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Using Information Technology Chapter 3 Application Software

Application Software: For Your Productivity & Creativity 3.1 Application Software: For Sale, for Free, or for Rent 3.2 Common Features of Software 3.3 Word Processing 3.4 Spreadsheets 3.5 Database Software 3.6 Specialty Software

3.1 Application Software: For Sale, for Free, or for Rent


Commercial software = copyrighted and must be paid for Public-domain software = not copyrighted Shareware =copyrighted and free but requires a fee to be paid for continued use Freeware = Copyrighted and free Rentalware = Copyrighted and leased Pirated software = Software obtained illegally Abandonware = Software that is no longer sold or supported by its publisher

Tutorials & Documentation Tutorial = an instruction book or program that helps you learn to use the product by taking you through a prescribed series of steps Documentation = information that describes a product to users. For example, a user guide or reference manual A few facts about Files and the Usefulness of Importing & Exporting A file is a collection of data or programs that exist in a computers secondary storage. Three well-known types of data files are: o Document files o Worksheet files o Database files Exchanging files between programs: o Importing o Exporting

Types of Application Software Productivity software = software whose purpose is to make users more productive at particular tasks Examples : o Word processing programs o Spreadsheets o Database managers

3.2 Common Features of Software


User interface = the user-controllable display screen that allows you to communicate, or interact, with the computer A User can interact with the display screen using a keyboard or a mouse Interacting with the user interface Special-purpose keys = used to enter, delete, and edit data and to execute commands Function keys = used to execute commands specific to the software being used Macro = a single keystroke or command or a series of keystrokes or commands used to automatically issue a longer, predetermined series of keystrokes or commands Mouse = allows the user to direct an on-screen pointer to perform activities Pointer = usually appears as an arrow, but changes shape depending on the application The GUI Graphical user interface (GUI) - allows users to use a mouse or keyboard strokes to select icons and commands from menus The three features of GUI are : o Desktop o Icons o Menus Desktop, Icons and Menus Desktop = the systems main interface screen, which displays pictures that provide quick access to programs and information Icon = symbol representing a program, data, file, or procedure. Icons are designed to communicate their function, such as a floppy disk for saving. Rollover = when you roll your mouse pointer over an icon or graphic, a small box with text appear that briefly explains its function. Menu = a list of options to choose from--a list of commands for manipulating data Pull-down menu = a list of options that pulls down from the menu bar at the top of the screen Cascading menus = menus that seem to fly back to the left or explode out to the right Pull-up menu = a list of options that pulls up from the menu bar at the bottom of the screen

Documents, Toolbars, & Windows Title bar = A bar that runs across the very top of the display window and shows the name of the folder you are in Menu bar = a bar that shows the names of the various pull-down menus available Toolbar = A bar that displays menus and icons representing frequently used options or commands Taskbar = the bar across the bottom of the desktop screen that contains the Start button and that appears by default Window = A rectangular frame on the display screen, through which files of data and application programs can be viewed The Help Command Help command = a command generating a table of contents, an index, and a search feature that can help you locate answers

3.3 Word Processing


Word processing software = allows users to use computers to create, edit, format, print, and store text material Creating Documents Creating a document = entering text using the keyboard or the dictation function associated with speech recognition software Word processing software features Cursor - the movable symbol on the display screen that shows you where you may next enter data or commands Scrolling - moving quickly upward, downward, or sideways through the text or other screen display Word Wrap automatically continues text to the next line when you reach the right margin Editing Documents Insert and delete = To add to the document using the insert key and remove text using the delete or backspace key Undo = To restore text that has been deleted Find and replace = To find existing words, phrases, or numbers and replace them with something else Cut/Copy and paste = To cut or copy text and move it to the clipboard and transfer the material to an existing or new document Spelling checker = To test incorrectly spelled words Grammar checker = To highlight poor grammar, wordiness, incomplete sentences, and awkward phrases

Thesaurus - To present users with the appropriate word or alternative words Formatting Documents with the Help of Templates & Wizards Formatting = determining the appearance of a document Template = a preformatted document that provides basic tools for shaping a final document Wizard = answers your questions and uses the answers to lay out and format a document Font = typeface and type size Spacing and columns Single-spaced Double-spaced One-column Two columns Several columns Margins and justification Left margin Right margin Top margin Bottom margin Justification Left-justification Centering Headers, footers, and page numbers Header Footer Page numbers

Other Formatting Borders Shading Tables Footnotes Graphics Clip art

Printing, Faxing, or Emailing Documents Printing: o Individual pages o Range of pages Previewing = Viewing a document before its printed Saving = storing or preserving a document as an electronic file permanently Tracking Changes & Inserting Comments Editing changes can be tracked by highlighting them, underlining additions, and crossing deletions Comments or questions can be inserted into the documents

