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Fun with Randomly-Generated Sentences

The computer makes sentences for you.

5 Basic Sentence Patterns o Subject + Verb I swim. Joe swims. They swam. o Subject + Verb + Object I drive a car. Joe plays the guitar. They ate dinner. o Subject + Verb + Complement I am busy. Joe became a doctor. They look sick. o Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object I gave her a gift. She teaches us English. o Subject + Verb + Object + Complement I left the door open. We elected him president. They named her Jane. Tenses o Present Continuous I am swimming. Joe is sleeping. They are jogging. o Present Simple I play tennis. He swims every day. I usually swim for two hours. o Present Perfect I have eaten. He has just come home. They've already gone. o Past Simple I rested. He played tennis yesterday. They drove to Boston. o Past Continuous I was sleeping. She was cooking a while ago. They were talking. o Past Perfect I had already seen it. He had played tennis. Other o Possession I have a camera. He owns a car. This house belongs to them. o Location I am here. He swims in the river. They live in the mountains. o It's fun to swim. (Using adjectives similar to fun.) It isn't healthy to smoke. Smoking is dangerous. o They agreed to swim. (Using verbs similar to agree.) He didn't desire to work. They like to play. o They asked him to swim. (Using verbs similar to ask.) He didn't advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder. o They enjoy swimming. (Using verbs similar to enjoy.) He didn't advise me to work. They often encourage me to work harder.


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Basic Sentence Structure

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There are five basic patterns around which most English sentences are built.* They are as follows:
S-V Subject-Verb John sleeps. Jill is eating. Jack will arrive next week. S-V-O Subject-Verb-Object I like rice. She loves her job. He's eating an orange. S-V-Adj Subject-Verb-Adjective He is funny. The workers are lazy. Karen seems angry. S-V-Adv Subject-Verb-Adverb Jim is here. Flowers are everywhere. No one was there. S-V-N Subject-Verb-Noun Mr. Jones is the teacher. She is my mom. The men are doctors.

At the heart of every English sentence is the Subject-Verb relationship. Other elements can be added to make a sentence more interesting, but they are not essential to its formation.

The following sentences are examples of the S-V pattern.

She sleeps. Core sentence

She sleeps soundly. She sleeps on the sofa. She sleeps every afternoon. She is sleeping right now. Mary will sleep later.

An adverb is added to describe how she sleeps. A prepositional phrase is added to tell where she sleeps. A time expression is added to tell when she sleeps. Verb tense is changed, but S-V relationship remains the same. Subject is named and another tense is used.

The dogs are sleeping in the garage. New subject may require a different form of the verb. Note: Any action verb can be used with this sentence pattern.

The following sentences are examples of the S-V-O pattern.

They like rice. The people like rice. The friendly people like rice. The people in the restaurant like rice. The people like boiled rice. The people like hot, white rice. Core sentence Specific subject Subject modified with an adjective Subject modified with an adjective Object modified with an adjective Object modified with more than one adjective

Note: Only transitive action verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.

The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adj pattern.

He is fine. He seems happy. Jordan is tall, dark and handsome. He appears very comfortable. George became sick last night. Basic sentence with "be" verb Basic sentence with another linking verb Series of adjectives Adverb or intensifier added Different tense and linking verb

Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.

The following sentences are examples of the S-V-Adv pattern.

The teacher is here. The teacher is over there. Teachers are everywhere. The teachers are in the lobby. Basic sentence Using an adverb phrase Plural noun and verb used Prepositional phrase functioning as adverb

Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern.

The following sentences are examples of the S-V-N pattern.

The man is a doctor. The women are doctors. My father is a nice guy. Basic sentence Using plural noun and verb Modified subject and complement

My grandparents are senior citizens. Modified plural subject and complement Note: Only linking verbs can be used with this sentence pattern. *Other, less common structures are dealt with in another unit. See also: Grammar: Noun and Verb Phrases If you have questions or comments about this page, please contact us. Be sure to include the title of this page in the Subject line of your e-mail.

Translation Exercises
I've gone through the Conlang mailing list's archives and compiled a list of translation exercises from old posts, including word lists, texts (paragraphs, stories, poems, etc.), and standalone sentences (or at least groups of sentences that don't form anything really coherent). Feel free to email me with suggestions for other material. Obviously, just about any text can become a translation exerecise; the ones list below were mostly suggested on the Conlang list and translated into at least one conlang. Similar projects exist on the 'net: Muke Tever's archive of Aidan Grey's Vocab of the Week, J. K. Hoffman's Conlang Phrasebook, and Sally Cave's incredible Taxonomies. Another good source of texts is Jan van Steenbergen's list of past relays. And, of course, there is always spam to translate, if you really get desperate. ;)

Word Lists
1. Dublex 2. Essential World English 3. Ogden's Basic English (850 words), grouped: o alphabetically o by subject o by Ogden's original subject order 4. Ogden's Basic English (1500 words) 5. Swadesh List 6. Wierzbicka's Semantic Primes 7. Graded Sentences for Analysis

Texts: Paragraphs, Stories, Poems

Starred translations refer to relay texts not based on the original text. 1. Another Upon Her Weeping, by Robert Herrick, via Gary Shannon Ayeri, by Carsten Becken Kash, by Roger Mills Li' Anyerra-Tarah, by Wesley Parish Senjecan, by Charlie 2. Babel (Genesis 11:19), via Jeffrey Henning 3. Chunky Monkey, by Jonny Butler, via John Cowan 4. City Am Fenster, via Carsten Becker
o o o o

Ayeri, by Carsten Becker English, by Carsten Becker 5. Conlangea Multilingual Phrasebook, 2nd edition, by Mia Soderquist
o o

Arvorec, by Dan Jones Denden, by Boudewijn Rempt Elasin, by Donald Boozer Franj, by Geoff Horswood Gjarrda, by Herman Miller Gladilatian, by Dennis Paul Himes Intergermansk, by Pascal A. Kramm Kash, by Roger Mills Klen, by Sylvia Sotomayor Lahabic, by Anthony M. Miles Nevoknyi, by Nicole Perrin Mjador, by Mia Soderquist Riuli, by Shreyas Sampat Saalangal, by Barry Garcia Talarian, by Padraic Brown Watakass, by Nik Taylor 6. Danti and the Donkey, by Gary Shannon
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Elomi, by Gary Shannon (Larry Sulky's conlang) gzb, by Jim Henry 7. Dizzy Fox, by Jonathan T., via David Peterson
o o

Kamakawi, by David Peterson Zhyler, by David Peterson 8. Don't wait for a sign, by Pablo Flores
o o

Draselq, by Pablo Flores Hatasoe, by Patrick Dunn 9. Drinking Alone Under the Moon, by Li Bai, via Thomas Wier
o o

Phaleran, by Thomas Wier 10. Elokuno Animata, by Gary Shannon

o o o o

Asha'ille, by Arthaey Angosii Ayeri, by Carsten Becker English, by Taliesin

Esoenske, by Edward Miller Kash, by Roger Mills Kisuna, by Herman Miller Senjecan, by Charlie Vbazi, by Max 11. Eyes, by Pablo Flores 12. Farmer Whose Horse Ran Away, by Joshua Shinavier
o o o o o

