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1.1. HISTORY :

India , being one of the most populous countries , has its own petroleum requirements. To meet these requirements it was necessary to start some refineries in the public sector. Some international oil refineries were already operating in India much before independence. After independence , the Indian Oil Company was formed as a PSU in 1959 to manage import and distribution of petroleum products. To meet the increasing need of oil, another PSU named Indian Refineries Limited was established a year before that, with the sole responsibility to build new refineries. While choosing the location of the refineries, it was made sure that profitability was not only the criteria, and the development of all the parts of India was taken in consideration. This gave rise to refineries in unexpected places like Barauni and Haldia where shipping and transportation cost overrides other factors due to some geographical constraints. Later in 1964, the Indian Oil Company merged with Indian Refineries Limited and gave rise to the Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL ).



IOCL isa wholly public sector undertaking company registered under Companies Act (1956) and was formed on 1.9.1964 by amalgamating Indian Refineries Limited (established on 22.01.1958) with Indian Oil Company Limited (established on 30.05.1959). The IOCL has five major divisions : Refineries Pipelines Division Marketing Division Research and Development Division Assam Oil Division

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Besides being the largest commercial undertaking in India , IOCL is the first Indian Company to be listed in the Global Fortune 500 Companies list with a global listing of 226 in terms of sales and 17th largest petroleum company in the world. IOCL owns and operates a 7000 km network of cross country pipelines for transporting crude oil and petroleum products. At present the total refining capacity if IOCL is 47.50 mmtpa (million metric tonnes per annum). IOCL has set up an infrastructure of over 8000 sales points across the country. In addition there are 92 aviation fuel stations for national and international aircrafts.

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Indian Oil is India's flagship national oil company with business interests straddling the entire hydrocarbon value chain from refining, pipeline transportation and marketing of petroleum products to exploration & production of crude oil & gas, marketing of natural gas and petrochemicals. It is the leading Indian corporate in the Fortune 'Global 500' listing, ranked at the 98th position in the year 2011. With over 34,000-strong workforce, Indian Oil has been helping to meet Indias energy demands for over half a century. With a corporate vision to be the Energy of India, Indian Oil closed the year 2010-11 with a sales turnover of Rs. 3,28,744 crore ($ 68,837 million) and profits of Rs.7445.48 crore ($1,719million).

At Indian Oil, operations are strategically structured along business verticals - Refineries, Pipelines, Marketing, R&D Centre and Business Development E&P, Petrochemicals and Natural Gas. To achieve the next level of growth, IndianOil is currently forging ahead on a well laid-out road map through vertical integration upstream into oil exploration & production (E&P) and downstream into petrochemicals and diversification into natural gas marketing and alternative energy, besides globalisation of its downstream operations. Having set up subsidiaries in Sri Lanka, Mauritius and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), IndianOil is simultaneously scouting for new business opportunities in the energy markets of Asia and Africa.



IndianOil and its subsidiary (CPCL) account for over 48% petroleum products market share, 34.8% national refining capacity and 71% downstream sector pipelines capacity in India.

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The IndianOil Group of companies owns and operates 10 of India's 20 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 65.7 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA, .i.e. 1.30 million barrels per day approx.). IndianOil's cross-country network of crude oil and product pipelines, spanning 10,899 km with a capacity of 75.26 MMTPA, is the largest in the country. With a throughput of 68.5 million tones, it meets the vital energy needs of the consumers in an efficient, economical and environment-friendly manner It has a portfolio of powerful and much-loved energy brands that includes Indane LPG as, SERVO lubricants, Xtra-Premium petrol, Xtra-Mile diesel, etc. Validating the trust of 56.8 million households, Indane has earned the coveted status of 'Superbrand' in the year 2009.

