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- UT Dallas Syllabus for phys3342.001 05f taught by Robert Glosser (glosser)
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Izudin Kapetanovic P.hD, Vlado Madzarevic P.hD, Alija Muharemovic P.hD, Hidajet Salkic* M.Sc.

When it comes to the protection from electromagnetic field emissions, two areas with different limitation levels of electric and magnetic fields are recognized. According to the ICNIRP policies, European Union (EU) references 1999/519/EC and EU directive 2004/40/EC, these limitation values refer to the root mean square (RMS) values of the electric field intensity (E) and magnetic field density (B) for the constant exposure of the human body to the electromagnetic field emissions. These areas are: The area of the increased sensitivity (E=5 kV/m; B=100 T), and The area of the professional exposure (10 kV/m; B=500 T).

II. CALCULATION OF LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELD

electromagnetic radiation in the conditions of standardized electromagnetic compatibility depends on calculation and measuring of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Calculation of the lowfrequency magnetic field in and around a transformer station will be presented in this paper. This calculation will be conducted by modeling transformer station using EFC-400LF software package, which is capable for two and three-dimensional numerical solving of magnetic fields distribution.

KeywordsNumerical solving, Experimental measuring, Lowfrequency magnetic fields, Exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation

I. INTRODUCTION

UNDAMENTAL problems of electromagnetic compatibility and evaluation of the human exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic emissions are calculation and measuring of the low-frequency (LF) electric and magnetic fields. Various experimental methods and specialized equipment are used for measuring of electromagnetic fields, whereas numerical solvers of the non-linear differential equations are used for the calculation of LF electric and magnetic fields. Today, there are number of software packages that calculate distribution of electromagnetic fields in twodimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment. Very often they have integrated field optimization methods of complex power systems. These software packages require model of the observed object and identification of the field sources. Field sources can be simplified and dismembered into smaller peaces. Calculation of LF electromagnetic fields is performed using the law of superposition. In other words, it is necessary to summarize the influences of each filed source to get values of the resulting field.

Calculation of low-frequency magnetic field distribution can be performed using the relation for induction of flat finitelength streamline and the law of superposition. According to Biot-Savart law, the element of flat r r streamline dl = e dl , shown on Fig. 1, produces magnetic flux density in arbitrary point of space T equal to: 1 i dl sin dH = (1) 4 R2 Where: i is a conductor current intensity, dl is an element of a flat streamline, R is distance between conductor element dl and point P, and - is angle between element dl and vector R (according to Fig. 1 = + ).

2

Izudin Kapetanovic Ph.D., El. Eng. Member IEEE, Faculty of Elec. Eng., University of Tuzla; Franjevaka 2, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (E-mail: rektorat@untz.ba ). Vlado Madarevi Ph.D., El. Eng., Member IEEE, Faculty of Elec. Eng., University of Tuzla; Franjevaka 2, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (E-mail: vlado.madzarevic@untz.ba ). Alija Muharemovic Ph.D., El. Eng., Faculty of Elec. Eng., University of Sarajevo; Zmaja od Bosne bb, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (E-mail: alija.muharemovic@etf.unsa.ba ). Hidajet Salkic M.Sc. El. Eng. PE Elektroprivreda BiH, ED Tuzla; Rudarska 38, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Corresponding author Tel: (+387) 35 304 361, Fax: (+387) 35 304 362, (E-mail: h.salkic@elektroprivreda.ba).

It should be emphasized that rotation symmetry exists; therefore resulting magnetic flux density is gained by applying cylindrical coordinate system. According to Fig. 1, follows: r r r i dl R (2) dB = 4 l R 3 r r r r r r Where: R = er r ez z ( er , ez , e - are unit vectors in

cylindrical coordinate system (r , z , ) ), Vector product from equation (2) is: r r r r r r r r dl R = (e z dl ) (e r r + e z ) = (r dl ) e z e r = (r dl ) e Therefore, equation (2) can be written as:

(3)

120

r i dB = 4

r r dl xR R3

International Journal of Electrical Systems Science and Engineering 1;2 www.waset.org Spring 2008

i dl r r e 4 R 3 l

R d dl

(4) and

cos =

d , and after integration of contributions from all R elements, follows: r i r R d 1 dB = e d 3 4 cos R 2 r r i d cos dB = e d (5) 4 cos d2

r r i dB = e 4 d

2 1

For a given segment AB in rectangular global system, Fig. 2, the expression for magnetic flux density in point C, induced by current ik of segment k is: i k (t ) R AP R PB (7) B k (t ) = + 4 CP R AC R BC Where: AP, AC, PB i BC are distances between individual points.

