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Dimensional Accuracy
Dimensional Accuracy in turning operation is controlled by many factors, including the wear at the nose of the tool [figure 23-7]. Precision is influenced by deflection due to the cutting forces and surface roughness. Tool wear causes the work piece dimension to change from the initial diameter when the tool is sharp to the diameter obtained after the tool has worn. The cutting forces increase as the tool wears, resulting in an increased deflection between the work piece and cutting tool. Built-up edge (BUE) may form at the tip of the cutting tool. The BUE has a tendency to change the actual diameter of the work piece. Thus to hold close tolerances, the size of the wear land, the magnitude of the radial [thrust] force, and the elimination of the BUE should be taken into account. Turned surfaces display characteristic turning grooves that are produced by the feed and the tool tip corner radius as shown in figure 23-7. The roughness resulting from feed marks from round-nosed tool can be approximated by the formula:
y = CR CR 2 f r 4

fr 8CR

Where y is the roughness height, CR the corner radius of insert, and fr the feed rate (mm/rev.)

To improve the surface finish, reduce feed and increase the corner radius. Other factors like BUE formations, cutting-edge sharpness, and tool wear grooves in the flank wear area also affect the surface finish in turning. Flank wear and BUE can combine to affect both surface finish and accuracy as shown in figure 23-7.


Introduction In manufacturing it is probable that more holes are produced than any other shape, and large proportion of theses are made by drilling. Of all the machining processes performed, drilling makes up to 25%. Consequently, drilling is a very important process. Although drilling appears to be relatively simple process, it is really complex process. Most drilling is done with a tool having two cutting edges or lips as shown in figure 24-1. This is a twist drill, the most common drill geometry. The cutting edges are at the end of relatively flexible tool. Cutting action takes place inside the work piece. The only exit for the chips is the hole that is filled by the drill. Friction results in heat that is additional to that due to chip formation. The counter flow of the chips makes lubrication and cooling difficult.

There are four major actions taking place at the point of the drill. 1. 2. 3. 4. A small hole is formed by the web-chips are not cut here in the normal sense. Chips are formed by the rotating lips. Chips are removed from the hole by the screw action of the helical flutes. The drill is guided by lands or margins that rub against the walls of the hall.

Figure 24-1 Nomenclature and geometry of conventional twist drill. Shank style depends upon the method used to hold the drill. Tangs or notches prevent slippage: a) Straight shank with tang, b) Tapered shank with tang, c) Straight shank whistle notch, d) Straight shank with flat notch.

FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DRILLING PROCESS + Summary of drilling parameters in table. Refer to Text book: Materials and processes in manufacturing, E. Paul Degarmo

Two-flute drills are available that have holes extending throughout the length of each land to permit coolant to be supplied, under pressure, to the point adjacent to each cutting edge. These are helpful in providing cooling and also in promoting chip removal from the hole in drilling to moderate depths. They require special fittings through which the coolant can be supplied to the rotating drill, and they are used primarily on automatic and semiautomatic machines. Larger holes in thin material may be made with a hole cutter (Figure 24-8), where by the main hole is produced by the thin-walled, multiple-tooth cutter with saw teeth. Hole cutters are often called hole saws.

When starting to drill a hole, a drill can deflect rather easily because of the "walking" action of the chisel point. Hole location accuracy is lost. Consequently, to assure that a hole is started accurately, a center drill (Figure 24-9) is used prior to a regular chisel-point twist drill.

Special combination drills can drill two or more diameters, or drill and countersink and/or counter bore, in a single operation (Figure 24-10). Countersinking and counter boring usually follow drilling. A step drill has a single set of flutes and is ground to two or more diameters. Sub land drills have a separate set of flutes on a single body for each diameter or operation; they provide better chip flow, and the cutting edges can be ground to give proper cutting conditions for each operation. Combination drills are expensive and may be difficult to regrind but can be economical for production-type operations if they reduce work handling, setups, or separate machines and operations.

FIGURE 24-10 Special purpose subland drill (above), and some of the operations possible with such drills (below).


Reaming removes a small amount of material

from the surface of holes. It is done for two purposes: to bring holes to a more exact size and to improve the finish of an existing hole. Multiedge cutting tools are used as shown in Figure 24-23. No special machines are built for reaming. The same machine that was employed for drilling the hole can be used for reaming by changing the cutting tool. To obtain proper results, only a minimum amount of materials should be left for removal by reaming. As little as 0.13 mm is desirable, and in no case should the amount exceed 0.4 mm. A properly reamed hole will be within 0.0254 mm of correct size and have a fine finish.