Indian Oil has a keen customer focus and a formidable network of customer touch-points dotting the landscape across urban and rural India. It has 19,463 petrol and diesel stations, including 3517 Kisan Seva Kendras (KSKs) in the rural markets. With a countrywide network of 36,900 sales points, backed for supplies by 140 bulk storage terminals and depots, 96 aviation fuel stations and 89 LPG as bottling plants, Indian Oil services every nook and corner of the country. Indane is present in almost 2764 markets through a network of 5456 distributors. About 7780 bulk consumer pumps are also in operation for the convenience of large consumers, ensuring products and inventory at their doorstep. Indian Oil's ISO-9002 certified Aviation Service commands an enviable 63% market share in aviation fuel business, successfully servicing the demands of domestic and

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international flag carriers, private airlines and the Indian Defence Services. The Corporation also enjoys a 65% share of the bulk consumer, industrial, agricultural and marine sectors.

With a steady aim of maintaining its position as a market leader and providing the best quality products and services, Indian Oil is currently investing Rs. 47,000 crore in a host of projects for augmentation of refining and pipelines capacities, expansion of marketing infrastructure and product quality upgradation.



Indian Oil has a sprawling world-class R&D Centre that is perhaps Asia's finest. It conducts pioneering work in lubricants formulation, refinery processes, pipeline transportation and alternative fuels, and is also the nodal agency of the Indian hydrocarbon sector for ushering in Hydrogen fuel economy in the country. The Centre holds 212 active patents, with over 100 international patents.

Some of the in-house technologies and catalysts developed by Indian Oil include the INDMAX technology (for maximising LPGas yield), OilivorousS bio-remediation technology (extended to marine applications too), Diesel Hydro De-Sulphurisation (DHDS) catalyst, a special Indicat catalyst for Bharat Stage-IV compliant Diesel, IndVi catalyst for improved distillate yield and FCC throughput, and adsorbent based deep desulphurisation process for gasoline and diesel streams

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In Petrochemicals, Indian Oil offers a full slate of products including Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB), Purified Terephthallic Acid (PTA) and an extensive range of polymers. Indian Oil holds a significant market share of LAB in India and exports to 19 countries. It is also one of the largest suppliers of Mono-Ethylene

Glycol (MEG) in the domestic market clocking a sales volume of 151 TMT during 201011. Execution of a state-of-the-art 120,000 tonnes per annum Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) unit is underway at Panipat. The SBR unit is expected to further strengthen Indian Oils presence in the speciality petrochemicals sector. In Exploration & Production, Indian Oil's domestic portfolio includes 11 oil and gas blocks and 2 CBM blocks in India including 2 blocks as part of a consortium under NELPVIII (blocks GK-OSN-2009/1 and GK-OSN2009/2). The overseas portfolio includes ten blocks spread across Libya, Iran, Gabon, Nigeria, Timor-Leste and Yemen. Exploration activities are at various stages of progress. In addition, as part of consortium, IndianOil has been awarded Project -1 in the Carabobo heavy oil region of Venezuela. To boost E&P activities, Indian Oil has incorporated Ind-OIL Overseas Ltd. a special purpose vehicle for acquisition of overseas E&P assets in partnership with Oil India Ltd.

Natural Gas marketing is another thrust area for Indian Oil with special focus on City Gas Distribution (CGD) business. The Corporation has entered into franchise agreements with is setting up a 5 MMTPA LNG import, storage & re-gassification terminal at Ennore (outskirts of Chennai). This LNG Terminal would be first of its kind on the East Coast of India.

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Furthermore, in consortium with GSPC, HPCL and BPCL, Indian Oil has won gas pipeline bids for Mallavaram to Bhilwara and Vijaypur via Bhopal, Mehsana to Bhatinda and Bhatinda to Jammu and Srinagar.



