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Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

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Jul 14

Private VLANs Revisited


63 Comments Posted by Petr Lapukhov, 4xCCIE/CCDE in Advanced Security,Security,Switching

Due to the non-decreasing interest to the post about Private VLANs, I decided to make another one, more detailed including a diagram and verification techniques.

Introduction
To begin with, recall that VLAN is essentially a broadcast domain. Private VLANs (PVANs) allow splitting the domain into multiple isolated broadcast subdomains, introducing sub-VLANs inside a VLAN. As we know, Ethernet VLANs can not communicate directly with each other they require a L3 device to forward packets between separate broadcast domains. The same restriction applies to PVLANS since the subdomains are isolated at Level 2, they need to communicate using an upper level (L3/packet forwarding) device such as router. In reality, different VLANs normally map to different IP subnets. When we split a VLAN using PVLANs, hosts in different PVLANs still belong to the same IP subnet, yet now they need to use a router (L3 device) to talk to each other (for example, by using Local Proxy ARP). In turn, the router may either permit or forbid communications between sub-VLANs using accesslists. Commonly, these configurations arise in shared environments, say ISP co-location, where its beneficial to put multiple customers into the same IP subnet, yet provide a good level of isolation between them.

Private VLANs Terminology


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9/30/2011 12:44 PM

Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

The following is the reference diagram that we are going to use to illustrate Private VLAN concepts and functionality.

For our sample configuration, we take VLAN 1000 and divide it into three PVLANs sub-VLAN 1012 (R1 and R2), sub-VLAN 1034 (R3 and R4) and sub-VLAN 1055 (router R5 only). Router R6 will be used as layer 3 device, to resolve the layer 3 communication issue. We name VLAN 1000 as Primary and classify the ports, assigned to this VLAN, based on their types: Promiscuous (P) port: Usually connects to a router. This port type is allowed to send and receive L2 frames from any other port on the VLAN. Isolated (I) port: This type of port is only allowed to communicate with P-ports i.e., they are stub port. You commonly see these ports connecting to hosts. Community (C) port: Community ports are allowed to talk to their buddies, sharing the same community (group) and to P-ports. In order to implement sub-VLAN behavior, we need to define how packets are forwarded between different types of ports. We group the VLANs in Primary and Secondary. Primary VLAN (VLAN 1000 in our example). This VLAN is used to forward frames downstream from P-ports to all other port types (I and C ports) in the system. Essentially, Primary VLAN embraces all ports in the domain, but only transports frames from the router to hosts (from P to I and C). Secondary Isolated VLAN: forwards frames from I ports to P ports. Since Isolated ports do not exchange frames with each other, we can use just ONE isolated VLAN to connect all I-Port to the P-port.

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9/30/2011 12:44 PM

Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

Secondary Community VLANs: Transport frames between community ports (C-ports) within to the same group (community) and forward frames upstream to the P-ports of the primary VLAN.

How Private VLANs Work


Here are the key aspects of Private VLAN functioning: The Primary VLAN delivers frames downstream from the router (promisc port) to all mapped hosts. The Isolated VLAN transports frames from the stub hosts upstream to the router The Community VLANs allow bi-directional frame exchange withing a single group, in addition to forwarding frames upstream towards P-ports. Ethernet MAC address learning and forwarding procedure remain the same, as well as broadcast/multicast flooding procedure within boundaries of primary/secondary VLANs. Private VLANs could be trunked. The secondary VLAN numbers are used to tag frames, just as with regular VLANs, and the primary VLAN traffic is trunked as well. However, you need to configure Private VLAN specific settings (bindings, mappings) on every participating swtich, as its not possible to use VTPv2 to dissiminate that information . This due to the fact that VTPv2 has no TLVs to carry private VLANs information. VTPv3 was designed to overcome this limitation among others.

Configuring Private VLANs


We have primary VLAN 1000, Isolated VLAN 1005 (R5) Community VLAN 1012 (R1, R2) and Community VLAN 1034 (R3, R4). Step 1: First, disable VTP, i.e. enable VTP transparent mode. After disabling VTP, create Primary and Secondary VLANs and bind them into PVLAN domain:
SW1: vtp mode transparent ! ! Creating primary VLAN, which is shared among secondarys ! vlan 1000 private-vlan primary ! ! Community VLAN for R1 and R2: allows a subVLAN within a Primary VLAN ! vlan 1012 private-vlan community ! ! Community VLAN for R3 and R4 ! vlan 1034 private-vlan community !