Figure 24-24 Types of reamers: (top to bottom) Straight-fluted rose reamer, Straight-fluted chucking reamer, Straight-fluted taper reamer, Straight-fluted hand reamer, Expansion reamer, Shell reamer, Adjustable insert-blade reamer

INTRODUCTION Milling is a basic machining process by which a surface is generated by progressive chip removal. The workpiece is fed into a rotating cutting tool. Sometimes the workpiece remains stationary, and the cutter is fed to the work. In nearly all cases, a multiple-tooth cutter is used so that the material removal rate is high. Often the desired surface is obtained in a single pass of the cutter or work and, because very good surface finish can be obtained, milling is particularly well suited and widely used for mass-production work. Many types of milling machines are used, ranging from relatively simple and versatile machines that are used for general-purpose machining in job shops and

tool-and die work (these are NC or CNC machines) to highly specialized machines for mass production. Unquestionably, more flat surfaces are produced by milling than by any other machining process. The cutting tool used in milling is known as a milling Equally spaced peripheral teeth will cutter. intermittently engage and machine the workpiece. This is called interrupted cutting. FUNDAMENTALS OF MILLING PROCESSES Milling operations can be classified into two broad categories called peripheral milling and face milling. Each has many variations. In peripheral milling the surface is generated by teeth located on the periphery of the cutter body (Figure 25-1). The surface is parallel with the axis of rotation of the cutter. Both flat and formed surfaces can be produced by this method, the cross section of the resulting surface corresponding to the axial contour of the cutter. This process, often called slab milling, is usually performed on horizontal spindle milling machines. In slab milling, the tool rotates at some rpm (Ns) while the work feeds past the tool at a table feed rate fm in mm per minute, which depends on the feed per tooth, ft. As in the other processes, the cutting speed V and feed per tooth are selected by the engineer or the machine tool operator. As before, these variables depend upon the work material, the tool material, and the specific process. The cutting velocity is that which occurs at the cutting edges of the teeth in the milling center. The rpm of the spindle is determined from the surface cutting speed, where D is the cutter of diameter in [mm] according to: Ns = 1000 V/ D

The depth of cut, called DOC in Figure 25-1, is simply the distance between the old and new machined surface. The width of cut is the width of the cutter or the work, in [mm], and is given the symbol W. The length of the cut L is the length of the work plus some allowance LA, for approach and over travel. The feed of the table fm, in [mm per minute], is related to the amount of metal each tool removes during a revolution, the feed per tooth ft, according to

fm = ft Ns n
The cutting time

where n is the number of teeth in the cutter (teeth/rev.). Tm = L + LA / fm

D2 D ( DOC ) 2 = 4 2
t ( D DOC

Where the length of approach = LA =

MRR = volume / Tm = L W DOC / Tm = W fm DOC mm3/ min Ignoring LA, Values for ft are given in Table 25-1 along with recommended cutting speeds in m / min.

UP VERSUS DOWN MILLING For either slab end or face milling, surfaces can be generated by two distinctly different methods [figure 25-4]. Up milling is the traditional way to mill and is called conventional milling. The cutter rotates against the direction of feed of the workpiece. In climb or down milling, the cutter rotation is in the same direction as the feed rate. The method of chip formation is completely different in the two cases.

In up milling, the chip is very thin at the beginning where the tooth first contacts the work, then it increases in thickness, becoming a maximum where the tooth leaves the work. The cutter tends to push the work along and lift it upward from the table. This action tends to eliminate any effect of looseness in the feed screw and nut of the milling machine table and results in a smooth cut. However, the action also tends to loosen the work from the clamping device; therefore, greater clamping forces must be employed with the danger of deflecting the part. In addition, the smoothness of the generated surface depends greatly on the sharpness of the cutting edges. In up milling, chips can be carried into the newly machined surface, causing the surface finish to be poorer (rougher) than in down milling. In down milling, maximum chip thickness occurs close to the point at which the tooth contacts the work. Because the relative motion tends to pull the work piece into the cutter, any possibility of looseness in the table feed screw must be eliminated if down milling is to be used.

It should never be attempted on machines that are not designed for this type of milling.

Virtually all modern milling machines are capable of doing down milling and it is a most favorable application for carbide cutting edges. Because the material yields in approximately a tangential direction at the end of the tooth engagement, there is less tendency (than when up milling is used) for the machined surface to show tooth marks, and the cutting process is smoother with less chatter.
Another advantage of down milling is that the cutting force tends to hold the work against the machine table, permitting lower clamping forces. However, the fact that the cutter teeth strike against the surface of the work at the beginning of each chip can be a disadvantage if the workpiece has a hard surface, as castings sometimes do. This may cause the teeth to dull rapidly. Metals that readily workharden should be climb milled.






Figure 25-10 The chips are formed progressively by the teeth of a plain helical-tooth milling cutter during up milling.