cos d

Finally, for magnetic flux density of flat finite length streamline it can be written: r r i (sin 2 sin 1 ) B = e (6) 4 r Density of magnetic flux in any point of space can be calculated by superposing contributions of each conductor. Conductors can be approximated with certain number of flat finite length streamlines (segments). The number of segments significantly depends on conductor geometry. Position of segments, their currents and phase angles represents the input data for calculation of magnetic flux density in desirable points of space. As it can be seen from equation (6), direction r of magnetic flux density vector is defined by unit vector e in cylindrical coordinate system. Since the positions of segments in space are different, as well as directions of their corresponding induction vectors, it is necessary to dismember the resulting magnetic flux density vector on components in direction of each coordinate axe of global system that is not bounded for certain segment. Coordinates of start and end points of segments can be set in rectangular coordinate system.

In order to dismember the magnetic flux density vector on its components, it is necessary to know its direction in global system. Direction of magnetic flux density vector is r r perpendicular on a plain defined by vectors RAB and RBC , apropos it is equal to a direction of a resulting vector of their vector product: r r r ei e j e k r r r (8) G = R AB R BC = a x a y a z bx b y bz Cosines of angles, created by magnetic flux density vector and coordinate axes x, y, and z, are equal to the ratios of individual axes vectors and resulting vector: a ycz azc y G cos B = x = G F Gy az cx axcz (9) cos B = = G F axc y a ycx G cos B = z = G F Where

F=

(a y c z a z c y )2 + (a z c x a x c z )2 + (a x c y a y c x )2

By knowing cosines of angles it is possible to determine each component of magnetic flux density in time domain: B x ,k (t ) = cos B B k (t )

B y ,k (t ) = cos B B k (t )

Bz , k (t ) = cos B Bk (t )

Fig. 1 The element of flat streamlines

(10)

Total amount of magnetic flux density vectors, produced by currents of n segments, is gained summarizing the contributions of all segments:

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n n n B (t ) = Bx ,i (t ) + By ,i (t ) + Bz ,i (t ) i =1 i =1 i =1

(11)

Where Bx ,i (t ), B y ,i (t ), Bz ,i (t ) - are the components of magnetic flux density of segment i. For presentation of the magnetic field, effective value of magnetic flux density is used, according to the following expression:

Bef = 1 T

T

(Bx (t ) + By (t ) + Bz (t ))

2 2 2 0

(12)

Modeling of the transformer station elements Calculation of LF magnetic fields distribution was conducted using the EFC-400LF software package. This software package consists of a part that ministers data input and presentation and a part that minister numerical calculation of magnetic fields. These two parts are connected trough the input and output libraries. Block diagram of EFC-400LF software package is presented in Fig. 3.

In order to analyze influence of magnetic fields constant emissions on the human body, it is necessary to calculate the distribution of the stationary sinusoidal LF magnetic fields. Electromagnetic field around the transformer station (TS), at frequency of 50 Hz is a quasistatic field, and consists of a conservative component of the electric field produced by the charges and eddy component of the electromagnetic field produced by currents. Complex geometry of the TS elements requires 3D calculation. Calculations of magnetic fields in points that are far a way from filed sources are conducted by using the thin-wire approximation. This approximation means that conductors are presented as one-dimensional lines with disregard of insulators, because their influence has a local character. Each conductor requires following parameters: Beginning coordinates (the beginning of a segment) Xp, Yp, Zp, End coordinates (the end of a segment) Xk, Yk, Zk, Line or phase voltage Ul, Uf (depending on settings in Options menu Technical Power T.L.), Conductor current, Phase angle, Frequency, Conductor geometry: shape, radius, length, height, distance between conductors, specific electric resistance, permittivity, permeability, etc. Application of the EFC-400LF software package for the calculation of the electromagnetic field is presented on example of the typical Compact Concrete Transformer Station

