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In this document, you will find information on how

to reference using the three principal styles:


o Harvard,
o MLA (Modern Languages Association)
o APA (American Psychological Association),

Academic conventions and copyright law require


that you acknowledge when you use the ideas of
others. In most cases, this means stating which
book or journal article is the source of an idea or
quotation.

There are two aspects to learn:


 in-text references, and
 a list of references cited, given at the
end of your thesis, dissertation, report,
paper.
Clearly, you will use one style in your work. Check
with your course co-ordinator for the preferred style.

References

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<http://www.usq.edu.au/library/help/ehelp/ref_guide
s/How_to_cite#How_to_cite>
Harvard Style – citing print and non-print sources
Harvard Referencing - A Brief Guide presents an overview in a short Breeze
presentation.

List of references
At the end of your essay, place a list of the references you have cited in the text. Arrange
this in alphabetical order of authors' surnames, and chronologically for each author,
where more than one work by that author is cited. The author's surname is placed first,
followed by initials or first name, and then the year of publication is given. If the list
contains more than one item published by the same author in the same year, add lower
case letters immediately after the year to distinguish them. For example "1983a". See
the following examples.

Type of item followed by example


Book, 1 author
Cole, GHA 1991, Thermal power cycles, Edward Arnold, London.
Book, 2 authors
Douglas, M & Watson, C 1984, Networking, Macmillan, London.
Book, anonymous
The eliciting of frank answers 1955, Engineering Publications, Florida.
2 or more books in one year by same author
List in alphabetical order by title.
King, P 1984a, Power in Australia, UQP, St. Lucia.
------- 1984b, Solar power, Macmillan, Melbourne.
Edited book
Long, PE (ed.) 1991, A collection of current views on nuclear safety, Penguin,
Harmondsworth.
Book, edition
Morton, JS 1984, Wind power: an overview, 2nd edn, Melbourne University Press,
Melbourne.
Chapter in an edited book
North, D 1980, 'Energy use at home', in S Scott & N Peel (eds.), Energy conservation,
Academic Press, London.
Article cited in a book
Oppenheim, PL 1981, 'Power politics', Journal of Power Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp.
19-26, quoted in Strong, K 1985, Advances in power engineering, Springer-Verlag,
Berlin, p. 70.
Corporate author

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Department of Energy 1980, Projections of energy needs, HMSO, London.

Journal article
Jones, BE & Jones, SR 1987, 'Powerful questions', Journal of Power Engineering, vol. 1,
no. 3, pp.10-8.
Journal article, 4 authors
Gibberd, R, Snow, PT, Rice, PG & Patel, NB 1991, 'Nuclear power at what price?', The
Bulletin, vol. 113, June 4, pp. 51-5.
Journal article, no author
ATSIC News 2002, 'Aboriginal identity and the loss of certainty', vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 50-2.
Newspaper article
Popham, B 1987, 'Saving the future', Weekend Australian Magazine, 7-8 Feb., p. 10.
Newspaper article no author
All of the details are provided in the in-text citation and there is no need for an entry in
the reference list.
Conference paper
Trump, A 1986, 'Power play', Proceedings of the third annual conference, International
Society of Power Engineers, Houston Texas, pp. 40-51.
Microform
Herbert, WG 1987, The Australian beef industry: an overview, Australian Livestock
Council, Canberra, microfiche.
Motion pictures, videos, DVDs, television and radio programs
The following details should be provided in a reference list - title, date of recording,
format, publisher, place of recording. Any special credits and other information that
might be useful can be noted after the citation.
Fahrenheit 9/11 2004, DVD, Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, Culver City, Calif.
Written, produced and directed by Michael Moore.
Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, video recording, Australian Broadcasting
Corporation, Sydney. Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.
Sunday too far away 1975, motion picture, South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide.
Distributed by Rainbow Products Ltd, Sydney, and starring Jack Thompson, Reg Lye
and Max Cullen.
What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television program, ABC Television,
Sydney, 8 August.
The search for meaning 1998, radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March.
Legislation
The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or
capitalisation should be altered to suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should
not be omitted.

