communications. 1924

1935

1947 1948

Cont
1953 DCAformedinKualaLumpurunderaDirectorGeneralofCivil Aviation,FederationofMalaya.DCAemplacedunderMinistryof Aviation Federation of Malaya DCA emplaced under Ministry of Post&Telecommunications.FirstDirectorGeneral,Mr. N.A. Oxford.AirNavigationOrder(ANO)legislated. KualaLumpurAirport(Sg.Besi)becomesanInternationalAirport. MalaysiabecomesamemberstateofInternationalCivilAviation Organization(ICAO).FirstinternationalflighttoEuropebyBOAC Organization (ICAO) First international flight to Europe by BOAC usingaBristolBritanniaaircraft. y g AllMalaysianaircraftregisteredas9M NewKualaLumpurInternationalAirportatSubang opens.

1956 1957

1958 1965

Cont
1976 DCAbecomesaselfaccountingdepartmentunderMinistryof Transport.DCAresponsibleforadministering20Airports Transport DCA responsible for administering 20 Airports including4InternationalAirports.KualaLumpurandKota Kinabalu FIRsestablished.ATCPrimaryRadarserviceforArea ControlwithintheKLFIR. CivilAviationCollege(CAC)replacestheCivilAviationTraining CentreatSubang Airport.SchoolofAviationSecurityopensat g p PenangAirport. CivilAviationCollege(CAC)commencesinternationalcourses underMalaysianTechnical CooperationProgramme. MalaysianAirspaceManagementService(MAMS)formedto link ATSorganization andmanagementinbothFIRs.

1981

1984 1989

Cont
1990 1991 1992 MalaysianAirTrafficServicesModernizationProject (MATSMP)commences.Expectedtocompleteby1996. (MATSMP) E t dt l t b 1996 BillpassedbyParliamentforcorporatisation ofDCA(20 AirportsexcludingATC). Airports excluding ATC) FiredestroysKualaLumpurATCCandTower.Temporary TowersetupusingFireServices Tower set up using Fire Services WatchTower.TemporaryATCCsetupatCivilAviation CollegeusingATC simulatorconsoles. FormationofMalaysiaAirportsBhd,aCorporationto Formation of Malaysia Airports Bhd a Corporation to manage20AirportsinMalaysia. KualaLumpurApproachRadarservicesprovidedusing combinedPrimaryandMonopulse SSR.

Cont
1993 DCApurchasesoneLearjet60(withanoptionforsecond)tocomplement itsflightcalibrationfleet. Groundworks commenceforconstructionofnew KualaLumpurInternationalAirportat Sepang. FireputsApproachRadaroutofservice.Radarservicesresumeafterone Fi t A hR d t f i R d i ft monthusingmobileMarconiPrimary/SSRonloanfromSouthAfrica. DCAtakesdeliveryofits1 Learjet LR60.MalaysiawasauditedbyFederal DCA takes delivery of its 1st Learjet LR60 Malaysia was audited by Federal AviationAdministration(FAA/US)intheInternationalAviationSafetyAudit (IASA),andwas categorizedasCategoryI.Withthisresult,MASisallowed toflyto USAwithoutrestriction; Recognitiontoproduceaircraft(Eagle); andAircraftcomponentsforexports. Malaysiaisthefirstcountrywithin AsiaPacifictosignBilateralAviationSafetyAudit (BASA).

1994

1996

Cont
1997 MalaysianAirTrafficServiceModernizationProject(MATSMPs) NewAir TrafficControlCentrestartsoperation.DCA takesdeliveryforits2 Learjet Traffic Control Centre starts operation DCA takes delivery for its 2nd Learjet LR60.FirstfixedwingaircraftlandingatKLIA,aDCABN2pilotedbyDCA DirectorGeneral,Hon. Ir.Haji Zaini BinOmar(TanSri).DCAcommences ADS/CDPLCtrialincooperationwithALENIA. KLIA,Sepang startsoperation(30June). NationalCivilAviationSecurityProgramme wasenforced.(14thAug). ICAOUniversalSafetyOversightAuditProgramme (ICAOUSOAP)on Airworthiness,FlightoperationandPersonnellicensing.(111thMay) DCAHeadquartersmovedformWisma Semantan,KualaLumpurtoParcelD, Putrajaya.Miri Radar(MIRAD)Projectstarted.(22ndNov)

