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Permutations and Combinations Basics


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Posted over 3 years ago by Suresh

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF COUNTING If an operation can be performed in 'm' different ways and another operation in 'n' different ways then these two operations can be performed one after the other in 'mn' waysIf an operation can be performed in 'm' different ways and another operation in 'n' different ways then either ofthese two operations can be performed in 'm+n' ways.(provided only one has to be done)

This principle can be extended to any number of operations FACTORIAL 'n' The continuous product of the first 'n' natural numbers is called factorial n and is deonoted by n! i.e, n!=123x ..x(n-1)xn.

PERMUTATION An arrangementthat can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things (or objects) is called a Permutation.Order of the things is very important in case of permutation.A permutation is said to be a Linear Permutation if the objects are arranged in a line. A linear permutation is simply called as a permutation.A permutation is said to be a Circular Permutation if the objects are arranged in the form of a circle.The number of (linear) permutations that can be formed by taking r things at a time from a set of n distinct things is denoted by .%

NUMBER OF PERMUTATIONS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS 1. Number of permutations of n different things, taken r at a time, when a particular thng is to be always included in each arrangement , is . 2. Number of permutations of n different things, taken r at a time, when a particular thing is never taken in each arrangement is . 3. Number of permutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified things always come together is . 4. Number of permutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified never come together is . 5. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k(< r) particular things always occur is . 6. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k particular things never occur is .

7. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when repetition of things is allowed any number of times is 8. The number of permutations of n different things, taken not more than r at a time, when each thing may occur any number of times is . .

9. The number of permutations of n different things taken not more than r at a time

*PERMUTATIONS OF SIMILAR THINGS*The number of permutations of n things taken all tat a time when p of them are all alike and the rest are all different is .If p things are alike of one type, q things are alike of other type, r things are alike of another type, then the number of permutations with p+q+r things is .

CIRCULAR PERMUTATIONS }1. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is 2. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is 3. The number of circular permutations of n things taken r at a time in one direction is . . .

4. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things in clock-wise direction = Number of permutations in anticlock-wise direction = COMBINATION A selection that can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things( or objects) is called a Combination The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is denoted by 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The number of combinations of n things taken r at a time in which a)s particular things will always occur is b)s particular things will never occur is . . . . .

c)s particular things always occurs and p particular things never occur is DISTRIBUTION OF THINGS INTO GROUPS

1.Number of ways in which (m+n) items can be divided into two unequal groups containing m and n items is . 2.The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing n objects and the order of the groups is not important is 3.The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing n objects and the order of the groups is important is .

4.The number of ways in which (m+n+p) things can be divided into three different groups of m,n, an p things respectively is 5.The required number of ways of dividing 3n things into three groups of n each = has importance then the required number of ways= DIVISION OF IDENTICAL OBJECTS INTO GROUPS The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons, each one of whom, can receive 0,1,2 or more items is }The number of non-negative integral solutions of the equation . .When the order of groups

The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons, each one of whom receives at least one item is

The number of positive integral solutions of the equation

The number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind, q objects of second kind, and so on is the coefficient of in the expansion

he number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind, q objects of second kind, and so on, such that one object of each kind may be included is the coefficient of is the coefficient of in the expansion . %{font-family:verdana}+*TOTAL NUMBER OF COMBINATIONS*+% %{font-family:verdana}1.The total number of combinations of things taken any number at a time when things are alike of one kind, things are alike of second kind. things are alike of kind, is .% %{font-family:verdana}2.The total number of combinations of things taken one or more at a time when things are alike of one kind, things are alike of second kind. things are alike of kind, is% . SUM OF THE NUMBERS Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (excluding 0) is

Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (including 0) is

Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(excluding 0) is % %{font-family:verdana}Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(including 0) is

DE-ARRANGEMENT: The number of ways in which exactly r letters can be placed in wrongly addressed envelopes when n letters are placed in n addressed envelopes is .

The number of ways in which n different letters can be placed in their n addressed envelopes so that al the letters are in the wrong envelopes is IMPORTANT RESULTS TO REMEBER In a plane if there are n points of which no three are collinear, then 1. The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is 2. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is . . .

3. The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is In a plane if there are n points out of which m points are collinear, then 1. The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is 2. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is .

3. The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n x n is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of rectangles of any size is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of squares of any size is

n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines three lines are concurrent. Then the number of parts into which these lines divide the plane is equal to Image Credits: cristic, cosmolallie, farouqtaj, churl
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Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link sanjucuckoo over 2 years ago concise andgood collection . one example of each type would make it complete. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Suresh over 2 years ago dear sanjucuckoo, we will have one more lesson P&C with solved examples, where all these concepts will be revised.Keep watching Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Ruchi over 2 years ago These are basics!! Whats advanced then :( he he he. j/k nice compilation of stuff, am waiting for the solved examples.. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link pradeepdemi over 2 years ago hi its very good i need probabilty with examples