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Legislation is only included in a list of references if it is important to the understanding of
the work (preferably in a separate list under the subheading 'Legislation').
Even if viewed electronically, legislation is generally referenced as if in print (unless only
available electronically).
For Acts include - Name of Act Year (Jurisdiction)
Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth)
Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld)
For Bills include - Name of Bill Year (Legislative Body) (no italics)
Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (House of Representatives)
Unpublished theses, papers and abstracts
Present the title of the document in roman type and in quotation marks. The other
details will vary according to the nature of the document.
Langdon, WB 1996, 'Data structures and genetic programming', PhD thesis, University
College, London.
Bouchert-Bert, L 2002, 'When humans entered the northern forests: an archaeological
and palaeoenvironmental perspective', MA dissertation, University of Calgary.
Pomfret, R 2001, 'Economic diversification of the new independent central Asian
countries', paper to be presented at the International Conference on Economic
Diversification of Small States, Brunei, 12-13 November.
Muhingo, E & Boniface, R 2003, 'Involving men to increase family planning acceptance',
abstract presented at the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium
Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 7-8 October.
Unpublished manuscripts
If it is difficult to provide details about the location of a manuscript, be systematic.
Abramiuk, M 2002, 'A preliminary report on classic Maya ground stone tool exchange in
and around the southern Maya mountains of Belize', in possession of the author.
Adams, DE 1917, 'My journey to Khartoum', in posession of MA Adams, Adelaide.
Joyce, TA 1931, 'Report of the British Museum expedition to British Honduras, 1931', in
possession of the Central Archives of the British Museum.
Hudson, DE 1909-18, 'Diary', Hudson Papers, Fisher Library, University of Sydney.
Benton, TH 1847, 'Letter to Charles Fremont, 22 June', John Charles Fremont Papers,
Southwest Museum Library, Los Angeles.
Course materials and readings
Study notes should be listed in the same manner as a book.
Spiteri, D 2003, ALE 4305 School Experience: Observations and Tutorials, University of
Malta, Malta.
When the author's name is unknown.
ACC 5003 NIA advanced financial accounting: study book 2004, University of Malta,
Malta.
For articles and chapters from books of readings, include both a reference to the original
article and a reference to the book of readings.

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Kuebler, SA 2004, 'OSHA's enforcement strategy', Occupational Health & Safety, vol.
73, no. 12, pp. 12-3, in Eddington, I (ed.), MGT 8015 Corporate occupational health and
safety: selected readings, 2005, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba,
Reading 4.1, pp. 71-2.
Hancock, L 2002, 'Australian federalism, politics and health', in H Gardner & S
Barraclough (eds.), Health policy in Australia, 2nd edn., Oxford University Press, South
Melbourne, in Eddington, I (ed.), MGT 8015 Corporate occupational health and safety:
selected readings, 2005, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Reading 1.2,
pp. 28-35.

How to cite references within the text of an assignment


These are also called in-text references. When you use another's ideas you should
immediately acknowledge your sources. Always give the surname of the author and the
date of publication. If you are referring to the general theme of the book, page numbers
are unnecessary. Where you are quoting or referring to figures or data, page numbers
must be included. Examples follow:-
Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kozeny 1988, p. 223).
Kozeny (1988, p. 223) found soil layers below the well tip contributed little.
Carlson (1981) obtained results which...
A recent study (Carlson 1990) ...
When volumes, sections, or equations are needed
(Jessor 1989, vol. 2, p. 23)
(Jessor 1989, vol. 2, p. 23; vol. 3, pp. 20-41)
(Jessor 1989, sec. 2)
(Jessor 1989, eq. 3)
Two or three authors
(Jones & Hackett 1991)
Jones and Hackett (1991) theorized that...
(Boyd, Smith & Eberle 1985)
Boyd, Smith and Eberle (1985) found...
Note: The ampersand is used when the authors' names are in brackets.
More than three authors
Use the first author only followed by 'et al.' For example, a work by Carter, Morton,
Duncan-Kemp and Redding becomes:
Carter et al. (1989) discussed library search methods.
A range of search methods (Carter et al. 1989) were discussed.
Note: Names of all the authors must be given in the list of references.
Multiple citations of the same author
Arrange in chronological order, and use suffixes to distinguish works published in the
same year.
Brown (1980, 1983a, 1983b) theorized ...

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Brown (1983a, p. 21; 1983b, p. 85) theorized ...
Two authors, same surname
Initials are included to distinguish.
The theory was propounded by AE Smith (1981), but has been refuted since (Smith, BR
1985).
More than one work cited
(Larsen 1971; Haddon 1969)
Personal communications
Personal communications can include things such as letters, memos, emails, facsimiles,
interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls and lecture presentations.
Initials are included. Full details of the date (day, month and year) should be provided in
the text.
(Ayers, RN 1991, pers. comm., 2 July).
MK Larsen (1983, pers. comm., 1 May) said...
On 20 July 2006, Ms A Brown confirmed ...
Note: Personal communications are not included in the list of references at the end.
Encyclopaedias and dictionaries (if no author is evident)
The concise Oxford dictionary of current English (1990) defines it as ...
(The Cambridge encyclopaedia of the English language 1995)
Note: There is then no need for an entry in the reference list.
Editors
(ed. Kaufmann 1974)
... edited by Kaufmann (1974)
Unknown or uncertain dates
No publication date - Donovan (n.d.) revealed ...
Approximate publication date - Harris (c. 1751) said ...
Doubtful publication date - Hawkins (1886?)
Unpublished work - (Crowley, unpub.)
Crowley (unpub.) argues that...
Not yet in the process of being published - Tomasi (forthcoming)
Currently in the process of being published - Nisbet (in press)
Anonymous
On travelling to London (1683) reveals this to be false.
This was not so in seventeenth-century England (On travelling to London 1683)
... as reported in ATSIC News (2002)
This is a common misconception (ATSIC News 2002)
Note: Do not use 'Anonymous' or 'Anon'.