1998 1999 2000 2001

Cont
2002 FollowupICAOUSOAP.(June) ScheduleoperationmovefromSultanAbdulAzizShahAirport,Subang toKLIA.(4thJuly Schedule operation move from Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport Subang to KLIA (4th July InternationalAviationSecurityAssessment(IASA)(Oct) DCAwascertifiedasPublicServicesMSISO9002:1994withregardtotheprocedurefor issuanceofAirServicePermit,AirServiceLicenseandAirOperatorCertificate. , p FollowupIASA.(20thMay) InternationalAviationSecurityAssessment(IASA)(2ndJuly) ICAONewComprehensiveApproachUniversalSafetyOversightAuditProgramme (16 outof18Annexes) DCAHQmovedfromParcelD,Putrajaya toPrecinct4(October2005) ICAOUniversalSecurityAviationAuditProgram(USAP)(Annex17)(1626Jan) MinisterofTransportOfficialVisittoDCAHQinPutrajaya Minister of Transport Official Visit to DCA HQ in Putrajaya (25th Aug) ICAOCouncilPresidentVisittoDCAHQ,DCAKLIAandDCASubang (1518April) 2003

2005

2006

2007

DivisionsinDCA Divisions in DCA


AirTrafficManagementSector AirworthinessSector FlightOperationSector FlightCalibration Fli ht C lib ti AirTransport ManagementServicesDivision Management Services Division AirTrafficInspectorate AirportStandards AviationSecurity MalaysianAviationAcademy

AirTrafficManagementSectoratDCA Air Traffic Management Sector at DCA


ThefunctionsofAirTrafficManagementSectorare: ProvideAirTrafficServices,i.e.AirTrafficControlService,FlightInformation ServiceandAlertingService; RecruitmentandTrainingofAirTrafficControllers; SearchandRescueCoordinatingService; AeronauticalInformationServices; AirspaceManagement; ProvideofCommunication,NavigationandSurveillancefacilities; g g ( ) CollectionofAirNavigationFacilitiesCharge(ANFC).

AirworthinessSectoratDCA Airworthiness Sector at DCA


ThefunctionsofAirworthinessSectorare: e u ct o s o o t ess Secto a e: 1.Registrationofallcivilaircraft 1. Registration of all civil aircraft 2.Certificationofaircraftstandards 3.Licensingofaircraftmaintenanceengineers 3 Licensing of aircraft maintenance engineers 4.Approvaloforganizationsformaintenance q p aircraftandequipment 5.Certificationofaircraftmanufacture 6.Aircraftaccidentinvestigations 6. Aircraft accident investigations

FlightOperationSectoratDCA Flight Operation Sector at DCA


ThefunctionsofFlightOperation Sectorare: g p Licensingandtheoryexaminationsofflightcrews Flighttestingofflightcrews IssuanceofAirOperator'sCertificate(commercialair transportoperator)andCertificateofApproval(Flying SchoolandFlyingClub) School and Flying Club) Continuedsurveillance Flight testing of aircraft and simulator Flighttestingofaircraftandsimulator Aircraftaccidentinvestigation

FlightCalibrationDivisionatDCA Flight Calibration Division at DCA


ThefunctionsofFlightCalibrationDivisionare: The functions of Flight Calibration Division are: Calibrationofairnavigationfacilities Maintenanceofaircraftandcertificationof i f i f d ifi i f navigationalequipment Constructionofflightprocedures

AirTransportDivisionatDCA Air Transport Division at DCA


Thefunctionsof AirTransport Divisionare: 1. AirlinesFlightScheduleapprovals. 2. ProcessingofAirServiceLicenseandPermits. 3. ParticipationinAirServicesAgreement(ASA)Negotiations. 4 RecommendationsforformationofAirlineCompaniesandintakeof expatriates. 5. LiaisonwithInternationalCivilAviationOrganization(ICAO)and otherinternationalorgansiation. th i t ti l i ti 6. Processingofinternationalmeetings,conferences,seminarsand courses. 7. Collectingofflightdatastatisticsforanalysisandplanning. 7 Collecting of flight data statistics for analysis and planning 8. RecommendationsforformationofFlyingSchools. 9. RecommendationsforformationofFlyingClubs.