(CCTS) 10(20)/0.4 kV, 630 kVA DELING. Apparatus of TS consists of: Overlapping energy transformer; with nominal transmission ratio 10(20)/0.4 kV; nominal power 630 kVA; nominal frequency 50 Hz; connection type Dyn5; short circuit voltage Uk=4 %; voltage regulation 2x2.5 %, Middle voltage (MV) distribution conjunction block; is a Ring Main Unit (RMU) type CCF 12/24 kV, 400 A, SAFERING with three field two conducting fields and a transformer field which are SF6 gas insulated, completely armored and protected from the dangerous touch voltage. Conducting fields are equipped with three phase separator with the ground switch nominal voltage of 24 kV and nominal current of 400 A and ancillary mechanism 2NO+2NC. RMU SAFERING 12/24 kV conjunction blocks, manufactured by ABB, are tested for 16 kA/sec of thermal and 40 kA of dynamic (impulse) short circuit current, Low voltage (LV) conjunction block; consists of three fields one supplying and two conducting fields with nominal current 1250 A, short circuit enduring current 25 kA, enduring maximal current 52.5 kA, and a level of protection IP 21. Three phase separator type OETL 1250, 1250 A, 690 V, ABB is placed inside the supplying field. Up to eight groups of LV high-pedantic separators type XLBM 400 A, 690 V, 50 kA, ABB are placed inside the conducting field and mounted on the separator rod to enable three phase disconnection (noncharged). At the LV side of the 630 kVA power transformer, short circuit currents of up to 22.06 kA can appear. Short circuit impulse current at the 0.4 V voltage level is 48.90 kA. LV conjunction blocks are tested for 25 kA of thermal and 52.5 kA of impulse short circuit current. Conjunction conductor between the MV side of a transformer and MV field of a conjunction block constructed with three single conductor cables with polyethylene insulation type 3x(XHE 49-A 1x50/16 mm2 or 3x(XHE 49-A 1x150/25 mm2) with nominal voltage of 20 kV and tolerated current charge of 210 A. Distance between fixating cable clips is 600 mm maximum. Cables are taped at the spacing of 1.0 m and make a fasten bundle. Conjunction conductor between the LV side of a transformer and LV conjunction block constructed with single conductor PVC insulated cable resistant to temperatures up to 378.15 K (105 C) and with nominal voltage up to 1 kV. Type label for phase conductors is 3x(2xP/MT 1x240 mm2 1 kV), and for neutral conductor is 1x(P/MT 1x240 mm2 1 kV). Since the main electrical equipment (MV and LV conjunction blocks and power transformer) is tested according to the IEC standards (IEC439 and IEC298 for LV and MV conjunction blocks, respectively, and IEC76 for power

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International Journal of Electrical Systems Science and Engineering 1;2 www.waset.org Spring 2008

transformer) it can be deduced that above technical parameters are verified. The transformer station is connected to the distribution electrical grid of city of Tuzla with 10/20 kV cables placed under the ground. Import of the cables into the TS is carried out through the openings in TS foundation. Transformer station housing is constructed with pre-manufactured concrete elements which constitute TS walls with dimensions of 280186255 cm. There are three conditionally separated areas inside the TS; area for mounting of the transformer, and areas for MV and LV blocks (Fig. 4a and 4b).

distributed at four derivations for 227 A. Main electromagnetic field sources are MV and LV bus bars and MV transformer clamps, whereas the influence of MV and LV conjunction equipment surrounded with grounded cabinets and housings or cable screens can be disregarded. The calculation of the magnetic field is conducted for the areas inside and outside the TS, neglecting the TS housing due to the safety improvement according to the regulations for protection from electromagnetic field emissions. Two (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) disposition of the TS is presented in Fig. 5a and 5b. The main difference between the real TS and its model depends on the conductor subdivision on finite number of segments. Conductors are divided in 635 segments with resolution of dx=dy=dz=0.1 m. EFC-400LF software is capable of solving the system of differential equations for the matrix with 1600016000 elements (Methods: LU decomposition or conjugated gradients). In this case, matrices have 261261 elements and will produce the values of electric and magnetic field in 68121 points of observed area of 169 m2, with resolution of dx=dy=dz=0.05 m, as well as matrix with 261101 elements that produce values in 26361 points of observed area of 65 m2 with resolution dx=dy=dz=0.05 m. Visual presentation of magnetic flux density calculated values is conducted using MATLAB.