Indian OiI has forayed into alternative energy options such as wind, solar, bio-fuels and nuclear power. A 21 MW wind power project is operational in the Kutch district of Gujarat. The solar power initiative is being spearheaded on a pilot basis in Orissa, Karnataka and the Northeast and a pan-India phased roll-out is

underway. Solar products such as solar lanterns and torches are being sold through the Retail Outlets in rural and urban areas. With a view to investing in the nuclear energy sector in the country, Indian Oil has entered into an agreement with the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. Indian Oil has the largest captive plantation over 1,000 hectares for bio-fuel production in India which is underway in the States of Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh, generating rural employment. To straddle the complete bio-fuel value chain, Indian Oil has formed a joint venture with the Chhattisgarh Renewable Development Authority. Indian Oil CREDA Bio-fuels Ltd. has been formed to carry out farming, cultivating, manufacturing, production and sale of biomass, bio-fuels and allied products and services in Chattisgarh. In Uttar Pradesh, Indian Oil is establishing a model value chain for the production of bio-diesel. A MoU for collaborating on commercial production of biodiesel from algae has also been signed with PALLC.

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With facilities at multiple locations and everexpanding market opportunities, Indian Oil is poised to become an integrated energy company. With facilities energy company

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Indian Oil's world class R&D Centre, established in 1972, has state-of the art facilities and has delivered pioneering results in lubricants technology, refining process, pipeline transportation, bio-fuels and fuel-efficient appliances. Over the past three decades, Indian Oil R&D Centre has developed over thousands of formulations of lubricating oils and greases responding to the needs of Indian industry and consuming sectors like Defence, Railways, Public Utilities and Transportation. The Centre has also developed and introduced many new lubricant products to the Indian market like multi-grade railroad oils. Focused research in the areas of lubricants and grease formulations, fuels, refining processes, biotechnology, additives, pipeline transportations, engine evaluation, tribiological and emission studies, and applied metallurgy has won several awards. The R&D Centers activities in refining technology are targeted in the areas of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydro-processing, catalysis, reside upgradation, distillation simulation and modelling, lube processing, crude evaluation, process optimization, material failure analysis and remaining life assessment and technical services to operating units. In FCC, apart from process optimization and catalyst evaluation the accent is on the development of novel technologies aimed at value addition to various refinery streams. Indian Oil's R&D Centre is fully equipped to provide technical support to commercial hydrocracker units in the evaluation of feedstocks and catalysts, optimization of operating parameters, evaluation of licensors' process technologies, development of novel processes and simulation models.

Material failure analysis and remaining life assessment of refinery equipment and installations is a highly specialized service being provided by the R&D Centre to the refineries of Indian Oil as well as other companies.

With a vision of evolving into a leader as technology provider through excellence in management of knowledge, technology and innovation, Indian Oil has launched Indian Oil Technology Ltd.

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Born from the vision of achieving self-reliance in oil refining and marketing for the nation, India Oil has gathered a luminous legacy of more than 100 years of accumulated experiences in all areas of petroleum refining by taking into its fold, the Digboi Refinery commissioned in 1901. At present, Indian Oil controls 10 of Indias 20 refineries.

The strength of IndianOil springs from its experience of operating the largest number of refineries in India and adapting to a variety of refining processes along the way.

Having absorbed state-of-the-art technologies of leading process licensors like UOP, Chevron, IFP, Stone & Webster, Mobil, Haldor Topsoe, KTI/Technip, Linde, CD-Tech, Stork Comprimo, etc., IndianOil in an excellent position to offer O&M services for latest technologies such as distillate FCCUs, Resid FCCUs, hydrocrackers, reformers (both semi-regenerative and continuous catalytic regeneration types), lube processing units, catalytic de-waxing units, cokers, coke calciners, visbreakers, merox, hydro-treaters for kero and gasoil streams, etc. IndianOil refineries also have units for producing specialty products such as bitumen, LPG, MTBE, Butene-1, Propylene, Xylenes, Di-Methyl Terephthalate (DMT), polyester staple fibre (PSF) and other petrochemicals like Linear
Alkyl Benzene, Paraxylene (PX), Purified Terepthalic Acid (PTA), etc.