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9/30/2011 12:44 PM

Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

! Isolated VLAN: Connects all stub hosts to router. ! Remember - only one isolated vlan per primary VLAN. ! In our case, isolates R5 only. ! vlan 1055 private-vlan isolated ! ! Associating the primary with secondarys ! vlan 1000 private-vlan association 1012,1034,1055

This step is needed is to group PVLANs into a shared domain and establish a formal association (for syntax checking and VLAN type verifications). Repeat the same operations on SW2, since VTP has been disabled. Step 2: Configure host ports and bind them to the respective isolated PVLANs. Note that a host port belongs to different VLANs at the same time: downstream primary and upstream secondary. Also, enable trunking between switches, to allow private VLANs traffic to pass between switches.
SW1: ! ! Community port (links R1 to R2 and P-ports) ! interface FastEthernet0/1 description == R1 switchport private-vlan host-association 1000 1012 switchport mode private-vlan host spanning-tree portfast ! ! Community port (links R3 to R4 and P-ports) ! interface FastEthernet0/3 description == R3 switchport private-vlan host-association 1000 1034 switchport mode private-vlan host spanning-tree portfast ! ! Isolated port (uses isolated VLAN to talk to P-ports) ! interface FastEthernet0/5 description == R5 switchport private-vlan host-association 1000 1055 switchport mode private-vlan host spanning-tree portfast ! ! Trunk port ! interface FastEthernet 0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk SW2: interface FastEthernet0/2

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9/30/2011 12:44 PM

Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

description == R2 switchport private-vlan host-association 1000 1012 switchport mode private-vlan host spanning-tree portfast ! interface FastEthernet0/4 description == R4 switchport private-vlan host-association 1000 1034 switchport mode private-vlan host spanning-tree portfast ! ! Trunk port ! interface FastEthernet 0/13 switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q switchport mode trunk Next, Verify the configuration on SW1: Rack1SW1#show vlan id 1012 VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1012 VLAN1012 active Fa0/13 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ -----1012 enet 101012 1500 0 0 Remote SPAN VLAN ---------------Disabled Primary Secondary Type Ports ------- --------- ----------------- -----------------------------------------1000 1012 community Fa0/1 Rack1SW1#show vlan id 1034 VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1034 VLAN1034 active Fa0/13 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ -----1034 enet 101034 1500 0 0 Remote SPAN VLAN ---------------Disabled Primary Secondary Type Ports ------- --------- ----------------- -----------------------------------------1000 1034 community Fa0/3 Rack1SW1#show vlan id 1055 VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1055 VLAN1055 active Fa0/13 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ -----1055 enet 101055 1500 0 0

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9/30/2011 12:44 PM

Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

Remote SPAN VLAN ---------------Disabled Primary Secondary Type Ports ------- --------- ----------------- -----------------------------------------1000 1055 isolated Fa0/5 Rack1SW1#show interfaces fastEthernet 0/13 trunk Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Mode desirable Encapsulation 802.1q Status trunking Native vlan 1

Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1,1000,1012,1034,1055 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1,1000,1012,1034,1055

Verify on SW2: Rack1SW2#show vlan id 1000 VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1000 VLAN1000 active Fa0/13 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ -----1000 enet 101000 1500 0 0 Remote SPAN VLAN ---------------Disabled Primary ------1000 1000 1000 Secondary --------1012 1034 1055 Type ----------------community community isolated Ports -----------------------------------------Fa0/2, Fa0/6 Fa0/4, Fa0/6 Fa0/6

Rack1SW2#show vlan id 1012 VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1012 VLAN1012 active Fa0/13 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ -----1012 enet 101012 1500 0 0 Remote SPAN VLAN ---------------Disabled Primary Secondary Type Ports ------- --------- ----------------- -----------------------------------------1000 1012 community Fa0/2, Fa0/6 Rack1SW2#show vlan id 1034