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No personal author, sponsored by corporate body
(FES 2006)
A publication of the Malta Union of Teachers, Malta (1988) is ...
Note: Abbreviations such as FES may be used in textual references. The abbreviation
should then be used for all in-text citations of that body and the reference list should
provide a cross-reference:
FES - see Foundation for Educational Services.
Newspapers
If authors are given, use the principles already stated.
If there is no author, provide all the details in the in-text citation. Examples:
(The Times 24-25 Jan. 2001, p. 19)
... in the Malta Independent (24 January 2000, p. 12).
(MATSEC Review 18 January 2005, introduction)
Note: There is no need for an entry in the reference list. If a work contains frequent
references to newspaper material, it may be best to abbreviate the newspaper titles. TT,
for example, could replace The Times. The abbreviation, like the full title, is italicised.
Citations from secondary sources
Brown (cited in Smith 1995) reported ...
(Brown, cited in Smith 1995)
Note: In the reference list provide the details of the author who has done the citing:
Smith, J 1995, ...
Details of the work of the author being cited - in this example, Brown - can be included if
useful or of interest.
The Bible
Psalm 23:6-8
Motion pictures, videos, DVDs, television and radio programmes
In-text references should contain the title (in italics) and date of production.
Strictly ballroom (1992)
(Understanding the GNP 1982)
Legislation
The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or
capitalisation should be altered to suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should
not be omitted.
Legislation is only included in a list of references if it is important to the understanding of
the work (preferably in a separate list under the subheading 'Legislation'). Most Acts and
Ordinances have a short, formal title that can be used for citation purposes. First
references should always cite this short, formal title in italics (exactly and in full) and
subsequent references can be shown in roman script (not italics) with the date omitted.
... the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 ...

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... the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act ...
There are two ways of clarifying jurisdiction. For works referred to infrequently, make it
obvious in the text.
Malta's Equal Opportunity Act 1995 prohibits ...
Otherwise, place information in parentheses and in roman script after the date.
... the Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth) ...
... the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld) ...
Acts of the parliaments of other nations should be presented in roman script.
... The Sale of Foods Act 2000 (UK) ...
Bills are presented in roman type because they are, in effect, 'unpublished' at that stage.
... the Regulation of Genetic Material Bill 2000 ...
Direct quotations
Brief quotations (about 30 words or less) can be included in text. Use single quotations
marks.
Stewart (1982, p. 6) said: 'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet'.
'Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet' (Stewart 1982, p. 6).
Lengthy quotations are given in separate paragraphs which are usually indented from
the text margin and set in smaller type. No quotation marks are used. Citations are as
above.

Harvard Style - referencing online sources

Why reference?
Information obtained from any source, including the Internet, is covered by copyright law.
You must acknowledge any source that you refer to in your assignment, both within the
text of your assignment, and at the end of it (by including a list of references).
Referencing your sources also enables the reader to view your sources and follow your
essay. This guide will show you how to cite electronic sources, such as journal and
newspaper articles from the Internet or from an electronic database, electronic mail,
Web pages, online images, electronic books and CD-ROMs.
Harvard Referencing - A Brief Guide presents an overview in a short Breeze
presentation.

How to create a list of references


At the end of your assignment, create a list of the references you have cited in the text.
Arrange this in alphabetical order of authors' surnames. The author's surname is placed
first, followed by initials or first name, and then the year of publication is given. Where an
item doesn't have an author arrange it by its title. The following examples show you how
to include reference sources in your List of References.

Journal articles

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Journal article on the WWW
Author Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.
Example:
Griffith, AI 1995, 'Coordinating family and school: mothering for schooling', Education
Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 3, no. 1, viewed 12 February 1997,
<http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/>.
Full-text journal article in electronic database
Author Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, paging if given or indication of
length, viewed Day Month Year, Name of database service, Name of database, item
number (if given).
Example:
Rasid, ZM & Parish, TS 1998, 'The effects of two types of relaxation training on students'
levels of anxiety', Adolescence, vol. 33, no. 129, p. 99, viewed 23 September 1998,
EBSCOhost database Academic Search Premier, item: AN589758.
Databases
Title, Producer, Vendor, frequency of updating.
Example:
AGRIS database, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, SilverPlatter
(vendor), annual updating.

Newspaper articles
Newspaper article in electronic database
Author Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed
Day Month Year, Name of database, item number (if given).
Example:
Pianin, E 2001, 'As coal's fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va; energy policy is
transforming lives', The Washington Post, 25 February, p. A03, viewed 8 March 2001,
Electric Library Australasia.
Newspaper article on the WWW
Author Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed
Day Month Year, <URL>.
Example:
Cleary, P & Lewis, S 2001, 'It's the end of a long boom', The Australian Financial
Review, 8 March, viewed 8 March 2001,
<http://afr.com/australia/2001/03/08/FFXIM9PU0KC.html>.

Electronic mail
Discussion list message
Author <Author's details - usually an e-mail address> Year of posting, 'Subject/title of
posting', description of posting, discussion list Owner, viewed Day Month, <URL>.

Example:

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Wilson, D <wilsond@rocketscience.com.au> 2003, 'Using the Web to your advantage',
discussion group, National Computer Network, viewed 28 January 2003,
<NETTRAIN@ubvm.cc.buffalo.edu>.

