i=1
H
i
+
1
2
N
i=1
e
2
r
ij
+H
C
. (2.1)
The rst sum is the unperturbed Hamiltonian, the second is the Coulomb
interaction and the third the potential due to the atom cores, which in
cludes all lled electron shells. The wave function is constructed from the
N wave functions of noninteracting electrons taking into account the sym
metry properties imposed on electron wave functions. The calculation is
beyond the scope of this introduction. It should only be remarked that
treating the Coulomb Hamiltonian as perturbation several energy terms ap
pear in the calculation. One term is the so called direct Coulomb energy of
a pair of electrons summed over all pairs and the second one can be regarded
as a correction to the direct Coulomb energy sum because the latter does
not take into account the Pauli principle. This term represents an energy
dierence between the state of two parallel spins and the state when the two
spins are antiparallel [Aha96]. The problem can be reformulated in terms
of an eective Hamiltonian H
e
which is constructed to have the same ef
fect on the unperturbed wave functions
as the real Hamiltonian on the
perturbed wave functions
k
[ H
e
[
k
) =
k
[ H [
k
). (2.2)
The form of this eective Hamiltonian was rst introduced by Heisen
berg:
H
e
=
i,j
J
ij
S
i
S
j
. (2.3)
In this Hamiltonian J
ij
is called the exchange integral. If it is nega
tive, Eq. 2.3 predicts an antiparallel alignment of neighboring spins, if it is
positive a parallel alignment of spins (ferromagnetism). The exact form of
16 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
the exchange integral is very dicult to nd from abinitio calculations but
one may hope for better results as computational power increases. Because
the exchange integral is due to the overlap of wave functions the exchange
interaction is very short range. In (2.3) usually a summation over the next
neighbors is sucient.
Let us nally remark that ferromagnets show a phase transition at a
temperature called Curie temperature, T
C
, from a ferro to a paramagnetic
phase. Since the Curie temperature of the alloy Ni
80
Fe
20
(permalloy) used
in this thesis is far above room temperature we will not have to refer to the
phase transition further.
Continuous Formulation
Because the purely quantum mechanical formulation is feasible only up to a
few atoms one needs a semiclassical theory which includes the exchange in
teraction and also incorporates Maxwells theory of electromagnetism. Such
a continuous formulation is needed for the calculation of the spin wave spec
trum of patterned magnets where the dipole and exchange contribution must
be taken into account (Sec. 2.5).
We consider the spin operators in the Heisenberg Hamiltonian Eq. 2.3
to be vectors. Then the exchange energy can be rewritten as
E
ex
=
ij
J
ij
S
i
S
j
= JS
2
n.n.
cos
ij
, (2.4)
where n.n. stands for nearest neighbors and
ij
denotes the angle between
S
i
and S
j
. (See Fig. 2.1). We also assumed identical atoms, so that J
ij
= J.
One can easily verify that [S
i
S
j
[
2
= 2S
2
(1cos
ij
). Inserting this in (2.4)
gives:
E
ex
= 2S
2
J
i,j
_
1
1
2S
2
[S
i
S
j
[
2
_
. (2.5)
By redening the reference energy level (renormalization), one can omit
the constant term. Now let the magnetization M be continuous, not only
dened on the lattice, and assume it varies very slowly on the length scale
of the atomic lattice, which is certainly the case because the exchange in
teraction is very strong. Then one can expand the remaining expression in
2.1. Magnetostatics of Ferromagnets 17
S
i
S
j
S
i
 S
j
f
ij
M r ( )
i
r
ij
M r ( )
j
FIG. 2.1: Geometry for the calculation of continuous exchange energy between the spins
S
i
and S
j
. The angle between them is
ij
. r
ij
is a lattice displacement vector.
a Taylor series:
1
S
2
[S
i
S
j
[
2
=
1
M
2
[M(r
i
) M(r
j
)[
2
=
1
M
2
[M(r
i
) M(r
i
+r
ij
)[
2
=
1
M
2
[(r
ij
)M(r
i
)[
2
+O
_
2
M
_
. (2.6)
Truncating the series after the rst order will be justied if M varies slowly
enough over the distance of a unit cell. Inserting this result in the exchange
energy expression gives:
E
ex
= JS
2
r
ij
1
M
2
[(r
ij
)M(r
i
)[
2
. (2.7)
The second sum is over all lattice vectors r
ij
from point r
i
to its next neigh
bors. Although this sum is dependent on the lattice structure, it will yield
only a constant multiplicative factor. For cubic lattices, this factor is for
example given by A/M
2
= c JS
2
/r
ij
, where c depends on the subtypes of
cubic lattices (fcc, bcc, simple cubic). The transition from the rst sum to
an integration leads to
E
ex
=
_
w
e
dr with
w
e
=
A
M
2
_
(M
x
)
2
+ (M
y
)
2
+ (M
z
)
2
. (2.8)
w
e
is the exchange energy density, from which the eective exchange eld
can be calculated using
H
ex
=
1
0
w
e
M
=
2A
0
M
2
2
M. (2.9)
18 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
2.1.2 Magnetostatic SelfEnergy or Demagnetization
In ferromagnets the short range exchange interaction, which favors parallel
alignment, competes with the long range magnetostatic dipole interaction of
all other spins, which favors the antiparallel alignment. The energy density
of the exchange interaction is very large, but the total energy contribution
is given by the sum over a volume of about one unit cell. The much weaker
dipole interaction has to be summed over the whole specimen because it is
long range. The result is that both energy contributions are of the same
order of magnitude. The energy term due to the dipole interaction is called
magnetostatic selfenergy or, for obvious reasons, demagnetizing energy. A
macroscopic consequence is that in a ferromagnet not all spins are parallel.
Instead regions, called domains, exist in which all moments are parallel but
the moments of dierent domains are not parallel.
An interesting limiting case are particles so small that the integral of
the dipole energy density over the sample volume is still smaller than the
exchange energy contribution. In such a case one expects single domain
particles. Such a behavior has for example been observed in submicron disks
in [Cow99]. For larger samples like the rectangles and rings investigated in
this work the long range dipolar interaction plays the important role and
determines the spin congurations. This eect is considered introducing the
demagnetizing eld H
dm
.
To nd an equation for H
dm
one proceeds from the magnetostatic Maxwell
equations:
0
(M+H
dm
) = 0, (2.10)
H
dm
= 0. (2.11)
The second equation shows, that the demagnetization eld can be writ
ten as the gradient of a scalar potential
H
dm
=
M
, (2.12)
where the minus is a convention. Inserting this in Eq. 2.10 shows that the
scalar potential has to fulll the Poisson equation:
M
=
M
(2.13)
with
M
= M being the magnetic pseudovolume charge
1
. The solution
of this ODE is known by virtue of the Greens function, which is the solution
1
It is called pseudo charge because there are no magnetic monopoles. In the present
2.1. Magnetostatics of Ferromagnets 19
to the Poisson equation for a single pointlike pseudocharge. If no boundary
conditions have to be fullled the solution reads:
M
(r) =
1
4
_
dr
r
M(r
)
[r r[
. (2.14)
If the magnetization is conned to a nite region in space, one can integrate
by parts. The integrand can be rewritten as
r
M(r
)
[r r[
=
r
_
M(r
)
[r r[
_
M(r
)
r
1
[r r[
. (2.15)
The rst expression can be transformed to a surface integral (Gauss the
orem) which vanishes because of the nite extent of M and because no
boundary conditions were imposed. The second term
M
(r) =
1
4
_
dr
M(r
)
r
1
[r r
[
(2.16)
is inserted in (2.12) and yields the demagnetizing eld:
H
dm
=
1
4
_
dr
M(r
)
r
1
[r r
[
=
_
dr
G(r, r
)M(r
). (2.17)
G(r, r
G]
ij
:
G
ij
=
1
4
x
i
j
1
[r r
[
. (2.18)
Because of the relation (r r
) = 1/4 [r r
[
1
the trace of the Greens
tensor is the delta function:
Tr
_
G(r, r
)
_
=
1
4
2
x
2
i
1
[r r
[
= (r r
). (2.19)
In the following a derivation of demagnetizing factors is given. If there
are boundary conditions to be fullled, one has to go back to Eq. 2.13, for
which the solution now reads:
M
(r) =
1
4
_
dr
r
M(r
)
[r r
[
+
1
4
_
S(V )
dS
M(r
)
[r r
[
. (2.20)
case the name comes from the analogy with electrostatics but also the concept of a pseudo
surface magnetic charge will be introduced. It is convenient to treat the surface dipoles
as charges. The addition pseudo signals the imprecise formulation.
20 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
The numerator of the second integral
M
= n(r
)M(r
r
n(r
)
[r r
[
=
N(r)M. (2.21)
N(r) =
1
4
_
V
dr
r
r
1
[r r
[
=
_
V
dr
G(r, r
). (2.23)
We know that the trace of the Greens tensor equals (r r
). Therefore
the trace of
N(r) equals the integral over the trace of the Greens tensor and
is one. This leads to the important relation:
Tr
_
N(r)
_
= N
x
+N
y
+N
z
= 1. (2.24)
2.2 Dynamics in Ferromagnets:
The LandauLifshitz and Gilbert Equation
The equation of motion for the magnetization can be derived from quantum
mechanics (with exception of the phenomenological damping) but it is more
instructive to review the semiclassical treatment. At this point, we do not
allow the magnetization to have a spatial variation so that a sample can be
described by one giant classical vector M (macrospin). This is realistic in the
case of negligible internal eld inhomogeneity, e.g. at high elds and large
samples (e.g. plain lms) or samples with a special shape (ellipsoids) and
2.2. Dynamics in Ferromagnets:
The LandauLifshitz and Gilbert Equation 21
(b) in the case of very small single domain particles. The eect of domain
formation and internal eld inhomogeneities are introduced later.
Semiclassically the electrons orbiting around a nucleus are current loops
with a magnetic moment m = iAn, with n the normal unit vector per
pendicular to the area A. The dipole magnetic moment and the angular
momentum are connected by
m =
q
e
2m
e
L. (2.25)
The spin angular momentum also possesses a magnetic moment
m = S). (2.26)
The proportionality constant is called gyromagnetic ratio and is nearly ex
actly twice the orbital momentum:
=
gq
e
2m
e
=
g
B
, (2.27)
where g = 2.0023 is the spectroscopic splitting factor (for free electrons) and
B
is Bohrs magneton. This is called the magnetomechanical anomaly and
can be explained in the framework of the relativistic Dirac equation.
The rate of change of the total angular momentum dJ/dt is proportional
to the acting torque m B
int
. The magnetic ux inside a ferromagnetic
sample may dier substantially from the applied eld due to the presence of
demagnetizing elds, anisotropy elds, magnetostrictive elds etc. Therefore
we have to clearly distinguish the applied magnetic induction B
ext
and the
internal magnetic induction B
int
. Now, we can state the equation of motion
for a magnetic moment:
dm
dt
=
dJ
dt
= = mB
int
. (2.28)
The magnetization M is the magnetic moment per unit volume,
i
m
i
/V ,
and the ux B
int
=
0
H
int
. With this, the common form of the equation of
motion is written as:
dM
dt
= [[
0
(MH
int
) . (2.29)
Geometrically, this equation describes a precession of the magnetization
vector M around the direction of the magnetic eld H
int
with constant
22 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
H
int
M
d d M/ t
a)
H
int
M
d d M/ t
b)
M M
x x
H
int
FIG. 2.2: (a) Sketch of the precessional motion without damping as described by Eq. 2.29.
The precession angle as well as the modulus M are constant. (b) Motion of magnetization
vector with damping.
modulus. Taking the scalar product of both sides of Eq. 2.29 with M, one
obtains
M
dM
dt
=
1
2
dM
2
dt
= [[
0
M (MH
int
) = 0, (2.30)
which means that the magnitude of the magnetization M =[ M[ remains
constant. The same is true for the angle between M and H
int
. Taking the
derivative of the product with H
int
of both sides, one sees that
d(MH
int
)
dt
= [[
0
H
int
(MH
int
) = 0. (2.31)
These two equations state, that the magnetization vector precesses on a
circular trajectory around the magnetic eld, as depicted in Fig. 2.2 (a).
Damping
The two properties just derived show that the equation of motion is not yet
complete because it does not incorporate an energy dissipation or damp
ing term. In a real sample the magnetization will eventually align with an
applied external eld and not precess innitely around it. Damping is intro
duced phenomenologically. The form of the damping term is still debated,
especially in the light of spin transfer torque induced magnetization dynam
ics [Sch04]. The LandauLifshitz form of the damping term states that
there is a torque that drags the magnetization vector in the direction of the
2.3. Dynamic Susceptibility 23
magnetic eld [Lan35]:
dM
dt
= [
LL
[
0
[MH
int
]
0
M
2
S
[M(MH
int
)] . (2.32)
is a phenomenological damping constant with units [] = 1/s. The range
of validity for this damping term is weak damping. At strong damping
the strange result appears that the precession is faster due to the damping.
Gilbert published a similar form [Gil55] that is equivalent for weak damping
and which lifts the just mentioned problem. The Gilbert form is introduced
analogous to viscous damping in classical mechanics. It reads:
dM
dt
= [
G
[
0
[MH
int
]
G
G
M
2
S
_
M
dM
dt
_
, (2.33)
where G is the Gilbert damping parameter. In modern literature the di
mensionless form of the damping parameter = G/
G
M
S
is most common
and will also be used in this thesis. The relation between the gyromagnetic
ratios of the two forms is
LL
=
G
/1 +
2
and the damping parameters
are connected by
LL
= (/1 +
2
)
G
0
M
S
[Mal87]. We will reference Eq.
2.32 by the acronym LL (LandauLifshitz) and Eq. 2.33 LLG (for Landau
LifshitzGilbert) equation.
2.3 Dynamic Susceptibility
An expression for the dynamic susceptibility is presented by linearizing the
LLG. It is valid for bodies with homogeneous internal elds. Although this
expression for the susceptibility will be valid mainly for thin lms and only
partly to microstructures, the calculation is instructive for a basic under
standing of magnetization dynamics.
The dynamic susceptibility connects the dynamic magnetization m(t)
with the excitation magnetic eld h
hf
(t): m = ()h
hf
. They may have dif
ferent directions, i.e. is in general a tensor, and they may be out of phase,
i.e. the components [ ]
ij
are represented as complex numbers. Assume the
magnetization and the external magnetic eld to lie in the x direction. In
typical resonance experiments the dynamic parts are small compared to the
static ones (This is not true for switching experiments.) and we can again
safely assume [M[ to be constant. As a consequence the dynamic counter
parts are in the y and z direction. We then have
24 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
H
ext
=
_
_
H
ext
h
y
(t)
h
z
(t)
_
_
, M =
_
_
M
m
y
(t)
m
z
(t)
_
_
. (2.34)
For the torque on the magnetization the internal eld is important:
Consider a thin lm without magnetocrystalline anisotropies, then only
demagnetizing eects have to be taken into account by means of the demag
netization tensor
N. The internal eld is given by H
int
= H
ext
NM. Let
us assume that
N is diagonalized, then the internal eld reads:
H
int
=
_
_
H
ext
N
x
M
h
y
(t) N
y
m
y
(t)
h
z
(t) N
z
m
z
(t)
_
_
. (2.35)
We also assume a harmonic time dependence h(t) = hexp(it) and
m(t) = mexp(it). This is inserted in the LLG equation 2.33. Since the dy
namic components are small we keep only terms linear in these components
and obtain the coupled system of equations:
_
(
H
+ (N
y
N
x
)
M
i) i
i (
H
+ (N
z
N
x
)
M
i)
__
m
y
m
z
_
=
M
_
h
y
h
z
_
.
(2.36)
The following denitions have been used:
M
=[[
0
M and
H
=[[
0
H
ext
.
In order to obtain the susceptibility tensor the matrix in Eq. 2.36 has to be
inverted. Recall that the inverse of a 2 2 matrix is found by
x
1
=
_
x
11
x
12
x
21
x
22
_
1
=
1
Det( x)
_
x
22
x
21
x
12
x
11
_
. (2.37)
With this relation one obtains
M
Det(
1
)
_
(
H
+ (N
z
N
x
)
M
i) i
i (
H
+ (N
y
N
x
)
M
i)
__
h
y
h
z
_
=
=
_
m
y
m
z
_
.
(2.38)
The determinant of the susceptibility reads
Det(
1
) =
_
2
r
(1 +
2
)
2
_
i [2
H
+ (N
y
+N
z
2N
x
)
M
] .
(2.39)
2.3. Dynamic Susceptibility 25
Here, the denition
2
r
= (
H
+ (N
y
N
x
)
M
) (
H
+ (N
z
N
x
)
M
) (2.40)
has been used.
In our experiments a coplanar waveguide is used. Let it lie in the (x, y)
plane and let the central conductor of our waveguide point along e
x
. The
excitation magnetic eld has only one component h
y
e
y
. The important
component of the susceptibility then reads:
yy
=
M
(
H
+ (N
z
N
x
)
M
i)
(
2
r
(1 +
2
)
2
) i [2
H
+ (N
y
+N
z
2N
x
)
M
]
. (2.41)
We can split the susceptibility in a real and an imaginary part by multiply
ing the denominator and the numerator with the complex conjugate of the
denominator. Since
2
is on the order of 10
2
10
3
for metallic magnetic
materials, we set 1 +
2
1. This leads to
yy
=
M
(
2
r
2
)(
H
+ (N
z
N
x
)
M
) +
2
2
[2
H
+ (N
y
+N
z
2N
x
)
M
]
(
2
r
2
)
2
+
2
2
[2
H
+ (N
y
+N
z
2N
x
)
M
]
2
,
yy
=
M
_
(
2
r
2
) + (
H
+ (N
z
N
x
)
M
)(2
H
+ (N
y
+N
z
2N
x
)
M
)
(
2
r
2
)
2
+
2
2
[2
H
+ (N
y
+N
z
2N
x
)
M
]
2
.
(2.42)
Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility are shown in
Fig. 2.3 for a thin lm (demagnetizing factors N
z
= 1, N
x
= N
y
= 0) of
permalloy with saturation magnetization
0
M = 1.3 T without anisotropy
and at an external eld of
0
H = 100 mT in the x direction. These material
parameters are typical for the experiments and the permalloy lms in this
thesis and close to literature values (
0
M = 1.081 T). One can see in Fig.
2.3 (a) that the real part is fully symmetric only for small damping. In the
literature the term
2
2
[2
H
+ (N
y
+ N
z
2N
x
)
M
], is often neglected in
the numerator of
'
'
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
(a)
= 0.01
real
'
,
'
'
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency f (GHz)
imaginary
= 0.005
sphere
thin film
(c)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
magnetic field
0
H (mT)
(b)
(c)
frequency f (GHz)
FIG. 2.3: (a) Calculated real (black) and imaginary (light gray) parts of the dynamic
susceptibility for = 0.005 (upper curves) and = 0.01 (lower curves) after Eq. 2.42.
The curves are oset for clarity, the y scale is the same in (a). The parameters used for the
calculation in all three panels are taken from our experiments:
0
M = 1300 mT and =
176 GHz/T. (b) Calculated eld dependence of the imaginary part of the susceptibility.
0
H
ext
is increased in 10 mT steps from 10 mT to 100 mT (from left to right). (c)
Calculated dispersion. Since the internal eld, which governs the resonance frequency, is
geometry dependent, one can have largely dierent dispersions depending on the shape.
This is shown for a sphere (N
x
= N
y
= N
z
= 1/3) and a thin lm (N
x
= N
y
= 0, N
z
= 1)
with otherwise identical material parameters.
Lorentzian. The deviation gets stronger with stronger damping. The max
imum is again very near the point =
r
. This frequency is called the
resonance frequency. In rewriting Eq. 2.40, one obtains the Kittel formula
[Kit48]:
f
r
=
[[
0
2
_
(H
ext
+ (N
y
N
x
)M)(H
ext
+ (N
z
N
x
)M). (2.43)
In this form it is valid for ferromagnets with homogeneous internal eld and
only demagnetizing elds present. Anisotropies are not taken into account.
Anisotropies or other contributions to the internal eld can be incorporated
by the SmitBeljers formula (Sec. 2.4).
The calculation in Fig. 2.3 (c) illustrates the role and importance of
the shape of the ferromagnetic sample. By the choice of demagnetizing
2.4. SmitBeljers Formulation 27
x
y
z
M
H
M
H
FIG. 2.4: Denition of coordinate system and angles for the calculation of the resonance
frequency from the free energy.
factors
2
a sphere (grey line) and a thin lm (black line) were modelled. For
a sphere for example all directions have the same stray eld and one obtains
a Larmorlike linear dependence, whereas for a thin lm the typical square
root dependence on the applied eld H is found [Fig. 2.3(c)]. The shape
has a strong inuence on the internal eld of a ferromagnet and thus on the
resonance frequency. Let me point out, however, that in patterned elements
the demagnetizing eld will be inhomogeneous and a uniform precession will
be present only under certain conditions or on a local scale, as in rings.
2.4 SmitBeljers Formulation
It is often desirable to directly calculate the resonance frequencies for an
experiment without solving the equation of motion. The SmitBeljers for
mulation accomplishes this by formulating an expression for the resonance
frequency in terms of the samples free energy. It is extremely useful once
complex anisotropies enter the problem and one wishes to know the angular
dependence of resonance frequencies. Let us neglect the damping term and
parametrize the magnetization by its polar and azimuthal components (see
Fig. 2.4), M = (M cos sin ) e
x
+(M sinsin) e
y
+(M cos ) e
z
. Equation
2
Finite rectangular elements or innite lms that are not very thin do have an inho
mogeneous demagnetizing eld. Rotational ellipsoids are the only (physically relevant)
geometric bodies for which the demagnetizing eld is homogeneous and the concept of
global (i.e. not spatially varying) demagnetizing factors is actually meaningful.
28 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
2.29 becomes [Skr61]:
sin sin + cos cos
= [[
0
(H
z
sin sin H
y
cos ),
cos sin + sin cos
= [[
0
(H
x
sin sin H
z
cos sin ),
= [[
0
(H
y
cos H
x
sin).
(2.44)
The third equation is the equation of motion for the polar angle . Inserting
it in the rst equation of (2.44) yields
sin = [[
0
(H
x
cos cos +H
y
sin cos H
z
sin ), (2.45)
= [[
0
(H
x
sin +H
y
cos ). (2.46)
In the parentheses on the right hand side one recognizes the projections
of H along the unit vector e
= [[
0
H
,
sin = [[
0
H
. (2.47)
The sample magnetization is at equilibrium when the free energy is at a
minimum, i.e. F/ [
0
= F/ [
0
= 0. The equilibrium condition also
means that the magnetization M is parallel to the internal eld
H
int
=
1
0
F
M
1
0
_
F
M
e
M
+
1
M sin
F
+
1
M
F
_
(2.48)
which has only a component in the direction of M at equilibrium. Now let
(t) =
0
+(t) and (t) =
0
+(t) (2.49)
be small deviations from the equilibrium positions. Then one can expand
the free energy around the equilibrium:
F
(
0
+) = F
0
+F
0
+O(
2
,
2
),
F
(
0
+) = F
0
+F
0
+O(
2
,
2
). (2.50)
The following abbreviations are introduced: F/u F
u
and
2
F/vu
F
uv
with (u, v) , . If derivatives are evaluated at equilibrium positions
we will write
2
F/vu [
u
0
,v
0
F
u
0
v
0
. Together with the components of
2.4. SmitBeljers Formulation 29
H
int
in (2.48) and the equation of motion in spherical coordinates (2.47)
one obtains F
= M sin
0
/ [[ and F
= M sin
0
/ [[
, which leads
to the set of dierential equations
M sin
0
[[
= (F
0
+F
0
)
M sin
0
[[
= (F
0
+F
0
). (2.51)
With the harmonic dependencies (t), (t) exp(it) the system be
comes
0 =
_
F
0
+i
M sin
0
[[
_
+F
0 = F
0
+
_
F
0
i
M sin
0
[[
_
(2.52)
and has periodic solutions if the determinant vanishes, which yields an ex
pression for the resonance frequency:
2
r
=
[[
2
M
2
sin
2
0
_
F
0
F
0
F
2
0
_
. (2.53)
With a suitable free energy the calculation of resonance frequencies can be
performed. It allows for the inclusion of any anisotropies or other contribu
tions to the magnetic free energy. The case we will need for the description
of the magnetization dynamics of rings is a uniaxial anisotropy. In this case
the free energy density in polar coordinates is given by
F =
0
MH
ext
[cos(
H
) sin sin
H
+ cos cos
H
]
K
A
cos
2
sin
2
+
0
M
2
2
cos
2
. (2.54)
The uniaxial easyaxis (energetically favored axis) is along the x direction.
The angles are dened in Fig. 2.4.
H
and
H
are the azimuth and polar
angles of the applied eld. K
A
is the anisotropy constant. The rst term
is the Zeeman energy, the second the anisotropy energy and the last term
the outof plane shape anisotropy. Taking the derivatives with respect to
and one can determine the equilibrium angles
0
and
0
. With the second
derivatives evaluated at these angles one obtains
30 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
_
r
0
_
2
=
_
H
ext
cos(
0
H
) +H
A
cos
2
0
+M
_
(H
ext
cos(
0
H
) +H
A
cos(2
0
)) . (2.55)
H
A
= 2K
A
/
0
M is the eective uniaxial anisotropy eld.
2.5 DipoleExchange Spin Wave Spectrum
This thesis main concern are patterned magnets with lateral dimensions on
the micro and nanometer scale. At these length scales the shape determines
much of the magnetic properties of a sample. In the static regime it gov
erns the magnetization congurations. In the dynamical regime it governs
the mode spectrum because in general the patterned samples will have an
internal eld that is inhomogeneous and because there exist dynamic de
magnetizing elds due to the precessional motion of the magnetic moments.
Kalinikos and Slavin have developed a formalism based on the tensorial
Greens function with which the eigenfrequencies of spin waves in thin lms
and also patterned magnetic elements may be calculated [Kal86, Bay03a].
Only materials without anisotropies and with small damping such as permal
loy are considered in the following.
The dynamics of the magnetization is governed by the LandauLifshitz
equation. The damping is neglected:
dM
dt
= [[
0
(MH
int
) . (2.56)
The internal eld inside a ferromagnet in the present case is given by:
H
int
= H
ext
+
2A
0
M
2
S
2
M+
_
V
G(r, r)M(r
)dr
, (2.57)
where the second term is the exchange eld according to Eq. 2.9 and the
third term is the total demagnetizing eld according to Eq. 2.17.
A coordinate system is chosen such that the static magnetization and
the applied eld lie along the x direction. The spin waves are allowed to
propagate in any direction in the plane of the ferromagnetic lm. Therefore
a second coordinate system rotated in plane by the angle is introduced (see
Fig. 2.5). The dynamic parts m and h due to the spin waves are assumed
to be small and to be in the plane perpendicular to M, i.e. in the (y, z)
plane. The dynamic magnetization can be a function of the coordinate ,
i.e. m() = m
y
() e
y
+m
z
() e
z
. Then we have:
2.5. DipoleExchange Spin Wave Spectrum 31
M = M
S
e
x
+m() exp[i(k
t)], (2.58)
H = H
int
e
x
+h() exp[i(k
t)].
With this ansatz the expression for the demagnetizing eld of the dy
namic magnetization h() can be simplied. If we insert the above equation
together with (2.57) in the LandauLifshitz equation and retain only terms
linear in m and h we obtain the following set of coupled equations:
i
M
m
y
() =
_
M
D
2
2
+Dk
2
_
m
z
()
t
2
_
t
2
G
y,z
(
, k
)m
z
(
)d
,
i
M
m
z
() =
_
M
D
2
2
+Dk
2
_
m
y
()
t
2
_
t
2
G
y,z
(
, k
)m
y
(
)d
.
(2.59)
The following abbreviations are used:
H
=[[
0
H
int
,
M
=[[
0
M, D =
2A
0
M
2
S
. (2.60)
The Greens tensor assumes dierent forms depending on the sample geo
metry. Eq. 2.59 has the form of an eigenvalue problem. It contains a second
order dierential operator (expression in square brackets) and an integral
operator. Depending again on the sample geometry, solutions can be con
structed by treating either the dierential exchange operator or the integral
operator as perturbation. This is shown in the following for innite thin
lms.