Safety standards are fulfilled according to the DINVDE0848-1 norm. Middle voltage distribution conjunction block is modeled using the EFC-400LF software package, ' with maximal current load I m =36.4 A, nominal secondary

'' voltage of 0.4 kV, and maximal current load I m =909 A. The load of 909 A is very rare, but the calculation is conducted for the worst possible case so fulfilling of the safety standards for other cases can be deduced from this case. It can be seen that maximal current load of the LV transformer side is evenly

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International Journal of Electrical Systems Science and Engineering 1;2 www.waset.org Spring 2008

III. CALCULATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION

In XY plane of a transformer station with limits of -5 m x 8 m and -5 m y 8 m at the height of z=1.75 m above the ground level, which represents the level of the human head. In XZ plane of a transformer station with limits of -5 m x 8 m and 0 m z 5 m at y=-0.2 m, apropos 0.2 m from the south side of the TS at y=2.10 m, apropos 0.2 m from the north side of the TS In YZ plane of a transformer station with limits of -5 m y 8 m and 0 m z 5 m at x=-0.2 m, apropos 0.2 m from the east side of the TS at x=3.10 m, apropos 0.2 m from the west side of the TS A. Calculation of magnetic field distribution in XY plane surface Values of the magnetic flux density are observed in the areas I, II, III, and IV of the XY plane, with distances of 0.2 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, and 2 m from the transformer station walls at the height of z=1.75 m. Fig. 6a, 6b, 7a, and 7b are presenting 2D and 3D distribution of the magnetic flux density. Maximum values of the magnetic flux density are: between 10.712 T and 54.863 T in the area I, between 6.918 T and 32.161 T in the area II, between 3.759 T and 16.579 T in the area III, and between 2.246 T and 10.198 T in the area IV.

Fig. 6a: 2D continual distribution of magnetic flux density in XY plane surface (z=1.75 m)

Magnetic flux densities inside the transformer station are reaching their maximum values at the cross sections of the XY plane with primary clamps of the power transformer and cable connections with MV and LV conjunction blocks. These values are between 0.05 mT and 6.40 mT, whereas outside the TS these values drop down to the values between 100 T and 50 T. According to the results, values of the magnetic flux density outside the TS at the distance of 0.2 m are below the value of the 54.863 T whereas at distances between 0.5 m and 1.5 m these values dropping down to values between 32.161 T and 2.246 T.

Fig. 6b: 3D continual distribution of magnetic flux density through XY plane surface (z=1.75 m)

Fig. 7a: 3D presentation of the magnetic flux density continual distribution through XY plane (z=1.75 m)

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International Journal of Electrical Systems Science and Engineering 1;2 www.waset.org Spring 2008

Fig. 7b: 3D presentation of the magnetic flux density continual distribution through XY plane (z=1.75 m)

Fig. 8b: 3D continual distribution of magnetic flux density through XZ plane (y=-0.2 m)

B. Calculation of magnetic field distribution in XZ plane surface For observed XZ plane, at distance of 0.2 m (y=-0.2 m), values of the magnetic flux density for z=0.50 to 1.75 m matched with LV conjunction block are between 14.051 T and 10.686 T, whereas matched with the MV conjunction block it has a value of 8.111 T. Magnetic flux density values for z=1.00 to 1.50 m, matched with power transformer, are between 10.095 T and 12.539 T. Fig. 8a and 8b present 2D and 3D continual distributions of magnetic flux density in this area of XZ plane surface. At distance of 0.2 m (y=2.10 m) for observed XZ plane values of magnetic flux density are between 101.102 T and 145.202 T for z=1.00 m matched with LV conjunction block, between 51.521 T and 80.082 T for z=1.00 to 1.75 m matched with MV conjunction block, and between 35.197 T and 74.145 T matched with power transformer. 2D and 3D presentations of the results from this area of XZ plane are shown in Fig. 9a and 9b.

Fig. 9a: 2D continual presentation of magnetic flux density through XZ plane (y=2.10 m)

Fig. 8a: 2D continual distribution of magnetic flux density through XZ plane (y=-0.2 m)

125

Fig. 9b: 3D continual presentation of magnetic flux density through XZ plane (y=2.10 m)

International Journal of Electrical Systems Science and Engineering 1;2 www.waset.org Spring 2008

C. Calculation of magnetic field distribution in YZ plane At distance of 0.2 m (x= -0.2 m) for observed YZ plane, values of the magnetic flux density are between 96.238 T and 131.326 T for z=0.2 to 0.5 m matched with LV distribution conjunction block, whereas for z=1.00 to 1.75 m it drops down to 54.843 T.2D and 3D presentation of continual distributions of magnetic flux density for this area are shown in Fig. 10a and 10b. For observed plane, at distance 0.2 m (x=3.10 m), values of magnetic flux density are between 40.194 T and 68.846 T for z=0.2 to 1.0 m matched with MV distribution conjunction block. For z=1.00 to 2.00 m matched with bus bar these values drop down to 27.954 T. Fig. 11a and 11b present 2D and 3D distributions of magnetic flux density for this area of observation.