Personal email
In-text references to emails are dealt with in the same way as in-text references to other
types of personal communication and in general, it is not necessary to provide further
details. If there are occasions where readers will be keen to pursue the subject, the
email address can be provided in the reference list.
Please note: Email addresses should never be cited without the permission of the
owner of the address.
Sender's name followed by year of posting, email, Day and Month of posting, <email
address>.
Example:
Davis, A 2002, email, 24 April, <davis@unitc.edu.au>.

World Wide Web


Web document
Author/editor or compiler Year of the most recent version, Title, version number (if
applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of
the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site
details>.
Examples:
Anderson, J (Minister for Transport and Regional Services) 2000, CASA approves avgas
contamination test, media release, 23 January, Department of Transport and Regional
Services,Canberra, viewed 7 February 2000,
<http://www.dotrs.gov.au/media/anders/archive/2000/jan_00/al6_2000.htm>.
AWB Limited 2006a, AWB and the single desk, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria,
viewed 1 June 2006, <http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/factsandindustryinformation/
singledeskbenefits/AWBandTheSingleDesk.htm>.
------- 2006b, Inquiry into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Program - statement from the
Board of AWB Limited, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, viewed 1 June 2006,
<http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/media/
InquiryIntoTheUnitedNationsOilforFoodProgram.htm>.
Web document (no author)
Title Year, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name
and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location
details or just the main site details>.
Example:
Educating America for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan for educational
leadership by Columbia University 1993-2000(initial workshop draft) 1994, draft
workshop report, Institute for Learning technologies,Columbia University, viewed 16 May
1995, <http://ariel.adgrp.com/~ghb/trips/940717_ICT/policy/ILT/EdPlan.html>.
Web document (no publication date)

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Author n.d., Title, version number (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the
source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location or just main site details>.
Example:
Sherman, C n.d., The invisible web, Free Pint Limited, UK, viewed 27 November 2000,
<http://www.freepint.co.uk/issues/080600.htm#feature>.
Web site
Author (the person or organisation responsible for the site) Year (that the site was
created or last revised), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day
Month Year,<URL>.
Example:
The Body Shop Australia 2003, The Body Shop Australia, Mulgrave, Victoria, viewed 31
January 2003, <http://www.thebodyshop.com.au/>.
Online images
Title of image (or a description) Year, description of document (if applicable), name and
place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location
details or just the main site details>.
Example:
The lunar interior 1999, PlanetScapes, US, viewed 31 January 2003,
<http://www.planetscapes.com/solar/browse/moon/moonint.jpg>.
Electronic books
Author Year (of creation or last revision), Title, edition/version (if applicable), name and
place of the sponsor of the source (publisher, place), viewed Day Month Year,<URL
either full location details or just the main site details>.
Example: ebrary
McClain, M & Roth JD 1999, Schaum's quick guide to writing great essays , McGraw-
Hill, New York, viewed 17 January 2005,
<http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/unisouthernqld/Doc?id=50
02145>.
Example: free book
Fitzgerald, FS 1920, This side of paradise, Scribner, New York, viewed 18 January 2005,
<http://www.bartleby.com/115/>.
Chapter in an electronic book.
Author Year (of creation or last revision), 'Chapter title', in book editor(s) (ed.), Book title,
name and place of the sponsor of the source (publisher, place), viewed Day Month Year,
<URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
Example:
Gould, SJ 2000, 'More things in Heaven and Earth', in H Rose & S Rose (eds.), Alas,
poor Darwin: arguments against evolutionary psychology , Harmony Books, New York,
viewed 17 January 2005,
<http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/unisouthernqld/Doc?id=10
015543>.

CD-ROMs

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The bibliographic details are the same as those required for films, videos, DVDs,
television and radio programs (outlined in the companion guide Harvard Style -
Referencing print & non-print sources).
Title Year (of recording), format, publisher, place of recording. Any special credits and
other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation.
Example:
Australia through time 1994, CD-ROM, Random ROM in assoc. with the ABC, Sydney.

How to cite references within the text of an assignment


These are also called in-text references. When you use another’s ideas within the text of
your assignment you should immediately acknowledge your sources. Follow the same
order for citing online sources in text, as you do for citing printed sources, eg. surname
of the author followed by the year of publication.
Journal article
To cite a journal within the text of an assignment, use only the name of the author(s),
followed by the year of publication.
Example:
Griffith (1995)
Web site
To cite a Web site within the text of an assignment, use the name of the person or
organisation responsible for the site (author) and the date of the site's creation or most
recent update.
Example:
The Bodyshop (2003)
Web addresses can be given directly in the text using angle brackets(< >) to isolate
them from any sentence punctuation.
Example:
Details are available from the department's Web site <http://www.finance.gov.au>.
Web document (author known)
To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, editor or compiler
and the date on which the document was created or last revised.
Examples:
Klintworth (2000)
International Narcotics Control Board (1999)

As with Web sites, the full address of a document within a Web site can be provided in
the text. It is sufficient, however, to provide only the address of the Web site.
Example:
Details are available from the Attorney-Generals Department
<http://www.law.gov.au/aghome/legal/pol/cld/aia/part_1.htm>.
Web document (no author)