INTRODUCTION TO SHAPING AND PLANING The processes of shaping and planing are among the oldest single-point machining processes. Shaping has largely been replaced by milling and broaching, as a production process while planing still has applications in producing long flat cuts, like those in the ways of machine tools. From a consideration of the relative motions between the tool and the workpiece, shaping and planing both use a straight-line cutting motion with a single-point cutting tool to generate a flat surface. In shaping, the workpiece is fed at right angles to the cutting motion between successive strokes of the tool, as shown in Figure 26-1, where fc is the feed per stroke, V is the cutting speed, and t is the DOC. For either shaping or planing, the tool is held in a clapper box which prevents the cutting edge from being, damaged on the return stroke of the tool. In addition to plain flat surfaces, the shapes most commonly produced on the shaper and planer are those illustrated in Figure 26-2. Relatively skilled workers are required to operate shapers and planers, and most of the shapes that can be produced on them also can be made by much more productive processes, such as milling, broaching, or grinding.


Figure 26-2 : Types of surfaces commonly machined by shaping and planing

In shaping, the cutting tool is held in the tool post located in the ram, which reciprocates over the work with a forward stroke, cutting at velocity V and a quick return stroke at velocity VR. The rpm of drive crank (Ns) drives the ram and determines the velocity of the operation. See Figure 26-1d. The stroke ratio Rs = cutting stroke angle / 360 = 200 / 360 = 5 / 9
The tool is advancing 55% of the time. The number of strokes per minute is Ns, determined by the rpm of the drive crank. Feed, fc is in mm per stroke and is at right angles to the cutting direction.


The length of stroke l must be greater than the length of the workpiece [or length of cut] L, since velocity is position variant. Let L= twice the length of the block being cut or 2L. The cutting velocity V is assumed to be twice the average forward velocity V, of the ram. The general relationship between cutting speed and rpm is V = D Ns / 1000 m/min where D is the diameter (of rotational member) in mm. For shaping, the cutting speed V= 2l Ns / 1000 Rs Once a cutting speed (V) is selected, the rpm, Ns, of the machine can be calculated. Tables for suggested feed values, fc , in mm per stroke (or cycle) and recommended depths of cut are also available. The maximum depth of cut is based on the power available to form the chips. This calculation requires that the metal removal rate (MRR) be known. The MRR is the volume of metal removed per unit time:

MRR = L W DOC / Tm mm3 / min


where W is the width of block being cut and L is the length of block being cut, so volume of cut = WLDOC where DOC is the depth of cut and Tm is the cutting time in minutes to cut that volume. In general, Tm is the total length of the cut divided by the feed rate. For shaping, Tm is the width of block divided by the feed rate fc of the tool moving across the width. Thus, for shaping, Tm= W / Ns x fc Also, Tm = S / Ns where the number of strokes for the job is S = W / fc for a surface of width W.


Abrasive Machining Processes

Abrasive machining is a material-removal process that involves the interaction of abrasive grits with the workpiece at high cutting speeds and shallow penetration depths. The chips that are formed resemble those formed by other machining processes. Unquestionably abrasive machining is the oldest of the basic machining processes. The results that can be obtained by abrasive machining range from the finest an smoothest surfaces produced by any machining process, in which very little material is removed, to rough, coarse surfaces that accompany high materialremoval rates. The abrasive particles may be (1) free (see Chapter 31); (2) mounted in resin on a belt (called coa product); or most commonly (3) close packed into wheels or stones, with abrasive grits he together by bonding material (called bonded product or a grinding wheel). Figure 27-1 shows

Compared to machining, abrasive machining processes have three unique characteristics. First, each cutting edge is very small, and many of these edges can cut simultaneously. When suitable machine tools are employed, very fine cuts are possible and fine surfaces and close dimensional control can be obtained. Second, because ex20

tremely hard abrasive grits can be produced, including diamonds, very hard materials, such as hardened steel, glass, carbides, and ceramics, can readily be machined. As a result, the abrasive machining processes are not only important as manufacturing processes, they are indeed essential. Many of our modern products, such as modern machine tools, automobiles, space vehicles, and aircraft, could not be manufactured without these processes. Third, in grinding, you have no control over the actual tool geometry (rake angles, cutting edge radius) or all the cutting parameters (depth of cut). As a result of these parameters and variables, grinding is a complex process. ABRASIVES An abrasive is a hard material that can cut or abrade other substances. Natural abrasives have existed from the earliest times. Early grinding wheels were cut from slabs of sandstone, but because they were not uniform in structure throughout, they wore unevenly and did not produce consistent results. Emery, a mixture of alumina (Al203) and magnetite (Fe3O4), is another natural abrasive still in use today and is used on coated paper and cloth (emery paper). Corundum (natural Al203) and diamonds are other naturally occurring abrasive materials. Today, the only natural abrasives that have commercial importance are quartz sand, garnets, and diamonds. For example, quartz is used primarily in air blasting, but artificial abrasives are also making inroads in these applications.