2.5.1 Spin Wave Dispersion of an Innite Thin Film
For an innite thin lm magnetized inplane along the x direction the eigen
functions m() and eigenvalues will be mainly determined by the exchange
eld. The matrix
G
y,z
(
, k
G
y,z
(
, k
) =
_
G
P
sin()
2
iG
Q
sin()
iG
Q
sin() G
P
(
)
_
, (2.61)
with
G
P
(
, k
) =
k
2
exp(k
[), G
Q
= G
P
sign(
). (2.62)
Since the eigenfunctions of a second order dierential operator are sought
one needs boundary conditions for a unique solution. For thin lms the
RadoWeertmann [Rad59] boundary conditions are used:
m
y
K
s
A
m
y
=t/2
= 0
m
z
=t/2
= 0. (2.63)
K
S
is the surface anisotropy constant and A the exchange constant. For
permalloy thin lms usually unpinned boundary conditions, K
S
= 0, are
used, i.e. the spin waves have a wave crest at the surfaces.
The unperturbed eigenfunctions of the exchange operator can be eas
ily found. Taking into account the boundary conditions (2.63) the result
are standing spin waves with a discrete wave vector along the outofplane
direction :
n
() = A
n
cos
_
n
_
+
t
2
__
. (2.64)
2.5. DipoleExchange Spin Wave Spectrum 33
n
=
n
t
with n = 0, 1, . . . is the quantized wave vector in the direction.
stands for y, z. The corresponding eigenvalues of the exchange operator
are equal for the y and z component and read
N
n
=
H
M
+D k
2
n
, (2.65)
where
k
n
=
_
k
2
+
2
n
(2.66)
is the total wave vector.
The orthogonal and normalized eigenfunctions are used as a base in
which the dynamic magnetization is expanded. This includes some lengthy
algebra and can be found in [Bay03a]. The result is that the initial system
of equations 2.59 can be written in the form [Kal86]
H
nn
m
n
+
=n
W
nn
m
n
= 0, (2.67)
where the matrix
H
nn
contains only diagonal elements,
W
nn
contains only
odiagonal elements, and m
n
is the projection of m() on the n
th
base vec
tor. The interpretation of this innite system of equations is that the rst
matrix describes noninteracting standing spin waves (unperturbed opera
tor) and the second matrix describes the interaction among these standing
spin waves (perturbation matrix). If the interaction is negligible, which is
the case for k
0
2
_
_
H +
2A
0
M
S
k
2
n
__
H +
2A
0
M
S
k
2
n
+M
S
F
nn
_1
2
,
(2.68)
F
nn
is the matrix element of the dipoledipole interaction. It is given by
F
nn
= 1 P
nn
cos
2
+M
S
P
nn
(1 P
nn
) sin
2
H +
2A
0
M
S
k
2
n
and (2.69)
P
nn
=
k
2
k
2
n
k
3
k
4
n
1
1 +
n0
2
t
[1 (1)
n
exp(k
t)] . (2.70)
34 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
PSSW = 0
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
wave vector k
(10
7
/ m)
magnetostatic backward volume mode
= 0
DamonEshbach mode
= 90
PSSW = 90
FIG. 2.6: Calculated dispersion of an innite lm after Eq. 2.68 for dierent orientations
of the in plane wave vector k
[
LL
[
M
S
_
M
i
_
M
i
H
i
int
_
. (2.71)
Here, M
i
and H
i
int
are the magnetization and the internal eld of each cell,
respectively. The internal eld is calculated from
H
int
=
1
0
E
M
, (2.72)
where E is the total energy density of the system containing demagnetizing
energy, exchange energy, anisotropy energy and Zeeman energy.
For static simulations an Euler solver is used to solve the ordinary dier
ential LL equation. The damping coecient is chosen very high ( = 0.5)
to accelerate the relaxation into the equilibrium state. As a criterion for the
equilibrium states the torque [ M H
int
/M
2
s
[ must fall below a threshold
value, typically 10
6
.
For dynamic simulations, a fourth order RungeKutta solver is imple
mented in OOMMF. It is faster for the integration of the LL equation with
realistic damping. It can be compiled to be the main OOMMF solver
3
. A
magnetic eld pulse with 2 ps rise and fall time is applied perpendicular to
the applied static eld to excite the free precession of the sample. Such a
pulse has a nearly constant power distribution in the frequency spectrum
up to 20 GHz. Here, the averaged time evolution of the whole specimen as
well as that of each cell m
i
(t) is recorded. J. Podbielski of our group has
implemented a programm that can perform a cellwise Fourier transform.
One can encode the amplitude and phase value of each cell at a certain
3
M. Bolte has provided us with a compiled version.
36 Chapter 2. Theoretical Background
frequency and plot this as a false color plot. Thus we can construct images
of the eigenmodes of the sample. This is called Fourier transform imaging
[Bue04].
Static and dynamic simulations take quite a long computation time,
on the order of four weeks for a dynamic spectrum and eight weeks for a
static hysteresis curve. For reasons of time, simulations cannot always be
performed with parameters identical to those determined experimentally.
Chapter 3
Experimental Methods
In this section the broadband spectrometer for the magnetization dyna
mics measurements, which was designed and constructed from scratch in
the course of this thesis, is described. We focus on its most relevant parts,
the micron sized coplanar waveguide and the network analyzer for frequency
domain measurements as well as the fast sampling oscilloscope for time
domain measurements. We employ sample lm growth and lithography
techniques optimized for the requirements of our experiments.
1
They will
be briey outlined. Magnetic and atomic force microscopy (MFM/AFM)
are used for the characterization of the static magnetization and geometrical
parameters of our samples.
3.1 Broadband Spectrometer
For the excitation and detection of magnetization dynamics of lms and
microstructures a broadband GHz spectrometer was used which has been
constructed in the course of this thesis. A block diagram of the apparatus is
shown in Fig. 3.1. The setup uses inductive detection: The magnetic exci
tation is delivered to the sample by a micron sized coplanar waveguide. The
most important feature of the waveguide is that it has a low damping in the
whole measurement frequency range. The dynamic response of the sample is
picked up inductively by the same waveguide and transported to the detec
tor. Plain lms are put lmside down onto the coplanar waveguide (ipchip
technique) as shown in Fig. 3.6. Microstructures are integrated directly on
1
All lithography is performed in the cleanroom available at the Microstructure Research
Center Hamburg.
37
38 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
PS 1
Com
puter
Vector Network
Analyzer
C
Waveguide
Electromagnets
Sample
S
11
S
12
PS 2
PS = Power Supply
^ ^
a) Frequency domain
b)
PS 1
Com
puter
TDR Sampling
Oscilloscope
C
Waveguide
Electromagnets Sample
PS 2
Time domain
FIG. 3.1: (a) Block diagram of the broadband VNAFMR spectrometer. The vector
network analyzer measures the complex (i.e. magnitude and phase) scattering parameters
(transmission:
S
12
and reection
S
11
) of a sample on a coplanar waveguide, which is
mounted in the middle of two independent electromagnets. The setup is controlled by
a personal computer with a program developed in this thesis. (a) Block diagram of the
TDRPIMM. The components are identical to the VNAFMR setup except for the TDR
oscilloscope.
3.1. Broadband Spectrometer 39
the central conductor of the coplanar waveguide by ebeam lithography and
lifto processing (e.g. Fig. 3.11).
The spectrometer can work in the frequency and in the time domain.
In the frequency domain it covers the range from 45 MHz  20 GHz. In
the time domain it can be operated with a time resolution of 2 ps. In the
frequency domain the magnetic excitation is a sinusoidal magnetic eld h
hf
and the response of the sample is detected by a vector network analyzer
[Fig. 3.1 (a)]. In the time domain the excitation is a transient magnetic
eld pulse with a fast rise time h
pulse
(nominally 30 ps) and the detection
is performed with a sampling oscilloscope [Fig. 3.1 (b)]. Magnetic elds
can be applied in the plane of the sample by two orthogonal independent
electromagnets, each with a maximum eld of 100 mT. To extract the small
inductive signal a dierence detection scheme is used [Sil99]. A reference
signal is detected with the sample saturated in the direction of the excitation.
In this case M and h
hf
or h
pulse
are parallel and no torque can act on
the magnetization and excite a dynamic motion. This reference signal is
subtracted from subsequent signals acquired with the external magnetic eld
applied in a direction chosen for the particular experiment. Additionally,
the two pairs of magnets allow to rotate the applied magnetic eld in the
sample plane.
The spectrometer is constructed for room temperature measurements.
In order to contact the waveguide, commercial microwave probes are used
that optimize the transition between coaxial cables and the coplanar waveg
uide. Since the waveguide is on the 100 m scale, micropositioners and
a microscope are needed. Details of the positioning system are shown in
Fig. 3.2. To ensure the mechanical stability, the apparatus is mounted on a
heavy marble table to minimize mechanical vibrations. In the following, we
will explain the measurement principle for the frequency and time resolved
detection.
3.1.1 Frequency Domain and Network Analyzer Ferromag
netic Resonance (VNAFMR)
For experiments in the frequency domain, a vector network analyzer (VNA)
is employed as a swept microwave source and as a detector. The principle of
operation of a network analyzer is outlined in Appendix B. The emitted mi
crowave is of the form V
0
(r, ) = V
0
sin(krt), where the amplitude is to a
good approximation in the accessible frequency range up to 20 GHz perpen
dicular to the propagation direction: V
0
k, V
0
= V
0
e
y
, and k = 2/ e
x
.
That means the waves are transverse electromagnetic waves (TEM).
40 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
Micropositioner
Microscope
GHz Waferprobes
Sample mount
S
12
S
21
S
22
S
11
Network
^
^
^
^
(a)
(b)
FIG. 3.2: Picture of the VNAFMR spectrometer showing the positioning system: two
threeaxis micropositioners, optical microscope and GHz wafer probes. The probe sta
tion is mounted on a heavy table to minimize mechanical vibrations. (b) Diagram of
Sparameters of a network.
In the language of electrical engineering, the network analyzer measures
the scattering parameters (Sparameters) of the sample and the waveguide.
The Sparameters are dened as
S
11
() =
V
re
()
V
0
()
,
S
12
() =
V
trans
()
V
0
()
. (3.1)
where V
0
(),
V
re
(), and
V
trans
() are the incident, reected, and transmit
ted voltages, respectively. A diagram of the Sparameters is shown in Fig.
3.1. Broadband Spectrometer 41
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
(b)
S
2
1
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency f (GHz)
real part
imaginary part
0
H = 16.5 mT (a)
f
res
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0
H (mT)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
FIG. 3.3: (a) Measured real and imaginary part of a 26 nm thick permalloy lm. (b) The
magnetic eld dispersion of the resonance frequency of the same lm as a grey scale plot.
(black = strong absorption)
3.2 (b). The concept of Sparameters is used to describe electrical networks
2
(hence the name network analyzer) which are too dicult to be described
by equivalent electrical circuits. A network is considered to be a black box
that has N ports, in our case two ports, labelled 1 and 2. Their reection
(
S
11
,
S
22
) and transmission (
S
12
,
S
21
) coecients are measured as a function
of frequency to describe their behavior. The Sparameters are complex to
take into account that also the phase may in general be inuenced by the
network.
In the language of a physicist the measurement principle works as fol
lows: When the microwave passes the sample, its magnetic eld h
hf
drives
the magnetic moments of the sample to perform a precessional motion, if
h
hf
exerts a torque on the magnetic moments (driven precession). From
Faradays law it is well known that a time varying ux induces a volt
age in a current loop. Therefore the time varying magnetic moments of a
sample induce a voltage in the coplanar waveguide which is superposed on
the excitation wave V
0
(r, ). This wave propagates further and its relative
amplitude V
exp
()/V
0
() and its relative phase
0
()
3
are detected by the
2
The term network is used in a very general way and refers to any device under test,
for example lters, ampliers, impedances, transmission lines and so on.
3
The phase of the excitation wave V
0
is used as zero reference.
42 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
second port of the VNA for each frequency. When the sample is at reso
nance, the precessional amplitude is large and at the same time the induced
voltage is 180
FIG. 3.4: A step pulse detected by the the oscilloscope after travelling through 2 m long
coaxial cables and the coplanar waveguide. The rise time at the detector is 130 ps. Since
the rise time scales approximately linear with the transmission line length we can estimate
the rise time at the sample to be 65 ps. The dispersion is mainly due to ohmic losses of
the waveguide. Waveguides made of 17 m thick copper clad boards show rise times of
35 ps at the detector.
voltage of 300 mV. External pulse generators can produce pulses of up to
50 V. A transmitted pulse of our setup is shown in Fig. 3.4 (b). Due to the
transmission line (2 m long) its amplitude is decreased to 200 mV and the
rise time is = 130 ps at the detector. Since the rise time scales approx
imately linear with the transmission line length we estimate the rise time
at the sample to be 65 ps. The dispersion is mainly due to ohmic losses of
the waveguide. Waveguides made of 17 m thick copper clad boards show
detector rise times of 35 ps.
A pulsesignal in the time domain can be decomposed into a sum of sine
waves with dierent frequencies which have a xed amplitude and phase
relation among each other (Fourier transformation). In order to produce
short rise times, sine waves have to be summed up to very high frequencies.
In order for a pulse to keep its initial shape and particularly its short rise time
when propagating along a transmission line, the change in initial amplitude
and phase relation caused by the transmission line must be small. This is
accomplished by using the same coplanar waveguides as in the frequency
domain experiments. When designed accordingly, they exhibit low damping
as a function of frequency and also little dispersion (change in phase of waves
with dierent frequency). Note that the requirements on the transmission
line for the propagation of time signals with fast changing features is more
44 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
60 30 0 30 60
0
1
2
3
4
5
0
H (mT)
t
i
m
e
t
(
n
s
)
(a)
0 1 2 3 4 5
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
V
i
n
d
~
d
M
/
d
t
(
m
V
)
time t (ns)
(b)
0 mT
90 mT
0 25 50 75 100
0
3
6
9
12
PIMM
VNAFMR
(c)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
FIG. 3.5: (a) Sample traces of inductive response of an 80 nm ferromagnetic NiMnSb
lm at 0 mT and at 90 mT (oset for clarity). Decaying oscillations can be observed for
more than 5 ns. (b) Grey scale of a magnetic eld sweep (+90 mT 90 mT). Black:
minimum, white: maximum. (c) shows a comparison of the magnetic eld dispersion
exctracted from Fourier transformed PIMM data and with VNAFMR. The agreement is
very good.
stringent than for the propagation of a monochromatic wave, because in the
latter case no phase relationship has to be maintained.
The necessary risetime is dictated by the inherent frequencies of the sam
ple f = f(H
int
, k, M
S
), which depend on the total internal eld H
int
, the
wave vector of the excitation in the sample k, and its saturation magnetiza
tion M
S
. The maximum spectral component of the pulse must be as high
as the highest inherent frequency in order to excite a free precession. As a
mechanical analogy, think of a swing with a child on it. When the swing
is pushed quickly enough, it will swing back and forth at its inherent fre
quency. When on the contrary the push is slow compared to the free motion
of the swing, the swing will follow the motion of the push, i.e. it will move
at the pushs speed but will not swing at its intrinsic speed. The inherent
frequencies of our samples are on the order of 20 GHz, therefore the rise
time has to be on the order of 1/20 GHz = 50 ps.
As an example a measurement of an 80 nm thick NiMnSb lm
4
is shown
in Fig. 3.5 (a) at 0 and at 90 mT. One can clearly observe periodic oscillations
with a characteristic damping. The oscillation period is shorter and the
signal amplitude is smaller at 90 mT. In (b) the overview of a magnetic eld
sweep from +90 mT to 90 mT is shown. The signal amplitude is shown
4
We received NiMnSb lms from the group of Prof. Dr. Molenkamp in W urzburg as
part of the BMBF project Spintronics, BMBF 13N8283. Details of the growth can be
found in [Bac03].
3.2. Calculation of the Inductive Voltage Signal 45
as a grey scale (black: minimum, white: maximum). It is on the order of
10
6
V for microstructure arrays to 10
4
V for unpatterned lms.
3.2 Calculation of the Inductive Voltage Signal
An expression for the inductive voltage signal can be derived from Faradays
law and reciprocity [Sil99]. Consider two current loops, L
1
and L
2
, enclosing
the areas A
1
and A
2
. If only loop L
1
is driven by a current I
1
the ux induced
in loop L
2
is given by
2
=
_
A
2
B
1
dA
, (3.2)
where B
1
=
0
H
1
(I
1
, r) is the magnetic induction produced by I
1
. The
induced ux can alternatively be expressed by the geometry dependent in
duction coecient L
21
:
2
= L
21
I
1
. (3.3)
It is shown in electrodynamics that the induction coecient L
12
which
links the ux induced in loop L
1
by a current in loop L
2
is equal to L
21
which
links the ux induced in loop L
2
with a current in loop L
1
[Jac99]. This is
called principle of reciprocity. We cannot calculate the induction coecient
of the CPW directly but the reciprocity principle allows us to calculate it
indirectly: Assume a current loop L with the area dA is brought close to
the CPW. The ux in the current loop due to a current I
cpw
in the CPW
can be determined because we can calculate the eld H(I
cpw
) produced by
this current with BiotSavarts law. The ux in the loop is given by:
d
L
=
0
H(I
cpw
) dA = L
L,cpw
I
cpw
. (3.4)
By reciprocity the ux induced in the waveguide due to a current in the
loop L is
d
cpw
= L
cpw,L
I
L
= L
L,cpw
I
L
=
0
I
cpw
H(I
cpw
) I
L
dA
=
0
h(I
cpw
) dm
L
. (3.5)
In this equation h = H/I
cpw
is the eld per unit current of the CPW and
dm
L
= I
L
dA is the magnetic moment of loop L. If we now replace the
current loop by a ferromagnetic sample with a magnetic moment dm = MdV
46 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
the physical situation has not changed and Eq. 3.5 must maintain its validity.
Therefore the ux in the CPW due to a magnetic sample is given by
cpw
=
0
_
V
S
h M dV (3.6)
where the integration extends over the sample volume.
By Faradays law the voltage induced in the CPW is simply the time
derivative of the ux. A time varying magnetization will induce a voltage
that travels along the +x and the x direction. Therefore the voltage
measured by the detector is halved:
V
ind
(t) =
d
cpw
dt
=
0
2
_
V
S
h
dM
dt
dV. (3.7)
A coplanar waveguide supports TEM waves, therefore the magnetic eld
per unit current is directed transverse to the propagation direction. Let the
waveguide lie along e
x
then the magnetic eld of the waveguide will lie
mainly along e
y
(see Fig. 3.6 for the coordinate system). It can be veried
by numeric calculation that the magnetic eld prole across the waveguide
is nearly a step function if the center conductor thickness t is much smaller
than the center conductor width w [see Fig. 3.8 (a) and (c)]
H = H
y
e
y
=
I
2w
f(z, w)[(y +w/2) (y w/2)]. (3.8)
Here, (y) is the Heaviside step function and f(z, w) a spacing loss function
that accounts for the dropo of the eld in the outofplane direction. An
analytic expression for the magnetic eld of a CPW can be found from the
Karlquist equation and is consistent with the above equation if the center
conductor thickness is much smaller than its width t w [Sil99]. Assume
further that the sample is homogeneously magnetized along its thickness t
s
and along the x direction. With these assumptions and using the eld prole
(3.8), Eq. 3.7 can be further simplied and gives the important result:
V
ind
(t) =
0
t
s
L
4w
f(z, w)
w
2
_
w
2
dM
y
dt
dy
=
0
t
s
L
4w
f(z, w)
dM
y
dt
. (3.9)
In this equation t
s
and L are the sample thickness and length along the
waveguide, respectively. This result states that the induced voltage in the
3.2. Calculation of the Inductive Voltage Signal 47
waveguide is proportional to the spatial average of the time derivative of the
transverse magnetization component.
In order to describe the measurement signal in the frequency domain for
the VNAFMR measurements a Fourier transformation of both sides of Eq.
3.9 may be performed. We obtain:
V
ind
(
) =
1
2
_
V
ind
(t) e
i
t
dt
=
0
t
s
L
4
2
_
dM
trans
dt
e
i
t
dt
=
0
t
s
L
4
2
_
d
dt
(H(t)) e
i
t
dt. (3.10)
In the following it is always assumed that the susceptibility does not have
an explicit time dependence.
3.2.1 Step Response
The TDR pulse of the oscilloscope is a step pulse. Therefore this case applies
directly to the measurement mode used in this thesis. The magnetic eld
has the form
H(t) = lim
0
+
H
ext
+h(t) e
t
, (3.11)
where (t) is the Heaviside step function. The exponential function is in
cluded as a convergence factor for the integration and vanishes after per
forming the limit 0
+
. Setting A =
0
t
s
L
4
2
and inserting this into Eq.
3.10, one obtains:
V
ind
(
) = lim
0
+
A
_
d
dt
(
)
_
H
ext
+h(t)e
t
e
i
t
dt. (3.12)
48 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
The external eld is not time dependent and vanishes upon dierentiation.
Partial integration yields:
V
ind
(
) = Ah(
) lim
0
+
_
(t)e
t
e
i
t
_
. .
=0
(t)e
t
d
dt
e
i
t
dt
= Ai
h(
) lim
0
+
_
0
e
t
e
i
t
dt
= Ai
h(
) lim
0
+
_
e
(+i
)t
( +i
)
_
0
= A(
)h. (3.13)
This result means that the induced voltage after a voltage step pulse exci
tation is directly proportional to the complex susceptibility of the sample.
3.2.2 Impulse Response
In this case the excitation eld has the form of a delta function:
H(t) = H
ext
+ lim
0
+
h
1
exp
_
t
2
_
= H
ext
+h(t). (3.14)
To calculate
V
ind
(
V
ind
(
) =
Ah(
) lim
0
+
_
1
t
2
e
i
t
_
. .
=0
+
i
t
2
+i
dt.
(3.15)
For the solution of the right integral, one uses
t
2
+i
t =
_
t
+
i
2
_
2
+
2
4
. (3.16)
3.2. Calculation of the Inductive Voltage Signal 49
Substitution of y =
t
+
i
2
leads to the following expression:
V
ind
(
) = Ah(
) lim
0
+
i
4
_
e
y
2
dy
= Ah(
) lim
0
+
i
V
ind
(
) = i
A(
)h. (3.17)
For an impulse response the susceptibility is weighted by the factor i
.
3.2.3 Harmonic Response
This is the excitation mode for the VNAFMR measurements in the fre
quency domain. The magnetic eld is given by
H(t) = H
ext
+ lim
0
+
hexp
_
t
2
_
exp (it) . (3.18)
As in the other cases a convergence factor is introduced which vanishes
after taking the limit 0
+
. Insertion in Eq. 3.10 and integrating by
parts yields:
V
ind
(
) = A lim
0
+
_
d
dt
_
h(
) e
(itt
2
)
_
e
(i
t)
dt
= Ah(
) lim
0
+
_
e
t
2
+it
e
i
t
_
. .
=0
+i
e
t
2
+i(
)t
dt.
(3.19)
The solution of the remaining integral is analogous to that for the impulse
response term; the substitution y =
t +
i(
)
2
leads to
V
ind
(
) = A(
)hi
lim
0
+
1
)
2
4
_
e
y
2
dy
= 2i
A(
)h(
).
(3.20)
As in the impulse response calculation we have made use of the fact that
the series of functions lim
0
+(4)
1
2
exp
_
(
)
2
/4
_
converges to a
delta function. This important result states that under a harmonic excita
tion the response will have the same frequency as the excitation because of
50 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
h(t)
V
ind
()
step response h(t)
0
t
s
L
4
2
()h
impulse response h(t)
0
t
s
L
4
2
i
()h
harmonic response h exp(it)
0
t
s
L
4
2
2i
)h(
)
TAB. 3.1: Calculated induced voltages for dierent excitation modes.
the delta function and that again the susceptibility is weighted by i. The
induced voltage of a harmonic excitation is 2 larger than that of an impulse
response. The results are summarized in Tab. 3.1.
3.3 Coplanar Waveguide Structures
In the experiments described in this thesis a wave of a certain frequency or a
pulse (superposed waves) must be guided to the location of the sample and
the samples response must be guided to the detector with as little loss of
power as possible. Two further requirements exist for the guiding structure.
It must be miniaturizable and it must be planar.
A coplanar waveguide (CPW) is the structure of choice [Gup96]. It
consists of a signal line (S), anked by two ground planes (G) as shown in Fig.
3.6. A CPW can support quasiTEM waves, i.e. waves with only a very small
component in the direction of propagation; The reason for the not exactly
vanishing components in the x direction is the inhomogeneous dielectric, in
our case GaAs and air, which introduces dierent group velocities above
and below the electrodes, and ohmic losses of the conducting electrodes.
In the present frequency range up to 20 GHz, however, the longitudinal
components E
x
and H
x
will be small. Furthermore, all electrodes of the
CPW are in the same plane, namely on the surface of a GaAs dielectric
substrate. This makes it possible to contact the waveguide with GHz wafer
probes. A waveguide is characterized by its impedance. This impedance has
to be 50 , which will be discussed in the following.
3.3.1 Characteristic Impedance
The impedance Z is a response function which determines the relation
between the electric and magnetic elds of an electromagnetic wave in a
3.3. Coplanar Waveguide Structures 51
y
z
x
h
rf
sample
substrate
metal
Ground Ground Signal
S G G
h
rf
e
rf
FIG. 3.6: Schematical diagram of a coplanar waveguide along with the coordinate system
and a sample. The lower diagram shows the magnetic (full lines) and electric (dashed lines)
eld lines winding around the central conductor (S). The substrate used in this thesis for
the investigation of microstructures is GaAs with a dielectric constant of
r
= 12.9 or glass
with
r
= 6.2.
medium [Dre02]. For a wave propagating in the x direction in vacuum the
characteristic impedance is dened as [Mey69]
Z
0
=
E
y
H
z
=
_
0
= 377 . (3.21)
In this case the impedance is independent of spatial coordinates and of time
and is a characteristic quantity of the wave. Impedances are also used to
characterize transmission lines [Ell93]. For transmission lines supporting
TEM waves the denition can be extended. Let the guiding structure be
rectilinear pointing in the x direction and let every transverse cross section
be equal, like in the CPWs used here. The electric and magnetic elds have
only transverse components E
t
and H
t
. With Maxwells equations it can be
shown that
_
C
E
t
dl = 0
_
C
H
t
dl =
_
S
C
J
x
dS. (3.22)
The rst equation shows that the line integral over E
t
between any two points
P
1
and P
2
in the transverse plane of the guiding structure is independent
52 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
of the chosen path. The second equation states that the integral over the
contour C equals the enclosed longitudinal current independent of the form
of the contour. This allows one to dene a characteristic impedance as
Z
0
=
_
P2
P1
E
t
dl
_
C
H
t
dl
=
V
0
I
0
. (3.23)
For transverse electric or transverse magnetic waves the impedance depends
on the choice of integration path or contour and thus not a characteristic
quantity describing the transmission line. The denition can be extended
to cover such cases but this is beyond the scope of this chapter. Eq. 3.23
shows that the impedance of a transmission line depends on its geometry
due to the electric and magnetic eld distribution.
3.3.2 Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves 
The Need for Impedance Matching
Having established the concept of wave impedance, the scattering of elec
tromagnetic waves propagating along guiding structures o load impedances
will be discussed, whereby the necessity becomes clear to design impedance
matched planar waveguides for the broadband spectrometer.
It is easier to use the mode voltage V
0
(x, t) and mode current I
0
(x, t) for
the description instead of the electric and magnetic elds. This description
is indeed meaningful for TEM waves [Ell93].
5
One therefore may write
V
0
(x, t) = Aexp(it x) +Bexp(it +x),
I
0
(x, t) = A/Z
0
exp(it x) B/Z
0
exp(it x). (3.24)
Consider the case where this voltage propagates along a transmission line
that is loaded with the impedance Z
L
at x = 0. It follows immediately from
Eq. 3.24, that
Z
L
= Z
0
A+B
AB
, (3.25)
or solved for A/B:
= A/B =
Z
0
Z
L
Z
0
+Z
L
. (3.26)
5
There is not always a unique correspondence between electric eld and voltage in
non TEM waves, nor is there necessarily a unique correspondence between current and
magnetic eld.