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To cite a document from a Web site within the text of an assignment, where the author is
unknown, give the title of the document followed by the date of creation or most recent
revision.
Example:
Educating America for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan for educational
leadership by Columbia University 1993-2000(initial workshop draft) (1994).
Electronic books
To cite an electronic book within the text of an assignment, follow the examples listed in
the other guide (Harvard Style - Referencing print & non-print sources) for print books.
Examples:
According to Fitzgerald (1999) ...
... these conclusions have since been questioned (Sheridan, Smith & Brown 2001)
CD-ROMs
In-text references should contain the title (in italics) and date of the CD-ROM.
Examples:
Australia through time (1994)
(Australia through time 1994)

Helpful Hints

• You must specify the date on which you accessed the item, since Web
documents can change or disappear at any time.
• If a Web document includes both a date of creation and a date it was last
updated, use only the date it was last updated.
• If you find a document on the Web which is a series of linked pages, use the
information from the main or "home" page.
• If you have trouble identifying the title, look at the top of the Web page above
FILE on your browser.
• The date a Web document was created is usually listed right at the bottom of
the document.

Additional online guides to citing Internet and electronic sources using the
Harvard Style
Bournemouth University Library 2002, Guide to citing Internet sources, online guide,
Bournemouth University, UK, viewed 8 April 2003, <http://www.bournemouth.ac.
uk/library/using/guide_to_citing_internet_sourc.html>.
Note: Citation formats suggested here are based on: Li, X & Crane, NB 1995, Electronic
style: a guide to citing electronic information, 2nd edn, Mecklermedia, Westport.

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MLA Style

Guide to Referencing Using the MLA Style


(including electronic resources)
Introduction
The following formats and examples are models for in-text references and for use in a
reference bibliography. These formats are based on Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for
Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition (1999). A number of formats and examples
are also taken from MLA Style Electronic Formats website by Dr. Mary Ellen Guffey.

In-Text References
When you use another’s ideas you should immediately acknowledge your sources. The
author’s last name and a page reference are enough to link to the book or article from
which you borrowed material, as listed in your final bibliography of works cited. When
the author’s name has been mentioned in the text, only a page number is required in
parenthesis.

Examples

Soil layers below the well tip contribute relatively little water (Kozeny 223)
Kozeny found soil layers below the well tip contributed little water (223)

Part of a multi-volume book


(Jessor 2: 23)

Corporate author
(National Research Council 15)

Two or more different works cited


(Kaku 42; McRae 101-33)

Multiple Citations of the Same Author


An in text reference to one of two or more works by the same author has a comma after
the author’s last name and a brief title, such as the first word(s), followed by the page
number.
(Frye, Double Vision 85)

Secondary source of idea


(qtd. in Holesworthy 19)

Citing entire print or nonprint work


If you wish to cite an entire work – whether a print source; a nonprint source such as
film, television program, or performance; or an electronic publication that has no
pagination or other type of reference markers – it is usually preferable to include in the

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text, rather than in a parenthetical reference, the name of the person (eg. author, editor,
director, performer) that begins the corresponding entry in the works cited list.

Example
Kuroswa's Rashomon was one of the first Japanese films to attract a Western audience.
Electronic resources
Because electronic documents often have no pagination or other type of reference
markers, the MLA Handbook recommends that author page references in parentheses
be avoided. More preferable are direct references in the text to the name of the author
or sponsoring organisation.

Example
William J. Mitchell's City of Bits discusses architecture and urban life in the context of
the digital telecommunications revolution.

Electronic source with no pagination


(Gardiner, screens 2-3)

Direct Quotations
Brief quotations (of three lines or fewer) should be included in text. Use double
quotations marks.

Example

"Engineers are vital to the survival of the planet" (Stewart 6)

Quotes of more than three lines should start on the following line and be blocked and
indented one inch from the margin. Quotations marks should not be used here.

Example

At the conclusion of Lord of the Flies, Ralph and the other boys realised the horror of
their actions:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now
for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to
wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the
burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little
boys began to shake and sob too. (186)

List of References
At the end of your essay, place a list of references that have been cited in the text.
Arrange this in alphabetical order of authors' surnames, or by title, (if no author). The
author’s name is followed by the underlined title, then the publication information.

Author’s name. Title. Publication information.


Use a hanging indent for each entry. Indent the second and succeeding lines five
spaces.
If given, use the author's full name rather than initials.
Every important word of the title is capitalised.

Type Of Item and examples

15
Book 1 author
Berkman, Robert. Find It Fast: How to Uncover Expert Information on any Subject.
Harper Perennial, 1994.

Book 2 authors
Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex: The Real Difference between Men and
Women. London: Mandarin, 1991.
(Reverse only the name of the first author)

2 Books by same author


Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: four Essays. Princeton UP, 1957.
---. The Double Vision: Language and Meaning in Religion. Toronto: U of Toronto P,
1991.

Book anonymous
The Eliciting of Frank Answers. Florida: Engineering Publications, 1955.

Edited book & edition


Newcomb, Horace, ed. Television: The Critical View. 5th ed. New York: OxfordUP,
1994.

Chapter in an edited book


Fiske, John. “Madonna.” Ways of Reading: An Anthology for Writers. 3rd ed. Ed.David
Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston:Bedford, 1993. 158-177.