ManagementServicesDivisionatDCA Management Services Division at DCA


ThefunctionsofManagementServicesDivisionare: Coordinatingandmonitoringactivitiesofalldivisions Planning,managingandadministeringhumanresourcesof thedepartment the department Planningandmanagingthefinancialmanagement Coordinating,controllingandmonitoringofdevelopment project Planning,managingandadministeringtheinformation systemforthepurposeofplanning,researchand/or referenceofserviceinthedepartment reference of service in the department Managingandadministratingalldocumentsconnectedto aviationindustryforthepurposeofreference

AirTrafficInspectorateDivisionatDCA Air Traffic Inspectorate Division at DCA


ThefunctionsofAirTrafficInspectorateDivision The functions of Air Traffic Inspectorate Division are: Implementation of air traffic control examinations Implementationofairtrafficcontrolexaminations Issuanceofairtrafficcontrollicenses M di l Medicalexaminationsendorsements i ti d t Airtrafficincidentinvestigations Implementationsofairtrafficserviceaudit programme

AirportStandardDivisionatDCA Airport Standard Division at DCA


ThefunctionsofAirportStandardsDivisionare: The functions of Airport Standards Division are: Aerodromecertification Aerodrome licensing Aerodromelicensing Developmentandupgradingofaerodrome A Approvalforprivateaerodrome lf i t d Approvalforobstaclemarkingandlighting Inspectionofcommunication,navigationand surveillanceequipments

AviationSecurityDivisionatDCA Aviation Security Division at DCA


ThefunctionsofAviationSecurityDivision: TodeveloppolicyandstandardbasedonNCASP,NQCPandNCATSP programme. Toensuresecuritystandardonairports,airlines,cargo,cateringand allaviationsecurityrelatedmatterareimplemented. all aviation security related matter are implemented Toregulatehandlingsandtransportations. Inspectionandcertificationofxraymachinescreener. I Inspectionandcertificationofaviationsecurityanddangerous ti d tifi ti f i ti it dd goodstraining. SkyMarshallProgramme development. Investigation on incident and accident involving security and Investigationonincidentandaccidentinvolvingsecurityand dangerousgoods.

CivilAviationCollegeatDCA Civil Aviation College at DCA


ThefunctionsofCivilAviationCollegeare: g TotrainAirTrafficControllerstotherequiredand mandatedinternationalstandardsinairtrafficcontrol techniquesandequipment. t h i d i t ToprovideinformationtoAirTrafficControllersofthe latestdevelopmentsandtechnologiesincivilaviation. latest developments and technologies in civil aviation. Toimplementtrainingprogrammes,whichconformto ICAOsstandardsandrecommendedpractices,tomeet bothnationalandinternationalneedsforboth operationalandmanagementpersonnel.

PublicationsatDCA Publications at DCA


[FromwebsiteofDCA]DCApublishes [From website of DCA] DCA publishes documentsforoperators.Itmainlycovers 1. FlightOperation 1 Flight Operation 2. AirportStandardDirectives 3. AirTrafficServices 4. AirWorthinessNotices

FAAofUSA FAA of USA


TheauthorityofaviationinAmerica.SinceAmerica The authority of aviation in America Since America aviationindustryissobig.Almostallairlinesfrom allovertheworldflytoAmerica.Thus,inmost y , cases,allnewlydesignedairplanesmustconform withFAAsrulesandregulations. FAAwasestablishedin1967,afterhavingseveral FAA was established in 1967, after having several namechanges.Furtherreadingisavailableat FAAswebsite.