3.3. Coplanar Waveguide Structures 53
is called the reection coecient. It becomes clear that only if the load
impedance is matched to the characteristic impedance of a transmission line,
no backscattering occurs. Every change in impedance along a transmission
line scatters electromagnetic waves. It is an industry standard that chooses
the characteristic impedance to be 50 . This is in particular valid for the
VNA and the TDR oscilloscope. Therefore also the coplanar waveguide
must be designed to meet the characteristic impedance of 50 .
3.3.3 Coplanar Waveguide Design
A brief description of how the characteristic impedance of a coplanar wave
guide can be calculated is given. It will be shown that it depends only on
the ratio of the width of the signal conductor w to the width of the slots
s, which means that one is allowed to change the cross section dimensions
while keeping Z
0
constant. The actual calculations are performed with the
freely available impedance calculator Txline which produces more realis
tic values due to the inclusion of nite substrate and electrode thickness.
The magnetic eld distribution along a waveguide cross section, calculated
with BiotSavarts law will be presented. The maximum achievable high fre
quency eld is given by h
rf
= I/2w, where I is the current owing through
the central conductor. The 1/w dependence illustrates the need to fabricate
the waveguides in the micrometer range.
The geometric shape enters the equation for the characteristic impedance
principally in Eq. 3.23 through the boundary conditions, which make the
calculation sometimes cumbersome. A way to calculate the impedance of a
coplanar waveguide for innite dielectric thickness and innitely thin elec
trodes is to map half of the waveguide to a parallel plate conguration lled
with a dielectric. The integral transformation (SchwartzChristoel
6
):
y =
_
z
z
0
dz
(z
a)(z
b)
(3.27)
with (y, z) C, a = w/2, and b = w/2 + s, maps the dielectric lled half
space to a rectangle with the electrodes on the top and bottom (parallel
plates). For the calculation the coordinate system is placed as in Fig. 3.7.
The capacitance per unit length of the parallel plates is
C
diel
=
0
r
W/d =
0
r
K (a/b)
K
(a/b)
. (3.28)
6
In general, the SchwartzChristoel transformation maps the upper halfspace z 0
to an ngone. The form used here is a particular form.
54 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
Im ( ) z
Re ( ) z
2 = 2 w/
3 2+ =w/ s
Im ( ) y
Re ( ) y
1 4
1 2
4 3
2 3
FIG. 3.7: Conformal transformation planes for impedance analysis of coplanar waveg
uides. The half of the central conductor is marked in light grey the ground plane in dark
grey. After [Gup96].
W is the width of the parallel plates and d their distance. The functions
K(k) and K
(k) = K
_
1 k
2
_
are the complete elliptic integrals of the
rst kind, and its complement, respectively. Similarly the airlled half
space can be transformed and yields a capacitance of C
air
= C
diel
/
r
. The
total capacitance is C
tot
= C
diel
+ C
air
. From this, the eective dielectric
constant follows, since
r,e
:= C
tot
/
C
air
= (
r
+ 1)/2, where
C
air
= 2C
air
is the capacitance the guiding structure would have if all dielectrics were
replaced by air. Finally, the impedance follows, as
Z
0
=
1
c
r,e
C
air
=
29.97
r,e
K
(a/b)
K(a/b)
. (3.29)
Since the impedance is a function of only the ratio a/b = w/(w + 2s) one
may change the cross section geometry in such a way that this ratio remains
constant without changing the characteristic impedance of the CPW. In
principle, similar functional dependencies of the impedance on the ratio of
geometric parameters are also found for other waveguide types. But when
the electrodes are not all on the same side of the substrate the fabrication of
impedance matched geometry changes becomes prohibitively dicult. Since
all electrodes of a CPW are on the same side of the substrate it is well
possible to taper or widen the electrodes with unchanged impedance. This
is used in particular in this thesis to taper the waveguide from the 250 m
pitch required by the GHz wafer probes to w = 15 m for a large high
frequency magnetic excitation eld and a high sensitivity of the waveguides.
3.3. Coplanar Waveguide Structures 55
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
t
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e
f
i
e
l
d
0
h
y
(
m
T
)
z = 100 nm
(a)
I/2w
z = 1 m
t
r
a
n
s
v
e
r
s
e
f
i
e
l
d
0
h
y
(
m
T
)
position (m)
z = 1 m
z = 100 nm
I/2w
(c)
p
e
r
p
e
n
d
i
c
u
l
a
r
f
i
e
l
d
0
h
z
(
m
T
)
(b)
p
e
r
p
e
n
d
i
c
u
l
a
r
f
i
e
l
d
0
h
z
(
m
T
)
position (m)
(d)
FIG. 3.8: Calculation of the transverse and perpendicular magnetic eld component of
a coplanar waveguide with BiotSavarts law for the static case. The calculation are valid
as long as the skin depth is larger than the waveguide lateral dimensions, which is the
case for our waveguides. (a) and (b) are for a height z
0
= 1 m and (c) and (d) for a
height of 100 nm above the waveguide. In the left panels the maximum eld h
hf
= I/2w
is indicated as a dashed line. The geometrical parameters are taken to be those of our
waveguides: center conductor width w = 15 m, ground plane width w
g
= 40 m and gap
width s = 9 m. The maximum achievable eld at a power output of the VNA of 1 mW
at an impedance of 50 is
0
h
hf
= 0.19 mT. In all panels the inset grey boxes are a
schematic cross section of the waveguide electrodes.
3.3.4 Coplanar Waveguide Field Prole
In Fig. 3.8 the calculated high frequency magnetic eld components trans
verse and perpendicular to the propagation direction of the electromagnetic
waves are shown. The position dependence is computed by dividing the
waveguide cross section into a mesh and treating each cell of the mesh as
if it had the same current density. By summing over all the contribution
at position z one obtains h
y
hf
(y) (transverse) and h
z
hf
(y) (perpendicular).
The result gives also a good approximation to the dynamic case when the
conductor dimensions are much less than the skin depth. This is the case in
our waveguides. The geometrical parameters of the waveguides used in the
experiment as well as a typical VNA power of 1 mW are used. The compu
tation yields a maximum transverse eld of
0
h
y
max
= 0.19 mT (1.9 Oe in
56 Chapter 3. Experimental Methods
cgs units). The eld can also be calculated from Maxwells equation
I =
_
A
j dA
Stokes
=
_
C
A
j dl
Maxw.
=
_
C
A
h
hf
dl = 2wh
trans
+O(t). (3.30)
A is the area enclosed by the path C
A
. In the limit where the thickness
of the central conductor is much less than its width, t/w 1, the line
integral around the central conductor is just 2w h
trans
. This result holds
because for very thin conducting sheets the transverse eld around the sheet
can be approximated to be a step function [see for example Fig. 3.8 (c)].
The integration path can be chosen as a rectangle whose small sides give
contributions on the order t and the long sides on the order w. The former
can therefore be neglected and one obtains the result h
trans
= I/2w. The
eld value for the actual CPW conductor width of 0.19 mT is shown in Fig.
3.8 (a) and (c) as horizontal dashed line. It is in excellent agreement with
the calculation for z = 100 nm. For greater perpendicular distances the
actual maximum transverse eld drops. [See Fig. 3.8 (a).] This eld drop
has been incorporated in the calculation of the inductive voltage signal by
the spacing loss function f(z, w) in Sec. 3.2. Hence a direct incorporation
of the microstructures on the waveguide is advantageous.
One should note a second feature of waveguides with narrow central con
ductors. The perpendicular component is approximately a linear function
of the transverse coordinate y in the interval (w/2, w/2). It is maximal at
the edges of the waveguide and changes its sign in the center. The peaks
at the edges are of comparable size to the transverse component and not a
priori negligible. Remember, however, that we investigate thin lms or mi
crostructures all of which fulll the condition t
s
/w
s
1, which means they
are always much thinner than the width of the central conductor. In all of
the investigated cases, the out of plane component m
z
that might be excited
due to the eld prole will be much smaller than the inplane component
because of the strong demagnetizing eld on the order of
0
M
S
present in
such thin samples. For permalloy the outofplane demagnetizing eld is
1 T.
3.4 Sample Fabrication
Waveguides
For the fabrication of coplanar waveguides a resist mask was fabricated
as follows. Before deposition the substrates were cleaned in an ultrasonic
acetone bath, the acetone residues were removed with isopropyl alcohol. A
3.4. Sample Fabrication 57
a) b)
d) e)
c)
FIG. 3.9: Schematic diagram of the steps of optical lithography and deposition. (a) Resist
(white) coated and baked substrate (dark gray), (b) Exposure through a chrome mask (c)
Developed resist. The exposed parts of the resist are washed away by the developer (d)
Metal deposition. The metal (light gray) is in direct contact with the substrate only in the
parts with no resist. (e) After lifto process. The remaining resist is soluble in acetone,
while the metal directly in contact with the substrate adheres.
Shipley S1813 resist was spun onto the samples for typically one minute
at a rotation speed of 6000 rpm (rotations per minute) [Fig. 3.9 (a)]. The
samples were then baked in an oven at 80
0
H
i
n
t
(
m
T
)
y
,
w
(
m
)
x,L
(
m
)
(a)
x
(b)
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
30
60
90
0.5
0.0
0.5
0
H
i n
t
(
m
T
)
y
,
w
(
m
)
x,
L
(
m
)
0.5
0.0
0.5
30
60
90
0.5
0.0
0.5
0
H
in
t
(
m
T
)
y
,
w
(
m
)
x,
L
(
m
)
H M ,
(c)
y
FIG. 4.1: Internal elds of rectangular elements calculated after [Jos65] at 90 mT for the
three aspect ratios used in the experiment. (a) square 1 1 m
2
, (b) 2 1 m
2
, and (c)
4 1 m
2
. The thickness is assumed to be 20 nm. Note that the inhomogeneity at the
center decreases and the maximum value increases for longer elements.
have the x axis along the length of the rectangular magnets and the z axis
along the thickness. (See sketch in Fig. 4.1)
4.1 Magnetostatics of Rectangular Elements
In the experimental investigation we will concentrate on saturated rectangu
lar elements. Therefore the discussion of the magnetostatics is focused on the
internal eld distribution of rectangular elements in a saturating eld. The
full reversal process and the uxclosure states will not be discussed here.
Experiments addressing this regime can be found in [Per05, Cho04, Sto04].
We investigated rectangles with lateral dimensions L w of 4 1 m
2
,
2 1 m
2
and squares with 1 1 m
2
. They are made of t = 20 5 nm
thick permalloy as measured by AFM. We label these samples R4, R2, and
R1, respectively.
In rectangular magnetic elements the internal eld is inhomogeneous
even when the magnetization is homogeneous due to the demagnetizing eld
64 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
at the borders. An analytical description of this situation was given by
Joseph and Schlomann [Jos65]. Consider the case investigated here, namely
elements magnetized inplane along their long sides (or along any side in
the case of squares). The coordinate system is chosen such that the plane of
the rectangles is the (x, y)plane and the external eld is applied along the
x direction. It is supposed to saturate the magnetization in the x direction.
In this case the internal eld is given by
H
int
= H
ext
N
xx
(r)M (4.1)
with r = (x, y, z). Because we are not dealing with ellipsoidal samples the
demagnetizing eld is not homogeneous, which is expressed by the spatial
dependence of the demagnetizing factor. As has been shown in the introduc
tion the demagnetizing eld can be derived from a magnetic scalar potential
according to (2.12). The magnetization entering this integral will not be
homogeneous over the whole sample in real nanomagnets except for very
high elds. Joseph and Schlomann take this into account by developing this
expression in ascending powers of M/H
ext
. For high external eld the zero
order solution is a good approximation for our experimental situation. The
demagnetizing factor thus calculated reads :
N
xx
(r) = cot
1
(g(x, y, z)) + cot
1
(g(x, y, z))
+cot
1
(g(x, y, z)) + cot
1
(g(x, y, z))
+cot
1
(g(x, y, z)) + cot
1
(g(x, y, z))
+cot
1
(g(x, y, z)) + cot
1
(g(x, y, z)), (4.2)
where
g(x, y, z) =
_
(w/2 y)
2
+ (t/2 z)
2
+ (L/2 x)
2
(L/2 x)
(w/2 y)(t/2 z)
. (4.3)
The results of this equation using the experimental parameters and as
suming an applied eld of
0
H = 90 mT are presented in Fig. 4.1. The
internal eld of the 1 1 m
2
square (a) resembles a horse saddle (horse
back points in the y direction). There is a strong drop of the internal eld
at the square edges in the magnetization direction e
x
due to the surface
poles. The demagnetizing eld points mainly in the opposite direction of
the magnetization. This causes the internal eld in the element center to be
weaker than the applied eld. In the transverse direction there are no surface
poles. The inhomogeneity in the transverse direction is also mainly caused
4.1. Magnetostatics of Rectangular Elements 65
1x2 1x1
OOMMF
M
Joseph
Schlmann
&
Hint
M
Hint
FIG. 4.2: Upper row: Magnetization conguration of a 1 1 m
2
square (left) and a
2 1 m
2
rectangle (right) calculated by OOMMF at 92 mT. The pattern is called ower
state. Second row: Internal elds simulated at 92 mT with OOMMF. Third row: Internal
eld calculated after Eq. 4.2. Fourth row: Sketch of magnetization in the analytical model.
by the poles on the short edges. Looking at longer rectangular sample one
recognizes that the inhomogeneity at the short edges remains approximately
the same for all three presented elements. The transverse inhomogeneity at
the element center, however, becomes less pronounced as the length of the
element is increased. Due to the increased length the surface poles are wider
separated and the demagnetizing eld is weaker at the element center. We
note that the longer the magnetic element the more the internal eld in the
element center approaches the external eld H
int
(0, 0) H
ext
.
The internal eld at the edges can become negative in the rst approx
imation which is physically questionable within this model. It means that
in the edge region the magnetization is antiparallel to the applied eld. In
reality the magnetization will rotate in the plane and lie along the edges of
a magnetic element (See diagram Fig. 4.2, fourth row). The internal eld
in this case can be assumed to be zero [Bry89], and the negative values of
the calculated elds in Fig. 4.1 are cropped. OOMMF simulations can have
negative internal eld values due to the exchange eld which is included. In
this case the magnetization is not necessarily antiparallel and the negative
elds are not unphysical. The edge regions might assume more complex
magnetization distributions. OOMMF typically predicts the so called ower
66 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
state for our rectangles without taking into account the nite temperature
(Fig. 4.2 uppermost row). Langevin dynamics simulations, which take into
account thermal uctuations, have been reported to predict the instability of
the ower state. Instead the S or C state are favored [Bay05]. These states
bear a greater similarity to the simplifying analytic model of the magnetiza
tion. The micromagnetic simulation of the ower sate and the comparison
of simulated and analytically calculated internal elds are given in Fig. 4.2.
Still, there is a reasonable agreement between the analytic internal eld and
the OOMMF simulation.
4.2 Magnetization Dynamics: PIMM and FMR
Data
In the following section we present the experimental data of the magneti
zation dynamics of the rectangles. We compare time and frequency domain
data for our rectangular structures. We nd several characteristic modes.
They will be discussed in the framework of the dipoleexchange spin wave
theory with wave vector quantization. We compare our results to published
work on inductive detection of quantized spin waves in larger rectangular
elements.
4.2.1 Frequency Domain Data
In Fig. 4.3 we present a grey scale plot and a spectrum of R4 obtained by
VNAFMR. The external eld was applied along the long axis of the rect
angular elements forming the array, unless explicitly otherwise stated. We
can clearly identify in the grey scale plot a main mode and two higher order
modes. At lower elds there is another mode (D), which is not easily dis
tinguishable in the grey scale plot but still reliably visible in the absorption
spectra due to its magnetic eld shift. The extracted dispersion of R1, R2,
and R4 are displayed in Fig. 4.4. The number of resolved higher order modes
increases with the sample size, because the signal to noise ratio is higher due
to the additional magnetic material.
The resonance frequencies of mode A in all three samples are on the same
order of magnitude but one notices a systematic drop from f = 10.46 GHz
at 89.5 mT for R4 to f = 9.30 GHz for R1.
4.2. Magnetization Dynamics: PIMM and FMR Data 67
0 5 10 15 20 0 20 40 60 80
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0
H (mT)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(a)
A
B
C
D
(b)
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency f (GHz)
A
B
C
R4
FIG. 4.3: (a) Grey Scale plot of the absorption spectra of R4. We can clearly identify four
modes, (A, B, C, D). Mode D is marked with an arrow in (a). It can be extracted from the
detailed investigation of the single spectra due to its characteristic frequency shift. The
grey scale dynamic range is not high enough for this mode to be easily recognized in the
plot alone. (b) Absorption spectrum of R4 at an applied eld of
0
H = 57 mT showing
the main resonance A, and the higher order modes B and C. The steplike feature around
15 GHz is due to the waveguides transmission characteristics.
0 20 40 60 80
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 20 40 60 80 0 20 40 60 80
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(a)
R1 R2
0
H (mT)
D
C
B
R4
(c) (b)
0
H (mT)
A
FIG. 4.4: Magnetic eld dispersion of the resonance frequencies. (a) R1, (b) R2, and (c)
R4. We can identify two higher order modes. A low frequency mode (D) is observed in
all three samples at low magnetic elds. Time domain data is included as empty circles
for R4 in (c).
68 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
0.04
0.02
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
V
i
n
d
~
d
M
/
d
t
(
m
V
)
time t (ns)
(a)
0
H = 75 mT
time t (ns)
(b)
FIG. 4.5: (a) Background removal for PIMM data. Black line experimental data. An
averaging window with a width of the oscillation period is used to eliminate the oscilla
tory part of the signal. The background thus obtained is shown as grey line. (b) After
background subtraction the signal is symmetric around zero. This avoids low frequency
nonmagnetic contributions in the Fourier transformed data.
4.2.2 Time Domain Data
In this section we present the time domain data for the sample with 41 m
2
rectangular elements (R4). In Fig. 4.5 (a) the induced voltage at 75 mT is
shown. Typically the data have a background. Such a background leads
to spurious low frequency contributions in the Fourier spectrum. It can be
removed by using an averaging window with the period of the time signal.
This averaging removes the high frequency oscillations from the data and
only leaves the background (grey line) which can then be subtracted. The
result is shown in panel (b). The data are numerically Fourier transformed.
The frequency resolution is proportional to the data set length t
tot
: f =
1/t
tot
. Therefore we use zero padding to enhance the frequency resolution.
In Fig. 4.6 we show some processed traces at dierent eld values and the
Fourier transformations for elds between 89.5 mT and 0 mT. One notices
that there is one peak in the Fourier spectra of the induced voltages of the
array R4 which characteristically shifts with the applied external eld. The
position of the resonances as function of the applied eld are shown in Fig.
4.4 (c) together with the frequency domain measurements. The agreement
is excellent showing that the two measurements are indeed complementary
4.3. Theory of Quantized Spin Waves in Rectangular Elements 69
0 5 10 15 20
s
p
e
c
t
r
a
l
p
o
w
e
r
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency f (GHz)
(b)
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
89.5 mT
0 mT
V
i
n
d
~
d
M
/
d
t
(
m
V
)
time t (ns)
(a)
0 mT
89.5 mT
FIG. 4.6: (a) Time traces at dierent applied elds for R4. The curves are oset for clarity.
(b) Fourier transformed traces. One recognizes a distinct peak that characteristically shifts
as the applied eld is varied between 89.5 mT and 0 mT.
in the small angle precession regime, and that the data processing does not
introduce artifacts. We see, however, that the VNAFMR setup shows a
higher sensitivity since it can resolve the higher order modes of R4. The
reason is that in the frequency domain one employs a lockin technique with
a very narrow lter that suppresses all signals at frequencies other than the
actual measurement frequency whereas in PIMM one picks up noise over a
frequency band of 20 GHz. Therefore in the following we concentrate on the
frequency domain data and mention again that the strength of time domain
measurements lies in the capability of probing large angle dynamics and
switching.
4.3 Theory of Quantized Spin Waves in Rectan
gular Elements
The theory of dipoleexchange spin waves has been elaborated in [Gus02]
for innitely long magnetic wires and in [Gus03] for the case of rectangular
magnetic elements. We present a short review because these specic results
are needed for the discussion and interpretation of our experimental data
70 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
and they will also be needed later for the discussion of the mode localization
in rings. In the following we assume only negligible variation of static and
dynamic magnetization along the outofplane coordinate z.
For longitudinally magnetized wires the dynamic demagnetizing eld will
be the strongest contribution to the internal eld. If the width is in the mi
crometer range the exchange will only play a subordinate role. Therefore
solutions to the eigenvalue problem (2.59) are constructed from eigenfunc
tions of the dipole integral operator. If one truncates the eigenfunctions
expansion after the second term one obtains an equation for the pinning
boundary conditions formally analogous to the RadoWeertman equation
(2.63). These boundary conditions are, however, of dipolar nature as op
posed to surface anisotropy pinning. The physical reason of this pinning is
to minimize the dynamic demagnetizing eld. The symmetric and antisym
metric eigenfunctions are given by cosine and sine functions, respectively,
with a discrete wave vector k
n
due to the lateral connement:
k
n
=
(n + 1)
w
e
=
(n + 1)
w
_
d(p) 2
d(p)
_
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . , (4.4)
where the aspect ratio is p = t/w and the pinning parameter d is given by
d(p) =
2
p(1 2 ln(p))
. (4.5)
In rectangular elements there will be discrete wave vectors in both in
plane directions due to the connement. Additionally, the internal eld in
homogeneity has to be taken into account. In [Gus03, Bay04, Jor02, Tam02]
it is demonstrated that the eld inhomogeneity leads to a localization of spin
waves. According to the wave vector one classies exchange localization at
the edges (small wave vector) and dipolar localization in the elements center
(large wave vector). The wave vectors are given by:
k
m,x
=
(m+ 1)
, and k
n,y
=
(n + 1)
w
e
n, m = 0, 1, 2 . . . , (4.6)
where (0, L) is the localization length. We will explain below the mech
anism of mode localization. The total inplane wave vector is given by
2
mn
= k
2
m,x
+ k
2
n,y
. The transverse parts of the rst four modes are shown
in Fig. 4.8.
In [Gus03] it is assumed that the eigenfunctions of a rectangular ele
ment can be factorized in the eigenfunctions of innitely long longitudinally
4.3. Theory of Quantized Spin Waves in Rectangular Elements 71
and transversely magnetized wires m
mn
(x, y) =
m
(k
m,x
x)
n
(k
n,y
y). The
dispersion of the thin lm can be extended to rectangles by
2
mn
=
_
mn
H
+
M
2
mn
_ _
mn
H
+
M
2
mn
+
M
F
mn
(
mn
t)
_
. (4.7)
The internal eld inhomogeneity is taken into account by averaging the mode
prole over the internal eld prole:
mn
H
=
H
M
N
mn
, with (4.8)
N
mn
=
4
wt
_
d
m
2
mn
(
)N
xx
(
). (4.9)
The integration extends over the area of the rectangle and
H
=
0
H,
M
=
0
M.
mn
H
is the frequency corresponding to the eective internal eld
value and N
mn
is the eective demagnetizing factor of mode (m, n).
The quantized matrix elements are given by the expression for the thin
lms using the quantized wave vectors and noting that cos
2
(
mn
) =
k
2
m,x
2
mn
and sin
2
(
mn
) =
k
2
y,n
2
mn
. This leads to
F
mn
(
mn
t) = 1 P(
mn
t)
_
k
2
m,x
2
mn
_
+
P(
mn
t) (1 P(
mn
t))
_
M
H
mn
+
M
2
mn
_
_
k
2
n,y
2
mn
_
,
(4.10)
with
P(
mn
t) = 1
1 exp(
mn
t)
mn
t
. (4.11)
In order to calculate the spin wave frequencies, in principle one has
to know the dynamic magnetization prole (see Eq. 4.9). Fortunately the
dependence of the calculated frequencies on the exact form of the prole is
weak. Mainly the discrete values of the wave vector determine the resonance
frequency. It will be seen in the following that the assumption that mode
proles in rectangles can be factorized in proles known from transversely
and longitudinally magnetized wires leads to a very good description of our
data.
72 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
0 20 40 60 80 100
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(a)
t =19 nm
= 0.49*L
w =1.1
M =1.08 T
t =16 nm
= 0.55*L
w =1.15
M =1.07 T
0
H (mT)
n = 3
n = 2
n = 1
t =20 nm
= 0.65*L
w =1.1
M =1.09 T
(c) (b)
0
H (mT)
n = 0
FIG. 4.7: Comparison of experimental (symbols) and calculated (lines) magnetic eld
dispersions of the mode frequencies for (a) R1, (b) R2, and (c) R4. In order to t the
theoretical dispersion we used t, , w, and M as parameters. The geometrical best t
parameters t and w are all within the error margins of experimentally determined param
eters. The deviation of M among samples is less than 5%. The low frequency mode is not
captured by the model.
4.4 Quantized Spin Waves Detected With Induc
tive Detection
Now we will apply the theoretical formalism to our magnetic eld dispersion
data. The results of the calculation after Eq. 4.7 are shown as grey lines
in Fig. 4.7 for the lowest seven mode indices. We assumed the appropriate
cosine and sine mode proles in both inplane directions with the wave
vectors given in Eq. 4.6. Note that the result is only weakly dependent on
the exact mode prole. We initially assumed a localization length
0
= 0.5L
and iteratively tted the theoretical dispersion to the data. The integral in
(4.9) is computed numerically. The thickness of the samples was determined
by AFM as 20 5 nm. The width was determined to be w = 1.1 m. The
saturation magnetization
0
M is assumed to be near the literature value of
1.08 T. The calculation describes the data very well with the best parameters
indicated in the gure panels. To obtain agreement between calculations and
experimental data slight variations of the geometrical parameters from the
measured values have to be allowed. The deviations of the parameters are
within the error margins.
Following the theoretical curves we detected only modes with even mode
4.4. Quantized Spin Waves Detected With Inductive Detection 73
1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
n=1
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
m
y
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
y/w
n=0
n=3
n=2
y/w
FIG. 4.8: Analytical mode proles along the transverse coordinate of the rectangular
elements after [Gus02] for the mode indices n = 0, . . . , 4. The mode index counts the
number of zero crossings (excluding the nodes at the boundaries y/w = 1). The eective
pinning can be observed here. Its physical mechanism is the minimization of the dynamic
demagnetizing elds.
index n = 0, 2, . . ., which we will explain in the following. The mode index
counts the number of nodes excluding the nodes at the boundary of the
elements. The rst four transverse mode proles are shown in Fig. 4.8.
Modes with odd mode index have also an odd symmetry with respect to the
element center. This has two consequences. Firstly, we had shown in Sec.
3.2 that the induced voltage due to the dynamic magnetization is given by
V
ind
(t) =
0
t
s
L
4w
f(z, w)
w/2
_
w/2
dM
y
(y
)
dt
dy
. (4.12)
Because we have to average the magnetization distribution along the trans
verse direction (y direction), modes with an odd symmetry do not induce a
voltage in the CPW:
V
as
ind
(t) i
w/2
_
w/2
sin
_
(n + 1)
w
e
y
_
dy
_
cos
_
(n + 1)
w
e
y
__ w
2
w
2
0.
(4.13)
74 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
This shows that with our measurement geometry we can detect only
symmetric modes with even indices n. This is also valid for the mode index
in the other inplane direction but our experimental results are well described
under the assumption that only the lowest index mode in the longitudinal
direction is excited.
The second consequence of the mode symmetry properties is the follow
ing: The excitation eld h
hf
is homogeneous over the samples. This makes
it surprising that we are able to detect any higher order modes. In any
case it shows that only modes with even symmetry can be excited [Tam02].
Using Eq. 4.12 for the induced voltage with symmetric mode proles we
calculate that the induced voltage for even mode indices should drop as
V
n
ind
1/(n + 1). For the indices n = 0, 2, 4 we would expect amplitude
ratios of 1 : 1/3 : 1/5. The drop in absorption amplitudes is much stronger
in our experiment, 1 : 1/25 : 1/51 for R4 and similar for the others. This
shows that indeed the excitation of these higher order modes is much less
eective than that of the lowest order mode.
We argue that the nite width of the samples and the dipolar pinning
at the boundaries is of prime importance for the transfer of wave vectors
under excitation of a homogeneous eld h
hf
. Kittel predicted in 1958 [Kit58]
that a uniform eld can excite perpendicular standing spin wave modes with
even symmetry in plain lms provided the spins at the surfaces experience
pinning. For asymmetric modes the torque on the magnetization averages
to zero. The fact that higher order inplane modes are excited in our exper
iment shows that the modes must be pinned at the rectangle boundaries.