Fig. 11a: 2D continual distribution of magnetic flux density through YZ plane (x=3.10 m)

Fig. 10a: 2D continual distribution of magnetic flux density through YZ plane surface (x=-0.2 m)

Fig. 11b: 3D continual distribution of magnetic flux density through YZ plane (x=3.10 m)

IV. CONCLUSION

Fig. 10b: 3D continual distribution of magnetic flux density through YZ plane surface (x=-0.2 m)

Calculation and measuring of low-frequency magnetic fields, as well as their correlation, represent the basic problems in transmission and distribution of electric power in conditions of standardized electromagnetic compatibility and exposure of humans to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Resolution of these problems corresponds to solving nonlinear differential equations by modeling and applying the numeric methods, as well as by experimental measuring models of electric and magnetic fields. Mathematical model of the calculation of magnetic flux density distribution in and around the transformer station is presented in this paper, using BiotSavart law for flat finite streamline. Respecting the fact that magnetic flux density is proportional to the load and that typical load of the transformer station is around 50% of nominal power, maximal values of magnetic flux density will not oversee the limits for increased sensitivity and professional exposure established by the standards. Original scientific contribution of conducted research

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International Journal of Electrical Systems Science and Engineering 1;2 www.waset.org Spring 2008

represents determination of three dimension (3D) distribution of low-frequency magnetic field, its interaction in conditions of complex geometry of transformer station and standardized electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in area of biologic influence of electromagnetic fields. Obtained threedimensional (3D) mathematical models are representing very complex functional dependence of magnetic field distribution, as a base for objectified physical measurements in order to create optimal versions for solving electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in existing and new power facilities. Satisfying accuracy of results gained by calculations comparing to experimental measuring values with EFA-300 Field Analyzers instrument is confirmed, indicating that initiation and developing such calculations for designing of constructive solutions for transformer station is reasonable. From the economic point of view, such way of calculation can reduce the requirements for expensive experimental measurements and substation reparations, indicating that complex theoretical researches are resulting in appropriate constructive solutions. Introduced mathematical models, calculations, measuring, and three-dimensional visual distribution of magnetic field, are representing the real assumption for researching of interaction between electromagnetic fields and human body on macroscopic and static level, revealing optimization criteria in aim to create a new technological solutions and methods for designing. The research results are important from scientific point of view, as well as a possibility for practical implementation.

REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] D. Poljak, Human exposure to nonionizing radiation, Kigen Ltd., Zagreb 2006. D. Poljak, Advanced modeling in computational electromagnetic compatibility, New Jersey, Wiley-Interscience, 2007 H. Salki, V. Madarevi, A. Muharemovi, E. Huki: Numerical solving and experimental measuring of low frequency electromagnetic fields in aspect of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, The 4th International Symposium on Energy, Informatics, and Cybernetics: EIC 2008 In the Context of The 12th Multi-conference on Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics: WMSCI 2008 June 29th July 2nd, 2008 Orlando, Florida, USAB. V. Madarevi, A. Nuhanovi, A. Muharemovi, H. Salki: Numerical calculation of magnetic dissipation and power transformers, ELECTROCOMP 2005, Seventh International Conferences on Computation and Experimental Methods in Electrical Engineering and Electromagnetism, 16-18 March 2005 Orlando, Florida, USA H. Salki, V. Madarevi, I. Kapetanovi, A. Muharemovi: Numerical calculation of magnetic dissipation and forces on coil in power transformers, CIRED 2005, 6-9 June 2005, Turin, Italy A. Muharemovi, S. Hanjali, H. Salki, A. Kamenica Electromagnetic compatibility of primary and secondary electronic and power equipment in high-voltage facility, The 6th Jordanian International Electrical & Electronics Engineering Conference 2005 March 14-16, 2006, Amman Jordan.. V. Madarevi, H. Salki, Z. Salki, D. Bainovi Calculation of low frequency electrical fields of the transformer station respecting the exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, The first conference of the Croatian branch of the International Electro distribution Conference, HO-CIRED ibenik 18-21.5.2008.M.

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