ResponsibilityoftheAuthority Responsibility of the Authority


aircraftcertification, registration, personnelcertification, airportlicensing, i t li i airoperatorscertification, airtrafficcontrol, air traffic control, airnavigationequipmentcertification, accident&incidentinvestigationandreports, recordanddatakeepingforforecastingand managementimprovement, education education

ICAO
TheInternationalCivilAviationOrganization,aUNSpecializedAgency,istheglobal forumforcivilaviation. forum for civil aviation ICAOworkstoachieveitsvisionofsafe,secureandsustainabledevelopmentofcivil aviationthroughcooperationamongstitsmemberStates. Toimplementthisvision,theOrganizationhasestablishedthefollowingStrategic Objectivesfortheperiod20052010: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Safety Enhanceglobalcivilaviationsafety Security Enhanceglobalcivilaviationsecurity EnvironmentalProtection Minimizetheadverseeffectofglobalcivilaviation ontheenvironment Efficiency Enhancetheefficiencyofaviationoperations Continuity Maintainthecontinuityofaviationoperations RuleofLaw Strengthenlawgoverninginternationalcivilaviation

ICAO:AviationSafety ICAO : Aviation Safety


AviationsafetyisakeyobjectiveofICAOandispartoftheworkinthe followingSectionsandprogrammes: following Sections and programmes Aerodromes,AirRoutesandGroundAids(AGA)Section AccidentInvestigationandPrevention(AIG)Section FlightSafety(FLS)Section AviationMedicine(MED)Section FlightSafetyandHumanFactors g y SafetyManagement FlightSafetyInformationExchange(FSIX) Flight Safety Information Exchange (FSIX)

ICAOAnnexes ICAO Annexes


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PersonnelLicensing Rulesoftheair MeteorologicalServices AeronauticalCharts Unitsofmeasurementstobe usedinAirandGround Operations 6. OperationofAircraft 6 O ti f Ai ft 7. AircraftNationalityand RegistrationMarks 8. AirworthinessofAircraft 8 Airworthiness of Aircraft 9. Facilitation 10. Aeronautical Telecommunication 11. AirTrafficServices 12. SearchandRescue 13. AircraftAccidentandIncident Investigation 14. Aerodromes d 15. AeronauticalInformation Services 16. EnvironmentProtection 16 E i t P t ti 17. Securityagainstunlawful interference. 18. Safetransportofdangerous 18 Safe transport of dangerous goodonair. Availableofwww.icao.int Available of www icao int

GovernmentAgencies Government Agencies


MinistryofTransportMalaysia Ministry of Transport Malaysia RoyalMalaysianCustoms ImmigrationDepartmentofMalaysia i i f l i PublicServiceDepartmentofMalaysia

AirlinesOperatedinMalaysia Airlines Operated in Malaysia


MalaysiaAirlines Malaysia Airlines AirAsia FAX FireFly BerjayaAir Transmile Group

FlyingSchool Flying School


MalaysiaFlyingAcademy Malaysia Flying Academy Langkawi AerospaceTrainingCentre AsiaPacificFlightTraining i ifi li h i i IntegratedTrainingandServices GulfGoldenInternationalFlyingAcademy

OtherInternationalAviationBodies Other International Aviation Bodies


AustralasianAviation FAARegulations. TheRoyalAeronautical GroundSafetyCouncil Ground Safety Council FAAAviationInformation. Society Society. . FlightSafetyFoundation. TransportAccident AirwaysCorporationof InternationalAir Investigation NewZealandLimited. Commission(TAIC,NZ). TransportAssociation Transport Association AirAccidents TransportCanada(Civil (IATA). InvestigationBranch InternationalCivil Aviation). (UK). AviationOrganisation UnitedKingdomCivil Airservices Australia Australia. AviationAuthority Aviation Authority (ICAO). (ICAO) BureauAirSafety IndependentConfidential (UKCAA). Investigation(BASI). AviationReporting SouthAfricanCAA. CivilAviationSafety System(ICARUS). AuthorityAustralia InternationalFederation h i li (CASA). ofAirworthiness. FAAOfficeofSytem NationalTransportation y Safety. SafetyBoard(NTSB). Safety Board (NTSB)

MajorAviationAssociations:Airlines Related l d
AirTransportAssociationofAmerica Air Transport Association of America AirlineClearingHouse RegionalAirlineAssociation i l i li i i AirlineTariffPublishingCompany AirCargoInc. AeronauticalRadio,Inc. Aeronautical Radio Inc

Aircraft ManufacturingAssoc. Aircraft Manufacturing Assoc.