(Otherwise they could not be excited by a uniform eld h
rf
.) Including
dipolar pinning in the calculation yields very good agreement with the data.
The resonance frequencies decrease slightly as the length of the sample
decreases from L = 4 m to 1 m. The mode splitting between the higher
order modes becomes also slightly smaller. This is a consequence of the
decreasing internal eld due to the demagnetizing eld as shown in Fig. 4.1.
As the length of the rectangular elements becomes smaller their internal
eld decreases.
The good agreement between theory and experiment conrms that we
have detected quantized dipolar DamonEshbach waves by broadband FMR.
In the literature similar data obtained by inductive detection on larger
squares (50 m) have been discussed using the DamonEshbach dispersion
relation with a quantized wave vector [Cra03]. Agreement between the data
has been achieved by the inclusion of the numerically calculated dynamic
demagnetizing eld. In particular the quantization of the longitudinal wave
vector is neglected in the DamonEshbach formula used in [Cra03]. Al
4.4. Quantized Spin Waves Detected With Inductive Detection 75
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
8.50
8.75
9.00
9.25
9.50
x
2
0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0
20
40
60
80
x
2
0.4 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
x
2
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
2
3
4
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
wave vector k
x
(10
7
/m)
(a)
x
1
x
2
x
3
f
exp
89.5 mT
x
3
w
a
v
e
v
e
c
t
o
r
k
x
(
1
0
7
/
m
)
normalized position x/L
(b)
x
1
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
f
i
e
l
d
0
H
i
n
t
(
m
T
)
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
f
i
e
l
d
0
H
i
n
t
(
m
T
)
w
a
v
e
v
e
c
t
o
r
k
x
(
1
0
7
/
m
)
normalized position x/L
(d)
x
1
x
1
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
wave vector k
x
(10
7
/m)
(c)
32.2 mT
FIG. 4.9: (a) Wave vector dispersion at 89.5 mT calculated with Eq. 4.7 and values
for the internal magnetic eld at dierent positions x
i
in the square element R1. The
experimental frequency is included as grey horizontal line. (b) The wave vector k
x
(x)
calculated from f
exp
= f(H
int
(x), k
x
, k
y
). One can see a mode localization which is due
to the internal eld inhomogeneity (not the element boundaries). (c) and (d) show the
calculation for the exchange mode at 32.2 mT.
though the analysis in [Cra03] is correct and yields excellent agreement we
prefer to apply the theory of Guslienko et al. [Gus03] because it includes the
eect of the inhomogeneous internal eld and quantization in both inplane
direction. Therefore we believe it allows for a deeper understanding. We
note that in [Cra03] only one resonance mode was found by time domain
inductive detection in the case of squares smaller than the waveguide center
conductor width. This is in accord with our data.
In [Tam02, Gus03] it has been shown by scanning Kerr microscopy that
the modes we have just discussed are localized in the element center. Let us
explain the mechanism of mode localization. The argument presented here
76 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
will later be applied to describe the mode localization in ring side arms.
In Fig. 4.9 (a) several dispersion curves of the square R1 taken at dierent
values of the internal eld are plotted together with the experimentally found
frequency f
exp
at 89.5 mT. The internal eld was calculated after (4.2). We
see that the local dispersion at position x
1
and x
2
does have a crossing with
the experimental frequency whereas the dispersion taken at position x
3
does
not cross f
exp
. This means that there is no real wave vector which could
fulll the relation
f
exp
= f(H
int
(x
3
), k
x
, k
y
). (4.14)
A spin wave in the element center will be exponentially damped outside
the region bounded by x
3
. These coordinates constitute turning points for
the spin waves. This denes a localization length = 2 x
3
which is in this
case 490 nm. This value is in excellent agreement with the
0
= 500 nm
localization length we had assumed for the calculation. We note that the
agreement is not always as good as in this case. In general one has to nd a
consistent set of parameters consisting of M, , and the geometrical param
eters. For R2 for example we assume for the calculation of the dispersion
in Fig. 4.7 (b) an initial localization
0
= 1.1 m. With the dispersion thus
calculated and the experimental frequency we nd a value of = 1.35 m,
which is close to
0
but not as close as for R1. Note also that we assume the
magnetic eld dependence of the localization length to be small enough to
be neglected. Since the wave vector k
x
is rather low in the case of the mode
localization of mode A one speaks of dipolar mode localization [Gus03].
Whether a localized standing spin wave in the internal eld prole can
exist depends on the fulllment of the position dependent wave vector of the
semiclassical quantization integral:
+ 2
x
_
x
k
n
(x, f
exp
, H
int
)dx
. .
q
= 2l , l = 1, 2 . . . (4.15)
We introduce the symbol
q
for the integral in (4.15). Here, x
and x
and
= x
3
and x
= +x
3
. The inplane wave vector k
m,x
we have
assumed for the calculation of the mode frequency must be interpreted as the
average of the real (position dependent) wave vector along the longitudinal
4.4. Quantized Spin Waves Detected With Inductive Detection 77
0.50 0.25 0.00 0.25 0.50
1
0
1
1
0
1
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
m
a
g
n
e
t
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
normalized coordinate x/L
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
f
i
e
l
d
FIG. 4.10: Prole of the lowest symmetric (black line) and asymmetric (grey line) ex
change edge modes along the longitudinal coordinate x/L. The analytical functions are
even and odd Mathieu functions. The internal eld prole is shown. The modes are lo
calized in the region where the internal eld drops to zero. This region forms a spin wave
well.
component. It identically fullls the quantization integral. For the position
dependent wave vector calculated for the dipolar mode n = 0 we obtain from
numerical integration
0
q
= 0.65788. This is far away from but one does
not know the phase jumps at the turning points. The quantization integral
strongly depends on the experimental frequency and the internal eld prole.
In the literature
0
q
is treated as an order of magnitude estimate [Bay03b].
Let us nally turn to the lowest lying mode, which we have not discussed
yet. This mode depends only very weakly on the geometrical parameters of
the samples. Its frequency is the lowest of all observed modes. This latter
observations shows that it must be located in a region where the internal eld
is small. This is the case at the longitudinal edges where the internal eld
drops o due to the surfaces charges. Additionally it can be seen from the
calculated internal eld proles of the rectangular elements that the region
of inhomogeneity at the short edges is very similar for all three rectangles.
We therefore argue that this mode is an exchange dominated edge mode
which can exist in a spin wave well [Jor02, Bay03b] similar to a particle in
a potential well. In Fig. 4.10 a diagram of the two lowest spin wave well
modes is shown along with internal eld of a R1 as an illustration.
The analytical description of these modes can be done by approximating
the real internal eld value by a eld with cosine shape which is matched
78 Chapter 4. Magnetization Dynamics of Rectangular Elements
to the edge regions where the modes are located. This is done because
with a cosine shape the dierential equation of the exchange operator can
be reduced to the Mathieu dierential equation which has known solutions.
The solutions are the even and odd Mathieu functions Ce
n
() and Se
n+1
(),
respectively. The mode proles are very similar to numerically calculated
proles [Gub04]. In principle one can numerically evaluate the magnetic
eld dispersion of the exchange mode but this is beyond the scope of this
thesis. Details of the full calculation can be found in [Gub04].
Analogously to the dipolar mode localization one can explain the mode
localization of the exchange mode. This time the crossing of the dispersion
with the experimental frequency of the exchange edge mode must be con
sidered. In Fig. 4.9 (c) it can be seen that the crossing is at much higher
wave vectors. Again one nds turning points which dene an interval in
which there are real wave vector values fullling the dispersion relation at
the experimental frequency. The position dependent wave vector is shown
as black line in panel (d). Outside the interval delimited by the turning
points the spin wave is exponentially damped. Because for the edge mode
the wave vectors are much higher than for the modes localized at the square
center one calls it exchange dominated mode.
Concluding this chapter, we have investigated the ferromagnetic reso
nance of patterned permalloy rectangular elements. We have detected higher
order quantized spin waves up to order n = 4. The mode frequencies could
be well described by the theory of dipoleexchange spin waves. We detected
only symmetric modes. It was argued that due to the homogeneous excita
tion only symmetric modes are excited and that due to the integral detection
of the waveguide only symmetric modes can be detected. Additionally we
have observed a low frequency mode that we identied as an exchange edge
mode. It exists in a so called spin wave well at the edges of the rectangular
elements. We have explained how a mode localization at the element center
and at the edges occurs in the framework of what is called in the literature
a WKB argument [Bay04, Bay03b]. Our ndings are consistent with other
investigation in the literature using dierent experimental techniques.
Chapter 5
Magnetostatics of Patterned
Mesoscopic Rings
It is instructive for the understanding of the magnetodynamics of rings to
give an overview of their magnetostatics properties. In our group the qua
sistatic reversal of rings was investigated by means of Hall magnetometry
[Rol04] and combined Hall magnetometry and magnetotransport measure
ments [Ber04]. In the literature a number of investigations was reported
using dierent techniques such as magnetotransport [Kla02], SEMPA and
PEEM [Kla03a], and MOKE [Kla01] as well as Lorentz microscopy [Uhl04].
We focus here on complementary magnetic force microscopy in an inplane
eld and on micromagnetic simulations. We show experimentally by an
MFM study on a typical sample that our rings show well dened equilib
rium spin congurations and well dened switching properties. In particular,
the spin congurations will be shown later to possess characteristic high fre
quency absorption properties. Our experimental results are well described
by the presented micromagnetic simulations.
5.1 Micromagnetic Simulations of Spin Congura
tions and Reversal Mechanisms
In ferromagnetic rings, there are, depending on the width and thickness,
one, two or three stable magnetization congurations and a corresponding
number of switchings. We can roughly classify rings in narrow and wide
rings and begin the discussion with narrow rings: The most common case is
given by the existence of two states and a two state switching behavior. Fig.
5.1 displays a calculated hysteresis curve and details of the magnetization
79
80 Chapter 5. Magnetostatics of Patterned Mesoscopic Rings
90 60 30 0 30 60 90
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
y
M
/
M
S
0
H (mT)
(a)
A B
C D
E F
A
B
C
D
E
F
x
DW
H
FIG. 5.1: (a) Hysteresis curve calculated using OOMMF for a 300 nm wide and 20 nm
thick permalloy ring, with 2 m outer diameter. (Only one branch of the presented hys
teresis curves is computed the other is constructed by mirroring the rst branch.) Right
panels are snap shots during reversal. The arrows indicate the projection of M on the
(x, y) plane, the grey color background encodes M
y
. A  saturation, B  onion state, C 
depinning of the left domain wall, arrow indicates direction of wall movement, D  vortex
state, E  a reverse domain starts to nucleate in the antiparallel ring arm (upper ring arm
in the present case), F  reverse onion
congurations for a 300 nm wide and 20 nm thick permalloy ring with such a
twostep switching. At saturation [Fig. 5.1 A] all spins are aligned with the
external magnetic eld. At remanence the spins follow the ring perimeter
to minimize the stray eld of the ring, yet still the spins in both ring halves
point in the same direction (B). As a result, there are two domain walls
present. In thin rings, as in the present case, the domain walls are typically
head to head and tail to tail transverse walls. When the rings are very
thick also vortex walls are possible. The state depicted in Fig. 5.1 B is
called the onion state
1
. Upon further reduction of the applied eld, a
domain wall becomes depinned (C), and can propagate around the ring.
The arrow in (C) indicates the direction of propagation. The other domain
1
This gurative name was coined by the Bland group in Cambridge, because a ring in
this state resembles a sliced onion, the stray eld lines entering and leaving the ring at
the domain walls being the roots and the shoots of the onion.
5.1. Micromagnetic Simulations of Spin Congurations and Reversal
Mechanisms 81
wall is more strongly pinned and remains at its position. Both domain
walls annihilate when they meet and the vortex state forms (D). The eld is
further decreased, which causes the spins to bend. At some point a reverse
domain can nucleate in the antiparallel pointing ring half [(E) is close to
this point but does not show it] which spreads until the ring is in the reverse
onion state (F). Let us discuss some details of the reversal process:
(a) If the ring were perfectly symmetric the pinning should be equal
for both domain walls. They should propagate around the ring with the
same turning sense and the propagation should begin at the same external
magnetic eld [Rot01, Kla03b]. According to the above argument no vortex
will exist in a perfectly symmetric ring. But even in the presented calculation
of a nominally symmetrical ring there is an asymmetry in pinning potential,
maybe due to the meshing of the ring. In an experiment the vortex state is
almost always found, except for very narrow and thin rings (e.g. no vortex
was found in [Kla03a] for 4 nm thick and 225 nm wide polycrystalline Co
rings.)
(b) The circulation direction of the vortex state depends on the prop
agation direction of the domain wall which is less strongly pinned. This
direction will further depend on the microscopic peculiarities of an individ
ual nanoring, such as edge roughness, oxidation spots and so on, as well
as eld alignment accuracy. This means that in real nanorings the circula
tion direction is practically arbitrary. In [Kla01], however, evidence is put
forward that the preceding onion state determines the sign of the vortex
circulation that follows the switch: as an example coming from the onion in
positive direction might always be followed by a clockwise vortex in a par
ticular magnet. We will show evidence in a later chapter that a decentered
inner hole can lead to a control over the circulation direction.
(c) The switching process from onion to vortex state is predicted by the
micromagnetic calculation to be nucleation free and to occur only by domain
wall movement. This process is predicted to be very fast [LD02] but it has
not yet been directly observed. Compelling indirect experimental evidence
exists, however, that corroborates the prediction. Magnetoresistance mea
surements with several voltage probes around a ring are like a local probe
and allowed the authors in [Kla02] to monitor the switching of a single ring
in six dierent segments. In [Uhl04] it was directly observed by Lorentz
microscopy that the domain walls on the onion state can be guided around
the ring by the application of a suitable rotating in plane magnetic eld.
In very wide rings there may be an additional state, the vortex core. Its
presence leads to a triple switching, as calculations for a 950 nm wide and
20 nm thick permalloy ring with an outer diameter of 2 m show. The ring
82 Chapter 5. Magnetostatics of Patterned Mesoscopic Rings
40 20 0 20 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
M
/
M
S
0
H (mT)
(a)
A B
C D
E F
A
B
C
D
("")
E
F
y
x
H
FIG. 5.2: (a) Calculated hysteresis curve for a 950 nm wide and 20 nm thick permalloy
ring, with 2 m outer diameter. Right panels are snap shots during reversal. The arrows
indicate the projection of M onto the ring plane, the grey color background encodes M
y
.
A  saturation, B  edge domain formation, C  regions with magnetization perpendicular
to the applied eld direction grow and form a state that resembles the Greek symbol ,
D  vortex state with additional vortex core (white arrow), E  the vortex core is pushed
out of the ring in a direction perpendicular to the applied eld, F  reverse onion
comes from the saturated state [Fig. 5.2 (A)] and forms edge domains (B)
instead of distinct domain walls as in the narrow ring of Fig. 5.1. Domains
grow in which the magnetization is rotated perpendicular to the applied eld.
The resulting magnetization pattern is reminiscent of a Greek (C). This
rotates in the presented calculation between (C) and (D) counterclockwise
until a vortex core forms at small reversed external elds (D). In the core
spins point perpendicular to the plane of the ring plane. Spins around this
core region spiral out of the ring plane [See Fig. 5.2 (D)]. Further decrease
of the eld pushes the vortex core gradually to the edge of the ring (E) and
nally the reverse onion is found (F) when the vortex core is annihilated
at the ring border. The reversal outlined in Fig. 5.2 is in agreement with
further reports in the literature [Kla03a]. The reversal mechanism is very
similar to the reversal of a disk, which is intuitively reasonable since the
inner hole represents just a weak perturbation for the magnetization. The
state is nearly identical to the wstate of disks, only shifted to t in with
5.2. An MFM Investigation 83
the hole.
A vortex core is unfavorable in narrow rings. If the vortex core has to
be compressed into a narrow ring arm the exchange energy contribution
becomes too high because the angles between neighboring spins become too
large. The vortex core only appears in wide enough rings. The rings may
not be too thin either, because in this case the formation of a vortex core
costs too much energy due to the perpendicular stray eld.
It was reported in [Kla03a] that also a single switch transition from onion
directly to reverse onion can appear in 225 nm wide and 4 nm thick Co
rings, i.e. in suciently narrow and thin rings (thin is more important than
narrow). The reason put forward is that the stray eld strength scales with
thickness (less surface pseudo charges in thinner elements). This is supposed
to make it possible for very thin rings to nucleate reverse domains in the ring
arms, while this process is energetically unfavorable for thicker rings which
will respond to the reversed applied eld with the domain wall propagation
discussed above. Additionally the gain in exchange energy of an onion state
compared to the vortex state outweighs its stray eld contribution for very
thin rings. Such ultrathin rings have not been investigated in this thesis.
5.2 An MFM Investigation
We will now experimentally investigate the magnetization congurations and
the switching mechanism of a representative narrow ring sample, which we
will later also use for magnetization dynamics measurements. Two MFM
images together with simulated images of the magnetization of a 300 nm
wide and 33 nm thick permalloy ring in the onion and vortex states are
shown in Fig. 5.3. (Note that the simulation is performed for a thickness of
20 nm.) The switching elds in the calculations do not match those in the
experiment and the calculated images are for illustration. Panels (a) and (c)
are images of the onion state (coming from positive saturation) just before
the switch into the vortex and (b) and (d) are images of the vortex just
after the switch. In the vortex state nearly no detectable MFM contrast is
present. Only a reminiscence of the surface topography can be seen. This
shows that this state is stray eld free. All spins lie along the rim of the
ring. Contrary to this, in the onion state there are poles in line with the
external eld. One clearly sees a whiteblack whiteblack contrast pattern
from left to right. The whiteblack contrast extends a substantial portion
around the ring and only in the side arms where the spins are aligned with
the ring circumference is there no detectable stray eld.
84 Chapter 5. Magnetostatics of Patterned Mesoscopic Rings
a) b)
c) d)

H
1

H
1

H
2

H
2
FIG. 5.3: Magnetic force micrographs of a 300 nm wide 33 nm thick permalloy ring
grown directly on a coplanar waveguide: (a) in the onion state just before the switch and
(b) in the vortex state just after the switch. (c) and (d) are equilibrium magnetizations
calculated using OOMMF at the corresponding position of the hysteresis curve. Since the
vortex is stray eld free, it does not show an MFM contrast as seen in (b). The onion
state (a) has poles along the direction of the external elds where the domain walls are
located. Note that H
1
<H
2
.
MFM was also used to monitor the whole reversal of rings. In Fig. 5.4
four rings which are part of a larger array that is integrated on a coplanar
waveguide are shown. The same sample will also be used for hysteretic high
frequency investigations (Sec. 6.2). The rings are 2.01 m in diameter and
250 nm wide, as measured from the topography (AFM) images recorded
together the MFM images. The external eld started at 74 mT and was
decreased by 2 mT after the acquisition of each image. The positive applied
eld points from left to right. The uppermost left panel is at 2 mT where
all rings are still in the onion state, as can be recognized from the black and
white spots  the poles formed by the domain walls  in line with the external
eld. At 0 mT, the ring marked with the asterisk (*), clearly rotates its
domain walls counterclockwise. The domain wall with white MFM contrast
is pinned at an intermediate position. At 2 mT the left (black) domain
walls of the third and fourth ring (counted from the left) begin to rotate
counterclockwise. At 10 mT the third an fourth ring have switched to
the vortex state while the rst ring stays unchanged. The second ring (*)
switches directly in the reverse onion state, i.e. this particular ring exhibits
5.2. An MFM Investigation 85
+2 mT
+0 mT
2 mT
10 mT
4 mT
8 mT
12 mT
14 mT
16 mT
40 mT
42 mT
44 mT
*
1 3 4 2 1 3 4 2
*
FIG. 5.4: Magnetization reversal of four permalloy rings monitored by MFM during the
down sweep from +74 mT to 74 mT. The corresponding applied elds are indicated under
each panel. Note the ring marked with an asterisk (*): It rotates counterclockwise directly
to the reverse onion state without the intermediate vortex state. Switching distributions
are also clearly visible: A broad distribution for the onion to vortex transition and a
narrower for the vortex to reverse onion.
in this eld sweep direction a single, not a two step switching. Instead of
annihilation of domain walls and the consequent vortex formation, we nd
that the white domain wall gets depinned from the intermediate pinning site
and propagates around the upper ring half with a counterclockwise turning
sense. Decreasing the applied eld further also the leftmost ring jumps
to the vortex state at 14 mT. Then over a wider eld regime the rings
86 Chapter 5. Magnetostatics of Patterned Mesoscopic Rings
remain in their states until 40 mT are reached, where the three rings in
the vortex state perform a switch to the reverse onion state, now signalled
by the reversed black and white contrast of the domain walls.
It is possible to observe the domain wall rotation of these rings only,
because there are intermediate pinning sites with a pinning potential strong
enough to hold the domain walls in a certain position over a suciently large
eld range. Otherwise the domain walls would just propagate around the
ring and only the resulting states would be visible. In the case of the second
ring (*) the intermediate pinning sites even lead to the absence of the vortex
state. A domain wall propagation has therefore been directly observed as
the reversal mechanism for the onion to vortex transition.
Note also the switching eld distributions. The onion to vortex transi
tion is similar for rings three and four, the second ring (*) does not switch
to the vortex at all and the rst ring switches six milliTesla later. The
vortex to reverse onion state, on the other hand, happens for three rings at
40 mT. This switching eld distribution is consistent with that measured
on a single ring at 4 K by magnetoresistance measurements [Kla04b]. This
shows that the onion to vortex transition, which is a propagation and an
nihilation process is more prone to the defect structure of a nanoring than
is the reverse domain nucleation which is the mechanism for the vortex to
reverse onion transition.
A further feature of rings concerning the vortex circulation can be ob
served in the behavior of the second ring (*) when we compare the down
sweep and the upsweep in Fig. 5.5.
2
In the downsweep (Fig. 5.4) the ring
(*) switched directly into the reverse onion via a counterclockwise propaga
tion of its domain walls, with one wall being pinned in the upper ring half,
whereby the annihilation of both walls was suppressed. In the upsweep,
however, we nd that the ring (*) exhibits a two step switching process. It
is in the vortex state at +14 mT. Had the propagation of the domain walls
again been counterclockwise one would have expected the same intermediate
pinning site in the upper ring arm to hold the domain wall. The left domain
2
We note that the contrast is much less pronounced than in the downsweep. The exact
reason is yet unclear but it must have to do with the tip magnetization. At 74mT during
the scanning the contrast weakens considerably (not shown). The tip magnetization does,
however, not ip, as the black white contrast does not reverse! At +58 mT this same
phenomenon occurs. No ip of the magnetization occurs but the strong contrast comes
back again as can be seen in the +80 mT panel. A possible explanation might be that the
tip, which is initially magnetized along the tip axis, perpendicular to the applied eld, is
dragged out of this magnetization direction to a somewhat tilted in plane direction. Upon
reversal of the eld the tip magnetization rotates back in the easy out of plane axis at
+58 mT and the full contrast is recovered.
5.2. An MFM Investigation 87
*
+10 mT
+12 mT
+14 mT
+50 mT
+80 mT
*
*
ring also in vortex
1 3 4 2 1 3 4 2
FIG. 5.5: MFM images of the upsweep from 74 mT to +74mT of the same four rings as
in Fig. 5.4. The interesting feature is that the second ring (*), which did not switch to the
vortex state in the downsweep, is now in the vortex at +14 mT together with the other
rings. This demonstrates that in the upsweep the direction of domain wall propagation
is dierent from the downsweep as otherwise one would expect the same intermediate
pinning site to hold the domain wall and cause a direct switch to the reverse onion. The
onion direction thus determines the subsequent vortex circulation direction for this ring.
wall would have become depinned at a slightly higher eld and would have
propagated around the lower ring arm. Since the applied eld prohibits
the domain wall from travelling further than the position at the ring front
(three oclock), no annihilation would be possible and consequently no vor
tex state would be expected, either. The fact that the ring goes through
the vortex clearly shows that this time the right wall propagates clockwise
and through the lower ring arm where no intermediate pinning sites are
located. The domain wall at the ring tail (nine oclock) is pinned more
strongly, which is exactly the same as in the downsweep. There, also the
ring front domain wall (the white spot in Fig. 5.4) was depinned rst and
the ring tail domain wall (the black one) second. Now both walls meet at
the ring tail and annihilate forming a vortex. This observation conrms the
results and their interpretation put forward in [Kla01]. For a given ring, the
direction of the onion state uniquely determines the circulation of the sub
sequent vortex. Note, however, that this does not lead to practical control
over the vortex circulation direction. Each ring will behave individually and
the vortex circulation corresponding to a particular onion state will have to
be determined for each given ring.
Chapter 6
Magnetization Dynamics of
Rings
In this chapter we present the experimental data of the dynamics of Ni
80
Fe
20
(permalloy) rings. We will show that the characteristic absorption spectra
of rings can be attributed to the static spin congurations. A direct conse
quence is that the magnetic eld dependence of FMR absorption is hysteretic
and that it can be controlled by applying a magnetic eld history. The
hysteretic absorption spectra of these rings can only be measured because
we employ a broadband technique enabling measurements at xed external
elds.
The systematic dependence of the absorption spectra on the ring width
implies that there is a mode localization at high enough elds (in the onion
state) in the side arms of the rings. A phenomenological innite wire model
can quantitatively account for the observed resonance frequencies at high
enough elds. Micromagnetic simulations are used to calculate the two
dimensional mode distribution m(x, y; t) in the rings in the onion and vortex
state. The simulations conrm the mode localization. We will develop
a microscopic picture of the mode localization with the known tools for
rectangular structures. A presentation of the loweld regime data follows.
Here, we observe the eects of the onion state stray eld as clear frequency
shift between resonance frequencies in the onion and the vortex state. In
one ring array we observe steps in the magnetic eld dispersion. Wide rings
show evidence in the FMR absorption of a triple switching.
88
6.1. Overview of the Experimental Data 89
0 5 10 15 20
 91 mT
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency (GHz)
91 mT
0 mT
FIG. 6.1: FMR absorption spectra for an array of 250 nm wide and 26 nm thick rings.
The sweep direction is from 91 mT to 91 mT. Four distinct peaks are visible (marked
by arrows). Just below the mode with highest intensity there are two satellite modes.
At low frequencies and high elds there is an additional mode which vanishes around
0
H = 43 mT. It reappears at around 43 mT. The step width of the external eld was
1.6 mT. The spectrum at zero external eld is marked.
6.1 Overview of the Experimental Data
We will discuss two dierent batches of symmetric ring arrays in this chapter.
The width w of the rings in the arrays is systematically varied from array to
array in the range from 250 nm to 1 m (disks). The outer diameter of the
rings is always kept between 2 m and 2.1 m. The magnetic material is
permalloy with the nominal stoichiometry Ni
80
Fe
20
. The samples belonging
to one batch were deposited in the same deposition step unless explicitly
otherwise stated. All arrays are integrated on coplanar waveguides on GaAs.
Our arrays contain between 135 and 750 rings. The number of rings only
inuences the signal to noise ratio of the absorption spectra. Therefore we
usually investigate arrays with 750 rings.
Magnetic eld dependent high frequency absorption spectra of the nar
rowest rings (batch #1) with width w = 250 10 nm are shown in Fig. 6.1.
The eld was decreased from +91 mT in 1.6 mT steps to 91 mT. Four
90 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
distinct peaks are clearly visible. Starting at the highest eld, the mode
with highest intensity is located at 14.0 GHz. Two weaker satellite modes
are found just below the main mode. At around 7 GHz there is a fourth
mode. It vanishes and reappears at 43 mT and 43 mT, respectively. An
overview over the magnetic eld dispersion of the samples of batch #1 are
shown in Fig. 6.2.
The magnetic eld dispersion of the rings
1
with width between 250 nm
and 400 nm [(a)(c)] behave similar. There are two intense absorption
modes, labelled A and B, and two satellite modes. In (b) and (c) an addi
tional high frequency mode is resolved that follows the behavior of mode A
(light grey symbols). The frequency of the modes A decreases as the ring
width increases and that of the lowest mode B increases. A mode splitting
at a negative eld H
1
sw
is visible as well as an abrupt jump at a eld of
H
2
sw
. The elds are indicated only in panel (a). The dispersion curves are
hysteretic. The ring array with w = 600 nm (d) has a similar behavior in
the high eld regime. In the mode splitting regime, clear steps can be seen
in the lower branch. The wide ring array (e) and the disk array (f) are
dierent from the narrower rings in that the mode splitting regime looks
dierent and the satellite modes are not resolved in the high eld regime.