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The Corporation has commissioned several grassroot refineries and modern process units. Procedures for commissioning and start-up of individual units and the refinery have been well laid-out and enshrined in various customised operating manuals, which are continually updated. Indian Oil also offers the specialised services of its experts for commissioning/start-up assistance depending on the clients need. Its team is also wellequipped to prepare operation manuals with clear instructions for plant start-up, operation, shutdown, emergency handling, etc.

On the environment front, all Indian Oil refineries fully comply with the statutory requirements. Several Clean Development Mechanism projects have also been initiated.

With its vast experience in successfully implementing SH&E policy and practices at various units, Indian Oil offers its services in ensuring that the clients work environment is safe, healthy.

Innovative strategies and knowledge-sharing are the tools available for converting challenges into opportunities for sustained organisational growth. Indian Oils Refineries team have a deep understanding of the complexities of all the process units of modern refineries and can offer comprehensive services of a highly professional nature on different facets given in details in this segment.

With strategies and plans for several value-added projects in place, Indian Oil refineries will continue to play a leading role in the downstream hydrocarbon sector for meeting the rising energy needs of our country.

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In Indias infrastructure, the petroleum pipelines form a crucial part enabling sustained availability of petroleum products in all parts of the country for economic growth. The pipelines transport petroleum products from refineries to demand areas and crude oil from import terminals as well as domestic sources to the inland refineries. India being a vast country, a wide network of pipelines becomes the paramount requirement of transporting petroleum products to interiors from refineries and crude oil to the land locked refineries.

It is an established fact that pipelines are preferred as a cost effective, energy efficient, safe and environment friendly method of transportation for petroleum products and crude oil and are playing a leading role in meeting the demand for petroleum products in India. Economic growth and expansion of infrastructure in India offer opportunities to better utilize the existing pipeline network in addition to expand by constructing new pipelines.

Indian Oil, the pioneer in cross-country petroleum product pipeline in the Indian subcontinent constructed and commissioned its first petroleum product pipeline, GuwahatiSiliguri Pipeline in the year 1964. Since then Indian Oil has mastered the art and technology of pipeline engineering. Over the last four decades the pipeline network of Indian Oil has grown to 10,899 km Indian Oils sustained pursuit and implementation of proven safety and environmental management systems have brought rich results. All operating pipeline units have been accredited with ISO 9000 and ISO 14001 certificates.

Various initiatives in the field of project management, operations and maintenance including training in countries like Oman, Ethiopia, Kuwait and Sudan have been undertaken.

Today Indian Oil is well placed to provide seamless services in the entire spectrum of petroleum pipelines covering techno-economic feasibility studies, design and detailed engineering, project execution, operations and maintenance, consultancy services in

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augmentation and modernization, etc.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and application software expertise are available from project implementation to commissioning including field services, maintenance and operational support. Tanker handling, petroleum product and crude oil accounting, quality control, ocean loss control, pigging procedure development and analysis of pigging data, selection, testing and evaluation of drag reducers, operations and maintenance of tank farm and pump stations are other areas of expertise available with Indian Oils Pipelines Division.

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Barauni Refinery was built in collaboration with Russia and Romania. Situated 125 kilometeres from Patna, Barauni Refinery was commissioned in 1964 with a refining capacity of 1 Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum (MMTPA). It was dedicated to the Nation by the then Union Minister for Petroleum, Prof. Humayun Kabir in January 1965. After de-bottlenecking, revamping and expansion projects, its current capacity 6 MMTPA. With various revamps and expansion projects at Barauni Refinery, capability for processing high-sulphur crude has been added, thereby increasing not only the capacity but also the profitability of the refinery.

Barauni Refinery was initially designed to process low sulphur crude oil (sweet crude) of Assam. After establishment of other refineries in the Northeast, Assam crude is unavailable for this refinery. Hence, sweet crude is being sourced from African, South East Asian and Middle East countries. The refinery receives crude oil by pipeline from Paradip on the east coast via Haldia.