Aerospace Industries Assoc AerospaceIndustriesAssoc. GeneralAviationManufacturersAssoc. AircraftOwnersandPilotsAssoc. i f O d il

InternationalAssoc International Assoc


International Air Transport Association InternationalAirTransportAssociation
Moreontariffcoordination,suchasfares,rates andcharges. and charges Forumformemberstodiscussmatters,mainlyon tariffs,rates. tariffs, rates.

Airlines
Major and National Carriers Malaysia Airlines MajorandNationalCarriers MalaysiaAirlines
Bigrevenue,longdistanceflight Flying big and wide body jets Flyingbigandwidebodyjets

RegionalCarriers AirAsia,Firefly
Medium size smaller planes smaller payload shorter Mediumsize,smallerplanes,smallerpayload,shorter distance Flyingsmallerjetsandturbopropplanes. y g j p pp (29July2008)

CodeSharing Code Sharing


An agreement between airlines to save Anagreementbetweenairlinestosave operatingcostandtime. Passengers could travel using different airlines Passengerscouldtravelusingdifferentairlines withoneticket. F Forexample,acodesharingbetweenMAS,Air l d h i b MAS Ai IndiaandKLMforEuropeandAustralasia route.

Airline sManagement Airlines Management


Board of Directors The chief governing body BoardofDirectors Thechiefgoverningbody ofacorporation.Electedbystakeholders. Comprisesbetween3 20people.Chiefpolicy Comprises between 320 people Chief policy makingbodyofacorporation.Responsiblefor theappointmentofapresident,secretary, the appointment of a president secretary treasurer,i.e.thosewhoaredirectly responsibleforthedailymanagementofthe responsible for the daily management of the corporation.

TopManagement Top Management


Top Management The highest level of TopManagement Thehighestlevelof managementinacorporation.Responsibleto establishtheobjectivesandproceduresto establish the objectives and procedures to meetthegoalssetbytheBoardofDirectors. Oftencalled,CeO orseniorexecutives. Often called CeO or senior executives

MiddleManagement Middle Management


Responsibledevelopingoperationalplansand Responsible developing operational plans and procedurestoimplementtheobjectives conceivedbythetopmanagement. conceived by the top management Mainlyconsistsofheadofdepartmentor M i l i fh d fd division.

OperatingManagement Operating Management


The lowest level of management Thelowestlevelofmanagement. Includesmanagers,assistantmanagers, generalforemen. general foremen

LineDepartments Line Departments


Flight Operations develop flightoperation FlightOperations developflight operation proceduresandpoliciesforsafe,efficientof aircraft.Pilottraining,flightsimulatortraining, aircraft Pilot training flight simulator training flightcrewscheduling,flightplanning.
Captain : is the commander of an airplane He Captain:isthecommanderofanairplane.He reportstoFlightOfficer. First Officer : reports to the captain FirstOfficer:reportstothecaptain.

Cont
Engineering and Maintenance EngineeringandMaintenance
Responsibleofmaintainingtheaircraft. Do various levels of maintenance e g overnight Dovariouslevelsofmaintenance,e.g.overnight maintenanceandscheduledmaintenance. Non routine maintenance Nonroutinemaintenance AirframesOverhaul Engine Overhaul EngineOverhaul

Cont Cont
Marketing and Services MarketingandServices
Advertising Sales planning Salesplanning FoodService

Th Fli ht S i P TheFlightServingPassengers fli ht flight attendants.


Trainingofflightattendants. Aimstogivethebestservicetothepassengers.

Airports
Allairports,informalterms,aregeneralaviation All airports in formal terms are general aviation airports.Theseincludethoseusedbybigplanes. Therearethreecategoriesofairports There are three categories of airports 1. PublicUsePubliclyOwnedAirport 2. PublicUsePrivatelyOwnedAirport 3. PrivateUseAirport p