We will address all of these observations in the course of the chapter.
1
For brevity we will not always write the magnetic eld dispersion of the resonance
frequencies of rings.
6.1. Overview of the Experimental Data 91
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
H
2
sw
H
1
sw
B
A
(b)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(a) w= 250 nm w= 300 nm
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
A
B
w= 400 nm (c)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
A
B
A
B
w= 600 nm
(d)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
w= 800 nm (e)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
A
B
A
B
disks (f)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
FIG. 6.2: Overview of the magnetic eld dispersion of resonance modes of arrays with
dierent ring widths (batch #1). The widths are indicated in each panel. The sweep
direction of the magnetic eld is from positive to negative elds in all panels. The disper
sion of an unpatterned lm deposited together with the rings is included in each panel as
a line. For a detailed description see text.
92 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
6.2 Hysteretic FMR in Rings
In this section we focus on the hysteretic nature of the spectra observed
by broadband FMR. We conne ourselves to the array of rings with w =
250 nm. This particular array was shown by magnetic force microscopy
to have the common twostep switching reversal process (Ch. 5). We will
demonstrate that the domain congurations possess characteristic spectra
and that the transitions are clearly observable. It is shown that due to this
fact the high frequency response can be controlled by the external magnetic
eld, in particular by the magnetic history, which is demonstrated by minor
loops.
The array contained 750 rings, with a measured 2.01 m outer diameter,
and a measured array spacing of 4.4 m (distance between ring centers).
It was chosen so large to exclude coupling eects in order to facilitate the
interpretation of the data. The ring width was measured to be (25010) nm
by atomic force microscopy. The thickness was determined to be (265) nm.
MFM pictures of four rings of this array were shown in Figs. 5.4 and 5.5.
The quasistatic reversal of four rings of the array was monitored in detail
by MFM microscopy. The results were presented in Ch. 5. We could verify
that this ring array exhibited a twostep switching reversal with onion and
vortex states. In order to more accurately determine the switching elds
we use a line scan hysteresis. Here, the MFM tip is scanned along the
line of highest magnetic contrast instead of recording the complete spatial
information. When the rings switch from the onion to the vortex state the
domain walls disappear and we expect a sudden change in contrast at the
switching eld. In Fig. 6.3 (a) a full MFM image of the four rings is shown
at 74 mT. One clearly recognizes the black and white spots due to the
domain walls in line with the applied eld. The line of highest contrast is
indicated as a dashed grey line. Between two line scans the magnetic eld is
increased by 0.3 mT. A hysteresis with full image scan would not be feasible
with such a high resolution. Starting at 74 mT the rings are in the reverse
onion
2
state [see panel (a)]. We observe initially a blackwhite contrast due
to the domain walls, which remains visible up to +12 mT. A sudden jump
occurs into a state with very low magnetic contrast, which is indicative of the
vortex state. The rings remain in the low contrast state until they suddenly
2
The names onion and reverse onion depend on the starting eld of the magnetic eld
sweep. One always starts with the onion state and goes to the reverse onion state. In this
discussion we will invariably and irrespective of the starting eld sign call the state of rings
pointing in the direction of the positive eld onion, and rings pointing in the direction of
the negative eld reverse onion to avoid the necessity of specifying the starting eld sign.
6.2. Hysteretic FMR in Rings 93
0 4 8 12 16 20
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
1 0 1
(f)
(d)
(e)
0
H
(
m
T
)
position (m)
H
(a)
(b)
(c)
H
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
M/M
S
simulated
FIG. 6.3: (a) An MFM image of four rings of the array of 250 nm wide rings at 74 mT.
(b) The cantilever is scanned along the line of highest contrast [dashed line in (a)]. Between
each line scan the external eld is increased by 0.3 mT, the starting eld is 74 mT. The
switching can be clearly seen as the black white contrast abruptly vanishes for each ring at
12 mT and reappears at 40 mT [cf. also white arrows in (b)]. (c) Schematic hysteresis
curve. In the MFM scan we move along the black branch. (d), (e) and (f) are diagrams
of the onion, the vortex, and the reverse onion, respectively.
switch back to a state with whiteblack contrast. This can be explained
by the rings switching to the onion state. A calculated hysteresis has been
included in Fig. 6.3 (c) to illustrate the behavior of the rings. In the line scan
we move along the black branch of the hysteresis. In the panels (d), (e), and
(f) we show sketches of the relevant magnetization congurations, namely
the onion, the vortex and the reverse onion state, respectively. The line scan
hysteresis shows once again the twostep switching of this ring array. The
switching eld distribution of the reverse onion to vortex transition larger
than for the vortex to onion transition.
For a detailed discussion of the dispersion curves, we show in Fig. 6.4
(a) the raw data as a grey scale plot in which the strength of the absorption
is encoded by a the grey scale and in (b) the extracted dispersion curves
for the downsweep (empty circles) and the upsweep (lled circles). For
the time being, the discussion will be conned to the main mode labelled A
and only the part between 7.5 and 16 GHz of the spectrum are shown (not
the lowest mode). The dispersion of a plain permalloy lm deposited in the
same deposition step as the ring array is shown as a black line in (b). In (c)
94 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
8
10
12
14
16
H
2
sw
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
0
H (mT)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
H
1
sw
(b)
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
film 8
10
12
14
16
86 mT
absorption
(arb. units)
(c)
A
(a)
FIG. 6.4: (a) Grey scale plot of the dispersion of the 250 nm wide ring array recorded
during the upsweep. Note the splitting of the main mode A at point H
1
sw
and the
extinction of the lower branch with a corresponding intensity doubling at point H
2
sw
. (b)
Dispersion of the same sample for the upsweep (lled circles) and downsweep (empty
circles). The hysteretic behavior is clearly seen in the low eld regime. (c) A spectrum
recorded at 86 mT. Note that all three panels start at 7.5 GHz, which means that the
lowest mode is not shown.
a spectrum recorded at 86 mT is shown.
In the grey scale plot we follow the same magnetic sweep as in the MFM
linescan hysteresis in Fig. 6.3. Mode A moves to lower frequency as the
applied eld is increased towards positive values. The curvature of mode A
and of the satellites is much less pronounced than that of the plain permalloy
lm shown as a solid line in (b). At zero applied eld the resonance frequency
is 9.7 GHz. When the eld is further increased, the sign of the slope of
mode A remains unchanged, i.e. the dispersion becomes negative. This is
remarkable since usually if the magnitude of the applied eld increases also
that of the internal eld H
int
increases and thus the resonance frequency.
At a eld of 12 mT, marked by H
1
sw
in panel (a) of Fig. 6.4, mode A splits
in two modes. It is a splitting not just the appearance of an additional
mode because at the onset of the second branch the absorbed intensity
weakens considerably. It is approximately halved [see intensity in panel (a)].
The splitting of the two branches increases with rising external eld until at
point H
2
sw
the branch with negative dispersion disappears. At the same time
the intensity of the higher branch is doubled [see point H
2
sw
in (a)]. From
that point onwards, that is for [H
ext
[> 40 mT, mode A and the satellites
are symmetric with respect to the negative eld values.
The natural assumption is that at point H
1
sw
the rings switch from the
reverse onion to the vortex state and at point H
2
sw
back to the onion state.
First the jumps H
1
sw
and H
2
sw
occur at the same elds for the up and down
6.2. Hysteretic FMR in Rings 95
sweep, second the transition is abrupt, like in switching events, and third
the most compelling evidence of course is that the eld values of point H
1
sw
and H
2
sw
coincide with switching elds of the reverse onion to vortex and
vortex to onion transition in the MFM line scan hysteresis shown in Fig. 6.3.
Mode Splitting
The reason of the mode splitting and the negative dispersion can be un
derstood by considering the properties of a ring in a vortex state, as is
schematically shown in Fig. 6.5 (b). In order to excite dynamics there must
be a torque, which in the vortex state is only the case in the rings side
arms. In the ring front and ring tail the magnetization is collinear with
h
hf
. The dynamical excitation will therefore be concentrated in the side
arms in the vortex state as indicated in Fig. 6.5 (b). Imagine the ring for a
moment to be approximated by a series of polygons with increasing number
of corners. When we start with something like a picture frame rather than
a curved object (number of corners n = 4), in the vortex we have only two
longitudinally magnetized wires one of which points in the direction of the
applied eld the other opposite to the eld. Suppose that the wires are long
enough for edge eects to be negligible and assume a uniform precession in
these wires. We can then phenomenologically model the wire simply as a
sample with uniaxial shape anisotropy. The free energy density will just be
that for a uniaxial crystalline anisotropy as far as the mathematical form
is concerned and we can use (2.53) with a suitable free energy density for
uniaxial easy axis the wire axis along the x direction:
F =
0
MH
ext
[cos(
H
) sin sin
H
+ cos cos
H
]
K
A
cos
2
sin
2
+
0
M
2
2
cos
2
(6.1)
where we have omitted the double subscript for the external eld:
H
ext
H
and so on. With this free energy density and the applied eld H
ext
lying in the plane of the sample,
H
= /2, the dispersion formula Eq. 2.53
becomes
_
r
0
_
2
=
_
H
ext
cos(
0
H
) +H
A
cos
2
0
+M
_
(H
ext
cos(
0
H
) +H
A
cos(2
0
)) (6.2)
with H
A
= 2K
A
/
0
M the eective uniaxial anisotropy eld and
0
the
equilibrium azimuthal angle of the magnetization.
0
is straight forwardly
96 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
side arm
H
ext
,H
A
H
ext
<H
A
e
n
e
r
g
y
d
e
n
s
i
t
y
F
(
J
/
m
3
)
angle /
H
ext
=H
A
M
(a) (b)
side arm
front tail
ext
FIG. 6.5: (a) Energy landscape for a wire with eective uniaxial anisotropy eld H
A
=
2K
A
/
0
M as a function of the angle between M and the external eld and uniaxial
wire axis (
H
= 0). The black line is for
0
H = 20 mT,
0
H
A
is chosen to be 100 mT
to match that of the sample. There is a local minimum at for H < H
A
. (b) Schematic
diagram of the side arms in a ring. They are treated like innite wires for the analysis of
the mode splitting. (See text)
found from
F
0
,
0
=
0
MH
ext
sin(
0
H
) +K
A
sin(2
0
)
!
= 0. (6.3)
It is easy to show that there are two equilibrium angles if the eld points
along the wire,
p
0
= 0 and
a
0
= if H
A
> H
ext
.
3
The energy landscape
for this case is schematically shown in Fig. 6.5 and it is clear, that is a
local minimum as long as H
A
> H
ext
. In the vortex state the ring arm that
points in the opposite eld direction is stabilized by the whole magnetiza
tion conguration of the vortex against the external eld. Therefore both
solutions have to be taken into account. The rst solution,
p
0
= 0, inserted
in Eq. 6.2 yields the common:
f
p
2
=
_
0
2
_
2
(H
ext
+H
A
)(H
ext
+H
A
+M) (6.4)
The second solution,
a
0
= inserted in Eq. 6.2 leads to
f
a
2
=
_
0
2
_
2
(H
A
H
ext
)(H
A
H
ext
+M) (6.5)
These two equations give a quantitative description for the observed
splitting of mode A in two branches as will be shown in Fig. 6.7. One arm
3
The condition is found by verifying that
a
0
= is indeed a minimum, i.e.
2
F/
2

a
0
=
0
MH
ext
+ 2K
A
!
> 0 H
A
> H
ext
.
6.2. Hysteretic FMR in Rings 97
is like a longitudinally magnetized wire with the eld parallel to the mag
netization, its dispersion given by f
p
. The other arm is like a longitudinally
magnetized wire with the external eld antiparallel to the magnetization.
The dispersion in this case is given by f
a
. With increasing eld, f
p
in
creases, but this does not hold true for f
a
. We observe a negative dispersion
because the internal eld is given by H
int
= H
A
H
ext
, whence it follows
that increasing the external eld decreases the internal eld and with it the
resonance frequency. It is obvious that the resonance frequency at zero ex
ternal eld is determined purely by the anisotropy eld and the saturation
magnetization. The value of f(H
ext
= 0) = 9.7 GHz is quite high and leads,
to an eective anisotropy eld of
0
H
A
= 100 mT. This high value is caused
by the small width of only 250 nm of the ring. This consideration justies
our analysis as we are always in the regime H
A
> H
ext
. If the sample were
indeed a longitudinally magnetized wire with a width of 250 nm, the an
tiparallel conguration would be stable up to
0
H
A
= 100 mT. It is clear
that the analogy of the wire is carried too far if one would like to explain
the switching at 40 mT which is determined by the energetics of the ring
shape of the sample. It holds true that f
p
f
a
, describing the fact that the
branches cross only at H
ext
= 0.
Minor Loops and Control of the High Frequency Response
To substantiate our picture of mode splitting in FMR due to the irreversible
switching in the vortex state we measured the dynamic response starting
from dierent magnetic histories. The idea of the experiment is captured
schematically in Fig. 6.6 (c), where a calculated hysteresis with two step
switching is shown. We apply two dierent eld sequences. The rst is pos
itive saturation (H
1
) followed by a negative eld (H
2
) just below the vortex
to reverseonion transition and sweeping back up. In this case the rings
follow the lower branch of the dispersion (path marked by black arrows).
The second eld sequence is again positive saturation (H
1
= H
1
) but now
followed by a eld (H
2
) just above the vortex to reverseoniontransition
and sweeping back up. Here, the rings remain in the intermediate vortex
state and should follow the path indicated by the grey double headed arrow
in (c). A dierence in the absorption spectrum establishes whether a tran
sition is irreversible. Note that this experiment is possible only due to the
broadband nature of the spectrometer.
In Fig. 6.6 (a) the eld sequence
+90 mT (
0
H
1
) 41 mT (
0
H
2
) H
meas
98 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
8
10
12
14
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
8
10
12
14
calc.
(c)
0
H (mT)
(a)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
reversible
(b)
H
2
H
1
'
H
2
'
H
2
H
1
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
H
1
=H
1
'
H
2
'
M
/
M
s
H (arb. units)
FIG. 6.6: (a) Minor Loop. Before recording each of the data points (empty circles) a eld
sequence of +90 mT (
0
H
1
) and then 41 mT (
0
H
2
) was applied. Grey circles represent
the upsweep of Fig. 6.4 (b). Panel (b) of this gure: The sequence before recording is now
+90 mT (
0
H
1
) and 35 mT (
0
H
2
). In this case the data does not follow the upsweep
as in (a). A symmetric X forms. Between the dashed vertical lines the eld can be swept
reversibly. Panel (c) shows a calculated hysteresis curve. The magnetic eld on the x axis
is in arbitrary units since the calculated switching elds do not necessarily match those of
the experiment.
is applied. Field H
2
is just below the point H
2
sw
where the lower branch
of the split mode A vanishes and the upper branch doubles its intensity
[compare to Fig. 6.4 (a)]. One can see that the measured dispersion of the
sample prepared with this eld sequence is just the same as the dispersion of
the same sample coming from negative saturation, represented by the grey
symbols. This shows that the magnetic state of the rings at 41 mT is
reversibly reachable from negative saturation or, in other words, that this is
the reverse onion state.
In the case of Fig. 6.6 (b), the second eld sequence
+90 mT (
0
H
1
) 35 mT (
0
H
2
) H
meas
is applied. One sees the two peaks with f
a
and f
p
, which we have ascribed
to the vortex state (from the parallel and antiparallel arm). The dispersion
is now dierent from the upsweep (grey symbols) which lacks a resonance
peak with negative dispersion at H < 0. The dispersion in Fig. 6.6 (b) forms
6.2. Hysteretic FMR in Rings 99
90 60 30 0 30 60 90
6
9
12
15
40 20 0 20 40
6
9
12
(b)
f
r
e
s
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(a)
f
p
f
r
e
s
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
f
a
FIG. 6.7: (a) Fit to the whole eld range with the wire model, black lines in the onion
state and grey lines in the vortex state. (b) Vortex state: f
p
is tted according to Eq. 6.4
and f
a
after Eq. 6.5. Note that the wire model describes mode A not only in the vortex
state.
a symmetric X around H
ext
= 0. The existence of the two branches and the
symmetry show clearly that the rings are indeed in the vortex state, since
the vortex state is invariant under inplane rotation of the magnetic eld
(cylinder symmetry). The same experiment was performed at point H
1
sw
of
Fig. 6.4, the onset of the splitting of mode A, and it turns out that the high
frequency response is irreversible upon crossing this point, which makes it
clear that this is the onion to vortex transition.
Summarizing, the minor loops show that the transition at 12 mT (H
1
sw
)
is the onion to vortex transition and the transition at 40 mT (H
2
sw
) is the
vortex to reverse onion transition. It could be demonstrated that the high
frequency response can be controlled by choosing a magnetization congu
ration with the aid of an external eld.
High eld regime
Let us check if the wire model can also be applied to the onion state regime.
Such a model would explain the substantially raised frequency compared
with the permalloy lm (factor of 1.4 at 90 mT) and the much weaker
curvature of this mode. We show in Fig. 6.7 a t to mode A using the
set of parameters
0
H
A
= 100 mT, = 176 GHz/T (free electron value
g = 2.0023) and
0
M = 1.12T. The saturation magnetization is close to
that of the lm deposited together with the sample (1.3 T). The discrepancy
might be due to the patterning process or the simplifying assumptions used
here.
100 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
The black parts are tted to the Kittel formula Eq. 6.4, the lower branch
in the vortex state to f
a
from Eq. 6.5, and the upper branch in the vortex
state to f
p
from Eq. 6.4. In (b) f
a
and f
p
are shown as grey lines. One should
treat the t with care considering the substantial simplication it is based
on, but since the wire model describes mode A over the whole magnetic
eld range not only in the vortex state very well, this t implies that
mode A is mainly located in the side arms of the ring in both states, onion
and vortex. Further experimental data must be presented to develop an
understanding for this, which will be done in the following section.
6.3 Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field
Regime
The closing conjecture on the mode localization will be further scrutinized
leading to a qualitative understanding of the mode localization. In this
chapter the focus will again be on the high eld regime, or in other words,
rings in the onion state. The low eld regime will be studied later.
6.3.1 Dependence of the Absorption Spectrum on the Ring
Width
Further experimental data is needed for the understanding of the mode spec
trum. The width of the rings mainly determines their static magnetization
and it is also the key parameter to varying the eective anisotropy eld if the
wire model turns out to be meaningful. Therefore we varied the ring width
systematically from sample to sample. The ring widths were determined
with AFM measurements. A disk array with disks of 2.1 m diameter and
samples with 930 nm, 830 nm, 480 and 300 nm are discussed here. These
arrays are from batch #2.
Clearly, a systematic development can be observed in Fig. 6.8 (a)(e),
where the absorption spectra of rings with dierent widths at an external
eld of 90 mT are displayed. The disk array (a) shows one clear main
mode (A) and a subtle satellite mode at 10.9 GHz. This weak mode can
be clearly distinguished from spurious ripple as it shifts systematically with
the external eld (not shown). The main resonance is about 300 MHz lower
than that of a lm deposited together with batch #2. Introducing a small
115 nm inner hole in the disk (b) leads to a further redshift (30 MHz) of
the main mode B compared to the disk. Two satellites are now present,
one labelled A. This new mode is very broad and resembles rather a band
6.3. Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field Regime 101
0 5 10 15 20
B
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency f (GHz)
A
B
(e) w=300 nm
(d) w=480 nm
A
B (c) w=830 nm
A
B
A
(b) w=930 nm
(a) Disk 2 m B
FIG. 6.8: Overview of the systematic development of the absorption spectra as a function
of the ring width (batch #2). All spectra are for an external eld of 90 mT. Lorentz ts
highlight the position of resonance frequencies. A disk has a clear main mode B, which lies
just a little lower than the lm resonance, and a smaller satellite at 10.9 GHz. Introducing
a 115 nm hole (w = 930 nm) leads to two stronger satellites at higher frequencies and
a redshift of the main mode B. The satellites merge to a broad bandlike peak labelled
A and the red shift of B again increases for an 830 nm wide ring. In the w = 480 nm
ring the oscillator strength of mode A and B are nearly equal, B again redshifted and A
blueshifted. The oscillator strength reverses for the smallest ring width w = 300 nm and
the frequency splitting is highest.
102 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
of modes, as its line shape is not Lorentzian and changes somewhat as a
function of H
ext
. By narrowing the ring width to 830 nm (c), the redshift
of mode B continues and the mode labelled A grows stronger and shifts to
higher frequency. The trend continues for the 480 nm (d) and 300 nm (e)
wide rings: The frequency dierence of modes A and B grows larger with
decreasing ring width. The absorption strength shifts from mode B to A.
For the 480 nm wide rings they are equal and for the 300 nm wide rings even
reversed compared to the wide rings and the disk. Both modes seem again
to be composed of more than one line for the 480 nm ring, judging from the
shoulders at the low frequency sides. To give a systematic presentation the
resonances of these two main modes are plotted in Fig. 6.9 for dierent eld
values as lled squares. The magnetic elds are indicated in each panel.
Note that the satellites are omitted for clarity.
In Fig. 6.9 the splitting of modes A and B seems to be symmetric about
the resonance frequency of a reference permalloy lm which was deposited
in the same deposition step as the ring and disk arrays. Qualitatively the
1/wlike behavior of mode A as function of ring width is again that of a wire.
The wire model is apparently expandable to the onion state if one assumes
that also in this state mode A is localized in the side arms of the rings.
We think of rings again as picture frames, with one pair of longitudinally
magnetized wires and the other pair transversely magnetized (Fig. 6.10).
With decreasing width the shape anisotropy of the longitudinally magnetized
wires increases: When the spins in these regions of the ring tip out of the
ring border they create a dynamical demagnetization eld which increases
the precession frequency. It jumps immediately to mind that the behavior
of mode B is consistent with this picture, if it is assumed to be that mode of
the part of the rings that are like transversely magnetized wires. In this case
the internal eld in the wires (i.e. ring front and tail) is decreased due to
the stray eld of the static magnetization, H
int
= H
ext
N
x
M
s
. The more
narrow the wire, the smaller the internal eld and the smaller the resonance
frequency. This consideration entails the conclusion that the main modes
are localized in dierent segments of the rings. Mode A in the side arms
and the mode B in the ring tails and ring front.
Let us calculate the resonance frequency of a transversely and longitu
dinally magnetized wire assuming a uniform precession and compare this to
the width dependent resonance frequencies of the ring arrays. As before,
let the external eld be applied in the x direction and let the rings lie in
the (x, y) plane. The frequency for the uniform precession is given by the
6.3. Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field Regime 103
400 600 800 1000 1200
2
4
6
8
10
12
400 600 800 1000 1200
4
6
8
10
12
14
400 600 800 1000 1200
2
4
6
8
10
400 600 800 1000 1200
4
6
8
10
12
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
G
H
z
)
width (nm)
50 mT
(c)
A
B
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
G
H
z
)
width (nm)
89.5 mT
(a)
B
A
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
G
H
z
)
width (nm)
20 mT
(d)
A
B
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
G
H
z
)
width (nm)
70 mT
(b)
A
B
FIG. 6.9: Resonance frequencies at four dierent eld values as a function of ring width
(batch #2). The dashed horizontal lines are the resonance frequency of the reference
permalloy lm at the magnetic eld indicated. The grey lines are calculated without t
parameter after Eq. 6.9 for mode A and Eq. 6.10 for mode B with the values for the
thickness and width from AFM measurements and the saturation magnetization of the
reference permalloy lm (1.36 T). The wire model describes mode A well for all elds.
There is a good agreement with mode B for higher elds, for lower eld values the trend
is captured by the model.
formula (2.43)
f
r
=
[[
0
2
_
(H
ext
+ (N
y
N
x
)M)(H
ext
+ (N
z
N
x
)M). (6.6)
repeated here for convenience. To apply this formula we need to calculate
the demagnetizing factors for a thin transversely magnetized wire. Let the
wire lie along the y direction. Since we are not dealing with an ellipsoidal
body the demagnetizing factor will be inherently position dependent. The
result is given by [Jos65]
104 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
(a)
A B
(b)
x
y
H
FIG. 6.10: Wire model for the main modes of rings. Thick black arrows indicate the
direction of the local magnetization. (a) Mode A described as longitudinally magnetized
wires. (b) Mode B described as transversely magnetized wires.
N
x
(x) =
1
_
arctan
_
t
2x +w
_
arctan
_
t
2x w
__
. (6.7)
A detailed derivation can be found in Appendix A. We will as a further
approximation also neglect the position dependence and take the demag
netizing eld in the middle of the wire N
x
(x = 0). Furthermore since the
aspect ratio of the ring segments t/w is much less than one, the expression
can be expanded:
N
x
(x = 0) =
1
_
arctan
_
t
w
_
arctan
_
t
w
__
=
1
_
arctan(0) +
1
1 + (t/w)
2
t/w=0
t
w
_
_
arctan(0)
1
1 + (t/w)
2
t/w=0
t
w
_
+O
_
t
w
_
2
=
2t
w
. (6.8)
The demagnetizing factors obey the sum rule N
x
+N
y
+N
z
= 1. There
fore, for the transversely magnetized segments (ring front and tail), N
x
=
2t/w and N
z
= 1 N
x
, while for the ring side arms (longitudinally mag
netized wires) N
y
= 2t/w and N
z
= 1 N
y
. With this the precession
frequencies for the two segment types of the ring are given by:
f
A
=
0
2
_
H
ext
+
2t
w
M
__
H
ext
+
_
1
2t
w
_
M
_
(6.9)
f
B
=
0
2
_
H
ext
2t
w
M
__
H
ext
+
_
1
4t
w
_
M
_
. (6.10)
6.3. Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field Regime 105
The grey lines in Fig. 6.9 (a) to (d) have been calculated with Eqs. 6.9
for mode A and 6.10 for mode B. The parameters that enter the equation,
thickness t = 14.5 nm, width w, and saturation magnetization
0
M =
1360 mT were all measured for batch #2 so that there are no free parameters.
The description of the data by this model is extremely good at high elds
for both modes, A and B. For mode A the agreement remains very good for
all elds with the exception of the 300 nm wide rings. The discrepancy for
mode A at 300 nm will be lifted later by introducing a localization length in
the x direction. For mode B at low elds (
0
H
ext
20 mT) the description
only captures the trend of the data point but no quantitative agreement is
achieved.
It is, however, clear that one may not describe the ring front and tail in
a low eld regime as transversely magnetized innite wires. When the eld
is lowered the rings form pronounced head to head and tail to tail domain
walls in order to reduce the demagnetizing eld. This domain wall formation
is not taken into account in the wire model and one inevitably overestimates
the demagnetizing factor, which leads to an underestimation of the internal
eld and therefore the calculated resonance frequencies lie too low. This
is exactly what is observed in Fig. 6.9 (d). The picture of mode B as a
localized hardaxis wire like mode will need further modication as will be
shown by measurements of its angular dependence (see Sec. 6.3.2).
Summarizing, the splitting of two main modes in the ring spectra as
a function of the ring width was demonstrated. The wire model that had
already been invoked for the description of the modes in the vortex state is
also very successful at describing quantitatively without tting parameters
the ring width dependence of the main observed modes over a wide eld
range. The good agreement between the model and the experiment implies
that the main modes are localized in dierent ring segments: The high fre
quency mode (A) is located in the side arms, and the low frequency mode
(B) is located in the ring front and ring tail. It is, however, also clear that a
model based on such greatly simplifying assumptions cannot be used to ob
tain a microscopic understanding of these phenomena, although it describes
them very well. We will try to rene our microscopic understanding in the
following but rst we will put forward further experimental data that are
consistent with the localization picture developed so far.