Danovn 13. Father, what are those lights?, via Fabian


Denden, by Boudewijn Rempt Eloshtan, by Josh Roth Ilaini, by Irina Rempt Watakass?, by Nik Taylor 14. Flight, by John Fisher 15. Fog, by Carl Sandburg, via Taliesin
o o o o

Ayeri, by Carsten Becker T4, by Jonathan Knibb 16. Galadriel's Lament, by J. R. R. Tolkien, via Helge Fauskanger
o o

Curco, by Pablo Flores Draselq, by Pablo Flores 17. Gate of the Year, by New Zealand King George VI, via Andrew Smith 18. Grandfather and the Dragon, by Irina Rempt
o o

Denden, by Boudewijn Rempt Ilaini, by Irina Rempt Taruven, by Taliesin 19. If Only, by Louis Sachar
o o o

Anglo-Wailan Maori, by Turtlehead Area, by Waldkater Etora, by Jashan Hanvel/Heinitian, by Aslan Itlni/Itlanzhe, by Tsiasuk-Pron Kazujisha, by Avaja Miktain, by IrkenHobbit Trurian, by Cathbad ?, by Anguipes 20. In the Womb-Dream
o o o o o o o o o

Asha'ille, by Arthaey Angosii Kash, by Roger Mills Lenmoct, by Jake X Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen 21. Jabberwocky, by Lewis Carroll 22. Language is a ford, by Vladislav Illich-Svitych, via Leo Moser
o o o o

Aredos, by Dan Saalngal, by Barry Garcia Talarian, by Padraic Brown 23. Litany Against Fear, by Frank Herbert
o o o

Acunas, by Grath Allun, by Egein Areia, by Waldkater Asha'ille, by Arthaey Angosii Ayeri, by Carsten Becken Byujeliin/Beraagiin, by Wirrit Cadirian, by xirion Chutn, by JhemethaEqiv Consecuan, by Calrfa Hwnaple Dket, by Xhin Drzhlak, by aanimo Etora, by Jashan Geleres Cheghea (with update), by Waldkater Gothic, by Uitlander Inimi, by Shurzhaka Iruttan, by vegfarandi Ithkuil, by JohnQPublik Itlni, by Tsiasuk-Pron Kash, by Roger Mills Kavist, by pentalarc Miktain, by IrkenHobbit Proto-Sini, by Azathoth Qussima, by benjaburns Rhean, by Berek Seinundj, by Shreyas Sampat Shydian, by Serena Tatzic, by Nikura Vardeu, by Nuntar Wrmeeil, by Pie Man [unnamed language], by timothy [unnamed language], by TzirTzi ?, by Delalyra ?, by Eddy the Great ?, by Fmra ?, by Shinali Sishi ?, by Turtlehead 24. Many Zeroes , by Charles Simic, via Hanuman Zhang 25. Miller's Son, via Joe Fatula
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen 26. Missierek mar ir-rahal, by Fabian 27. Navajo Evening Prayer, via Charlie

Kash, by Roger Mills Senyecan, by Charlie 28. North Wind and the Sun, sop's fable, via Christian Thalmann
o o o o o o o o o

Draselq, by Pablo Flores Franj, by Geoff Horswood Haran Lamim, by Seo Sanghyeon Intergermansk, by Pascal A. Kramm Klen, by Sylvia Sotomayor Kur, by Matt Arriola Matein Einlich, by Pascal A. Kramm

Qyn|gi, by Henrik Theiling Tyl Sjok, by Henrik Theiling Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen 29. On a Night of Snow, by Elizabeth Coatsworth, via Nokta Kanto 30. One Ring, by J. R. R. Tolkien
o o o

Almensk, by Don Traxler Atlango, by R. A. Antonius Avesta, by Harold Ensle Debiua, by Hans Straub Enalda, by Gunnar Creutz Idrani, by Trent Pehrson Gacia, by Theodore Kloba Gwadoreg, by Count Menelvagor Hallon, by Prai Jei Intergermansk, by Pascal A. Kramm Kash, by Roger Mills Klen, by Sylvia Sotomayor Lissenian, by Ygor Coelho Mejanyo, by J. C. Olrich Omeina?, by Michael Poxon Romanova, by David Crandall Senyecan, by Charlie Serikats, by Logan Kearsley Shelavic West-Shternovy, by Zbihniew Szkev, by Zbihniew Varex, by Zbihniew Veldan, by Cian Ross Vling, by Viktor Medrano Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen Xinktlan, by Geoff Horswood 31. Origin of the Strawberry, by Rogers Clinch
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Draselq, by Pablo Flores 32. Pater Noster (Matthew 6:913), via Catherine N. Ball

Qyn|gi, by Henrik Theiling Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen 33. Piercing Chill, by Taniguich Buson, via Charlie
o o

Kash, by Roger Mills Senjecan, by Charlie 34. Schleicher's Fable,via Leo Moser
o o o o o o o o o o o o

Drau, by artic_cold_front Gevey, by Rik Itlni, by Tsiasuk-Pron Proto-Centric, by Anguipes Saiwosh, by Legros Saonian, by Sibkevsad Shemspreg, by Dirk Elzinga Talarian, by Padraic Brown Utat, by Josh Roth Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen

35. Shepherd's Boy and the Wolf, by Joshua Shinavier 36. Shipwrecked Man, via Padriac Brown Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen 37. Smile and be happy, by Christian Thalmann 38. Solsbury Hill, by Peter Gabriel, via Carsten Becker 39. Space Child's Mother Goose, by Frederick Winsor, via John Cowan 40. Stabat mater dolorosa 41. Starlings' Song (First Relay)

Anies, by Iisem Arovn*, by Joshua Shinavier Asiteya*, by Jennifer Barefoot Boreaneasian*, by Kristian Jenses Brithenig*, by Andrew Smith Chleweyish, by Carlos Thompson Chleweyish*, by Carlos Thompson Demuan, by Fabian De-l'-isle Demuan*, by Fabian De-l'-isle Doraya*, by Adam Parrish Draselq*, by Pablo Flores Elet Anta, by John Fisher Eloshtan*, by Josh Roth Garthnuns, by Douglas Koller Glasca, by Duke Keenan Hatasoe*, by Patrick Dunn Hattic, by Jan van Steenbergen Ilaini (relay start), by Irina Rempt Ilaini* (relay end), by Irina Rempt Kernu*, by Padraic Brown Jarrda, by Herman Miller Moten*, by Christophe Grandsire Nindic, by Elliott Lash Nzva*, by Joe Mondello Ricadh*, by Chris Peters Rokbeigalmki*, by Steg Belsky Sakatda Ka Kadomo, by Barry Garcia Sawila, by Rob Nierse Teonaht, by Sally Caves Teonaht*, by Sally Caves Vendi, by Chris Ashton Watakass*, by Nik Taylor Yufora, by Mia Soderquist 42. El Suicida, by Jorge Luis Borges, via Pablo Flores
o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Draselq, by Pablo Flores 43. Take my hand, by Andreas Johansson 44. Wolf and the Dog, via David Bell

amman iar, by David Bell Draselq, by Pablo Flores 45. Woodman and the Serpent, by Joshua Shinavier 46. You are with me always, by Gustavo Adrin Salvini, via Carlos Thompson 47. Zompist Phrasebook, by Mark Rosenfelder
o o