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9/30/2011 12:44 PM

Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1034 VLAN1034 active Fa0/13 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ -----1034 enet 101034 1500 0 0 Remote SPAN VLAN ---------------Disabled Primary Secondary Type Ports ------- --------- ----------------- -----------------------------------------1000 1034 community Fa0/4, Fa0/6 Rack1SW2#show vlan id 1055 VLAN Name Status Ports ---- -------------------------------- --------- ------------------------------1055 VLAN1055 active Fa0/13 VLAN Type SAID MTU Parent RingNo BridgeNo Stp BrdgMode Trans1 Trans2 ---- ----- ---------- ----- ------ ------ -------- ---- -------- ------ -----1055 enet 101055 1500 0 0 Remote SPAN VLAN ---------------Disabled Primary Secondary Type Ports ------- --------- ----------------- -----------------------------------------1000 1055 isolated Fa0/6 Rack1SW2#show interface fastEthernet 0/13 trunk Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Port Fa0/13 Mode desirable Encapsulation 802.1q Status trunking Native vlan 1

Vlans allowed on trunk 1-4094 Vlans allowed and active in management domain 1,1000,1012,1034,1055 Vlans in spanning tree forwarding state and not pruned 1,1000,1012,1034,1055

Step 3: Create a promiscuous port and configure downstream mappings. Here we add secondary VLANs for which traffic is received by this particular P-port. Primary VLAN is used to send traffic downstream to all C and I ports per their associations.
SW2: ! ! Promiscuous port, mapped to all secondary VLANs ! interface FastEthernet0/6 description == R6 switchport private-vlan mapping 1000 1012,1034,1055 switchport mode private-vlan promiscuous spanning-tree portfast

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Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

Verify the promiscuous port configuration:

Rack1SW2#show int fa 0/6 switch | beg private Administrative Mode: private-vlan promiscuous Operational Mode: private-vlan promiscuous Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: negotiate Operational Trunking Encapsulation: native Negotiation of Trunking: Off Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default) Administrative Native VLAN tagging: enabled Voice VLAN: none Administrative private-vlan host-association: none Administrative private-vlan mapping: 1000 (VLAN1000) 1012 (VLAN1012) 1034 (VLAN1034) 1055 (VL Administrative private-vlan trunk native VLAN: none Administrative private-vlan trunk Native VLAN tagging: enabled Administrative private-vlan trunk encapsulation: dot1q Administrative private-vlan trunk normal VLANs: none Administrative private-vlan trunk private VLANs: none Operational private-vlan: 1000 (VLAN1000) 1012 (VLAN1012) 1034 (VLAN1034) 1055 (VLAN1055)

If you need to configure an SVI on a switch to communicate with private VLAN members, you should add an interface corresponding to Primary VLAN only. Obviously thats because all secondary VLANs are subordinates of primary. After an SVI has been created, you have to map the required secondary VLANs to the SVI (just like with a promiscuous port) in order to make communications possible. You may exclude some mappings from SVI interface, and limit it to communicating only with certain secondary VLANs.
SW1: ! ! SW1 SVI is mapped to all secondary VLANs ! interface Vlan 1000 ip address 10.0.0.7 255.255.255.0 private-vlan mapping 1012,1034,1055 SW2: ! ! SW2 SVI is mapped to 1012/1034 only, so its cant communicate with R5 ! interface Vlan1000 ip address 10.0.0.8 255.255.255.0 private-vlan mapping 1012,1034

Now to verify the configuration, configure R1-R6 interfaces in subnet 10.0.0.0/24 and ping broadcast addresses.
Rack1R1#ping 10.0.0.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.0.0.255, timeout is 2 seconds: Reply Reply Reply Reply to to to to request request request request 0 0 0 0 from from from from 10.0.0.7, 10.0.0.2, 10.0.0.6, 10.0.0.8, 4 4 4 4 ms ms ms ms

Rack1R3#ping 10.0.0.255 repeat 1

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Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.0.0.255, timeout is 2 seconds: Reply Reply Reply Reply to to to to request request request request 0 0 0 0 from from from from 10.0.0.7, 10.0.0.4, 10.0.0.6, 10.0.0.8, 4 4 4 4 ms ms ms ms

Rack1R5#ping 10.0.0.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.0.0.255, timeout is 2 seconds: Reply to request 0 from 10.0.0.7, 1 ms Reply to request 0 from 10.0.0.6, 1 ms Rack1R6#ping 10.0.0.255 repeat 1 Type escape sequence to abort. Sending 1, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 10.0.0.255, timeout is 2 seconds: Reply Reply Reply Reply Reply Reply Reply to to to to to to to request request request request request request request 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 from from from from from from from 10.0.0.1, 10.0.0.7, 10.0.0.2, 10.0.0.5, 10.0.0.3, 10.0.0.4, 10.0.0.8, 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 ms ms ms ms ms ms ms