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Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link ravi_shashank over 2 years ago hi your explanation is excellent.and can you please explain even probability like this Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link vsagashe over 2 years ago Excellent..!! Probably some examples would make it more useful for all viewers.. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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Rate Up Rate Down Link swayam over 2 years ago This is tremendously good yar very nice n easy explaination Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Aditi Mishra over 2 years ago this lesson helped me to clear my doubts but it will be more helpful with examples Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link hamsini over 2 years ago where do i get exercises to solve on my own?? Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Suresh over 2 years ago Dear hamsini, please go through our tests that are available in different test prep communities like CAT Prep, GMAT Prep. In fact in the very near future we are going to come up with tests exclusively for Campus Placements Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link santosh gupta over 2 years ago u r gr8 sir Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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Sudharshan Annamalai over 2 years ago Good work !! It would have been better with an example for each concept. Thanks !! Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link pujii over 2 years ago hi it is excellent i want more details about the usage of permutations and combinations in our daily life. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Prashanth Kumar R over 2 years ago Very good lesson. Thank you :) Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link rajpatti over 2 years ago excellent explanation on each topic great job thank u Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link abinash over 2 years ago Explained precisely..fruitful return Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Prashanth Kumar R over 2 years ago Worked examples for each kind of possible problems would have been even more helpful. Do we have worked examples for each of these formulas listed in the lesson? If so, please provide me the link. Thanks! Flag as Inappropriate

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Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Suresh over 2 years ago Dear Prashanth, Very soon we are going to come up with a series of lessons where all these concepts will be applied. I am sure you will find them very useful Regards Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link Ishan Aggarwal over 2 years ago Gr8 stuff Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link saka over 2 years ago Without Example or Test (indicating group like NUMBER OF PERMUTATIONS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS in hint ) This Material is loosing its significance. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 2 Rate Up Rate Down Link saka over 2 years ago CIRCULAR PERMUTATIONS:: There are 2 brothers among a group of 20 persons. In how many ways can the group be arranged around a circle so that there is exactly one person between the two brothers? Hint: Point no 2 of circular permutations :--> The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is (n-1)! Solution: If we consider the two brothers and the person in between the brothers as a block, then there will 17 others and this block of three people to be arranged around a circle. The number of ways of arranging 18 objects around a circle is in 17! ways.********* -> 'n' objects can be arranged around a circle in (n - 1)!.***************************** Now the brothers can be arranged on either side of the person who is in between the brothers in 2! ways. Therefore, the total number of ways 17! * 2 = 2 * 17!. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments

Rating 1 Rate Up Link Tushar over 2 years ago in the example given above i think the answer should be 17! * 18 * 2. Now you have choosen a block but we need to choose it from either of 18 left so 18 ways to make that block. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link Dhara A. Mehta over 2 years ago good information sirCan I know How much portion of this permutation & combinations will be asked in GRE test? Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments

Rating 0 Rate Up Link Suresh over 2 years ago Dear dharumehta07. You need not get into too much of these concepts for GRE.just get to know about permutations, combinations, circular permutations, seating arrangements, selection of members for committees etc; Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Rahul over 2 years ago A very good lesson to quickly revise all the formulaeThank you Mr.Sureshbala Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link venky over 2 years ago great stuff thank you very much , but examples for each of them would make it complete and awesome but still great stuff for quick revision just before going to exam Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments

Rating 1 Rate Up Link Suresh over 2 years ago Dear coolvenky, This lesson is created to revise the basic formulae keeping in mind the CAT 2008 test takers. I will definitrly try to come up with series of lessons where all these concepts will be applied.. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link ankit shrivastava over 2 years ago wonderful sites with great lessonssssss.. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments

Rating 1 Rate Up Link praveen yadav about 1 year ago ya a great work bu the auther.. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link venky over 2 years ago sir how far is this topic important for the GMAT exam. i think i am weak in this topic, so i am worried. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link asureshwaran over 2 years ago this lesson is awesome sureshbala. you simply rock man. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating -1 Rate Up Rate Down Link cash2323847 over 2 years ago pls solve this- There r 3 socialist,4 congressmen and 2 communist.In how many ways can a selection be made as to include at least one of each party. Ans -315 Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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Link gargi_l over 2 years ago Number of permutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified things always come together is m why not m Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments

Rating 0 Rate Up Link Oren Lahav over 2 years ago Say you have n items, and you're trying to organize them with m of the n items always coming together. (Clearly m < n). To organize the m items that come together, that's m!. Now to organize everything else, we have (n - m + 1)!, because we organize the items not in the M group, that's n - m, but we also have to put the M group together with them, so in total it comes to n - m + 1. I hope that makes sense. Flag as Inappropriate Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link suman sourabh over 2 years ago good job Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link over 2 years ago for someone like me who has v basic math knowledge examples of each type would be useful. few months ago you said it was due - has it been created? I think we often get these types of questions in gmat Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link over 2 years ago thanks Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link anirudh92 over 2 years ago very good

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Vote Current Rating 0 Rate Up Rate Down Link Vedatman over 2 years ago very good information..thanks a lot sir Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link Saurabh Roongta over 2 years ago awsome stuff .. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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Rate Up Rate Down Link praveen yadav about 1 year ago i think its enough to prepare this Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link greentree about 1 year ago not discriptive Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link kunal jain about 1 year ago i like this alot Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link jatin luthra about 1 year ago thanx a lot but do u have similar notes for vectors n 3D too.. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link itdoesntmatter about 1 year ago really nyc stuff Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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amir saeed about 1 year ago please guide me how to solve this problem, if you joined all the vertices of heptagon, how many quadrilaterals will you get? Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link haritham khan about 1 year ago although its a good rather best explanation but still iam not able to differentiate PC, so iam suggesting you to differentiate them through examples and figures, u must use same example and figures for both then it will be friutfull Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link devspring about 1 year ago thanks buddy its add on to ma skills Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link rnm_green 6 months ago nice representation Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

Vote Current Rating 1 Rate Up Rate Down Link abhishekfigo about 1 month ago Sir, I have a questions. How many distinct circles can be made out of 5 points out of which 3 are collinear. Is there any general way to solve it. 3 different points might have same circles. Flag as Inappropriate Post Comments Reply to This

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