Standalone Sentences
1. I can begin, I want to persevere, I will succeed. Irina Rempt , 1999-04-03 2. If you can understand this, you know too much. Christophe Grandsire , 1999-09-24 3. Nobody remembers the names of ants. Carlos Thompson , 2000-05-01 4. If you call me insane again, I'll eat your other eye.

a list maintained by Dan Seriff, containing: Aelya, amman iar, Bulyth, Carashn, Cein, Dangelis, Drun, Eviendadhail, Esperanto, Future English, Garthnuns, Goesk, Gwejdr, Hallon, Ido, Ihrom, Iltrer, Jameld, Bgeslant, Kash, Klen, Klingon, Lingwa Frakas, Lzxvse, Lojban, Lyanjen, Machezu, Megdevi, Mungayd, Nrit, Nyo'fa, OrCo, Pra, rtemmu, Rumanu Insulu, Skerre, Tingrizl, Tokana, Tunu, Tyl Sjok, Classical Uatakass, Informal Uatakass, Valdyan, Veldan, Wivojs, and Yivrndil. Asha'ille, by Arthaey Angosii

Daniel Seriff , 2000-07-08 5. Fight linguistic extinction... invent a language! Jonathan Chang , 2000-09-25 6. All your base are belong to us. Zero Wing, via Nik Taylor , 2001-03-17 7. I may be drunk, but tomorrow I shall be sober, and you will still be ugly. Winston Churchill?, via Dan Jones , 2001-04-02 8. Behold! From Hell's dark sisterhood am I, and War and Death are in my hand! Vergil, via Daniel Andreasson , 2001-06-10 9. Happy birthday! Daniel Andreasson , 2002-03-25 10. Ez laist aizh dair ai anv dadair. Andreas Johansson , 2002-08-27 11. Where do you come from? 12. Who are you? 13. Whose (man, servant) are you?

14. What is your name? 15. Where is your house? 16. Why do you come? (What do you want?) 17. Why are you here? 18. I sit here to watch. 19. What is the name of this village? 20. Have you any errand (business)? 21. Not any; I have come to no purpose. 22. Then go home to eat (drink) your soup. 23. Yes: please give me some medecine. 24. I am ill (I have got, am befallen with, an illness). 25. I feel pain. 26. Where? 27. In the stomach. 28. I have headache. 29. We should have taken a walk, but it is too hot. 30. Take this! 31. Take this with (you)! 32. Bring this! 33. How shall I do this? 34. You must not do it in this way. 35. I want some more milk. 36. Clean this! 37. Wash it with sand! 38. Give me some water, please! 39. Are (your) hands clean? 40. Filter the milk through the filtering cloth! 41. Put the little stove there! 42. Put the pot (_degc`i_) down on the ground! 43. Put the pot near the fire! 44. Take it off! 45. As soon as the sun sets, light a fire! 46. Go to fetch the china! 47. Come to take away this. 48. If you wash with cold water, the china does not become clean; wash it well with some hot (water)! 49. Unless all the work is done, don't go! (or) you must not go. 50. Shall I make the table ready? 51. Yes; lay (spread) the cloth! 52. Is there much water in the teapot, or little? 53. (But) a little. 54. Fill the teapot with water, and bring it! 55. The kettle leaks. 56. It must be soldered (fastened with pewter). 57. Take it to the blacksmith's. 58. The tumbler (glass-cup) has got a crack. 59. Unless I tell you, do not bring wood! 60. When master commands, I shall bring. 61. What did you say, sir (did the gentleman say)? 62. Don't cast it away! Do not let it slip! 63. Take care! Cautiously! 64. You must not press! 65. Put by the remainder the remainder of the rice! 66. There is no remainder, nothing is left. 67. Do not let the milk run over!

68. Not cutting the liver, bring it as a whole! 69. Peel the potatoes, and cut them in pieces! 70. Don't tarry much! 71. Come soon! 72. Do not forget! 73. (I) did not forget. 74. Can you remember it (bear it in mind)? 75. You must bear it in mind, (make it certain). 76. Go in! Come in! 77. Go (or come) in, sir! 78. Sit down! 79. Please sit down, sir! H. A. Jschke, via Tim May , 2002-09-22 80. I shall kill you like [I would kill] a dog. 81. I shall kill you like a dog [would kill you]. 82. I prefer grandma-style bread. 83. She sings loudly. 84. She sings in a way that makes her ridiculous. Christian Thalmann , 2002-10-16 85. The wind now blowing hates you who have ruled for so long. Amanda Babcock , 2002-11-21 86. This tavern/bar isn't as good as it used to be. 87. What are you doing? I told you to leave them where they were! 88. I would embrace the world if I could. 89. The cat ate the mouse I gave her like a tiger [would]. 90. Yes, I've heard you, and no, I don't want to buy it. 91. Welcome! Here's your room key. -- Thank you. -- You're welcome. 92. Sir, could I please have a glass of water? 93. Your mother was a prostitute. (Or equally insulting idiom.) Christian Thalmann , 2002-11-30 94. The eyes are blind. One must look with the heart. Pablo Flores , 2003-04-09 95. l pega a su mujer [con frecuencia]. 96. Has terminado de golpearme ya? 97. Por qu ests golpeando el tambor? 98. Desde cundo has dejado de golpear a tu esposo? 99. Nosotros no pegamos a nuestras esposas. 100. Ella ha estado pegando a su esposo. 101. Est enamorada de ti. 102. Ellos se han enamorado de nosotros. 103. Ellos estn enamorados de ella. 104. A los nios les gustan los libros. 105. Nos gusta este libro. 106. Esta chica est leyendo un libro. 107. Los libros estn sobre la mesa.

108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123.

Los chicos estn acostados. Voy a poner al nio en la cuna. Algunos de nuestros amigos fuman en pipa. Fred fuma en pipa. Aquel amigo mo est aqu ahora. El granjero trajo a sus amigos. La chica de ah es la prometida de Fred. Ella llevaba aquel vestido tan caro. Ella siempre viste elegantemente. Cunto tiempo estuviste all? Aquellos amigos tuyos me levantaron temprano. Las rosas son bonitas: esta rosa es realmente bonita ahora. Hans es un lign. Kurt las persigue. Ping es pescador. Aquellos ratones ciegos que ves all asustaron a la esposa del granjero. Aquellas chicas tan bonitas siempre estn enamoradas de granjeros ricos.

Carlos Thompson , 2003-06-12 124. We are sitting in the night, and like the night, we are silent.

Christian Thalmann , 2003-06-14 125. I know who I want to take me home.

Mark J. Reed , 2004-01-24 126. The dog with the man that I saw was green.

Aaron Grahn , 2004-06-13 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. I will begin to return all the way. The boy is coming from the house. They arrived only momentarily. The hunter is coming with father. I will come in January (remote). You painted a canoe for him. You bought the airplane in the mountains. You made the bicycle come back. He will sorrow for them who will teach her.

Herman Miller , 2004-06-15 136. This mower is so dull, all it's doing is bending the grass over.

Roger Mills , 2004-06-20 137.


He opened the door and he (same referent) left the room. Kamakawi, by David Peterson: "Ka tawe lea i puka ke nemei."