Book corporate author


National Research Council. China and Global Change: Opportunities for Collaboration.
Washington: Natl. Acad., 1992.

Anthology or compilation
Feldman, Paula R., ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Baltimore:Johns
Hopkins UP, 1997.

Work in an anthology
More, Hannah. “The Black Slave Trade: A Poem.” British Women Poets of the
Romantic Era. Ed. Paula R. Feldman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.472-82.

Conference proceedings
Freed, Barbara F., ed. Foreign Language Acquisition Research and the Classroom.
Proc. of Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning Conference, Oct.1989, U
of Pennsylvania. Lexington: Heath, 1991.

Journal article
McKenna, Bernard. “How Engineers Write: An Empirical Study of Engineering Report
Writing.” Applied Linguistics 18 (1997): 189–211.

Journal article 2 authors


White, Sabina, and Andrew Winzelberg. “Laughter and Stress.” Humor 5 (1992): 343-
55.
(Reverse only the name of the first author)

Newspaper article

16
Goldberg, Vicki. “Photographing a Mexico Where Silence Reigned.” New York Times 23
Mar. 1997, late ed., sec. 2: 39+
(Please note that the year of publication for a journal is shown in parentheses but
a newspaper is not.)

Videos
Learning to Live. Prod. Martin Freeth. Videocassette. Fine Films Inc., 1964.

Musical composition
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony No. 8 in F, Op. 93 New York: Dover, 1989.

List of Electronic References


Although MLA Style does not require the insertion of the word "Retrieved" or the word
"Accessed" before the access date, you may wish to include one of these words to
distinguish a retrieval date from a publication date.

MLA Style recommends that Web addresses (URLs) and email addresses be enclosed
by angle brackets.

If you cannot find some of the required information, cite what is available.

Journal article on the WWW


Author. “Article title.” Journal Title Volume.Issue or other identifying number (Year of
publication in parentheses): paging. Access date <URL>.

Example
Koehn, Daryl. “The Ethics of Handwriting Analysis in Pre Employment Screening.” The
Online Journal of Ethics 1.1 (1995). Accessed 2 June 2001
<http://condor.depaul.edu/ethics/hand.html>.

Full text journal article in electronic database


Author. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume. Issue or other identifying number (Year of
publication in parentheses): paging. Name of Database. Name of the Service. The
Library. Date of access URL of the service’s homepage in angle brackets (if known).

Example
Rasid, Zulkifli, and Thomas Parish. “The Effects of Two Types of Relaxation Training on
Students’ Levels of Anxiety.” Adolescence 33.129 (1998): 99-101. Academic Search
Premier. EBSCOhost. USQ Library. Accessed 7 Apr. 2004
<http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=589758&db=aph>

Newspaper article online


Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title Date, edition, section: page (if given). Database
Name (if applicable). Access date <URL>.

Example
Pianin, Eric. “As Coal’s Fortunes Climb, Mountains Tremble in W.Va.” The Washington
Post 25 Feb. 2001, A: 3. Electric Library Australasia. Accessed 8 Mar. 2001
<http://www.elibrary.com/s/edumarkau>.

17
Discussion list message
Author. “Subject of Message.” Date. Online Posting. Discussion List. Access date
<URL>.

Example
Sandwen, Janice. “GSA’s Airline City-Pair Contracts.” 8 May 2000. Online posting.
Travel. Accessed 11 Aug.2001
<LISTSERV@financenet.gov/Get950809>.

Personal e-mail message


Sender (sender’s email address). “Subject of Message.” E-mail to recipient (recipient’s
e-mail address). Message date.

Example
Omar, Bill W. (bomar@aol.com). “Excellent Web Sites for Job Seekers.” E-mail to Mary
Ellen Guffey (meguffey@westwords.com). 10 Apr. 2001.

Electronic book
Author. Book Title. Editor, or translator. (if relevant) Publication information for printed
source (if available). Date of electronic publication (if given). Name of any Institution or
organisation associated with the Web site. Access date <URL>.

Example
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Ed. Henry Churchyard. 1996. Accessed 10 Sep.
1998
<http://www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/pridprej.html>.

Web Document
Name of author or creator, if available. “Title of Topic or Article” (if given). Title of Page
(if named). Name of any institution or organisation associated with the site. Latest
update (if given). Access date <URL>.

Example
“Privacy Protection in Other Countries.” Media Awareness Network. Updated Nov.
1999. Accessed 2 May 2001
<http://media-awareness.ca/eng/issues/priv/laws/lawintl.htm>.

APA Style
Centre the word "REFERENCES" at the top of the page, but do NOT underline it or
place it in quotation marks. A reference list cites works that are publicly available.
This section is always placed on a separate page, and the page number is omitted.
Works cited in the text of your experiment must appear in the reference list and
conversely each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text. Since
reference lists are intended for the use of the reader, they must be accurate and
complete. A reference consists of the following broad subsections: AUTHOR, DATE
OF PUBLICATION, TITLE and PUBLICATION DATA.