KLIA:Thehistory KLIA : The history


OnJune27th,1998,thenewRM9bilKualaLumpurInternationalAirport(KLIA) gatewaytoMalaysiaandtheregion wasopenedbyHisRoyalHighnessDYMMSPBYangdiPertuan Agong Tuanku Ja'afar (paramountrulerof Malaysia). Theairportcannowcater25millionpassengersannually.Theannualcargohandlingcapacityispresently650,000 tonnes.By2020thepassengershandlingcapacityisexpectedtoincreaseto60millionandcargohandling increasedto1.2milliontonnes annually.KLIAhastworunwaysand106aircraftparkingstandscomparedtothe singlerunwaySultanAbdulAzizShahAirport(formerSubang Airport)thathas44aircraftparkingstands. single runway Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport (former Subang Airport) that has 44 aircraft parking stands. AirTrafficServiceswerefullyprovidedwiththemigrationofMalaysiaAirlinesaircraftfromSubang AirporttoKLIAon Mondaynight29thJune.At7.20amthenextday,thefirstdomesticdeparture,MH1432tookofftoLangkawi with thePrimeMinisterDatuk SeriDrMahathirMohammadonboard.ThefirstinternationaldeparturewasaMalaysia AirlinesflightMH84toBeijingat9am.ThefirstdomesticarrivalwasMH1263fromKuantan at7.10am.Thefirst internationalflightarrivalwasMH188fromtheMaldivesat7.30am. international flight arrival was MH188 from the Maldives at 7 30am TheTransportMinisterDato'SeriDrLingLiong Sik,officiallylaunchedthesecondrunwayon8thOctober1998.With thesecondrunwayinfulloperation,KLIAnowofferssimultaneouslandingsandtakeoffs. Beforetheoperationofthesecondrunway,KLIAcouldonlyaccommodate30to35aircraftmovementperhour.Nowit Before the operation of the second runway KLIA could only accommodate 30 to 35 aircraft movement per hour Now it canhandle50aircraftmovementonasegregatedmode,inwhichonerunwayisusedsolelyforarrivalsandthe otherfordepartures.Undermixmodeoperation,thetworunwaysarecapableofhandlingupto60aircraft movementperhour.Bothrunwaysareover4000mlongand60mwideandallowforalltypesofaircraftwithout payloadrestriction.

Airport:Introduction Airport : Introduction


Airport forms an essential part of the air Airportformsanessentialpartoftheair transportsystem. It is a physical site at which a model transfer Itisaphysicalsiteatwhichamodeltransfer fromairmodetolandmodes. It is a point of interaction between three Itisapointofinteractionbetweenthree majorcomponentsofairtransportsystem
Theairport; p ; Theairline;and Theuserorclient.

Airport:Planning Airport : Planning


The planning of an airport must consider the Theplanningofanairportmustconsiderthe previousmajorcomponents,i.e.airport, airlineanduser/client. airline and user/client Optimaloperationisachievedwhenallplayers reachaformofoperationalequilibrium. reach a form of operational equilibrium Airlineishappy,passengerishappyandthe airportishappy. airport is happy

Whenthingsnotinequilibrium When things not in equilibrium


Deficit operations by the airport Deficitoperationsbytheairport Deficitoperationsbytheairlineattheairport Unsatisfactory working conditions for airline Unsatisfactoryworkingconditionsforairline andairportemployee Inadequate passenger facilities Inadequatepassengerfacilities Insufficientflightsupplies U f Unsafeoperations ti Highdelayforpassengerandairline

Ahierarchicalsystemdiagramofairportrelationships.

OrganizationsAffectedatLargeAirport Organizations Affected at Large Airport


AirOperator p
Localauthoritiesandmunicipalities Centralgovernment Concessionaires C i i Suppliers U Utilities es Police FireService AmbulanceandMedicalServices A b l d M di l S i AirTrafficControl Meteorology

Cont
Airline
Fuelsupplies Engineering Catering/DutyFree S it Sanitaryservices i Otherairlinesandoperator

Cont..
User
Passenger Visitor

NonUser
Airportneighbour organizationandresidents. Localcommunitygroups. Environmentalgroups.

NationalAirports National Airports


To serve the interest of the country Toservetheinterestofthecountry. Ahugeandcomplicatedairportsystemsand management. management Buildusingpublicmoney. Buildaccordingtothecountrysneedsand requirements.

Factorsthatinvolve Factors that involve


Volume AircraftType Internationalanddomesticsplit i l dd i li Numberofairlinesserved Growthrates

ExampleinUS Example in US
Total number of airports is 18 343 Totalnumberofairportsis18,343 (31/12/1994 FAA)
72% is privately owned 72%isprivatelyowned 28%ispubliclyowned

Al Also
30%isopentopublic 70%islimiteduse.