Trebor Jung , 2004-06-26 138. 139. He sang and danced. He sang and then danced.

140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149.

He1 sang and he2 danced. He1 sang and then he2 danced. He1 said that he1 sang and he1 danced. He1 said that he1 sang and then he1 danced. He1 said that he1 sang and he2 danced. He1 said that he1 sang and then he2 danced. He1 said that he2 sang and he1 danced. He1 said that he2 sang and then he1 danced. He1 said that he2 sang and he3 danced. He1 said that he2 sang and then he3 danced. Asha'ille, by Arthaey Angosii: Jha'sshavpeith jha'mmav. Jha'sshavpeith t'vesik jha'mmav. Jha'sshavpeith t'ves jha'mmav geithda. Jha'sshavpeith t'vesik jha'mmav geithda. Shavpeith ne jha'sshavon jha'mmavon. Shavpeith ne jha'sshavon t'vesik jha'mmavon. Shavpeith ne jha'sshavon t'ves jha'mmavon geithda k'. Shavpeith ne jha'ssahvon t'vesik jha'mmavon geithda k'. Shavpeith ne jha'sshavon geithda t'ves jha'mmavon geithsa k'. Shavpeith ne jha'sshavon geithda t'vesik jha'mmavon geithsa k'. Shavpeith ne jha'sshavon geithda t'ves jha'mmavon geithga k'. Shavpeith ne jha'ssavon geithda t'vesik jha'mmavon geithga k'. Kash, by Roger Mills: Yarinju yakorandam. Yarinju celui korandam. Yarinju i iya korandam. Yarinju (i) elui iya korandam. Yakota ~kotani yarinju yakorandam. Yakota re yarinju i ya liya korandam. Teonaht, by Sally Caves: Elo htindel uo elo ban tantai. Elo ebra thindel elo uo tantai. Elo ebra htindel elo uo ban tantai. Elo ebra htindeuel-etsa uo tantai-ouar. Elo ebra htindeuel-etsa uo ban tantai-ouar.

Trebor Jung , 2004-06-26 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. The sound came on. There is a Santa Claus. The genie appeared. There is hope. The footprints remained. The ball is-red. The rug is-shaggy. The lake is-deep. Water is-wet. The man is angry. The dog is being noisy. The towel is-wet. Bruce Wayne is Batman. Two plus two equals four. The ball is next to the box.

165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213.

The coat is under the table. The worm is in the bird. The bird has wings. The coat belongs to me. The buffalo is bigger than the dog. I am called 'Caine.' The dog jumps. The crowd booed. The man turned around. The girl laughed. The man sneezed. The doctor hiccoughed. The teacher got sick. The student fell. The lady died. The computer crashed. The bomb exploded. The fungus died. The fungus grew. The sun shines. The fire burns. The teacher fainted. The student got-a-head-rush. The artist experienced-esthetic-pleasure. The man washed the shirt. The man washed himself. The men washed each other. The hunters shot the deer. The hunters shot themselves. The hunters shot each other. The sun melted the ice. The fire burned the house. The woman sees the bird. The woman sees herself. The woman and the bird see each other. The student knows (about) statues. The student knows (about) herself. The students know (about) each other. The man gave food to the babies. The man gave food to himself. The men gave food to each other. The painting made me angry. The general made me an assistant private. The sun made the glue hard. Pa named his boy Sue. Futhor beat Huthor silly. Huthor beat Futhor to a pulp. The A'qhq people pound the roots to a thick paste. He called me a traitor!

Jim Grossmann , 2004-06-28 214. You can't add more years to your life, but you can add more life to your years.

Christian Thalmann , 2004-08-11


He who eats the food left after the sacrifice is freed from all sin.

Patrick Dunn , 2004-08-13 216. 217. The book was read by my cousin. I was read to by my cousin.

Adrian Morgan , 2005-02-06 218.

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

I didn't know that you were a philosopher. Asha'ille, by Arthaey Angosii: "Kr'llavpeni ne jhor'aet t'pejhiva lli." Ayeri, by Carsten Becker: "Macoronoiayang evng sira mayomaiy menilanmayain." Calnnawn, by Ren Uittenbogaard: "e hi panalta zno snntie nmiba-vivyna." Dalian, by Carsten Becker: "Ci raned la rn na penanca." Da Mtz se Basa, by Henrik Theiling: "Ich hat nich weis dat dei ne firsof is n." Fraj, by Geoff Horswood: "J nen svi kes t ests un welime." Germanech, by Jrg Rhiemeier: "Ne scie que vos fs un philosoph." Haran Lamim, by Seo Sanghyeon: "Vaibimkunisici romossynta." Ibran, by Muke Tever: "Ye ne sau, ch tu es filosof." Intergermansk, by Pascal A. Kramm: "Jeg witte nich det du kunnte is filosof." Kash, by Roger Mills: "Ka kundak kayasa re hale kambinjangaya." Matein Einlich, by Pascal A. Kramm: "Ech nats it nau tets iu it khan pi seilashis." Meghean, by Andreas Johansson: "Semhir aba raeo miras-necear." Old Albic, by Jrg Rhiemeier: "Na gohonama am menirirencha." Qyn|gi, by Henrik Theiling: "Ksyndtriru||kusty ngyrqqln||gyhhaingindn| auxky." Rhean, by Mike Ellis: "Du teskorilekz et mu izniom." Seduk, by Matt Arriola: "i zu au aug get ti bernteikknu an atu." Senyecan, by Charlie: "Tum vmingum sa ne muda." Shaquelingua, by Remi Villatel: "Buraji klasju, ske sule viflij tye'kja." Truven, by Taliesin: "Ci raned la rn na penanca." wthj, by Kevin Athey: "Iyy yiliwfn h mayy tamwfnyiy." Valls, by Jeffrey Jones: "Non sabeve qu fusses filosof." Veldan, by Cian Ross: "U nenam sa ste lacmemfilsts." Wenedyk, by Jan van Steenbergen: "Nie szczewa k?d jesz filozof."

Quizno's, via Mark J. Reed , 2005-02-09

#1.1: 29 Mar 2002

1. birch (the tree) 2. werewolf / lycanthrope of some variety 3. to save (money) 4. to conquer 5. motif

#1.2: 5 Apr 2002

This week's exercises brought to you by the indirect relative and the letters F (for forest) and M (for mushroom). 1. forest The forest is in that direction. (or "over there", said while pointing to it) 2. mushroom (edible) I like mushrooms very much! 3. to look for something I often go searching for mushrooms in the forest. 4. to find something after searching for it She kept the mushroom that I tripped over. 5. base, bottom At the base of which tree did you find that mushroom? 6. moss There is no moss on the base of that tree. 7. basket, bag Put the mushroom in the basket. 8. pine needles, leaves of a conifer These baskets, the handles of which are made of pine needles, are useful. 9. each That is the woman to whom I give each of the mushrooms. 10. always I always go looking for mushrooms is the forest through which we walked today.