6.3.2 Angular Dependence of the Main Resonance Modes
We investigated the angular dependence of the resonance modes of the array
with 250 nm wide rings (batch #1). The magnetic eld is rotated in 3
steps
106 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
60 120 180 240 300 360
8
9
10
11
4
6
8
10
12
14
inplane angle ()
f
p
f
a
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
4
6
8
10
12
14
vortex 34.5 mT
(b)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(a)
onion 82.6 mT
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
8
9
10
11
(d)
inplane angle ()
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(c)
h
hf
h
hf
FIG. 6.11: (a) Grey scale plot of the angular dependence of the 250 nm rings in the
onion state at a xed magnetic eld of 
0
H= 82.6 mT. The rings are saturated along
the waveguide at
0
H
sat
= 91 mT, the eld is lowered to H and then slowly rotated
through an inplane angle at xed magnitude H prior to recording a spectrum. (b)
The extracted dispersion. Note the uniaxial character of the main resonance modes (180
symmetry). Around 90
and 270
symmetry and outofphase character are seen. The light grey and
black lines are calculated as explained in the text. The same parameters as in Fig. 6.7
were used. Note that there are no nosignalzones in the vortex state. The sketches on
the right show the measurement geometry.
6.3. Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field Regime 107
through 360
, i.e. the eld is aligned with the waveguide, the resonance frequencies of
all four modes are highest. They decrease with increasing angle. Around 90
and 270
no signal can be detected. Here, the spins in the rings point nearly
perpendicular to the ring side arms, the eect being that (i) the torque
on them is very weak, since they are nearly parallel to the excitation eld
h
hf
, and (ii) the dynamic components of the ring magnetization is mainly
in the (x, z) plane while the sensitivity of the waveguide is mainly in the
y direction. This is the reason why the dierence detection scheme works.
Between 90
and 270
.
After 270
.
Panels (c) and (d) of Fig. 6.11 display the results when the rings are
prepared in the vortex state. The result is strikingly dierent. Two modes
are observed which we recognize from the zero angle eld sweeps (Sec. 6.2).
But the symmetry of those modes is not uniaxial, i.e. 180
turn to reach the starting situation. Especially the vortex with its
cylindrical symmetry could have been assumed to possess no azimuthal angle
dependence at all, but the external magnetic eld and the excitation of our
setup introduces a symmetry breaking: The excitation will be concentrated
in the side arms of the rings. No matter how the external eld is rotated,
in the ring front and ring tail the spins point in the same direction as h
hf
,
which means they represent nodes. This brings us back to the wire model
which has a builtin 360
0
_
2
=
_
H
ext
cos(
0
H
) +H
A
cos
2
0
+M
_
(H
ext
cos(
0
H
) +H
A
cos(2
0
)) . (6.11)
For the mode of the side arm starting in parallel conguration
p
= 0, for
the other one we set
a
= . The other values are the same as always
used for this sample,
0
M
S
= 1120 mT and
0
H
A
= 100 mT (batch #1).
The result is shown in Fig. 6.11 (d) as grey line for f
a
and black line for
f
p
. The calculation matches the experimental data well without tting. In
particular, the wire model explains the two out of phase modes with 360
symmetry.
What would the wire model predict for the onion state? In this magne
tization state the experimental data were interpreted to show a localization
of the main mode A in the side arms and main mode B in the ring front and
ring tail. This means we are again only interested in the projection of the
applied eld on the corresponding ring arms.
Assume that in the onion state the spins lie along the border of the ring
except for the parts in which the domain walls sit. When the applied eld
is rotated it will drag the domain walls with it as is schematically shown
in Fig. 6.12 (a)(d). Due to the localization mode A is concentrated in
the side arms. In the diagram the side arm segments in which mode A is
located are highlighted by the transparent parts. As long as
H
< 90
the
magnetization points in its initial direction in both side arms [
0
= 0 or in
the positive x direction in the diagram of Fig. 6.12(a)]. This magnetization
direction is indicated by black arrows. At 90
the domain
wall is rotated through this position but now the magnetization in this ring
arm is at an angle
0
= 180
and
H
> 270
<
H
< 270
and 270
and 270
and 180
and 180
with respect to
112 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
4.28 GHz B @
10.86 GHz A @
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
max
min
H
0
p
h
hf
x
y
FIG. 6.14: Simulated mode proles of a ring with w = 300 nm, t = 4 nm, and
0
M =
1.36 T. The external eld was
0
H = 86 mT. The prole of the mode with 4.28 GHz is
shown in (a)(c). (a) is the m
y
component, (b) m
z
, and (c) is the phase. (d)(e) mode
prole for the mode at 10.9 GHz. White: maximum, black: minimum.
the external eld. This mode shows a weaker localization which can explain
why in the angular dependent spectra it does not behave like a hardaxis
magnetized wire. The calculated mode distribution is still consistent with
the hardaxis behavior as a function of the ring width.
In Fig. 6.15 we show the simulation of the magnetization dynamics of
a ring in the vortex state. Panel (a) shows the average simulated spec
trum at
0
H = 10 mT and panel (b) a measured single spectrum at
0
H = 31 mT. Note that the two broad features marked waveguide
are found in every sample, in particular also with empty waveguides. We
attribute them to some absorption of our transmission line or waveguide.
While the quantitative agreement is relatively poor, the qualitative agree
ment is excellent. We nd two dominant modes in the simulation just as
in the measurement. Even one small satellite absorption found in the ex
periment between the main modes is reproduced in the simulation (marked
by arrow). The mode proles of the dominant modes are shown in panels
(b) and (d). We observe a localization of the these two modes in the ring
side arms. The higher mode labelled f
p
is indeed found in the side arm
whose magnetization points parallel to the external eld [Fig. 6.15 (b)]. It
is less strongly localized and one can observe a standing wave pattern that
extends around the whole ring [Fig. 6.15 (d)]. Nevertheless there is a clear
mode maximum in the side arm. The mode labelled f
a
is found in the an
tiparallel side arm. The simulation excellently conrms our interpretation
of the mode splitting of narrow rings in the vortex state.
6.3. Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field Regime 113
H
0 2 4 6 8 10
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
f
a
f
a
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
) (a) (b)
(d)
f
p
f
p
10 mT
sim.
f
p
f
a
f
a
f
a
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency f (GHz)
(a) (c)
(b)
f
p
f
p
wave guide
31 mT
meas.
FIG. 6.15: (a) Simulated mode proles of a ring with w = 300 nm, t = 4 nm, and
0
M = 1.36 T in the vortex state. The external eld was
0
H = 10 mT. (b) Measured
spectrum of a ring with w = 300 nm at
0
H = 31 mT. (c) Simulated m
z
component of
the mode labelled f
a
. (d) Simulated m
z
component of the mode labelled f
p
. The vortex
circulation direction is sketched in (c). White: maximum, black: minimum. Note the
dierent frequency scales.
It should be noted that the quantitative agreement of the simulations is
relatively poor. Similar disagreement is reported in the literature [Par03]. It
is also noteworthy that the simulated spectrum depends signicantly on the
thickness t as very recent results have shown. The result of the simulation
of thick rings is strongly inuenced by the cell discretization. This problem
can be circumvented if one uses small thicknesses in the simulation. This
is why we have used t = 4 nm in the simulation as opposed to 26 nm in
the real sample. The discrepancy of the resonance frequency and switching
elds is very likely due to the dierent thicknesses.
The simulation results, however, clearly conrm the localization of the
highest mode A in the onion state and the vortex qualitatively. In the onion
state it shows mode B to have localized parts in the hardaxis segments
but also a complex standing spin wave pattern extending around the whole
ring. The mode localization of mode A extends to the vortex state. The
114 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
mode in the antiparallel ring arm shows a clear localization. The mode in
the parallel ring arm is also localized although less strongly. An additional
standing wave pattern is found, that extends around the whole ring.
6.3.4 Analytical Approach for the Description of Mode Lo
calization
The micromagnetic simulations conrm the experimental ndings of a mode
localization in the ring side arms of narrow rings. So far the behavior of the
localized modes has been described in the framework of a phenomenological
innite wire model, which is unsurprisingly incapable of explaining the un
derlying reason for the localization. The description of the side arm modes
of a ring worked well in the wire model because the localization length is
short enough for the ring segments curvature to be neglected. Now, we want
to go a step further and attempt to explain why the modes are localized.
The reason for the localization in nite rectangular elements lies always
in an inhomogeneity of the internal eld. We will now try to adapt the
WKB approach used for the rectangular elements [Gus03, Bay03b] to the
rings side arms, because the internal eld prole is similar. The result of
the micromagnetic simulation of the internal eld for a 300 nm ring are
presented in Fig. 6.16 (a). We used the parameters of batch #2 for the
simulation. The important component for the further discussion is the x
component (along the eld direction) [Fig. 6.16(a)]. White corresponds to
0
H
int
= 90 mT and black to 0 mT. The micromagnetic simulations clearly
show what is intuitively clear: In the rings side arms the internal eld is at
a maximum because the spins are aligned with the boundary (white spots
in the side arms). There is an asymmetry within the side arm regions. At
the inner radius R
i
the internal eld is higher than at the outer radius R
out
.
The reason for this is possibly because the exchange energy contribution is
higher for spins near the inner ring border. The bending radius is smaller
and hence the angle of neighboring spins will be higher if spins follow the
ring border in order to minimize the demagnetizing eld.
Lateral cuts through H
x
int
along the dashed lines indicated in Fig. 6.16
(a) are shown in panel (b) of the same gure. The cuts are parallel to the
applied eld direction and y = R
i
+ 40 nm, R
i
+ w/2 , and R
i
+ 260 nm
from the ring center [Point (1 m,1 m) in Fig. 6.16 (a)]. The resemblance
with the internal eld proles along the applied eld direction of rectangular
elements immediately implies that a similar dipolar localization mechanism
could be at play. As in the rectangular elements we think of a local dispersion
in the position dependant internal eld landscape [Dem04b, Jor02, Bay04,
6.3. Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field Regime 115
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
x (m)
y
(
m
)
0
H
ext
86 mT
(a) (b)
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
25
50
75
40
60
80
40
60
80
(iii)
x (m)
y = R
i
+40 nm
y = R
i
+150 nm
(ii)
0
H
i
n
t
(
m
T
)
y = R
i
+260 nm
(i)
( ) i
( ) iii
FIG. 6.16: (a) Grey scale plot of micromagnetic calculation of the xcomponent of the
internal eld at
0
H = 86 mT (ring width 300 nm). Scale: 0 (black) 90 mT (white). Note
that OOMMF calculates many spikes in cells at the ring border (cells that do not have
a nearest neighbor in all directions) probably due to the exchange energy contribution.
They are discarded for the calculation of resonance frequencies. (b) Lateral proles along
the dashed lines indicated in (a). Note the resemblance with the proles of rectangular
elements along the applied eld direction.
Bay03b]. We make the further simplifying assumption that we can treat the
internal eld as translationally invariant along the y direction. We will use
the eld prole along the ring center at R + w/2 for the calculation. The
dispersion is calculated as for rectangular elements by virtue of (4.7) [Gus03]
2
mn
=
_
mn
H
+
M
2
mn
_ _
mn
H
+
M
2
mn
+
M
F
mn
(
mn
t)
_
,
where
mn
H
is the frequency corresponding to the eective internal eld value
mn
H
=
H
M
N
mn
, with (6.12)
N
mn
=
4
wt
_
d
m
2
mn
(
)N
xx
(
). (6.13)
The integration extends over the area of the rectangle with a width equal
to the ring width w and a length equal to the localization length . The
area is shown schematically in Fig. 6.16 (a). The matrix elements for the
dipoledipole interaction are again given by
116 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
F
mn
(
mn
t) = 1 P(
mn
t)
_
k
2
m,x
2
mn
_
+
P(
mn
t) (1 P(
mn
t))
_
M
H
mn
+
M
2
mn
_
_
k
2
n,y
2
mn
_
(6.14)
and
P(
mn
t) = 1
1 exp(
mn
t)
mn
t
. (6.15)
For our curved segments we assume the discrete wave vectors in the x and
y direction to be given by
k
m,x
=
(m+ 1)
, and k
n,y
=
(n + 1)
w
n, m = 0, 1, 2 . . . (6.16)
and
2
mn
= k
2
m,x
+k
2
n,y
.
A slight modication was necessary compared to Ch. 4 where dipolar
pinning at the boundaries of rectangular elements was taken into account
by the eective width w
e
which is always slightly larger than the real
width. The spins at the boundary of a magnetic element are neither free
nor fully pinned. In a curved element it is also expected that a dipolar
pinning of some type may exist, but one cannot expect the approximate
formula for w
e
derived for the case of straight boundaries also to hold in
the case of curved structures. We therefore assume fully pinned modes and
use k
n,y
= (n + 1)/w instead of (n + 1)/w
e
in the calculation.
The localization length is initially unknown as are in principle the
mode proles m
mn
(x, y) needed for the calculation of the frequency cor
responding to the eective internal eld value
mn
H
(6.12). But as in the
previous chapter we can just make educated guesses since the frequency
does not strongly depend on the particular choice of the mode prole. It
does, however, strongly depend on which width is used in the denition of
k
n,y
. The mode proles are assumed to be m
e
mn
= cos(k
m,x
x) cos(k
n,y
y) for
both indices even and m
o
mn
= sin(k
m,x
x) sin(k
n,y
y) for both indices odd or
the suitable combination of sine and cosine for mixed even and odd indices.
Our calculations will show that only the lowest mode in the longitudinal
direction n = 0 is needed. Note that the lowest mode prole (0, 0) used for
6.3. Dipolar Mode Localization in the High Field Regime 117
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
10
11
12
13
14
v iv iii ii
(b)
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
f
i
e
l
d
0
H
i
n
t
(
m
T
)
position x (m)
(a)
i
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
wave vector k
x
(10
5
/cm)
i
ii
iii
iv
v
f
exp
FIG. 6.17: (a) Internal eld prole along the middle (R
i
+w/2) of a ring side arm at an
applied eld of
0
H = 86 mT (ring width 300 nm). The values at the positions marked by
the roman numerals (dashed lines) are used for the calculation of the dispersion. (b) The
calculated dispersions as a function of wave vector k
x
in the direction of the applied eld
at the positions marked in (a). For points outside of the region denoted by (full vertical
lines) there is no real wave vector at which the dispersion intersects the experimental
frequency of 13.6 GHz and therefore no modes can exist.
the calculation shown in Fig. 6.18 bears strong resemblance with the prole
observed in micromagnetic simulations Fig. 6.14 (e).
With the above formulae the dispersion curves
0n
are calculated (Fig.
6.18) with the set of parameters always used for samples from batch #2
(t = 14.5 nm (AFM),
0
M = 1.36 T, g = 2). is varied until the lowest
mode ts the experimental data very well. The dispersion curves as a func
tion of the wave vector k
x
for dierent internal eld values is shown in Fig.
6.17 (b). The positions of the values of the internal eld in the calculations
are indicated in panel (a) by roman numerals (i )(v). We see that outside a
certain region there are no real wave vectors which can satisfy the dispersion
relation f
exp
= f
0n
(k
m,x
, H
int
). In Fig. 6.17 (b) one of these limiting disper
sions corresponding to position (v) is marked in grey. It does not have an
intersection with the experimental frequency (horizontal line) at 13.6 GHz.
Outside of the points v the spin waves are thus exponentially damped.
The wave vector as a function of position along the magnetic eld is
plotted in Fig. 6.18 (b). The dierence of the left and right positions at
which the intersection with the experimental frequency is at k
x
(x
i
0
) = 0
(turning points) denes the localization length through = x
l
0
x
r
0
. It is
found to be 760 nm for this case. We have found that the best way for
118 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
65
70
75
80
85
0 20 40 60 80 100
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
w
a
v
e
v
e
c
t
o
r
k
x
(
1
0
5
/
c
m
)
x (m)
~ 760 nm
0
H
ext
= 86 mT R
i
+w/2
(b)
m
y
0
H
i
n
t
(
m
T
)
(0,0)
(0,1)
(0,4)
x
n=4
n=3
n=2
n=1
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H
ext
(mT)
n=0
(a)
FIG. 6.18: (a) Magnetic eld dispersion of several modes (black lines) and experimental
data (black symbols). (b) Calculated wave vector (black line) as a function of the position
in the internal eld landscape (grey line). Turning points exist outside which no real
wave vector can be found. The left and right turning points dene the localization length
= x
l
0
x
r
0
= 760 nm. The right hand side graphs represent the mode proles (0,0), (0,1),
(0,4) (from bottom to top) used for the calculation.
a starting value
0
for the calculation is to adjust the calculated magnetic
eld dispersion to the experimental data [Fig. 6.18 (a)]. Note again the
underlying assumption that varies only weakly with the external eld.
One might alternatively think about a selfconsistency approach in which
a starting value
0
is chosen, which is in principle arbitrary. Then one could
calculate the dispersions and the wave vector as a function of the x coordi
nate and nd a value
1
. Then the calculation is iteratively repeated with
the new localization length until it does not change signicantly anymore:
n+1
n
0. This calculation leads to localization lengths at which the
magnetic eld dispersion does not describe the data very well anymore and
it does not necessarily converge. Therefore it seemed to us to make more
6.4. Low Field Regime 119
sense to chose
0
such that magnetic eld dependence of the dispersion is
well described and then only the correction after one calculation step is
used. Nevertheless the value for the localization length is more of a ball
park estimate than a rigorous determination. Note that the value is similar
to dipolar localization found in square elements [Bay03b]. The localization
length found within this analytical approach is reasonably close to the values
one nds in the micromagnetic simulations.
The wave vector should fulll the semiclassical BohrSommerfeld quan
tization integral
l
+
r
+ 2
_
x
r
0
x
l
0
k
x,n
(
mn
, H
int
(x))dx = 2l, (6.17)
which might serve as a second consistency check. The phase jumps at the
turning points are, however, unknown. The value of the integral over the
wave vector between the determined turnings points is 2.86549, close to
within 10%. This model shows that the modes in the ring side arms are
localized in a region where the internal eld is at a maximum.
We have presented an analytical approach which is capable of explaining
the mode localization of mode A in the ring side arms. We found a localiza
tion length of 760 nm. The localization length is consistent with that found
in micromagnetic simulations. The mode prole for the calculation strongly
resembles that found in the simulations.
6.4 Low Field Regime
6.4.1 Vortex SelfBiasing
Now we turn to a discussion of the high frequency response in the low eld
regime. The overview in Fig. 6.2 at the beginning of the chapter had shown
that the low eld frequency response of a ring depends on the ring width.
We start by taking a closer look at the narrow rings (batch #1) with widths
ranging between 250 nm and 400 nm. The low eld part of the spectrum
of these rings is shown in Fig. 6.19. All three presented rings show a mode
splitting into two modes. At some lower eld the lower branch suddenly
disappears. The region that shows a mode splitting was shown to be the
vortex state. The 300 and 400 nm wide rings show a clear step in the
magnetic eld dispersion when they enter and leave the vortex state. This
step can also be seen in the rst satellite mode in the 300 nm wide ring
[dark grey symbols in (b)]. The 400 nm wide ring (c) shows a step in the
120 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
40 20 0 20 40
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
40 20 0 20 40 40 20 0 20 40
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(a)
250 nm
0
H (mT)
(b)
300 nm
0
H (mT)
(c)
400 nm
FIG. 6.19: Magnetic eld dispersion of narrow magnetic rings in the low eld range. (a)
w = 250 nm, (b) w = 300 nm, and (c) w = 400 nm. Note the increasingly pronounced
frequency shift when the rings enter and leave the vortex state (arrows).
rst satellite mode (dark grey symbols) and the higher order mode (light
grey symbols). In the vortex state the branches show a parallel shift to
higher frequencies. Additionally it can be noted that the lower branch with
negative dispersion shows an increased curvature as the rings become wider.
The frequency shift can particularly well be followed in minor loop mea
surements as shown in Fig. 6.20 (a). When the 400 nm wide rings enter
the vortex state in the downsweep from positive saturation (light grey sym
bols) the step is clearly observable at around 7 mT. The step extends
over 2.5 mT which is attributable to the distribution of switching elds in
the array.
4
In the vortex state (black symbols) the branches have a clearly
higher frequency. At
0
H = 0 mT the frequency shift is measured to be
f(H = 0) = 105 MHz.
The observation of a parallel shift of the modes in the vortex state of
narrow rings could be a consequence of the absence of stray eld in the
vortex state. In the onion state a stray eld H
onion
dm
is directed mainly in the
negative x direction [Fig. 6.20 (b)]. This stray eld lowers the internal eld
in the ring side arms and thereby the precessional frequency of the modes
localized in the side arms. The resonance frequency could be modelled in
this situation by
4
Note that this is the rst time in the course of the investigation that we have seen an
averaging of any ensemble properties compared to single nanomagnets.
6.4. Low Field Regime 121
20 10 0 10 20 30
6
7
8
9
10
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
f (H=0)=105 MHz
(a) (b)
H
onion
dm
x
y
FIG. 6.20: (a) Minor loop of a ring array with w = 400 nm (black symbols). The down
sweep is included as light grey symbols. At the transitions from onion to vortex state
there are clear steps in the dispersion curves marked by arrows. In the vortex state the
dispersion branches display a higher frequency as in the onion state. The black line is a t
to Eq. 6.18. The grey line is a t to Eq. 6.19. (b) Sketch of a ring in the onion state and
the ring side arms in the rings stray eld H
onion
dm
which decreases the resonance frequency.
f
onion
=
0
2
_
(H
ext
+H
A
H
onion
dm
)(H
ext
+H
A
H
onion
dm
+M)
_
1
2
. (6.18)
Here, H
A
is the eective anisotropy of the side arm. H
A
is a parameter
that is determined from the experiment. When the rings enter the vortex
state the stray eld contribution is suddenly turned o and the resonance
frequency is shifted to higher values, e.g. for the lower branch caused by the
parallel ring arm:
f
a
vortex
=
0
2
((H
A
H
ext
)(H
A
H
ext
+M))
1
2
. (6.19)
According to formulae (6.18) and (6.19) one can estimate the eective stray
eld:
H
onion
dm
=
2H
A
+M
2
+
(2H
A
+M)
2
4
+
(2f(H = 0))
2
2
0
(2H
A
+M)
. (6.20)
The eective anisotropy eld can be estimated from the frequency in the
vortex state at
0
H = 0 mT to be
0
H
A
= 70 mT assuming the saturation
magnetization M = 1120 mT always used for batch #1. This gives a stray
122 Chapter 6. Magnetization Dynamics of Rings
eld of
0
H
onion
dm
= 3 mT. Fits with these parameters are included in Fig.
6.20 (a). They describe the data, in particular the frequency shift, well. If
the stray eld in the onion state is responsible for slightly lower frequencies
in the onion state it is also reasonable to argue that this eect is more
pronounced for wider rings. The stray eld scales with the sample volume
and therefore wider rings have a higher stray eld. Thus the step f at
the transition from vortex to onion should be higher for wider rings. This
is observed in the experiment.
A further feature of the low eld regime deserves mentioning. The
branches of the narrowest ring (w = 250 nm) seem to clearly show a crossing
at zero applied eld (e.g. Fig. 6.6). For wider rings a dierent behavior is
observed. The 400 nm wide rings in Fig. 6.20 show only one resonance peak
at 8.1 GHz in the range between (2.6 mT and +3.6 mT), which does not
show a dependence on the applied eld. The lower branch can be traced
throughout the minor loop sweep presented in Fig. 6.20 whereas the upper
branch seems to perform a jump down to the level of the dispersionless part
of the lower branch. It does not disappear since the absorption amplitude of
the lower branch increases by about a factor of 2 in the dispersionless eld
interval. The absorption amplitude is exactly the same as that of mode A
just after the transition from vortex to reverse onion state.
This might be an experimental indication that the two side arms no
longer precess independently as has been assumed in the discussion of vortex
state dynamics of very narrow rings. The micromagnetic simulation of the
vortex state has shown that the localized mode in the parallel side arm
radiates spin waves around the whole ring in the from of a standing wave
pattern. One might speculate that due to these spin waves some type of
frequency locking of the side arms occurs. Further investigations are needed
here.
6.4.2 Steps in the Vortex State Dispersion
The dispersion of the ring array with w = 600 nm is shown in Fig. 6.21. In
the high eld regime the by now well known modes A (starting at 11.9 GHz),
a higher order mode (15.4 GHz), and lower satellites are identied. Note
that there are four satellites [not shown in (b) for clarity]. The vortex self
biasing shift as the rings enter the vortex is even more pronounced than in
the 400 nm wide rings and the step is very sharp. What is more, there are
clear steps in the lower branch in the vortex state. Three of those steps can
be clearly distinguished. We show in Fig. 6.21 (a) unprocessed measurement
data. The steps are absent in the upper branch. One can also identify the
6.4. Low Field Regime 123
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(b)
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0
H (mT)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(a)
FIG. 6.21: (a) Grey scale plot of unprocessed measurement data of a ring array with
w = 600 nm, D
o
= 2 m, and t = 26 nm. The eld was swept from +91 mT to
91 mT. Note the pronounced steps in the lower branch in the vortex state. (b) Extracted
dispersion, not all modes are shown for clarity.
higher order mode A in the vortex but the present resolution does not allow
to determine whether there are also steps in this mode.
We show in Fig. 6.22 a minor loop in the vortex state. Three quantized
steps can be seen at positive and negative elds but only in the lower branch,
which is attributed to the antiparallel ring arms. From the data one nds a
frequency spacing of the steps of f = 450 MHz.
The angular dependence of the rings in the vortex state is shown in Fig.
6.23. Intriguingly we see again three quantized steps around the angles 90
and 270
. Between 0
and 90
0
H (mT)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(a)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(b)
FIG. 6.22: (a) Grey scale plot of unprocessed measurement data of a ring array with
w = 600 nm, obtained from a minor loop in the vortex state. (b) Extracted dispersion. A
staircase magnetic eld dispersion is clearly observed. The frequency spacing between
the steps is f = 450 MHz.
60 0 60 120 180 240 300 360
3
6
9
12
15
angle ()
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
FIG. 6.23: Grey scale plot of the angular dependence of the 600 nm wide rings in the
vortex state. The external eld was kept constant at 
0
H= 15mT. One distinguishes
clearly regions around 90
and 270
0
H (mT)
(a)
700 nm
VCE
VCE
VCE V V
0
H (mT)
(b)
800 nm
(d)
0
H (mT)
(c)
disk
40 20 0 20 40
2
4
6
8
10
0
H (mT)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
FIG. 6.24: Magnetic eld dispersions of ring array samples with w = 700 nm, 800 nm
and disks. (a) grey scale plot of the dispersion of the 700 nm wide rings to show all modes.
Note also the intensity jump at 22 mT. (b) extracted dispersion (not all modes shown).
(c) w = 800 nm. (d) disks.
[Kla03a, Kla03b]. We had seen that increasing the width of rings, the dis
persion in the vortex state goes from a clear mode crossing behavior for
narrow rings (Fig. 6.6) to a behavior where a plateaulike region is observed
(400 nm wide ring in Fig. 6.20). The wide rings discussed here all show a
pronounced plateau beginning at around zero external eld. The eld range
of the dispersionless plateau becomes smaller as the ring width is increased.
A strong decrease of the vortex to reverse onion switching eld is a trend
which has also been observed in epitaxial Co rings with similar geometric
parameters [Kla04a]. These observations make it plausible to assign this
dispersionless plateau to the (global) vortex state.
In a triple switching reversal the global vortex is followed by the for
mation of a vortex core at the inner region of a ring [Kla04a, Kla03a] and
disks [Cow99] in the antiparallel pointing ring or diskhalf. The core forma
6.4. Low Field Regime 127
tion is followed by the gradual expulsion of the vortex core in the direction
perpendicular to the applied eld (See Fig. 5.2). This expulsion is usually
terminated by a jump of small jump height in hysteresis curves. We nd a
behavior consistent with this scenario of the mode in the region tentatively
labelled VCE (vortex core expulsion): A sudden jump to higher frequencies
terminates the vortex region (V). This jump is followed by a gradual increase
in the frequency as well as the onset of the strong low frequency mode in all
three samples. The gradual increase terminates by a small jump in the case
of 800 nm wide rings and disks. The jump is not very pronounced in the
700 nm wide rings but clearly the intensity of the strong modes increases
abruptly and the curvature of the modes changes.
These similarities with the static magnetization reversal process make
the attribution of vortex and vortex core expulsion regimes very likely. The
dynamics of these regions is more complicated because due to the involve
ment of the vortex core the clear wire like behavior is no longer observed.
Further investigation is needed in order to clarify the amplitude and phase
distribution of the mode spectrum. These investigations show the possibility
to identify vortex cores in the mode spectrum and controllably obtain spin
congurations with vortex cores in due to the applied eld history.