18
GENERAL CONVENTIONS
Indentation
Note that the first line of the reference is indented five spaces; the remaining lines
in each reference are placed at the margin.
Spacing
All lines within a reference should be double-spaced.
Punctuation and Underlining
Use full stops to separate the FOUR major subdivisions of a reference: author, date
of publication, title, and publication data.
Author
Arrange the entries of the reference list in alphabetical order by the surname of the
first author (inverted order). In the case of multiple authors, use inverted order for
all names, separating each name from the preceding name with a comma. Use the
comma and an ampersand (&) before the final name, even if there are just two
authors: Brown, J.R., & Smith, D.F.
Date of Publication
Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the author section.
Article title (not underlined)
chapter (not underlined), book title (underlined)
Publication data
For journals - author(s), date of publication, journal name in full and underlined,
volume number, inclusive pages.

For books - author(s), date of publication, title, edition (if any), city of
publication, publishers name.

BOOK REFERENCES
Rules for separating the FOUR subsections with full stops apply. The title of the book is
underlined and the edition is placed in brackets. Capitalize any proper names in the title, the
first word in the title, and also do the same for the first word in the subtitle, if there is one.
Leave all the other words in the title small case.
Basic Book Reference with single Author
The entry begins with the author's last name, followed by the initial(s). Date of
publication follows, in parentheses. The title is underlined, and only the first word is
capitalized. Place of publication comes next, then the publisher. Use a colon after
the place of publication. Each of the main parts of the reference is followed by a full
stop and two spaces.
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. New York: Basic Books.
Book Reference with Multiple Authors
If there are two to six authors, cite all of them. More than six authors requires
citation of the last name of the first author followed by et al. Et al. is the Latin for et
alteri meaning "and others".

19
Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Roeder, K. et al. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior. Cambridge,
Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Book References where the Authors have the same Name


When ordering several works by the SAME first author, repeat the author's name
and proceed according to alphabetical rules by using the second author. "Brown"
precedes "Browning" according to the rule that "nothing precedes something".
Several references to the same author are arranged by year of publication, the
earliest first:

Brown, R. (1958). Words and things. New York: Free Press,


Macmillan.
Brown, R. (1965). Social psychology. New York: Free Press, Macmillan.

If the publication date is the same, then the entries should appear alphabetically by
title (excluding "A" or "The"):
Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Wiley.

Neisser, U. (1967). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.

Listing Specific Editions (also note "Jr" in name)


Note the edition information in parentheses immediately after the title; for example,
"5th ed." or "rev. ed." Do not use a full stop between the title and the parenthetical
information; close the entire title, including the edition information, with a full stop.
Brockett, O. (1987). History of the Theatre. (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn
and Bacon.

Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations:


An Introduction to organizational behavior. (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-
Hill.

Multivolume Works
The publication dates are inclusive for all volumes. The volume numbers are shown
in parentheses, immediately following the book title. Do not use a full stop between
the title and the parenthetical information; close the entire title, including the volume
information, with a full stop.
In text, the parenthetical date citation should correspond to the publication dates:
(Wilson & Fraser, 1977-1978).
Brown, L. (Ed.). (1993). The new shorter Oxford English dictionary:
On historical principles (Vols. 1-2). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

One Book in a Series


The series title should be included immediately following the book title and should

20
not be underlined. Close with a full stop.
Cousins, M. (1984). Michel Foucault.. Theoretical traditions in the
social sciences. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Edited Book
Here the editors of for a text are listed. An edited volume contains chapters written
by different authors.
a) The editors names are in the same order as authors' names (last name first and
then initials), followed by the designation (Ed) or (Eds.) in parentheses.
b) The book's title is underlined as usual.
c) The place of publication is followed by a colon.
Higgins, J. (Ed.). (1988). Psychology. New York: Norton.

Grice, H. P., & Gregory, R. L. (Eds.). (1968). Early language


development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Edited Book: Citing an Article in an Anthology


You may wish to refer only to a particular chapter. Note the following details:
a) The chapter is not underlined.
b) The editors names are in the same order as authors' names (last name first and
then initials), followed by the designation (Eds.) in parentheses.
c) The book's title is underlined as usual.
d) The place of publication is followed by a colon.
Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in
human memory. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of
memory & consciousness. (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Book with no author or editor


Place the title in the author position and underline. Alphabetize books with no
author or editor by the first significant word in the title (Merriam in this case).
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. (10th ed.). (1993).
Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Encyclppaedia
For major reference works with a large editorial board, you may list the name of the
lead editor, followed by "et al."
Sadie, S. (ED.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music and
musicians. (6th ed., Vols. 1-20) London: Macmillan.

Entry in an Encyclopaedia.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia
Britiannica. (Vol. 26, pp. 501-608). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source (e.g., for a
study by Seidenberg and McClelland cited in Coltheart et al.)

21
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of
reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches.
Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.

Book, revised edition


Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for social research.
(Rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Book, Corporate Authorship (government agency or private


agency) as publisher
The first example is a government agency; the second, a private one. Alphabetize
group authors by the first significant word of the name. When the author and
publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident
population by age and sex in statistical local areas. New South Wales.
June 1990. (No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders. (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

A Translated Work
After the underlined title, which ends with a full stop, place the following in
parentheses: the initials of the translator followed by his last name and a comma,
then the abbreviation "Trans." Place of publication and publisher come next as
usual, but no punctuation after the publisher. Finally, the note "Original work
published", followed by the date, is placed in parentheses. Each portion of the
reference should be separated by a full stop and two spaces as usual.