#1.3: 12 Apr 2002

Brought to you by D (for doctor) and possessive pronouns. 1. doctor / healer She is my doctor. 2. medicine That is my medicine, and this is yours. 3. ear She looked in their ears. 4. eye She looked in (or tested, or...) her (someone else's) eye. 5. friend Our friends are ill. 6. itch and/or scratch His scratch (the one on him) is worse than his scratch (the one he caused on someone else unspecified). 7. hurt / pain (the verb ... or not) Do y'all's heads hurt? / Do you guys have headaches? 8. diagnosis His diagnosis (that he gave) is that she will get better. 9. cure / heal His diagnosis (for the disease he has) has a cure. She will cure my friends. 10. ill I am not ill anymore.


#1.4: 19 Apr 2002

Brought to you by S (for Sluggy) and F (for Freelance) and exclamations. (see it's a very great web-comic, and even has special gold foil episodes! I recommend it to all the twisted out there - this weeks vocab and context sentences will make a lot of sense after reading some of it...) 1. bunny / rabbit That bunny has a knife! 2. ferret This is my ferret. She likes to dance! 3. knife The bunny with the knife is coming for me! 4. alien / foreigner Does that alien eat people or not? 5. ouch! / ow! Ouch! The rabbit with the knife cut off my arm! 6. help! Help! I'm bleeding to death! 7. aaaa! (a scream of terror) Aaaaa! The rabbit is coming back! 8. aaaargh! (a scream of pain / failure / death) Aaaargh! It cut off my other arm! 9. grrrr! (an intimidating growl) Grrrr! I will step on (crush / squish by foot) that rabbit! 10. blood The rabbit cut off my legs. Look at the pretty pools of blood.

#1.5: 26 Apr 2002

Brought to you by C (for coffee), the distinction between perfective and habitual past tenses, and intensive adjectives. 1. coffee / bitter drink / culturally distinctive drink I used to drink coffee. 2. tea / herbal tea I drank the tea in one gulp. 3. steep / brew She used to steep the tea for 10 minutes, but she steeped this cup for only 7 minutes. 4. pastry / biscuits / cookies She had pastry with her coffee once. She had pastry with her coffee every day. 5. milk She doesn't take milk in her tea. 6. bitter The coffee was very bitter today. The coffee was bitter every day. 7. sweet He likes his tea too strong and too sweet for us. 8. wired / the feeling obtained after drinking 43 cups of coffee

That guy is wired! He drinks too much coffee. 9. mellow / calm / soothing (of music) The music they play is too mellow for my taste. 10. street vendor / coffee house / tea bar / the culturally appropriate place to buy a cup of tea or coffee That street vendor always had the best tea, but then his wife left him. (note: in #10, it's a habitual past followed by a perfective) [p.s. In honor of my becoming the manager of the grad student coffee house on campus. Yay!]

#1.6: 3 May 2002

Brought to you by C (for crafts) and B (for beads) and prep/post-positions. 1. bead (n.) There are beads all over the place! 2. thread (n.) I have thread stuck in my teeth. 3. needle Ow! I sat on a needle! 4. sew (v.) My sister sewed me to the chair. 5. bead (v.), put beads on something, make something with beads He beaded a bunny with a knife. He's sick in the head. 6. spill Dang! I spilled my beads into my coffee! 7. cut Cut the thread between this spot and that spot, please. 8. shiny Those beads are shiny. I like shiny things. 9. stitch (n.) For this stitch, bring the thread through the bead, over the previous bead, under the thread, and back through the bead again. 10. obsessive / obsessed with / obsessing about Lately, I find my self obsessed with beads.

#1.7: 10 May 2002

Brought to you by F (for finals) and S (for studying) and comparative constructions. 1. book That book over there (yonder) is thicker than the one I'm using now. 2. desk I sat at my desk longer than the day has hours. (i.e. for more than 24 hours) 3. study I've been studying with better students than I (am). 4. finals / final examinations (also as sg.) I will do better on the final than him. 5. midterm(s) / midterm examination(s) I did worse on my midterm for this class than I've ever done before.

6. grade / score / marks I hope to get higher scores on the final exams than I did on the midterm exams. 7. stress(ed): n. or adj. I am more stressed than I thought I would be. 8. busy I have been busier than ever lately. 9. write, compose (a paper, article, etc.) I have to write 678 papers by Tuesday. 10. research I have never researched a topic longer than I have researched this one. (this sentence includes an opportunity for a resumptive verb or proverb, if you have one!)

#1.8: 17 May 2002

Brought to you by B for bakery and number agreement (or not). 1. bread I would like 4 loaves of bread, please. 2. flour This bread is made with 7 cups of flour. (obviously, convert this to your native measuring system.) 3. glaze (n. or v.) This delicious-looking loaf is glazed with honey/has a honey glaze. 4. muffin They have 42 kinds of sweet muffins. 5. bakery My favorite bakery is 4 streets over. 6. oven The bakery is very busy - we have to use all 8 ovens constantly. 7. bake That bread is baked, but those 3 over there are fried. 8. cost / price How much do those 6 loaves cost? 9. unusual This is an unusual recipe for bread - it has very little flour! 10. holiday I want to order 9 holiday loaves. What will the cost be?

#1.9: 24 May 2002

It's magically delicious!! (adjectives > adverbs and spiritual/magical ideas) More so than other topics I've presented, this exercise might require significant tweaking on your part.... 1. bless She blessed me softly (i.e. in a soft voice). 2. curse We cursed them quickly because they wounded us. 3. charm / amulet / talisman / lucky charm I made a beautifully carved amulet from the bone that I found.

4. sorcerer / wizard / magician / shaman That sorcerer usually blesses our charms for us. 5. magic (n. or adj.) This charm was made with magic. This magically blessed charm is powerful. 6. rite / ritual / ceremony She curses them every day. 7. chant (n. or v.) She is a sorceress, and she usually chants magical words. 8. bestow This charm bestows happiness. 9. amazing Zaphod says that it is amazingly amazing! 10. prayer Prayer is powerful magic.

#1.10: 31 May 2002

Brought to you by A (architecture), D (directions), and subordinate clauses. 1. house 2. wall 3. door 4. threshhold 5. window 6. lock (v. or n.) 7. room 8. bathroom 9. corner 10. ceiling My house has a door that faces north, but windows that face east and west. That unusual house has 6 walls per room. The threshhold is where the door is. There aren't any locks on the doors, not even on the bathroom door. In the southern corner, against the ceiling, there are many cobwebs.

#2.1: 18 Oct 2002

Theme: topicalization (make the vocab word the topic or focus of the utterance). 1. crowd There was a huge crowd in front of the building. 2. lead She led her dog into the field. Her dog was on a lead. The pipes are made of lead. 3. ready He's ready to go now. 4. slow Snails are slow. He runs slowly, and I bet he won't win the race.

5. rent I have to pay rent on the 5th of every month. 6. popularity This was just a popularity contest. 7. -ion two parts here: first, how are verbal nouns formed? act > action, move > motion, see > vision. second, the sentence: His action was hasty. 8. addition Even the addition of an extra student increased class sizes beyond tolerable limits. 9. hat Today is a say-something hat day! 10. pack I need to pack for my trip. The pack she wore on the trip was way too heavy.

#2.2: 26 Oct 2002

Correlative pronouns 1. whoever Whoever stole my wallet is going to die! 2. which Which one do you like better? 3. scale What kind of bathroom scale do you have? How many scales are there on a trout? Someone scaled the wall silently. 4. throat My throat hurt, so I guessed I had some kind of infection. 5. set Every one of the dish sets was chipped. Everytime he sets the table, he forgets the spoons. 6. slight Whenever her son has a slight cough, she takes him to the doctor. 7. upstairs When we play hide-and-seek, sometimes I like to hide upstairs. 8. reduce He needs to reduce the number of cigarettes he smokes. 9. care No one cares about him. 10. imagination I never had the imagination you have.