Hardness, the ability to resist penetration, is the key property for an abrasive. The particles must be able to decompose at elevated temperatures. Two other properties are significant in abrasive grits, attrition, and friability. Attrition refers to the abrasive wear action of the grits resulting in dulled edges, grit flattening, and wheel glazing. Friability refers to the fracture of the grits and is the opposite of toughness. In grinding it is important that grits be able to fracture to expose new, sharp edges.
resulting grits, or grains, are regular in shape, with cutting edges having every possible rake angle. Silicon carbide crystals are very hard (Knoop 2480), friable, and rather brittle. This limits their use. Silicon carbide is sold under the trade names Carborundum and Crystolon.

Artificial abrasives called [silicon carbide (SiC)]. As can be seen in Figure 27-2, the


Aluminum oxide (Al203) is the most widely used artificial abrasive. Although aluminum oxide is softer (Knoop 2100) than silicon carbide, it is considerably tougher. Consequently, it is better general-purpose abrasive. Diamonds are the hardest of all materials. Those that are used for abrasives are either natural, off-color stones (called garnets) that are not suitable for gems, or

small synthetic stones that are produced specifically for abrasive purposes. Manufactured stones appear to be somewhat more friable and thus tend to cut faster and cooler. Diamond abrasive wheels used extensively for sharpening carbide and ceramic cutting tools. Diamonds also used for truing and dressing other types of abrasive wheels. Diamonds are usually used only when cheaper abrasives will not produce the desired results. Garnets are used primarily in the form of very finely crushed and graded powders for fine polishing.

ABRASIVE GRAIN SIZE AND GEOMETRY To enhance the process capability of grinding, abrasive grains are sorted into sizes by mechanical sieving machines. The number of openings per linear inch in a sieve (or screen) through which most of the particles of a particular size can pass determines the grain size (Figure 27-3).


A No. 24 grit would pass through a standard screen having 24 openings per inch but would not pass through one having 30 openings per inch. Commercial practice commonly designates grain sizes from 4 to 24, inclusive, as coarse; 30 to 60, inclusive, as medium; and 70 to 600, inclusive, as fine. Grains smaller than 220 are usually termed powders. Sizes from 240 to 600 are designated as flour sizes. These are used primarily for lapping, or in fine honing stones for fine finishing tasks. The grain size is closely related to the surface finish and metal removal rate. In grinding wheels and belts, coarse grains cut faster while fine grains provide better finish, as shown in Figure 27-4.




INTRODUCTION Many manufacturing processes influence surface properties which in turn may significantly affect the way the component functions in service. The demands for greater strength and longer life in components often depend on changes in the surface properties rather than the bulk properties. These changes may be mechanical, thermal, chemical, and/or physical and therefore are difficult to describe in general terms. Many metal-cutting processes intended to produce a specific geometry can often have the effect of producing alterations in the surface material of the component, which in turn, produces changes in performance. The term "surface integrity" was defined in reference to the nature of the surface condition that is produced by the manufacturing process. If we view the process to have five main components (workpiece, tool, machine tool, environment, and process variables) we see that surface properties can be altered by all of these parameters by producing: . High temperatures involved in the machining process . Plastic deformation of the work material (residual stress) . Surface geometry (roughness, cracks, distortion) More specifically, surface integrity refers to the enhanced surface condition of a component or specimen which influences its performance. Change in surface can lead to failure in base metal.

Surface integrity has two aspects: topography characteristics and surface layer characteristics. Topography is made up of surface roughness, waviness, errors of form, and flaws (Figure 31-2). A typical roughness profile includes the peaks and valleys that are considered separately from waviness. Flaws also add to texture, but should be measured independent of it. Changes in the surface layer, as a result of processing, include plastic deformation, residual stresses, cracks, and other metallurgical changes (hardness, over aging, phase changes, recrystallization, intergranular attack, and hydrogen embrittlement). See Figure 31-2.

The surface layer will always sustain local surface deformation due to a machining pass, a traditional process. Surface integrity has become the subject of intense interest because the traditional, non-traditional, and post treatment methods used to manufacture hardware can change the material's properties. Although the consequences of these changes become a design problem, the preservation of properties is a manufacturing consideration. Designs that require a high degree of surface integrity are the ones that:

. Are highly stressed . Employ low safety factors . Operate in severe environments . Must have prime reliability . Have a high surface area to volume ratio . Are made with alloys that are sensitive to processing