Summarizing this chapter, the magnetization dynamics of symmetric
permalloy rings has been investigated in detail. We found that the static
magnetization states clearly inuence the dynamics of the rings. We found
experimental evidence for a mode localization in rings. An explanation
was given by means of an analytical model and micromagnetic simulations.
Due to this mode localization the ring segments in which certain modes
are localized behave like wires. This allowed us to quantitatively describe a
number of observations, such as mode splitting in the vortex state, resonance
frequencies of main modes as a function of ring width, angular dependence
etc. with a phenomenological model developed in this thesis. In the low eld
regime we could observe and estimate the eects of the onion demagnetizing
eld as a sudden frequency shift in the vortex state. We found steps in the
magnetic eld dispersion of 600 nm wide rings. Evidence for triple switching
in wide rings involving a vortex core was presented.
Chapter 7
Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of
Asymmetric Rings
The vortex state in ring magnets is an interesting state for memory elements
in high density storage because it is stray eld free. In order to use the vortex
circulation for information storage one has to be able to control the vortex
circulation direction of a ring. It was shown in a previous chapter and in
[Kla01] that a particular onion direction is in general followed by a particular
vortex circulation direction, which depends on the microscopic details of a
ring such as edge roughness, oxidation spots and so on. It is always the same
circulation direction for a particular ring but in a large array, one will nd an
unpredictable distribution of clockwise and counterclockwise vortices, which
is undesirable.
Two publications have already investigated the possibility of vortex cir
culation manipulation [Nak04, Sai04]. Both studies utilize asymmetries that
lead to a stray eld observable with an MFM: In [Nak04] one edge of the
ring is cut o leading to edges with a strong stray eld, in [Sai04] an ellip
tical decentered inner hole is used. While the stray eld of both structures
allows for the investigation with the MFM it is counterproductive for high
density storage where the absence of any stray eld in the vortex state is
the particularly desirable feature.
In this thesis we investigated asymmetric rings with a decentered inner
circular hole. The design was intentionally chosen to study the origin of
the mode localization and the possibility to control the vortex circulation
direction. Assuming a mode localization, the dierent width in the ring
128
129
a) b)
d
i
a = 1.13 m, = 140 nm
d
i
D
o
c)
a
d
i
a = 570 nm, = 310 nm
FIG. 7.1: (a) AFM image of ring array AR0303. The inner hole diameter is d
i
= 570 nm
the oset is a = 316 nm and the outer diameter D
o
= 2.0 m. (b) SEM image of ring array
AR0502 with d
i
= 1.13 m and a = 140 nm. (c) Denitions of geometrical parameters.
side arms should lead to dierent resonance frequencies, thus giving us local
information about the magnetization in the side arms. This enables us to
determine the absolute vortex circulation direction, while choosing a ring
asymmetry that is still stray eld free in the vortex state. In the following
the mode spectrum of the asymmetric rings will be consistently interpreted
in terms of the mode localization picture presented in the previous chapter,
thus serving as a further experimental verication of that picture. The
coordinate system for the denition of the circulation direction of a vortex
is chosen such that the ring lies in the (x, y) plane and we look from the
positive z direction.
We investigated two types of arrays containing 750 rings each. The rings
are made of permalloy. They were measured by AFM to have a diameter
of 2.0 0.02 m and to be t = (35 5) nm thick. In the rst array,
denoted AR0303
1
, the inner hole diameter was measured to be (57020) nm.
The hole was oset by a = (310 20) nm. The oset is dened as the
distance between the origin of the inner circular boundary to the origin of the
outer boundary. An atomic force micrograph of the nished array is shown
in Fig. 7.1 (a). The second array AR0502 was not investigated by AFM.
Because it was simultaneously deposited we can assume the same thickness
of t = 35 nm. The geometrical parameters for this array are taken from
SEM pictures on a reference sample [Fig. 7.1 (b)]. The inner hole diameter
is determined as d
i
= (1.13 0.02) m and the oset is a = (140 20) nm.
Panel (c) of the same gure is a diagram showing the geometrical notations.
1
Nomenclature: A
symmetric r
0
H
(
m
T
)
position x (m)
H
(a)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
FIG. 7.2: (a) AFM image of 6 rings of the array AR0303. (b) MFM image at
0
H =
74 mT (onion state). (c) Upsweep of line scan hysteresis along the grey dashed line in
(b) between 74 mT and +74 mT. Between 0 mT and 20 mT a region with low magnetic
contrast is observed (vortex). On the right: micromagnetic simulations of a 20 nm thick
asymmetric ring (d
i
= 500 nm, a = 300 nm) (d) onion state at 74 mT, (e) vortex state
with warped magnetization in the wide side arm. (f) vortex.
In all our experimental investigations the external eld is applied in the
plane of the rings and perpendicular to the oset vector (see Fig. 7.1).
7.1 Magnetostatic Characterization
We have utilized magnetic force microscopy to gain an overview of the static
magnetization states present in the sample AR0303. In Fig. 7.2 (b) an MFM
image recorded at
0
H = 74 mT is shown. As in symmetric rings one can
see black and white spots that indicate the positions of the domain walls.
A micromagnetic simulation of this state is shown in (d). We have again
performed a line scan hysteresis along the position of highest contrast. In
7.1. Magnetostatic Characterization 131
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
h
g
d
M
x
/
M
S
0
H (mT)
a) b) c) d) e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
a
b
c
e
f
+H
FIG. 7.3: Micromagnetic simulation of the magnetization reversal of an asymmetric ring
with d
i
= 500 nm, oset a = 300 nm, outer diameter D
o
= 2.0 m and t = 20 nm. (a)(h)
are snapshots during reversal. The magnetic elds are indicated in the hysteresis curve (g).
The grey scale encodes the xcomponent of magnetization. The domain walls are dragged
towards the smaller ring arm and a counterclockwise vortex forms upon annihilation of
the domain walls.
the present case of asymmetric rings the contrast is highest along a line
through the origin of the inner hole [dashed grey line in (b)]. The hysteretic
behavior is as follows: We started at 74 mT. A clear whiteblack contrast
is visible up to around
0
H = 0 mT where the rings enter a low contrast
state. The absence of magnetic contrast implies that this is the vortex state.
A micromagnetic simulation of this state is shown in Fig. 7.2 (f). At around
20 mT, with a switching eld distribution of approximately
0
H
sw
3 mT, the rings switch to a state with reversed blackwhite contrast that
persists up to +74 mT.
Judging from the line scan hysteresis alone it seems as if the array
AR0303 displayed the same twostep switching as the narrow symmetric
rings in Ch. 6. But in asymmetric rings the properties of narrow and wide
rings might mix because of the presence of narrow and wide ring arms at the
same time. A micromagnetic simulation for this ring geometry indicates for
example a warping of the magnetization in the wide side arm in the vortex
state [Fig. 7.2 (e)]. The magnetization at the position of the linescan looks
very similar to the undisturbed vortex. Therefore the details of the magne
tization conguration in the wide side arm cannot be directly inferred from
a line scan hysteresis.
132
Chapter 7. Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
To gain more understanding of the quasistatic magnetization of asym
metric rings, micromagnetic simulations were performed for two ring ge
ometries with 20 nm thickness and 2 m outer diameter. The simulation
geometries are (a) rings with an inner hole diameter d
i
= 500 nm and an o
set of the hole of a = 300 nm (AR1) and (b) rings with inner hole diameter
d
i
= 700 nm and oset a = 200 nm (AR2).
The simulation results for AR1 are shown in Fig. 7.3. Panels (a)(h) show
snapshots during the reversal. The simulation predicts a domain wall prop
agation process for the transition from onion to vortex state. The domains
at the chosen parameters are transverse walls. For such walls a geometric
constriction acts like a potential well [Kla03c, Bru99]. Therefore both walls
are attracted by the narrow ring half [see Fig. 7.3 (b)(d)] where they collide
and annihilate. The simulation predicts therefore a counterclockwise vortex.
The reader should note an important dierence with respect to the be
havior of symmetric rings. In the latter both domain walls rotate with the
same turning sense, one usually being less strongly pinned than the other
(see for example Ch. 5, Sec. 5.2). Due to the symmetry of the ring the
turning sense is arbitrary. In the case of the asymmetry presented in Fig.
7.3 the domain walls propagate with opposite turning senses, the right wall
counterclockwise, the left wall clockwise, because a geometric constriction
is energetically favorable for transverse walls. This feature implies that the
asymmetry always causes a particular vortex circulation direction. Even if
the walls are asymmetrically pinned their propagation direction would be
along the narrow ring arm. This leads to a counterclockwise vortex circu
lation direction if the rings come from positive saturation and a clockwise
vortex if the rings come from negative saturation.
Consider Fig. 7.4 for the computation of magnetization states for the
asymmetric ring with bigger inner hole (AR2). For this ring structure the
calculation predicts the formation of one vortex wall [left wall in (b) and
(c)] and one transverse wall. Vortex walls can only form in wide and thick
enough structures. A narrow geometrical constriction costs a lot of exchange
energy and a thin structure costs a lot of stray eld energy due to the out
ofplane component at the vortex core. The propagation of the vortex wall
along the narrow ring arm would be energetically unfavorable because of
the additional cost in exchange energy due to the compression of the vortex
core. Consistently, we see just the beginning of the propagation of the vortex
wall around the wider ring arm [in (c) the vortex wall extends a little bit
further towards the wide ring arm than in (b)] from which we conclude that
the vortex wall is less strongly pinned and propagates around the wider ring
arm to form a clockwise vortex.
7.1. Magnetostatic Characterization 133
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
f
e
d
c
b
a
M
x
/
M
S
0
H (mT)
a) b) c)
e) f)
d)
g)
+H
FIG. 7.4: Micromagnetic simulation of the magnetization reversal of an asymmetric ring
with d
i
= 1400 nm, oset a = 200 nm, outer diameter D
o
= 2.0 m and t = 20 nm.
(a)(h) are snapshots during reversal. The magnetic elds are indicated in the hysteresis
curve (i). The grey scale encodes the xcomponent of magnetization. Contrary to Fig. 7.3
a vortex wall forms [left domain wall in (b) and (c)] which propagates around the lower
ring arm and forms a clockwise vortex.
However, it strikes us as surprising that in this calculation the two do
main walls should be dierent. There is no obvious reason, why not two
vortex walls or two transverse walls are present, and we nd it very likely
that in real nanomagnets only one type of wall is present, though we can
not rule out the result of this calculation. Let us therefore consider 20 nm
as a threshold thickness and take also into account the appearance of equal
types of domain walls, which leads to three cases:
1. mixed case: The mixed case  one vortex and one transverse wall  leads
in this calculation to the formation of a clockwise vortex, because the
vortex wall starts to propagate rst and because it has to propagate
along the wider ring arm (the wider arm switches). Since it is en
ergetically favorable for the transverse wall to move along the narrow
arm, the vortex circulation direction would be counterclockwise if the
transverse wall propagated rst. Which of the two walls depins rst
is hardly predictable. The pinning potential for the two walls might
again depend on the microscopic details of a ring, which would entail
an unpredictable distribution of vortex circulation directions in a large
134
Chapter 7. Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
array.
2. vortex walls: If two vortex walls were present in the asymmetric ring
both would propagate around the wider ring arm. Therefore, starting
from positive saturation as in Fig. 7.4 a clockwise vortex is expected,
irrespective of dierent pinning potentials for the two domain walls. In
a large array all rings will show the same clockwise circulation direction
in this case.
3. transverse walls: In the presence of two transverse walls the situation
of the asymmetric ring AR1 is recovered; both transverse walls propa
gate around the narrower ring arm. This reversal mechanism is again
independent of which wall depins rst and one nds the same vortex
circulation direction for any ring in a large array.
The three scenarios might be distinguishable in the experiment. We em
phasize that the experimentally determined thickness of our rings is 35 nm
versus 20 nm in the simulations, which favors vortex walls. We note that
we have performed micromagnetic simulations with geometrical parameters
only similar not identical to the measured ones.
2
For AR0502 at some lim
ited eld values we have used identical parameters. The simulation predicted
two vortex domain walls. However, the vortex circulation direction of the
simulation depended on the eld step width. The simulation result was not
unique here. This indicates that whether the narrow ring arm is an energet
ically unfavorable path for a vortex domain wall is a complex question. It
should nonetheless be remembered that vortex domain walls are predicted
by the simulation at the experimental thickness of 35 nm.
Note that in all cases in which the vortex circulation is controllable, the
circulation direction of the vortex depends on the direction of the precedent
onion state. We have discussed here the case of a positive onion state. The
corresponding negative onion state would in each of the previous cases lead
to the corresponding opposite vortex circulation direction.
7.2 Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
In Fig. 7.5 we present the high frequency absorption of two arrays of asym
metric rings. The eld was applied in the direction perpendicular to the
oset as in the previous MFM measurements and simulations. The positive
eld direction is dened as pointing to the right, when the narrow ring arm
2
The simulations were performed before the samples were fabricated.
7.2. Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings 135
0 5 10 15 20
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
frequency f (GHz)
0
H = 89 mT
(c)
A1
A2
B
C
B
C
A2
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
(a)
A1
A1
A2
C
B
A1
A2
C
B
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
4
8
12
16
0
H (mT)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(d)
4
8
12
16
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(b)
*
FIG. 7.5: (a) Spectrum of AR0303 at an applied eld of 89 mT. Three peaks are clearly
visible, labelled A1, A2, and B. A fourth peak C is seen as a shoulder of peak B (see
arrow). It becomes more clearly separated from B at lower magnetic elds [see (b)]. (b)
Grey scale graph of the downsweep of the magnetic eld dispersion of AR0303 (the labels
are repeated on the right hand side). Black: strong absorption, white: no absorption. (c)
and (d) are the same for AR0502. The same set of peaks is found but they are at higher
frequencies (except mode B) and more clearly separated.
is on top and the wider arm at the bottom (as in the MFM measurement).
In panels (a) and (b) a single spectrum at
0
H = +89 mT and the full
magnetic eld dispersion for sample AR0303 is shown, respectively. We can
clearly distinguish three peaks, labelled A1, A2, and B. A fourth peak C is
seen as a shoulder of peak B. They become more clearly separated as the
external eld is decreased, as clearly seen in panel (b). All four modes de
crease as the external eld is decreased. Mode B vanishes at around 12 mT
and reappears at approximately 25 mT. The strongest mode (A2) van
ishes at 0 mT and reappears at 10 mT. Between 10 and 20 mT mode
A2 exhibits a smaller slope than for elds lower than 20 mT where the
slope again agrees with the slope at positive high elds (marked by *). The
satellite mode labelled C runs parallel to mode A2. At positive eld values
it disappears around the same value as mode B but it reappears at smaller
136
Chapter 7. Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
negative eld values. It therefore seems to be a satellite mode to the main
mode A2 rather than the to lowest mode B. The dispersion of the highest
mode A1 is atter than the others. At 0 mT where mode A2 disappears it
broadens considerably and the dispersions slope becomes even atter than
before. This mode persists up to a negative eld of 18 mT. At 20 mT
a jump occurs for mode A1 and it is symmetric to the positive eld part
from that eld H
sw
on. This jump coincides with the inection point of
mode A2 at 20 mT. It is marked with an asterisk in Fig. 7.5 (b).
In the single spectrum of sample AR0502 in Fig. 7.5 (c) the four modes
(A1, A2, B, C) are again well resolved. The magnetic eld dispersions
discussed above are found to be characteristic for asymmetric rings since
the behavior of sample AR0502 shown in Fig. 7.5 (d) is similar compared
to sample AR0303 shown in (b). The strongest mode A2 of this ring array
can be resolved down to 8mT where a jump of 1.2 GHz takes place. It
has a negative slope between 0 and 8mT. The adjacent satellite mode C
follows mode A2 closely to around +20 mT, disappears and reappears at
23 mT. The highest mode A1 again persists longest, down to 33 mT
where it nearly touches mode A2. There is a jump at this eld from which
on the mode regains a positive slope and is symmetric to the positive eld
side. If one compares the resonance frequencies of AR0502 and AR0303 at
89 mT [Fig. 7.5 (a) and (c)] one nds that for AR0502 modes A1, A2, and C
are higher and mode B is lower than their counterparts in sample AR0303.
For the interpretation of these mode spectra recall the spectra found for
narrow symmetric rings. In that case we observed a strong high frequency
mode, which we could show is located in the ring side arms parallel to the
applied eld (see Chapter 6, Section 6.3) We found a second prominent
low frequency mode which behaved like a hard axis mode judging from the
ring width dependence (Ch. 6, Sec. 6.3) but which did not show a hard
axis character in angleresolved measurements (same chapter Sec 6.3.2). We
assigned this mode to the ring heads and tails. Additionally several satellite
modes were observed in narrow rings.
The important dierence between symmetric and asymmetric rings is
that now the mode frequencies of modes located in both side arms are no
longer degenerate. The dynamic demagnetizing eld created in the narrow
side arms is stronger than in the wide arm. This will increase the precessional
frequency of the narrow side arm compared to the wide one.
This frequency degeneracy can be used to explain the existence of two
pronounced high frequency modes (A1 and A2) in the spectra of asymmetric
rings. The strongest mode A2 is located in the wider side arm, because it
has a lower frequency than mode A1. Additionally, its absorption is stronger
7.2. Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings 137
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
A1
A2
B
w1=360 nm
w2=1010 nm (a) AR0303
V
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
A1
A2
B
w1=250 nm
w2=685 nm (b) AR0502
V
FIG. 7.6: (a) Dispersion of the down sweep for AR0303 (lled symbols) and calculated
resonance frequencies for the two side arms with the wire model Eq. 6.9 (light grey lines).
(b) Same as (a) for AR0502. In (a) and (b) modes C have been omitted for clarity. The
region labelled V is assigned to the vortex state.
because the number of precessing spins is larger in the case of mode A2 due
to the larger width of this side arm. Mode A1 is located in the smaller
side arm, which explains its higher frequency and its smaller absorption.
The lowest mode B in Fig. 7.5 resembles strongly the hard axis mode: it
has the lowest frequency, the strongest curvature, and disappears in a eld
range around zero applied eld. Despite the decentered inner hole, the ring
heads and tails are not expected to split. Consistently we observe only one
hardaxis mode. This line of thought shows that introducing a decentered
inner hole can indeed yield to some degree information about local ring
dynamics.
To further substantiate this point of view we have applied the wire model
developed in Ch. 6 to calculate the dispersion for the two asymmetric ring
arrays. The model assumes that the modes are localized in the ring side arms
and that these side arms can phenomenologically be modelled as innitely
long wires with a transverse demagnetizing factor 2t/w. From AFM and
SEM we extracted the width of the side arms. For AR0303 we obtain w
A1
=
370 nm and w
A2
= 1010 nm. For AR0502 we get w
A1
= 250 nm and w
A2
=
655 nm. The error is 20 nm. As further parameter we use M = 1.25 T,
which is typical for our evaporation system (literature value 1.08 T) and
= 176 GHz/T. The results of the calculation according to Eq. 6.9 are
shown in Fig. 7.6 (a) for AR0303 and (b) for AR0502 as light grey lines.
The wire model again yields good agreement to the experimental data if we
138
Chapter 7. Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
slightly adjust the widths as indicated in the gure. The deviation from
the measured widths is less than 5%. The good correspondence between
the modelling and the data corroborates our interpretation that the modes
A1 and A2 are located in the narrow and wide side arms of the asymmetric
rings, respectively.
7.3 Evidence for Vortex Circulation Control
Let us now turn to the low eld data. In sample AR0303 [Fig. 7.6 (a)] the
strongest mode A2 vanishes at around 0 mT and reappears at 10 mT with
a positive dispersion in the down sweep. The same holds true for the up
sweep with reversed signs (not shown). Mode A1, on the contrary, is visible
from 0 mT down to 18 mT with a negative dispersion followed by a jump
at 23 mT. The interval between 0 mT and 23 mT is interpreted to be
the vortex state of the asymmetric rings and the jumps of the two modes are
interpreted to be the onion to vortex and vortex to reversed onion transition,
respectively. For clarity we have indicated the vortex region in Fig. 7.6.
Further reasons corroborate this view. First, the MFM line scan hysteresis
for AR0303 showed a transition into a low magnetic contrast state at 0 mT
and a second transition at around 20 3 mT into a state with pronounced
reversed magnetic contrast.
Second, let us remember how the mode spectrum of symmetric rings
looked like (e.g. Fig. 6.4). Here, a mode splitting of the higher lying main
mode occurred which was interpreted to be the onion to vortex transition. In
particular the magnetic eld dispersion had dierent signs for both branches.
We put forward the argument that one half of the ring side arms switches to
an orientation parallel to the applied eld, while the other half of the side
arms remained antiparallel. The intensity of the high frequency main mode
was approximately halved in the vortex state region with mode splitting
and doubled when the mode with the negative dispersion attributed to the
antiparallel side arms vanished. The interpretation was that the antiparallel
halves reversed at this eld value.
In the case of asymmetric rings the ring arms are no longer frequency
degenerate due to the dierent side arm widths, as we have shown in the
previous section. In Fig. 7.6 the resonance peak of the wider arm with lower
resonance frequency vanishes at 0 mT when the rings switch to the vortex
state, while the narrower side arm remains in the antiparallel orientation
with respect to the external eld. This can be seen because of its negative
dispersion in the interval [0 mT, 23 mT]. This is the salient point in the
7.3. Evidence for Vortex Circulation Control 139
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
4
6
8
10
12
14
f
A1
p
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
Z
)
0
H (mT)
f
A1
a
f
A2
p
f
A2
a
A1
A2
f
A1
p
f
A1
a
f
A2
a
f
A2
p
FIG. 7.7: Hypothetical dispersion (downsweep) of modes A1 and A2 for the sample
AR0502: If there were rings with clockwise and counterclockwise vortex states, as sketched
on the right of the graph, there would also be a distribution of parallel and antiparallel
aligned side arms. This would lead to a mode splitting of modes A and B with frequencies
(f
A1
p
, f
A2
p
) and (f
A1
a
, f
A2
a
), respectively. The frequencies f
A1
p
and f
A2
a
would have a
positive and negative dispersion, respectively. This is shown as dashed light grey lines.
These branches are not observed in our experiment, neither for AR0502 nor for AR0303.
argumentation that allows us to determine the vortex circulation direction:
In the vortex state the narrow side arm is antiparallel and the wide side
arm is parallel to the external eld, which means that a clockwise vortex is
present in the downsweep presented in Fig. 7.6 (a).
The same behavior is found for AR0502 and is even more pronounced
for this sample. At 8 mT mode A2 switches rst to a mode with positive
dispersion with the frequency f
A2
p
in Fig. 7.6 (b). The absorption intensity
stays at a constant level. Mode A1 shows only a branch with frequency
f
A1
a
and negative dispersion. This means that also in AR0502 the rings rst
switch their wide ring arms while the narrow arms rest in the antiparallel
conguration. At the transition from vortex to reverse onion also the narrow
side arms switch from antiparallel to parallel orientation with respect to the
external eld. This is just the conguration of a vortex with clockwise
circulation direction.
What can we say about the distribution of vortex circulation directions?
The idea of the following argumentation is sketched in Fig. 7.7 for AR0502.
If there were rings which are in a counterclockwise vortex their wide side
arms would be aligned antiparallel to the external eld up until these rings
140
Chapter 7. Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
switch to the reverse onion state. We know from the study of symmetric
rings in Ch. 6 that the vortex conguration entails a mode splitting into a
mode with positive dispersion due to the parallel side arm, the frequency of
which we had labelled f
p
, and a mode with negative dispersion due to the
antiparallel side arm, labelled f
a
. But one clearly does not observe a mode
splitting of mode A2 with a branch with negative dispersion f
A2
a
[compare
Fig. 7.5 (d) and Fig. 7.7]. The rings with counterclockwise vortex would
also have their narrow side arms point parallel to the external eld in the
vortex state coming from positive saturation, which means that we would
also expect a mode splitting of mode A1 and one branch f
A1
p
with a positive
dispersion (Fig. 7.7) due to the parallel side arms. Again this behavior is
not found in the experimental dispersion Fig. 7.5 (b). Neither mode A1 nor
mode A2 show a splitting within the accuracy of our setup. We detect only
two modes with frequencies f
A1
a
and f
A2
p
instead of four modes in the vortex
region.
Since our setup does not yet have single nanomagnet sensitivity we can
not be sure that strictly all rings are in the same clockwise vortex. There
might be a number of rings smaller than the detection threshold N
th
that
are in a counterclockwise vortex. In the following we estimate the detection
threshold number of rings of our setup. We have investigated an array with
135 rings with width w = 300 nm, thickness t = 33 nm, and a similar satu
ration magnetization M = 1.36 T. The strongest mode had a signal to noise
ratio of roughly 10 : 1 (not shown). This means in that experiment we could
still detect N
th
15 rings. Because the sample parameters are very similar
we can apply this result to the present samples: Out of an array of 750 rings
in AR0303 less than around 15 rings are in a counterclockwise vortex or in
other words more than 97% of the array show the same vortex circulation
direction.
As a second estimate of the number of rings in a certain vortex state we
compare the absorption amplitudes of symmetric and asymmetric rings. The
idea behind this comparison is the following: The absorption amplitude of
a particular mode is proportional to the number of spins that contribute to
the absorption of that mode. For instance, if all asymmetric rings show the
same clockwise vortex circulation direction the amplitude of the antiparallel
narrow arm mode f
A1
a
is 1. If one half of the rings shows a clockwise and
the other half a counterclockwise circulation direction then the absorption
amplitude of the antiparallel narrow arm mode f
A1
a
should be 0.5 and so
on. Comparing the absorption amplitude with the onion state, in which
all narrow and all wide arms point in the same direction could serve as a
measure for the number of arms contributing to a mode. Unfortunately
7.3. Evidence for Vortex Circulation Control 141
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
(b)
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
a
b
s
o
r
b
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
0
H (mT)
AR0303 A1
22%
(a)
single arm throughout
Vortex
one arm level
sum of
two arms
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
a
b
s
o
r
p
t
i
o
n
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
0
H (mT)
symmetric ring w=300 nm
sum of
two arms
25%
two single
arms
Vortex
FIG. 7.8: Normalized absorption as a function of applied eld for (a) AR0303 and (b)
a ring array with symmetric 300 nm wide rings. The amplitude of the resonance peaks
is normalized to the absorption amplitude of a single ring arm in the onion state. On
top of the graphs we show schematically and strongly simplied for clarity the absorption
amplitude of one ring arm as a function of the external eld.
the absorption amplitude will depend on other factors, for example due to
the vortex selfbiasing we cannot expect the absorption amplitudes of the
narrow arm in the onion state and the vortex state to be equal, even if all
rings of the array have the same vortex circulation direction. Therefore we
use the change of absorption amplitude between onion and vortex state of
symmetric rings as a gauge. In an array of symmetric rings in the vortex
state there is an equal number of parallel side arms and antiparallel side
arms. Dierences between onion and vortex state absorption amplitudes
cannot be due to the distribution of vortex circulation directions.
Now consider the experimental data of the 300 nm wide ring array from
batch #1. The absorption amplitude of symmetric rings in Fig. 7.8 (b) is
relatively constant as long as the rings are in the onion state. We intend
to normalize the absorption amplitude of one ring arm to one, therefore we
set this constant level to two, as two ring arms contribute. When the rings
enter the vortex state there is not a sudden jump. We observe a slow rise
and then a steep drop of the amplitude (black circles) until the rings switch
back to the reverse onion state at 26 mT and this mode vanishes. It is
important that in the vortex state there are two modes and that we can
distinguish between the parallel and antiparallel side arms. The amplitude
does not drop to one half of the level of the onion state. This means that
142
Chapter 7. Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
the absorption amplitude of a single ring arm in the vortex state is higher
than in the onion state. The amplitude of the second mode (empty squares)
sets in at 6 mT. This is the mode we attribute to the parallel ring arm.
When the ring switches to the reverse onion there is a clear jump because the
antiparallel ring arms in the array also switch to the parallel orientation with
respect to the eld. We use this jump height as a gauge for the dierence
of absorption amplitudes of one ring arm in the onion and vortex states:
The jump is from 1.25 to 2. But the level of the onion state is two because
two ring arms contribute. Therefore the absorption amplitude dierence
between onion state and vortex state of a single ring arm is 25%.