#2.3: 8 Nov 2002

Topic: genitive relatives (or whatever the "whose..." clauses are called) 1. president 2. office

The president whose office is oval has moved to the country. (I swear this juxtaposition was random) 3. trap The hunter whose trap was empty is angry. 4. operate He operated on her. He knows how to operate a well/pump. 5. idea Whose idea was that? 6. blame The girl whose dress is torn blames you. 7. descriptive The guy whose writing is very descriptive will probably win awards. 8. upright It stood upright against the wall. 9. everything Everything is as messed up! 10. own The old woman who owns that cat is really mean. I can barely see my own hand in front of my face.

#2.4: 8 Nov 2002

Topic: how to disambiguate (if at all) 3rd person referents 1. life She owed her her life. 2. journey Their journey to visit their friends was long. 3. brick He gave his brick to him. 4. merry She was merry all day at the festival. 5. fail He failed to save him. 6. approve He approved his request. 7. jaw Their jaws were bruised from fighting their enemies. 8. hardship He thought his hardship too great to bear. 9. whatever Whatever she did, she was not happy. 10. goods Their goods were locked on their wagon.

#2.5: 17 Nov 2002

Topic: predicate adjectives 1. answer

Her answer was too short. She answered at length. 2. silence The silence was uncomfortable. 3. tune The tune he played was beautiful. He tuned his [tuneable instrument]. 4. camp Their camp was nearly invisible. They camped on the butte. 5. blood Blood is red. 6. lend She lends her time to anyone who asks. 7. equal We get equal pay for our work. 8. determination Her determination was impressive. 9. anger His anger was frightening. 10. name Their names are far too long.

#2.6: 24 Nov 2002

Topic: finite complement clauses 1. me, I It bothers me that she is late. 2. quick I hope that Sam is quick. 3. preparation I think she made a lot of preparations. 4. sum The sum of these numbers is 42. I know that she sums quickly. 5. pity It is a pity that he did that. 6. pipe Their pipes are dirty. 7. dip There is a dip in the road here. I hear she dips her jelly donuts in her tea. 8. outdoor I saw him outdoors. (adv) I want to go on an outdoor adventure. (adj) 9. priest The priest says that she is an honest woman. 10. pretty I smelled the pretty flowers.

#2.7: 29 Nov 2002

Topic: non-finite clauses 1. machinery To repair machinery is difficult. 2. into Entering into machinery is a serious matter. 3. wicked She wants to be a wicked woman. 4. midMid-century, being a wicked woman was dangerous. 5. turn It's your turn. He needs to turn around. 6. historical They want to study historical documents. 7. upset We are upset about his coming. 8. him We need to tell him. 9. damage They are trying to damage our reputation. It took a lot of damage in the battle. 10. apparatus This apparatus needs to be repaired.

#10a: 26 Jan 2003

Topic: negation 1. bathe He didn't bathe yesterday. 2. narrow This road isn't that narrow. 3. jealous I am not jealous! 4. sting Luckily, the hornet didn't sting me. 5. who Who wouldn't? 6. grief She couldn't come to grips with her grief. 7. decrease The profits have not decreased for 2 years. 8. annoy You couldn't annoy me if you tried. 9. camera That is not a camera - it's a calculator. 10. boot She doesn't like boots. Don't boot him out!


#10b: 26 Jan 2003

topic: Up for grabs 1. her 2. poor 3. sexual 4. origin 5. wise 6. cut 7. active 8. among 9. service 10. his

Translation Exercise 13 framed panels with photographs, typewritten text on vellum, pen and ink, wooden shelf with rock, dimensions variable, 1993 One summer I did a lot of traveling in the Finnish archipelago and visited many islands for the first time. Before leaving the United States, I took a rock from my parents' garden in Calfornia. Visiting the first Finnish island, I searched for a rock that resembled the one I had and switched them, taking the new rock with me and leaving the old one behind. This task was repeated on each of the subsequent islands I went to. The idea of what constituted "resemblance" was left quite open (color, temperature, shape, texture?). Circumstantial factors (people I was with, lack of time, embarrassment over the rock switching

activity or insecurity as to its worth) sometimes meant that the switches were done with varying degrees of accuracy. Rather than hide these shortcomings, they are documented and openly acknowledged in the piece. The last rock sits on a shelf, like the period at the end of a sentence. Scroll down for image details.

Rising interest rates: Is there a worry of defaults?

Published on Thu, Jun 30, 2011 at 17:16 | Source :

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By Adhil Shetty, CEO, On June 16, 2011 in its mid quarter policy review, RBI again hiked its basis points by 25bps. The past 18-20 months have seen a frenzied action in the interest rate scenario. Even with the RBI trying to fight inflation tooth and nail by increasing rates on one front, on another front every bank and financial institution has been passing on the burden of this interest hike almost directly to the borrower. This in effect means that some customers are being charged more that 2-3% than what they were paying in 2009. Therefore, a higher interest rate would mean that customers have to pay more out of their pocket towards servicing their loan. With most borrowers, living on a paycheck to pay check lifestyle this extra burden is bound to tighten their cash flow. This could in turn prompt them to default. On the other hand, will it actually? The answer is No. Interest rate hikes resulting in increase in defaults is a farfetched idea. Heres why Lenders follow two different types of strategies to implement the interest rate hikes1. Increase the tenure of the loan by a few months/years 2. Increase the monthly EMI of the customer to reflect the new rates The chances of a customer defaulting occur when he/she has to shell out more per month due to rate hike. In the above scenario number 1, this is not true as there is no change in the monthly EMI being paid by the customer. Hence this ensures that there is no net effect on the monthly finances of the borrower. The customer may only feel the actual effect of the hike 10-15 years later when his loan is ending. In practice, most lenders implement interest rate hikes by using the first method. This preference is for three reasons: 1. Is more hassle free in terms of administrative changes and related paperwork. All that the lender has to do is send a letter stating an increase in the number of EMIs and things continue as they are. 2. An increased tenure will also mean that the lender gets the benefit of higher net interest income as the customer has to pay interest for a longer period.