Freud, S. (1970) An outline of psychoanalysis. (J. Strachey, Trans.).


New York: Norton. (Original work published 1940).
PERIODICALS: JOURNAL ARTICLES, MAGAZINE ARTICLES AND
ABSTRACTS
The name of the journal article is not underlined; the name of the journal itself and
its volume number are underlined. Use commas within the subdivisions (e.g.,
between date and volume number in a journal entry).
Capitalization: Capitalize the initial letter in all major words of journal titles: e.g.,
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Capitalize the initial letter of only
the first word of the article itself. Make exceptions according to common sense by
capitalizing proper names, German nouns, first word of a title within a title, and the
first word after a colon or a dash.
Double Spacing: The lines of a references should be double spaced (not shown in
the following examples).
Journal article, one author
Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American
Psychologist, 48, 574-576.

22
Journal article, two authors
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in
organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practive and Research, 45. (2),
10-36.
Journals with Continuous Pagination
Journals with continuous pagination are really normal entries and require no
special modification. By contrast, journals with non-continuous pagination require
the issue number in parentheses following the volume number (see non-continuous
pagination).

Passons, W. (1967). Predictive validities of the ACT, SAT, and high school
grades for first semester GPA and freshman courses. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, 27, 1143-1144.
Journals with Non-Continuous Pagination
As with the previous reference, pagination begins anew with each issue of this
journal, it is necessary to include the issue number in parentheses after the volume
number. Note that there is a comma between the issue number and the page
numbers, but no comma between the underlined volume number and the issue
number.
Parker, D.E. (1980). The vestibular apparatus. Scientific American, 243.
(5), 118-135.
Articles in Monthly Periodicals
Because this a newsletter that appears monthly, the month is included after the
year of publication and both are enclosed together in parentheses. Because this is
a newsletter, rather than a journal, no volume or issue number is listed, and the
abbreviation "pp." is used to introduce the page numbers.
Chandler-Crisp, S. (1988, May) "Aerobic writing": a writing practice
model. Writing Lab Newsletter, pp. 9-11.
Articles in Weekly Periodicals
A weekly magazine shows the month and day of publication followed by the year
in parentheses. As with the monthly, because it is a magazine, no volume number
is given and the abbreviation "p." is used to introduce the page numbers.
Kauffmann, S. (1993, October 18). On films: class consciousness. The
New Republic, p.30.
Magazine article
Give the date shown on the publication -- month for monthlies or month and day for
weeklies. Also give the volume number.
Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.
Abstract as Original Source
If the title of the periodical does not include the word abstracts, place Abstract in
brackets between the abstract title and the full stop.
(Note that it is generally preferable to read and cite the original document.)

23
Woolf, N. J., Young, S. L., Fanselow, M. S., & Butcher, L. L. (1991).
MAP-2 expression in cholinoceptive pyramidal cells of rodent cortex and
hippocampus is altered by Pavlovian conditioning. Society for Neuroscience
Abstracts, 17, 480.

REFERENCE NOTES
Should you wish to cite material that is not widely and easily available; for example,
reports of limited circulation, unpublished works, personal communications, pages
presented at meetings, symposia and works in progress, only do so if it is
absolutely essential. These are not to be placed in the reference list but on a
separate page called "reference notes" which precedes the reference list. The
notes, unlike the entries of the reference list, are numbered.
1. Barnes, J. (1970 July 18). Personal communication.
2. Harris, J., & Baker, H.T. (1989 May) Evaluation of the tail biting behaviour of
aardvarks. Paper presented at the meeting of the Ontario Psychological
Association, Toronto.
The citation in your text is as follows: Barnes, (Note 1) ...

HOW TO REFER TO OUTSIDE SOURCES IN THE TEXT OF THE EXPERIMENT


Give credit through referencing to ideas that are the property of other writers. This
procedure shows how your ideas fit into a larger framework and also shows how your
reader may find further information about the theory and methods you discuss. It is not
necessary to document ideas that you are certain constitute common knowledge; i.e.,
Pavlovian conditioning. If in doubt about this, you should document. Most of your
documentation will occur in the 'introduction' and 'discussion' sections of your paper.
How to Word Citations in a Research Paper
The authors cited are named in the text, followed by the date of publication:

Schmidt and Hanover (1983) found that...

You may also say for example:

A recent study (Schmidt & Hanover, 1982) shows that...

Note that when the author's names appear outside of the parentheses, the
conjunction "and" is used, but when they are inside the parentheses, the
ampersand (&) is employed. If there are two authors, always list both names
whenever you cite their work in the text. If there are three or more authors,
list all names the first time you refer to the work:

Goldstein, Shrewbury, and Duncan (1980) found....

Thereafter, you should in subsequent references to the same work, list only
the first author, followed by 'et al' and the year of publication:

Goldstein et al. (1980) found...

"Et Al." is the Latin for "et alterie" and means "and others".
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