3.4 Spreadsheets, The Basics: How Spreadsheets Work


A spreadsheet is organized as: Lettered column headings across the top Numbered row headings down the left side Labels = descriptive text that identifies categories

Where columns and rows meet: Cell = the place where a row and a column intersect Cell address = position of a cell Range = a group of adjacent cells Value = data entered in a cell Cell pointer = indicates where data is to be entered Why the spreadsheet has become so popular: Formulas = instructions for calculations Functions = built-in formulas to perform common Recalculation = process of recomputing values What-if analysis

calculations

Using worksheet templates: Worksheet templates = forms containing formats and formulas custom-designed for particular kinds of work Multidimensional spreadsheets = one spreadsheet can be linked to another Analytical graphics = graphical forms that make numeric data easy to analyze

3.5 Database Software, The Basics : How Databases Work


Database = a collection of interrelated files Database software = a program that sets up and controls the structure of a database and access to the data Benefits of Database Software: Reduced redundancy Increased integrity How a relational database is organized: Tables of rows and columns Row (record) = example: a persons address Column (field) = example: the persons last name How various records can be linked: Key field = a field that is used to sort data Primary key = holds a unique value for each record Foreign key = used to cross-reference data among relational tables Finding what you want: Querying - locating and displaying records

Sorting and analyzing records and applying formulas: Sorting data = alphabetically, numerically, geographically, or in some other order Putting search results to use: Saving Formatting Printing Copying Transmitting Personal Information Managers (PIM) PIM = software to help you keep track of and manage information you use on a daily basis, such as addresses, telephone numbers, appointments, to-do lists, and miscellaneous notes

3.6 Specialty Software


Presentation graphics software = uses graphics, animation, sound, and data or information to make visual presentations Presentation = graphics programs offer templates to help organize presentations. Templates are of two types: Design templates = offer formats, layouts, background patterns, and color schemes that can apply to general forms of content material Content templates = offer formats for specific subjects Financial Software Financial software = a growing category that ranges from personal-finance managers to entrylevel accounting programs to business financial-management packages Desktop Publishing (DTP) DTP involves mixing text and graphics to produce high-quality output for commercial printing, using a microcomputer and mouse, scanner, laser or ink-jet printer, and DTP software. Drawing & Painting Programs Drawing program = graphics software that allows users to design and illustrate objects and products Painting program = graphics program that allows users to simulate painting on screen

Other Specialty Software Web page design/authoring software = used to create web pages with sophisticated multimedia features. Video/audio editing software Video editing software allows you to import video footage to a PC and edit it. Audio editing software provides capabilities to work with sound tracks, clean up background noise, and emphasize certain sound qualities. Project management software = program used to plan and schedule the people, costs, and resources required to complete a project on time. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software o Programs intended for the design of products, structures, civil engineering drawings, and maps. Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software o Allows products designed with CAD to be input into an automated manufacturing system that makes the products. Concept Check 1. What is the term for software that has been obtained illegally? o Pirate software 2. What is the term for getting data from another source and then converting it into a format compatible with the program in which you are currently working? o Importing 3. What kind of software allows several people to collaborate on the same project? o Groupware 4. What does GUI stand for? o Graphical User Interface 5. What is the term for small pictorial figures that represent programs, data files, or procedures? o Icons 6. What type of menu can appear anywhere on the screen when the right mouse button is clicked? o Pop-up menu 7. What is the name for a small text box explaining the icons function, which appears when you move the mouse pointer over the icon? o Rollover 8. What is the place where a row and a column of a spreadsheet intersect? o Cell 9. What is the process of re-computing values in a spreadsheet called? o Recalculation 10. What does PIM stand for? o Personal Information Manager 11. What type of application software is this PowerPoint program? o Presentation graphics software

12. What feature of word-processing software is a preformatted document that provides basic tools for shaping a final document? o Template 13. What word-processing software feature answers your questions and uses the answers to lay out and format a document? o Wizard 14. What word-processing software feature presents you with the appropriate word or alternative words? o Thesaurus 15. What type of application software is not copyrighted? o Public-domain software 16. What is the term for a contract in which you agree not to make copies of software to give away or for resale? o Software license 17. What type of application software provides the user with the capability to query records? o Database software 18. What type of database organizes data into related tables, each of which contains rows and columns? o Relational database 19. What is the term for a number or date entered into a spreadsheet cell? o Value 20. What is the name for the movable symbol on the screen that shows where you may next enter data or commands? o Cursor