Lastly, there is another feature, called protected port or Private VLAN edge. The feature is pretty basic and is available even on low-end Cisco switches. It allows isolating ports in the same VLAN. Specifically, all ports in a VLAN, marked as protected are prohibited from sending frames to each other (but still allowed to send frames to other (non-protected) ports within the same VLAN). Usually, ports configured as protected are also configured not to receive unknown unicast (frame with destination MAC address not in switchs MAC table) and multicast frames flooding for added security. Example:
interface range FastEthernet 0/1 - 2 switchport mode access switchport protected switchport block unicast switchport block multicast

Tags: 3560, arp, ccie, community, isolated, level2, private-vlan, promiscuous, vlan Download this page as a PDF

About Petr Lapukhov, 4xCCIE/CCDE:

Petr Lapukhov's career in IT begain in 1988 with a focus on computer programming, and progressed into networking with his first exposure to Novell NetWare in 1991. Initially involved

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Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

with Kazan State University's campus network support and UNIX system administration, he went through the path of becoming a networking consultant, taking part in many network deployment projects. Petr currently has over 12 years of experience working in the Cisco networking field, and is the only person in the world to have obtained four CCIEs in under two years, passing each on his first attempt. Petr is an exceptional case in that he has been working with all of the technologies covered in his four CCIE tracks (R&S, Security, SP, and Voice) on a daily basis for many years. When not actively teaching classes, developing self-paced products, studying for the CCDE Practical & the CCIE Storage Lab Exam, and completing his PhD in Applied Mathematics. Find all posts by Petr Lapukhov, 4xCCIE/CCDE | Visit Website

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63 Responses to Private VLANs Revisited


Older Comments 1. Fadi Ashour says: October 28, 2010 at 9:12 pm Great article. I am having an issue understanding why hosts in different community/isolated vlans cannot reach each other even though there is mapping for all of them on the promiscous port. Am I missing something?? I thought they can reach each other if they go through L3 device. Reply 2. Ian Finlayson says: December 1, 2010 at 9:37 am Great article as always Petr!!! Is it possible so to define a promisc port that is only visible to certain communities and Isolated VLANs, i.e. only add in the relevant mapping on the promisic port for certain secondary VLANs??? On another note before I forget about it. I am in about week 6 of your 48 week program any more updates coming for this at all as its great?? Cheers, Ian. Reply 3. Recurso de INE en "CCIE en castellano" says: December 8, 2010 at 3:37 pm

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Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

[...] Understanding Private VLANs [...] Reply 4. Sean says: December 9, 2010 at 12:45 pm So when you make a sub-vlan of 1034 are you no longer allowed to use vlan 1034 since the way you configure it is the same I was thinking for a second that I could use this technology to use this to merge two vlans (like bridge groups). I want vlan 700 and vlan 10 in my situatoin to be the same vlan on a switch (i am doing some vmware stuff and dont have 100% control of this association) Reply 5. CiscoCertified says: December 10, 2010 at 11:22 pm Great man. you are the one I was having issue with PVLAN & VACL, now I have issue only with VACL. These 2 topics are badly documented in Cisco.com is there any plan for similar articles about VACL?? Thanks again Reply 6. david aladetan says: January 8, 2011 at 1:25 am this guy (Petr Lapukhov, 4xCCIE/CCDE) is just too much. very impressed with your depth of knowledge and excellent explanations of difficult subject Reply 7. Jamshed Khan Afridi says: January 24, 2011 at 10:03 pm Really great article for understanding Private VLANS. Reply 8. Gabriel Bryson says: January 27, 2011 at 3:08 am HI Petr In the example you gave why was it necessary to create a SVI on both switches, would creating a SVI on only one of the switches be enough as a subnet gateway as all the
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Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

http://blog.internetworkexpert.com/2008/07/14/private-vlans-revisited/

secondary vlans span both switches within the trunk. Thanks Gabriel Bryson Reply 9. Zaheer says: September 20, 2011 at 10:28 am Peter, Thanks very much for the explaination by example and mentioning its link in Vol2. Zaheer Reply Older Comments

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Private VLANs Revisited | CCIE Blog

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