FunctionofAirport Function of Airport


Theairportpassengerandfreightterminalhas3 e a po t passe ge a d e g t te a as 3 distinctfunctions(AshandWright1992) g p y g 1. Changeofmode physicallinkagebetweenair vehicleandground. 2. Processing facilitiesforticketing, documentation,controlofpassengersand freight. 3. Changeofmovementtype A 3 Ch f tt Asmoothtransition th t iti forafreightcomingfromalandbasedvehicleto theaircraft. the aircraft

LargeAirportsmustabletoadminister Large Airports must able to administer


1. Handlingofpassengers; g p g ; 2. Servicing,maintenance,andengineeringofaircraft; 3. Airlineoperationsincludingaircrew,cabinattendants, groundcrew,terminalandofficestaffs; 4. Businessesprerequisitefortheeconomic sustainabilityoftheairport sustainability of the airport 5. Aviationsupportfacilities ATC,Meteorology 6. Government functions Agricultural Inspection, Governmentfunctions AgriculturalInspection, Customs,Immigration,Health

ManagementandOperational Structure
There is no unique form of structure Thereisnouniqueformofstructure. Itdependsonmanyfactorssuchas
th i thesizeoftheairport f th i t Itsrelationshipwiththepublicbodies(govt).

Option1:smallairport Option 1 : small airport

Option2:largerairport Option 2 : larger airport

Option3:largerairport Option 3 : larger airport

MunichAirport Munich Airport

AirportComponents Airport Components


The airfields Theairfields
Runwayorientation Runwaylengthandwidth y g Runwaypavements Runwaymarkings y g Runwaylightings Taxiwaymarkings Taxiwaylighting Otherairfieldsmarking

AirportPlanning&Management ByAlexanderT.Wells,SethB.Young

NavigationalAids(NAVAIDS)locatedatairfields g ( )
Nondirectional Beacons(NDB) VHFOmniDirectional Beacon(VOR) InstrumentLandingSystem(ILS) MicrowaveLandingSystem(MLS) GPSLocalAreaAugmentationSystem(LAAS)

AirTrafficControlandSurveillancefacilitieson theairfield
Airtrafficcontroltower Airportsurveillanceradar(ASR) AirportSurfaceDetectionEquipment(ASDE)

Weatherfacilitieslocatedatairfield
Windindicators

Summaryofcomponentofanairport Summary of component of an airport

RunwayPavements Runway Pavements


Flexible (asphalt) small airport less Flexible(asphalt) smallairport,less expensive,shorterlifespan1520years Rigid (concrete) large airport last longer 20 Rigid(concrete) largeairport,lastlonger20 40years

RunwayMarkings Runway Markings


Three types of markings for runways Threetypesofmarkingsforrunways
Visual onlyforvisualapproach Nonprecision instrument straightin p g nonprecision instrumentapproach Precisioninstrument instrumentcontrolsboth horizontalandverticalapproach.

Typicalmarkings
Runwaysdesignators Centrelines

Cont..
Nonprecisionmarkings
Runway threshold markings Runwaythresholdmarkings Aimingpoints(fixeddistancemarkers)

Cont Cont
Precisionmarkings

AirportLightingSystem Airport Lighting System


Veryimportant fornightop. f i ht categories:
Approach pp lightingsystems Visualglideslop indicators Runwayend identifiers Runway edge Runwayedge lightsystem Inrunway lightingsystem g g y

ApproachLightingSystem Approach Lighting System


In US there are several methods InUS,thereareseveralmethods
ALSF1 Approachlightsystem2400feetinlength withILSCatIconfiguration g AlSF2 sameasabovewithILSCat2Configuration SSALR Simplifiedshortapproachlightsystemwith runwayalignmentindicatorlights. MALSF Mediumintensityapproachlightsystem 1400feetinlengthwithrunwayalignmentindicator 00 f i l h ih li i di lights. Many more Manymore

AirportManagementunder FARPart139
FARPart139[14CFR139],CertificationandOperations:LandAirportsServing CertainAirCarriers Certain Air Carriers Part139requirestheFAAtoissueairportoperatingcertificatestoairportsthat
Servescheduledandunscheduledaircarrieraircraftwithmorethan30seats; Servescheduledaircarrieroperationsinaircraftwithmorethan9seatsbutlessthan31seats; and TheFAAAdministratorrequirestohaveacertificate.