The absorption amplitude of the narrow ring arms in the asymmetric ring
array AR0303 is shown in Fig. 7.8 (a). We can observe a gradual change of
the absorption amplitude in the onion regime from high elds to zero. There
is a jump to a plateau value when the rings switch to the vortex state. The
jump is 22% so somewhat less than the upper limit of 25% inferred from
symmetric rings. From this we can estimate that the fraction of rings with
narrow arms antiparallel to the applied eld (clockwise vortex) N
a
is given
by
N
a
N
tot
=
A
V
asym
A
V
sym
=
1.22
1.25
= 97.6%. (7.1)
This estimate is nearly exactly the same as the estimate from the signal
strength. It is of course only a rough estimate since we do not have clear
plateau values and the denition of the jump heights is not very accurate.
But it shows that around 97% of asymmetric rings in the array exhibit the
same vortex circulation direction.
If we compare these experimental ndings to the predictions of the mi
cromagnetic calculations we note that there is a discrepancy. For the array
AR1, which is taken to be similar to AR0303, a switching of the narrow side
arm was predicted which produces a counterclockwise vortex, contrary to
the experiment. The simulation resulted in transverse walls for which the
narrow arm is the energetically favorite propagation path. But it has been
emphasized that the samples are thicker than assumed in the calculation,
namely t
exp
= 35 nm versus 20 nm in the simulation. Even at 20 nm a
vortex domain wall was energetically possible [Fig. 7.4]. The discrepancy
of the circulation directions is most likely due to the dierent types of do
main walls in the calculation and the experiment and can be explained if
we assume that with our geometric parameters the narrow side arm is a
prohibited propagation path for a vortex domain wall (as seen for example
7.4. Minor Loops and Angular Dependence 143
in Fig. 7.4). Further investigations are needed for an understanding of the
reversal mechanism and type of domain walls in asymmetric rings but it
is possible to conclude from our highfrequency measurements that in the
present experimental ring arrays the domain walls are vortex walls which
may only propagate around the wider ring arms leading to clockwise vortex
states when we come from positive saturation.
We nally remark that when we investigate the upsweep from 90 mT
to +90 mT the dispersion of modes A and B show the same behavior as in
the downsweep. We only observe modes with frequencies f
A1
a
and f
A2
p
for
both sample arrays (not shown), i.e. the wider ring arms switch. This is to
be expected since the type of domain wall present determines the circulation
direction. But the type of domain wall in the onion state cannot depend on
the direction of the external eld. This observation means that by starting
at negative saturation, we can manipulate the array such that more than
97% are in a counterclockwise vortex. The initial direction of the applied
eld indeed chooses the vortex circulation direction, and both circulation
directions can be controllably chosen by the external eld.
7.4 Minor Loops and Angular Dependence
In this section we present further experimental evidence for the characteris
tic spincongurations deduced from the high frequency absorption. Before
recording absorption spectra we have applied a eld sequence with the aim
of preparing the rings in certain spincongurations. This technique was
already applied to symmetric rings in Ch. 6. In Fig. 7.9 (a) we show mea
surements on the sample with the smaller inner hole, AR0303. We have
applied the eld sequence
0
H
1
= 90 mT,
0
H
2
= 20 mT before the mea
surement of each data point (empty symbols). H
2
is chosen such that it lies
just below the jump eld of mode A1. We have included the downsweep
data as grey symbols (Note that we have omitted the satellite mode C for
clarity). We make the following observations. Mode A1 behaves just as in
the downsweep under the applied eld sequence, since the irreversible jump
of mode A1 lies outside the eld range [+90 mT, 20 mT]. In the minor
loop mode A2 is traceable in the range 20 mT to +3 mT where a jump
takes place. Between zero and the jump it has a negative dispersion. In
the downsweep we cannot resolve mode A2 between 5 mT and +3 mT.
Mode B, although clearly visible between 16.5 mT and 90 mT in the down
sweep, does not reappear until +34 mT. Note that in the downsweep on
the negative eld side it does not reappear below 31 mT, either.
144
Chapter 7. Vortex Circulation Control
and Mode Spectrum of Asymmetric Rings
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
2
4
6
8
10
12
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
2
4
6
8
10
12
8 mT
(b)
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(a)
A1
A2
B
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
0
H'
2
= 5 mT H
1
H
1
0
H
2
= 20 mT
A1
A2
B
FIG. 7.9: Minor loops performed on the sample AR0303. In (a) we applied a magnetic
eld history of
0
H
1
= 90 mT and
0
H
2
= 20 mT before recording each of the data
points (empty symbols). We also show the downsweep data (lled grey symbols). For
clarity we have again omitted the satellite mode C. Note that mode B retains the negative
dispersion up to +3 mT. Also note that mode D does not reappear until
0
H = +34 mT
although it is traceable down to 16.5 mT in the downsweep. In the case presented in
panel (b) we applied
0
H
2
= 5 mT.
In panel (b) a dierent eld sequence is used: After saturation we applied
0
H
2
= 5 mT, chosen to lie just below the reappearance of mode B.
As with eld sequence (a) mode A1 is identical to the downsweep data.
Mode A2 cannot be resolved below +8 mT. In the downsweep data the
reappearance eld is 10 mT. Above 8 mT mode A2 behaves as in the
downsweep. Mode B is not visible up to 26 mT, which is consistent with
the minor loop in (a).
We put forward the following interpretation of this behavior: When we
apply 20 mT to the positively saturated rings, the wide side arms switch
and the clockwise vortex state forms. In this state the alignment of the
wide side arms is stabilized even when the eld is increased back to positive
values until +8 mT. At this eld the wide ring arms switch back. In Fig.
7.9 (b) we can make the surprising observation that when the minor loop
starts at a eld below the reappearance of mode A2 at H = 5 mT, mode
A2 remains invisible up to 8 mT. The following upsweep is identical to the
downsweep. This might be indicative that the transition from onion to
vortex in the asymmetric rings is more complicated than the simple domain
wall propagation transition, involving some bending of the wide side arms.
If bending is involved this might be an additional reason for the discrepancy
7.4. Minor Loops and Angular Dependence 145
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
4
6
8
10
12
14
75 50 25 0 25 50 75
4
6
8
10
12
14
0
H
2
=  24.8 mT
0
H'
2
= 15 mT H
1
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(b) AR0502
H
1
A1
A2
C
B
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
0
H (mT)
(a) AR0502
A2
C
B
A1
FIG. 7.10: (a) Minor Loop with eld sequence
0
H
1
= 90 mT
0
H
2
= 24.8 mT.
The narrow ring arms (mode A1) have not yet switched. Mode A2 is switched back and
forth in this minor loop. (b) If the sequence
0
H
1
= 90 mT
0
H
2
= 14.8 mT is
applied the same situation as in (a) is encountered. Grey symbols in both panels is the
downsweep dispersion data.
of measured and simulated vortex circulation directions.
The minor loops of AR0502 show a behavior analogous to AR0303. In
Fig. 7.10 (a) we applied the eld sequence
0
H
1
= 90 mT
0
H
2
=
24.8 mT. The narrow arm (mode A1) has not switched and coincides with
the data from the downsweep (grey symbols). Mode A2 on the contrary fol
lows the data from the upsweep (not shown) until 12 mT where it reverses
back to the initial state. This behavior is consistent with the assumption
of the rings being in the vortex state in the eld range from 24.8 mT to
+12 mT in the two presented minor loops. Note also the absence of mode
splitting for modes A1 and A2 in the minor loops of both samples, which is
consistent with our interpretation of a uniform vortex circulation direction
in the array.
In addition to the minor loops we have investigated the angular depen
dence at +90.3 mT and at 6.6 mT of AR0303, which is shown in Fig.
7.11 (a) and (b), respectively. In the saturated state the side arm modes
A1 (black circles) and A2 (empty circles) display a 180
symmetry with
maxima at 0
and 180
0
H = 90.3 mT
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
angle ()
(a)
A1
=0
angle ()
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
(
G
H
z
)
(b)
H

0
H =6.6 mT
A1
A2
A1
FIG. 7.11: Angular dependence of resonance modes of AR0303 (a) at 91 mT. Modes
A1 and A2 show the same symmetry as symmetric rings in the saturated state [Fig. 6.11
(a) and (b)]. Interestingly, mode B shows a fourfold symmetry and satellites that are
resolved at angles away from (0
, 180
, (n = 0, 1, . . .), but
is clearly separated in between. Mode C is not shown. We nd an angle
regime around 90
and 270
. It shows a
360
and 360
is consistent
with this interpretation of the dispersion data: The narrow ring arm and
the applied eld are parallel at = 180
and 360
minimizing
the internal eld in the side arms.
7.4. Minor Loops and Angular Dependence 147
In conclusion, we have measured the absorption spectra of two asymmet
ric ring samples with dierent asymmetries. Their absorption spectra can
be explained consistently with the mode localization picture. The dierent
widths of the side arms lift the frequency degeneracy. This allows us to deter
mine the absolute vortex circulation direction. Experimental evidence was
presented that more than 97% of the rings exhibit the same vortex circula
tion direction. Minor loops and the measurement of the angular dependence
corroborate this view. The vortex circulation direction can be chosen by the
initial saturating eld direction. The uniform vortex circulation direction is
explained by the energetics of domain wall propagation along the side arms.
Micromagnetic simulations are not decisive in the considered cases, so that
more calculations are desirable. For the circulation found experimentally in
the asymmetric ring arrays vortex domain walls have to be assumed, which
is consistent with the thickness of 35 nm of the rings.
Chapter 8
Summary and Outlook
In this thesis we have successfully measured the magnetization dynamics in
nanostructured rectangular and ringshaped permalloy elements.
We have constructed a broadband spectrometer for the detection of mag
netization dynamics with a sensitivity high enough for investigations of ferro
magnetic lms and microstructured elements. The spectrometer works with
inductive detection in the frequency domain between 45 MHz and 20 GHz
and in the time domain with a time resolution of 2 ps. Waveguides have
been designed and optimized for our investigations. We could apply static
inplane elds of up to 100 mT which can also be rotated to perform angle
resolved measurements.
In rectangular permalloy elements we have detected quantized dipolar
spin wave modes in the frequency domain up to order n = 4. In the time
domain we found only the dominant mode but no higher order modes. We
could explain the magnetic eld dispersion of these modes well in the frame
work of the dipoleexchange theory. It was shown that only modes sym
metric with respect to the inplane coordinates can be excited and detected
inductively by micronsized waveguides. The description of the observed
modes was very good with the assumption of dipolar pinning at the bound
aries and a dipolar mode localization at the element center, with localization
length of the order of 50%70% of the element length. Additionally we have
detected an exchange dominated spin wave mode at low frequency which is
localized at the longitudinal edges of the rectangular elements due to a spin
wave well, which forms due to the internal eld inhomogeneity.
We have investigated ring arrays with magnetic force microscopy We
have seen that they exhibit two characteristic magnetization congurations,
the onion and the vortex state. We found evidence from micromagnetic
148
149
simulations and magnetic force microscopy that the switching process from
onion to vortex state is a domain wall propagation process.
We have furthermore systematically investigated the magnetization dy
namics of nanostructured permalloy rings over a wide range of geometrical
parameters. The high frequency behavior of these rings could be shown to be
largely inuenced by their magnetization congurations. All rings showed
several characteristic high frequency modes. We have demonstrated that by
controlling the magnetization states of the rings through an external eld
the magnetization dynamics could be controlled. The magnetic eld depen
dence and angular dependence of the main modes of narrow rings could be
quantitatively described by a phenomenological wire model developed in this
thesis. The model could also account for the width dependence of the mode
frequencies at high elds. We concluded from these experimental ndings
that in the high eld regime modes are localized in dierent ring segments.
This observation was corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. The the
ory of rectangles could be successfully extended to this situation to explain
the mode localization. Due to the internal eld variation there is only a
limited spatial region in which the wave can propagate. Outside this region
there are no real wave vectors and a spin wave cannot exist (is damped out
quickly). The theory of rectangles is applicable with very satisfying results
because the internal eld prole in the side arms of rings is similar to the
internal eld inhomogeneity encountered in rectangular elements. Since the
localization length in narrow rings are on the order of 700 nm the curvature
of the ring does not exert a strong inuence on the modes localized in the
side arms. This explains why the phenomenological wire model yields such
good results despite its simplifying assumptions.
In the low eld regime we could observe double switching of narrow
rings, from onion to vortex and to reverse onion state, and triple switching
involving additionally a vortex core in wide rings. In some ring samples
the eect of the stray eld of the onion state led to a clear step in the
resonance frequencies of modes at the transitions to the vortex state (vortex
selfbiasing). A clear mode discretization has been observed in the vortex
state for the rst time in a ring array with a width of nominally w = 600 nm.
The modes exhibiting the discrete steps seems to be located in that ring arm
which is stabilized in the antiparallel direction with respect to the external
eld. The appearance is that of a staircase magnetic eld dispersion, similar
to the staircase wave vector dispersion shape found in BLS investigations
on micron sized magnetic wires. First micromagnetic simulations indicate
that the mode in the antiparallel ring arm might be only weakly localized
and extend around the ring arm as a standing wave pattern. This would be
150 Chapter 8. Summary and Outlook
a natural situation for mode discretization to occur, because the wavelength
has to match the circumference of the ring. The mode in the parallel ring arm
has a much shorter wavelength so that here one might be in the continuum
limit. This exciting observation needs further clarication.
In the last part of the thesis we have investigated asymmetric rings.
The asymmetry consisted of a decentered inner hole. The dierent width of
both side arms allowed us to clearly attribute modes to the narrow and wide
side arms. Therefore further insight into local spin dynamics was achieved.
The presented data showed evidence that all rings in large arrays have the
same vortex circulation direction. We could show that both circulation
directions can be chosen by the sign of the initial saturating eld. This
observation was attempted to be explained by the energetics of domain walls.
Depending on the wall type (vortex of transverse wall) it is energetically
favorable for the wall to propagate along the narrow or wide ring arm.
Micromagnetic simulations were performed but they could not predict the
circulation direction observed in the experiment. Further simulations are
needed for the explanation of the circulation direction.
Rings have turned out to be an intriguing object for the study of magne
tization dynamics. There are some questions that arose in the course of this
thesis such as the quantization of the magnetic eld dispersion or the vortex
circulation direction in asymmetric rings which need further investigation.
Several other aspects have not even been touched upon. The large angle
regime and precessional switching might be investigated with our technique.
Several excitation eld geometries might be employed to excite dierent
modes. In particular out of plane excitation should be interesting as this is
the symmetry axis of rings. We have also seen rst experimental evidence of
switching eld reduction by the application of microwaves. This microwave
assisted switching was not presented here but will be further explored. Work
is under way to increase further the sensitivity of the setup, for example
using Hall magnetometry or anisotropic magnetoresistance as a readout.
This could very likely enable a single nanomagnet sensitivity with a whole
lot of new experimental possibilities. Here, we cite only nanomodication
with an atomic force microscope. During this thesis rst steps have been un
dertaken for low temperature measurements which were already successful
for thin lms and are very promising for arrays of micromagnets. This opens
up the eld for high frequency investigations on semiconductorferromagnet
hybrid structures. Finally the setup has been equipped with further wafer
probe positioners which will allow in the future the investigation of spin
wave radiation and propagation in ferromagnetic lms.
Appendix A
Demagnetizing Field of a
Transversely Magnetized
Wire
The static demagnetizing eld for a transversely magnetized wire is calcu
lated. The geometry for the calculation is shown in Fig. A.1. The calculation
proceeds from the Eqs. 2.14 and 2.12, repeated here for convenience:
H
dm
=
1
4
r
_
dr
r
M(r
)
[r r[
. (A.1)
The magnetization in the wire has the form
M = M
S
e
y
_
(y
+
w
2
) (y
w
2
)
_
, (A.2)
where w is the wire width and (x) the Heaviside step function. The diver
gence of the magnetization therefore becomes a delta function:
r
M = M
S
_
(y
+
w
2
) (y
w
2
)
_
= M
S
_
(y
+
w
2
) (y
w
2
)
_
(A.3)
The ycomponent of the demagnetizing eld is then
H
y
dm
=
M
S
4
___
_
(y
+
w
2
) (y
w
2
)
_
(y y
)
[(x x
)
2
+ (y y
)
2
+ (z z
)
2
]
3
2
dx
dy
dz
. (A.4)
Due to the Deltafunction the y
M
S
4
t/2
_
t/2
_
_
_
y +w/2
_
(x x
)
2
+ (y
w
2
)
2
+ (z z
)
2
3
2
y w/2
_
(x x
)
2
+ (y
w
2
)
2
+ (z z
)
2
3
2
_
_
_
dx
dz
. (A.5)
The x
dx
(a
2
+x
2
)
3
2
=
x
a
2
(a
2
+x
2
)
1
2
=
=
1
a
2
lim
x
[x
[
1
_
1 +
a
2
x
2
1
a
2
lim
x
[x
[
1
_
1 +
a
2
x
2
=
2
a
2
. (A.6)
So after the x
integration we have
H
y
dm
(y, z) =
M
S
2
t/2
_
t/2
(y +
w
2
)
(z z
)
2
+ (y +
w
2
)
2
dz
+
M
S
2
t/2
_
t/2
(y
w
2
)
(z z
)
2
+ (y
w
2
)
2
dz
. (A.7)
As one expects due to the translational symmetry of the problem along the
wire, the demagnetizing eld is independent of x. The remaining integration
is of the form [Bro91]
_
a
a
2
+x
2
dx = arctan
_
x
a
_
(A.8)
and inserting the integration limits leads to
H
y
dm
(y, z) =
M
S
2
_
arctan
_
2z t
2y w
_
arctan
_
2z +t
2y w
_
arctan
_
2z t
2y +w
_
+ arctan
_
2z +t
2y +w
__
. (A.9)
153
6
3
0
3
6
250
200
150
100
50
0
100
50
0
50
100
x
z
H
d
m
(
m
T
)
y
,
w
i
d
t
h
w
(
n
m
)
z
,
t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
t
(
n
m
)
y
FIG. A.1: Demagnetizing eld calculated for a 250 nm wide and 15 nm thick permalloy
wire with saturation magnetization
0
M = 1.36 T as function of the width and the z
direction. The demagnetizing eld is very homogeneous along the out of plane component
z, which justies to consider only with the value of the demagnetizing eld in the center
of the wire at z = 0. The coordinate system for the calculation is also shown.
A plot of the demagnetizing elds ycomponent is shown in Fig. A.1. It is
clear from this gure that the demagnetizing eld is very homogeneous along
the thickness and one may as well take the eld at the middle of the wire
H
y
dm
(y, 0), which reads, taking into account that arctan(x) = arctan(x):
H
y
dm
(y, 0) =
M
S
_
arctan
_
t
2y +w
_
arctan
_
t
2y w
__
. (A.10)
This is the form used in Sec. 6.3.1 for a further expansion.
Appendix B
Operation Principle of
Network Analyzer and
Sampling Oscilloscope
B.0.1 Network Analyzer
A vector network analyzer combines a broadband frequency source and a
testset for the measurement of the amplitude and phase
1
of electromagnetic
waves in the GHz range that are reected from or transmitted through a
device under test (a sample). A schematic diagram is shown in Fig. B.1.
The main ingredients are the broadband signal source, elements for signal
separation, such as power dividers and directional couplers and the detection
unit. [Agi98]
The broadband microwave source (a wobble generator) emits a wave V
inc
of frequency f, which is divided into a reference wave V
reference
and a wave
that is guided to the sample by means of a power splitter. The reference
wave is guided to the detection system. At the sample a part of the wave
is usually reected V
re
and another part transmitted V
trans
. By means of
directional couplers these waves are also guided to the detection system. A
directional coupler is a device that couples part of the wave that propagates
in one direction into a side arm, whereas it does ideally not couple any
energy from a wave propagating in the other direction. In our case this
means that nothing is coupled in the side arm from the wave emitted by the
signal source but there is a coupling of the wave reected from the sample.
The detection of voltage or power at microwave frequencies is dicult
1
If only the amplitude is measured one speaks of a scalar measurement.
154
155
R
a
t
i
o
a
n
d
P
h
a
s
e
D
e
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
Sample
mixer
directional
coupler
power
divider
signal
generator
local
oscillator
mixer
mixer
F
i
l
t
e
r
V
refl
V
inc
V
reference
V
trans
V
refl
f f+ f D
Df
Df
Df
FIG. B.1: Diagram of the operation principle of a vector network analyzer. For descrip
tion see text.
and unprecise [Sch81]. One uses the principle of heterodyne mixing to mix
down the signal frequencies from the GHz range in the tens of MHz range,
which can be detected with great precision. A local oscillator is used which
is slightly detuned at a frequency f +f with respect to the incident wave
with frequency f. The waves are mixed and yield a wave with frequency
f. Usually the frequency of the local oscillator is coupled to that of the
signal source so that the signal after the mixing process has always the same
frequency. In this case lters optimized for the frequency f can be used to
suppress all signal contributions with frequencies other than f. This is the
principle that enables the high measurement dynamic range of 100 dBm.
[Sch81]
Calibration
Since the microwaves are scattered partially whenever there is an impedance
mismatch the actual measurement signal is often superposed by a substantial
fraction of reected signals. Any impedance mismatch will lead to a stand
ing wave pattern on the transmission lines. The components of a network
analyzer are not ideal. For example, a directional coupler will couple energy
from waves travelling in both directions into the side arm. This signal will
be superposed on the measurement signal reected from the sample (direc
156
Chapter B. Operation Principle of Network Analyzer and Sampling
Oscilloscope
t
0
+nt
t
0
+2t
t
0
t
0
+t
t
i
m
e
s
i
g
n
a
l
F
(
t
)
(
a
r
b
.
u
n
i
t
s
)
time t (arb. units)
time t (arb. units)
FIG. B.2: Scheme of the sampling technique. A cticious time signal F(t) is shown.
F(t
0
)
is measured, maybe very often for averaging. Then the signal is repeated and
F(t
0
+t) is
recorded with a tunable delay t, whose accuracy partly determines the time resolution.
The right hand graph is the reconstructed signal.
tivity error). The source does not have an ideal impedance match so that
all waves reected from the sample will be rereected by the source (source
match error). Additionally microwave power is usually damped when it
propagates. All these errors can be taken into account in error models. By
the measurements of standards whose reection and transmission properties
are well known the errors can be determined. This is called calibration. The
standards usually comprise a 50 load, a short (0 ), an open ( ) and
a through (transmission line with ideally matched impedance, zero length,
and no absorption) for coaxial measurements. We use planar waveguides
and calibration substrate where these standards are realized as thin lm
elements. The calibration we use is called a TRL calibration (through, re
ection, transmission line with dierent lengths). Details about error models
can be found in [Agi98].
B.0.2 Sampling Oscilloscope
A sampling oscilloscope is an oscilloscope that is used in a stroboscopic
manner to detect a fast time signal F(t). The time signal must always be the
157
same under the same initial conditions, that is, it must be reproducible and
must not behave in a chaotic or stochastic way. The measurement principle
works as follows: A stimulus in our case the voltage step pulse excites
the sample, whose response F(t) is to be measured. The oscilloscope can
detect F(t) averaged over a time interval [t
start
, t
stop
] in which F(t) is nearly
constant. This time interval is given by the size of a black symbol in the left
hand panels in Fig. B.2. The time resolution is achieved by a very accurately
tunable delay t between the stimulus with the trigger time t
0
and the time
t
start
= t
0
+ t, at which the oscilloscope data acquisition is started. The
measurement can be repeated with dierent values for the delay and one can
recover the whole time series [F(t
0
), F(t
0
+ t), F(t
0
+ 2t), . . .] as shown
in Fig. B.2 (b).
A source of error is the trigger jitter. In order to dene the point in
time t
0
, and to start the internal clock of the oscilloscope which denes the
delay t, a trigger pulse is needed. If there are is a stochastic variation
between the time the trigger pulse and the time signal F(t) reach the oscil
loscope the acquired waveform is smeared due to the repetitive nature of the
measurement. This reduces the time resolution. Especially the dierence
technique employed for PIMM measurements suers from trigger jitter be
cause two signals with a very fast rising edges are subtracted. A small shift
of the pulses can lead to large spurious peaks coincident with the pulse rising
edges. We have employed a TDR oscilloscope (time domain reectrometry).
Such oscilloscopes possess an internal step pulse generator module which
shares the clock with the detection module. In this way the trigger jitter
can be minimized.
The time resolution depends on (i ) the data acquisition interval, (ii ) the
accuracy with which the delay can be set, and (iii ) the trigger jitter. The
sampling measurement mode has advantages over real time measurements.
The digitalanalog converter (DAC) of a sampling oscilloscope have a
dynamic range of 16 bit, whereas stateoftheart real time DAC have
only 8 bit.
The bandwidths of sampling oscilloscopes is higher, up to 50 GHz, for
real time oscilloscopes it is 6 GHz.
A disadvantage is that nonreproducible events are averaged out and
therefore not visible, but the high dynamic range and bandwidths of sam
pling oscilloscopes are a prerequisite for the inductive detection of the mag
netization dynamics.
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List of Publications
F. Giesen, J. Podbielski, T. Korn, M. Steiner, A. van Staa, and D. Grundler
Hysteresis and control of ferromagnetic resonances in rings
Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 112510 (2005)
F. Giesen, J. Podbielski, T. Korn, and D. Grundler
Multiple ferromagnetic resonance in mesoscopic permalloy rings
J. Appl. Phys. 97, 10A712 (2005)
Selected for Virtual Journal of Nanoscience and Technology
J. Podbielski, F. Giesen, M. Berginski, N. Hoyer, and D. Grundler
Spin congurations in nanostructured magnetic rings: from DC transport to
GHz spectroscopy (invited)
Superlattices and Microstructures 37, 341 (2005)
T. Korn, F. Giesen, J. Podbielski, D. Ravlic, C. Schueller and D. Grundler
Timeresolved study of the increased magnetization precession frequency in
Fe wires
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 285, 240 (2005)
T. Korn, F. M uller, D. Grundler and C. Sch uller
Characterization of permalloy lms on highbandwidth striplines
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 272276, Supplement 1,
E1341, (2004)
J. Podbielski, F. Giesen, and D. Grundler (submitted)
Spin wave pockets in nanostructured rings: modelling and experiment
From previous work:
F. Giesen, B. Damaschke, V. Moshnyaga, K. Samwer, and G. A. M uller
Suppression of interfaceinduced electronic phase separation in allmanganite
multilayers by preservation of the MnO chain network
Phys. Rev. B 69, 014421 (2004)
Acknowledgements
It is a pleasure to thank those people without whose support, motivation,
encouragement, input, patience, condence, and companionship this work
would not have been possible. I sincerely thank:
Prof. Dr. D. Heitmann for supervising my thesis, creating the outstanding
working environment in his group, encouragement, and support.
Priv.Doz. Dr. D. Grundler for the great supervision, interesting and moti
vating discussions on a daily basis, mentoring advice, optimism, and unwa
vering support. Thanks also for choosing a project for me that turned out
so interesting and for sharing his experience with me.
Prof. Dr. U. Merkt for being referee of the dissertation and Prof. Dr. R.
Wiesendanger for being referee of the defense, and Prof. Dr. J. Kotzler for
being the chairman of the defense.
J. Podbielski for the great cooperation. It all started with a wooden cup
board for vacuum pumps and turned into us being a great team.
Dr. T. Korn for sharing the exciting time of rst steps towards experimental
results, excellent scientic and private discussions, and Latte Mocca.
Prof. Dr. K. Samwer for mentoring discussions, advice, and support.
Ch. Bayer for sharing his insight into magnetization dynamics with me.
Dr. C.M. Hu for his interest in the work and stimulating discussions.
Dr. D. Gorlitz for advice and support concerning microwave technology.
Dr. M. Scheer for advice and support in the early stages of the project.
Dr. J. McCord for interesting discussions.
R. Eiselt for all kinds of support with the ebeam lithography system.
Dr. M. Steiner and A. van Staa for the MFM measurements and Dr. G.
Meier for allowing measurement time for the ring project.
R. Meissner, J. Gancarz, and H. Biedermann for technical advice and sup
port.
My parents and my family.
Financial support from the Bundesministerium f ur Bildung und Forschung
is gratefully acknowledged through Grant BMBF Spintronics 13N8283.
Many other people too numerous to mention here have created a great
working environment and helped in some way. A big thank you to all of
them.
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