3. Since customers do not feel the pinch immediately or even in the medium term, there will not be any major complaints or anxieties Considering the above facts it can be concluded that in cases where the tenure is increased to reflect an increased rate of interest, the chances of customers defaulting is almost nil. What happens when the interest rate hike is reflected in the EMI? Although most banks follow the first method, some lenders do follow the second method, especially in scenarios where the borrowers loan tenure clashes with his retirement age. Even banks, which follow the first method, offer the customer the choice to increase his EMI instead of increasing the tenure. This strategy results in an increased pay out every month for the borrower. Let us understand this using an example. Christopher took a loan of 25 Lakhs, two years ago at an interest rate of 9.5% PA and for tenure of 15 years (EMI=26,106). Around 6 months ago, his bank sent him a letter stating that his interest rate was being revised to 10.25%. (EMI=27,164). This month his bank sent him a letter stating that his interest rate was being revised by 100 basis points to 11.25% (EMI=28,567). In a span of two years, his EMI has gone up by Rs. 2461. In the same period, his net take home salary has not increased due to his company freezing salary hikes to tide over the recession. With a new born in the house his monthly expenses have already gone up by over 60% since the period when he first took the loan. In effect, this extra EMI of 2461 will have to come from another source of income or by borrowing. This month he swiped his credit card for paying the Utility bills to save that cash for paying the extra EMI. However, what about the coming 13 years? This is a strong scenario where Christopher could start defaulting his EMI by not being able to pay on time or the ECS being bounced due to lack of funds. The only solution would be to ask the bank for a higher tenure. It can be understood that an increased EMI can lead to heavy pressures on personal finance, which in turn could lead to delayed payments and put the name of the borrower in the banks defaulters list. Defaulting a loan consistently If a borrower defaults a loan consistently for three to six months, the lender will report to Credit Information Bureau India Ltd (CIBIL). This is a central database shared by most of the lenders of the country. If the credit score is poor in CIBIL, there is little chance for a borrower to borrow again from any of the reputed banks and lenders (NBFCs). The score is updated on a regular basis based on the defaults and late payment on loans, higher component of unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans), higher credit limit utilization on cards and too many loan applications at the same time. The score varies from 300 to 900. The higher the score the better is the possibility to get a loan. A bad credit history can ruin the borrowers credibility and takes a long time to be rectified. Bottom-line Although it is always better to go for a higher EMI as against a longer tenure, the borrower must be prudent enough to analyze whether he will be easily able to pay the extra cash outflow. In case his income and expenses are neck to neck, it is better to go for the longer tenure rather than defaulting on the repayments and hurting ones credit rating.

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Sentences and Sentence Patterns

Sentence Structure

Verbs Verbals Verb Tense Sentence Clarity and Combining Sentence Patterns Run on sentences Nearly every complete sentence has at least a verb and subject.

Identifying Sentences:

A more complete analysis of the structure and makeup of sentences can be examined in: Diagramming Sentences Diagrams of moderately long and complex sentences are accompanied by explanations for both beginners and experienced diagrammers.

The subject of the sentence: who or what the sentence is about

What does the subject do? The infinitive form of all verbs begins with "to" to ______ (some action) (or a Verb Phrase) If the root fits after "to" and makes sense, it's a verb. (to eat, to walk) Action or State of being (to be)


What or who is the ac

The object of the action o direct or indirect. Or i (preposition

The object represents to action take

Noun or a Pronoun

Noun or P

Sentence Patterns:English word order is normally SUBJECT - VERB - OBJECT.

Following are the commonly used sentence patterns: 1. SUBJECT - VERB: Coyotes howl. 2. SUBJECT -VERB-OBJECT: Elephants frighten mice. 3. SUBJECT - VERB - INDIRECT OBJECT - DIRECT OBJECT: Mary baked Fred a cake 4. There - VERB SUBJECT: 1 There have been objections. 5. AUXILIARY - SUBJECT - VERB? Do coyotes howl in the distance? 6. AUXILIARY - SUBJECT - VERB - OBJECT? Have mice ever frightened elephants? 7. AUXILIARY - SUBJECT - VERB - INDIRECT OBJECT - DIRECT OBJECT? Will Mary bake Fred a cake? 8. OBJECT - AUXILIARY- SUBJECT - VERB? What did the mice frighten? 9. VERB - there - SUBJECT? 1 Were there any objections? 10. AUXILIARY - there - VERB - SUBJECT? 1 Have there been any objections? Common patterns of commands (imperative sentences) are derived from the first three statement patterns. Many exclamatory sentences are also derived from patterns of statements. There have been a hundred objections! Mary baked Fred a cake! Such Sentences as the following, usually take an exclamation point: How many objections there were! What a cake Mary baked Fred! A sentence pattern such as the following may be a statement, a question or an exclamation: Mice Frighten elephants. Mice frighten elephants? Mice frighten elephants! 1 There used as an introductory work or filler is an expletive, which is never the subject. Adverb Art of Argument Conjugation Dictionary Grammar Linguistics Rhetoric Run on sentences Sentences & Sentence Patterns Syntax Syntax2 Thesaurus Verb Tenses Writing with Purpose

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Topics Sentence Structure Run-on Sentences Adventures in Writing Links and refe Sentence Patterns 172-200 Sentence Stru Run-on/Comma Splice/Fused 188 Quiz: RUN-O The books at the left are recommended resources for those who want to wr can supplement any secondary, college, or graduate-level writing project. obtain either book, click at left. The Writers Harbrace Handbook is a basic for writers. It has particularly useful resources on rhetoric. Adventures in a practical guide for the writing process. The book is designed for people w their writing, including students from non-English based learning environm For questions, contact
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Sentence Construction
Sentence Parts, Patterns, and Variety

Appositives : web page or PDF Independent and Dependent Clauses (definitions): web page or PDF Some Strategies for Improving Sentence Clarity: web page or PDF

Sentence Errors

Run-ons, Comma splices, and Fused Sentences: web page or PDF Sentence fragments: web page or PDF Making Subjects and Verbs Agree: web page or PDF

Sentence Punctuation

Sentence Punctuation Patterns: web page or PDF

Clauses and Phrases

Clause Definitions: Independent and Dependent: web page or PDF

Dangling Modifiers

Dangling Modifiers: web page or PDF

Parallel Structure Parallel Structure: web page or PDF Hy dch sang ting Anh: 1) Theo nh ti bit th anh ta tng b kt n 5 nm t v ti bun lu. 2) Vn nn kt xe gi y tr thnh mi quan tm chung ca ton x h. 3) Trong mt ca du khch trong v ngoi nc, lt l mt ni rt th v n 4) Mc d trong hon cnh kh khn nhng anh ta ot c nhiu gii thng v Ton hc tui 18 5) Ti c cm gic rng gii tr ngy nay c xu hng ua i 6) Tng vn u t trong d n ny l $100,000 7) Khng phi tnh c m nhiu ngi xem ng tin trn ht mi th 8) Theo s liu iu tra gn y, thnh ph HCM c hn 2 triu xe gn my 9) Nhng ngi bn hng rong tn dng ti a l ng cho vic bun bn ca h 10) T bn kia u dy vang ln ging ni du dng ca mt ph n "xin anh vui lng ch my" T vng tham kho: Ngi bn hng rong :hawker L ng : sidewalk Gii tr : the youth