ThisPartdoesnotapplytoairportsatwhichaircarrierpassengeroperationsare conductedonlybecausetheairporthasbeendesignatedasanalternateairport. AirportOperatingCertificatesservetoensuresafetyinairtransportation.To Airport Operating Certificates serve to ensure safety in air transportation. To obtainacertificate,anairportmustagreetocertainoperationalandsafety standardsandprovideforsuchthingsasfirefightingandrescueequipment.These requirementsvarydependingonthesizeoftheairportandthetypeofflights available.Theregulation,however,doesallowtheFAAtoissuecertainexemptions toairportsthatservefewpassengersyearlyandforwhichsomerequirements i h f l df hi h i mightcreateafinancialhardship.

BasicPhasesofFAR139Inspection Basic Phases of FAR 139 Inspection


ToensurethatairportswithAirportOperatingCertificatesaremeetingtherequirementsofPart139,nearly35FAA AirportCertificationSafetyInspectorsconductcertificationinspections.Theseinspectionstypicallyoccuryearly,butthe FAAcanalsomakeunannouced inspections.Certificationinspectionsincludethefollowingsteps: Preinspectionreview ofofficeairportfilesandairportcertificationmanual. Inbriefingwithairportmanagement. Organizeinspectiontimeschedule,meetwithdifferentairportpersonnel. Administrativeinspectionofairportfiles,paperwork,etc. AlsoincludesupdatingtheAirportMasterRecord(FAA Form5010)andreviewoftheAirportCertificationManual/Specifications(ACM/ACS),NoticestoAirmen(NOTAM), airfieldselfinspectionforms,etc. airfield self inspection forms etc Movementareainspection. Checktheapproachslopesofeachrunwayend;inspectmovementareastofindout conditionofpavement,markings,lighting,signs,abuttingshoulders,andsafetyareas;watchgroundvehicle operations;ensurethepublicisprotectedagainstinadvertententryandjetorpropellerblast;checkforthe presenceofanywildlife;checkthetrafficandwinddirectionindicators. Aircraftrescueandfirefightinginspection. Conductatimedresponsedrill;reviewaircraftrescueandfirefighting personneltrainingrecords,includingannuallivefiredrillanddocumentationofbasicemergencymedicalcare l i i d i l di l li fi d ill d d i fb i di l training;checkequipmentandprotectiveclothingforoperation,condition,andavailability. Fuelingfacilitiesinspection. Inspectionoffuelfarmandmobilefuelers;checkairportfilesfordocumentationof theirquarterlyinspectionsofthefuelingfacility;reviewcertificationfromeachtenantfuelingagentabout completionoffiresafetytraining. g t spect o . a uate u ay/ta ay a d ap o g t g a d s g age, pa e e t a g, a po t beaco , Nightinspection. Evaluaterunway/taxiwayandapronlightingandsignage,pavementmarking,airportbeacon, windcone,lighting,andobstructionlightingforcompliancewithPart139andtheACM/ACS.Anightinspectionis conductedifaircarrieroperationsareconductedorexpectedtobeconductedatanairportatnightortheairport hasaninstrumentapproach. Postinspectionbriefingwithairportmanagement. Discussfindings;issueLetterofCorrectionnotingviolations and/ordiscrepanciesifanyarefound;agreeonareasonabledateforcorrectinganyviolations,andgivesafety recommendations.

CompliancetoPart139 Compliance to Part 139


If the FAA finds that an airport is not meeting IftheFAAfindsthatanairportisnotmeeting itsobligations,itoftenimposesan administrativeaction.Itcanalsoimposea administrative action It can also impose a financialpenaltyforeachdaytheairport continuestoviolateaPart139requirement.In continues to violate a Part 139 requirement In extremecases,theFAAmightrevokethe airport scertificateorlimittheareasofan airport's certificate or limit the areas of an airportwhereaircarrierscanlandortakeoff.

FARPart139InDetails FAR Part 139 In Details


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