C xu hng : tend to bun lu : smuggling It is worth noting that : ng ch l It was not by accident that : khng phi tnh c m What is more dangerous, .. : nguy him hn l But frankly speaking, .. : thnh tht m ni Place money over and above anything else : xem ng tin trn ht mi th Be affected to a greater or less degree : t nhiu b nh hng According to estimation, : theo c tnh, According to statistics, . : theo thng k,.. According to survey data,.. theo s liu iu tra,.. Win international prizes for Mathematics : ot cc gii thng quc t v ton hc. The common concern of the whole society: mi quan tm chung ca ton x hi Viewed from different angles, : nhn t nhiu kha cnh khc nhau Those who have laid down for the countrys independence: nhng ngi nm xung cho s c lp ca T quc. In the eyes of domestic and foreign tourists, trong mt ca du khch trong v ngoi nc. To have a correct assessment of c mt s nh gi chnh xc v The total investment in his project is .tng vn u t trong d n ny l As far as I know,.. theo nh ti c bit,.. Not long ago ; cch u khng lu More recently, gn y hn,. What is mentioning is that iu ng ni l . There is no denial that khng th chi ci l To be hard times : trong lc kh khn According to a teacher who asked not to be named,.. theo mt gio vin ngh giu tn, Be given 2 year imprisonment for + (ti g) : b kt n 2 nm t v ti Make best use of : tn dng ti a In a little more detail : chi tit hn mt cht To avoid the risk catching AIDS from infected needles : trnh nguy c b SIDA t kim tim nhim trng. From the other end of the line : t bn kia u dy ( in thoi ) Doing a bit of fast thinking, he said .. sau mt thong suy ngh, anh ta ni Keep up with the Joneses : ua i I have a feeling that.. ti c cm gic rng.. Those who have high risk of HIV/AIDS infection such as prostitutes, drug injectors : nhng ngi c nguy c cao b nhim HIV/AIDS :nh gi mi dm, ngi nghin ma ty. Be of my age : c tui ti. Fierce competition : s cnh tranh khc nghit Neutralized by the spirit of local inrests : b v hiu ha bi t tng li ch cc b With the shift to market mechanism : bng s chuyn sang c ch th trng On the nationwide scale : trn qui m c nc Be in the same fate : cng chung s phn Harvet a bumper crop : c mt v bi thu National defence and security : an ninh quc phng

The combat against drug addition, prostitutionand gamebling : cuc chin chng x ke , ma ty, mi dm , c bc Together with the progressive and peace-loving forces of the world : cng vi cc lc lng tin b v yu chung ha bnh trn th gii Multi-sector commodity economy : nn kinh t a thnh phn Poeple's commitee at all levels: y ban nhn dn cc cp According to still incomplete data : theo nhng s li cn cha y Non-refundable aid : vin tr khng hon li Be approved in writing by... : c ...thng qua bng vn bn In the first four months of this year : trong 4 thng u nm nay At a monthly interest rate of $ : vi li xut hng thng l $ An increase by (of) 20% as compared with the same period last year : tng 20% so vi cng k nm ngoi Be believed to be far below the truth : c tin l thp xa s tht domestic violence: bo lc gia nh human traffic-king: Mua bn ngi drug traffic-king: mua bn ma ty women traffic-king ring: ng dy mua bn ph n cultural understanding: hiu bit vn ha Kin thc anh vn ca mnh cng hn hp, mong cc bn ch gio thm To resell sth at a profit : Bn li kim li Rank third among world's rice exporters : l nh xut khu go th 3 th gii. Have a population of 10 milion ; 50% of which is of labor age : dn s l 10tr ; trong 50% trong tui lao ng In theory : v mt l thuyt The people in need of accommodation now number about : hin nay s ngi c nhu cu v nh khong.... Seek the way out for the housing shortage for ... tm li thot cho vn thiu nh ca... Be badly in need : rt cn Make up the majority : chim a s Cause losses in the terms of human lives and property : gy ra nhng thit hi v ngi v ca Also present was .. tham gia buii hp cn c ...

Affirmation of sovereignty over : s khng nh ch quyn i vi The capital of $ is shared 25% by A and 75% by B : s vn $ do A ng gp 25% v B ng 75% A and B increased 1% and 2% respectively : A tng 1% v B tng 2% Rocket / jump : tng vt ( li nhun ) Chief of the central committee for flood and storm prevention : trng ban phng chng l lt Trung ng Be effective from the date of signing : c hiu lc k t ngy k Late last year : cui nm ngoi Be on overseas duty tours : ang i cng tc nc ngoi Professional association: Hip hi ngh nghip To be agree more: Hon ton ng A farming nation: Quc gia nng nghip To do something in a passive manner: Lamf gi hon ton th ng Energy security : An ninh nng lng To be reluctant to use something: min cng s dng ci g Some people have jumped to the conclusion that: Mt s ngi vi v kt lun rng I also have some phrase and sentence were used some situation , conversation in office, let's share - I'd appreciate it if U would do smth...: Ti rt bit n nu bn lm gip.. vic g - I greatly appreciate your kindness: ti rt cm kch trc lng tt ca bn -I'm awfully sorry to hear that:ti rt bun khi bit iu -you're all dressed up: hm nay din qu nha. -I hope i'm not in the way : hy vng mnh khng lm phin -He is going back for good: anh y v lun( v hn) y -It's one way to keep up to date : l cch khng b lc hu -How soon will it be over: bao lu na th xong -It's realy a bargain: li to nh, hehe -to make a bargain with smb: mc c vi ai - to be off(with)one's bargain : Hu b giao ko ,hp ng -that's more than i bargain :iu tht l qu s mong i ca mnh. -i beg your pardon:mong anh nhc li cho r c khng -I'm behind in (my work) :ti khng theo kp (cng vic ca mnh) -poor fellow : tht ti nghip hn ta - you don't mean it :anh ni g l th -that's a pleasant supprise: hn l mt ngc nhin th v qu nh I'll expecting U: ti s i -I haven't seen u for long time: lu khng gp anh =it's been a long time since I met U last I -think either will do : ti ngh ci g cng c -What are U majoring in?=anh ang hc chuyn nghnh g =what departmentare U in ? -I'll be right back=ti s quay li ngay -Give me regards to your wife : xin chuyn li hi thm n v anh nh -I'm sorry for being later: xin li v n mun -Have i keep U waiting long? =c anh i lu khng -To your health= chc sc kho

-Bottom up =nng li no -I'm on my way to home = ti ang trn ng v nh -HOw have u been ?= anh sng th no -couldn't be better= khg th tt hn -Could be= c l vy -I don't have slightest idea=ti khng bit t g c -Do as U , plz=hy lm theo anh

Vocabulary - The Alphabet

Bi hc VIP


Cho mng cc bn n vi bi hc t vng u tin ca kha Ting Anh C Bn trn Trong phn bi ny, chng ta s cng n li bng ch ci trong ting Anh.Trong bng ch ci ting Vit c 29 ch, cn trong ting Anh th sao? Cch c cc ch ci trong ting Anh th no? Cc bn hy xem bng di y, nhp chut vo ch ci nghe cch c v hy c theo nh. Chc cc bn hc vui!

* The Alphabet

























/wa/ A is for apple, a a apple. B is for ball, b b ball. C is for cat, c c cat. D is for dog, d d dog. E is for elephant, e e elephant. F is for fish, f f fish. G is for gorilla, g g gorilla. H is for hat, h h hat. I is for igloo, i i igloo. J is for juice, j j juice. K is for kangaroo, k k kangaroo. L is for lion, l l lion. M is for monkey, m m monkey. N is for no, n n no. O is for octopus, o o octopus. P is for pig, p p pig. Q is for question, q q question. R is for ring, r r ring. S is for sun, s s sun. T is for train, t t train.


U is for umbrella, u u umbrella. V is for van, v v van. W is for watch, w w watch. X is for box, x x box. Y is for yellow, y y yellow. Z is for zoo, z z zoo. So many things for you to learn about. So many ways to sing a song .