Matching secondary processing facilities such Resid Fluidised Catalytic Cracker (RFCC), Diesel Hydrotreater (DHDT), Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) have been added. These state-of-the-art eco-friendly technologies have enabled the refinery to produce green fuels complying with international standards. The third reactor has been installed in the DHDT unit of Barauni Refinery to produce Diesel that complies with the Bharat Stage-III auto fuel emission norms. The MS Quality Upgradation project of Barauni Refinery is in full swing to supply Bharat Stage-III compliant petrol to the market.

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A Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU) has been an integral part of oil refineries

since 1942, when it was introduced in the United States by Exxon Corporation in response to a growing wartime need for hydrocarbon based fuels. An FCCU accepts chains of hydrocarbons and breaks them into smaller ones in a chemical process called cracking. This allows refineries to utilize their crude oil resources more efficiently, making more products such as gasoline for which there is a high demand. Crude oil contains a wide variety of hydrocarbons of various lengths. Depending on the length of the hydrocarbon, it can be used in a variety of ways. For example, cooking gas usually has four carbons, while gasoline for cars is a longer chain, containing eight carbons. Lubricating oils are even longer, with 36 carbons in the hydrocarbon chain. When oil is refined, these hydrocarbons are separated out for use. However, a barrel of crude oil will not always yield the desired ratio of hydrocarbons. For example, the market may be heavy for gasoline, but light for lubricating oil. Instead of discarding the lubricating oil, it is chemically cracked in an FCCU so that it can be turned into gasoline and other hydrocarbons with shorter changers. Hydrocarbons can be cracked in other ways, but chemical cracking in an FCCU is the most common and efficient.

The FCCU uses an extremely hot catalyst to crack the hydrocarbons into shorter chains. Zeolite, bauxite, silica-alumina, and aluminium hydro-silicate are all catalysts commonly used in an FCCU unit. Both the oil and catalyst in the FCCU are usually extremely hot, and the oil is often in a vapour form. The catalyst splits the long hydrocarbon chains into shorter units, and the mixture travels from the FCCU to another distillation column so that the cracked hydrocarbons can be extracted.

Catalysts can be reused for additional cracking after the carbon which coats them after the process has been removed. In the 1930s, when the concept of an FCCU first began to be developed, a team of scientists designed an FCCU which would work in a continuous cycling mode, capable of processing 13,000 barrels of oil a day. A continuous

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FCCU has a primary reactor, a distillation column for separating out the cracked hydrocarbons, and a regeneration unit for cleaning the catalysts and preparing them for reuse. The use of an FCCU increases the yield and efficiency of a refinery, and for this reason has become integral to the petroleum processing industry.



Diesel hydro treating unit catalytic unit widely used to remove sulphur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.The purpose of removing the sulphur is to reduce the sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions that result from using those fuels in automotive vehicles, aircraft, railroad locomotives, ships, gas or oil burning power plants, residential and industrial furnaces, and other forms of fuel combustion.Another important reason for removing sulphur from the naphtha streams within a petroleum refinery is that sulphur, even in extremely low concentrations, poisons the noble metal catalysts (platinum and rhenium) in the catalytic reforming units that are subsequently used to upgrade the octane rating of the naphtha streams. The industrial hydro-desulphurization processes include facilities for the capture and removal of the resulting hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas. In petroleum refineries, the hydrogen sulphide gas is then subsequently converted into by-product elemental sulphur or sulphuric acid. In fact, the vast majority of the 64,000,000 metric tons of sulphur produced worldwide in 2005 was by-product sulphur from refineries and other hydrocarbon processing plants. A diesel hydro treating unit unit in the petroleum refining industry is also often referred to as a hydrotreater.



Hydrogen production has become a priority in current refinery operations and when planning to produce lower sulphur gasoline and diesel fuels. Along with increased H2 consumption for deeper hydro-treating, additional H2 is needed for processing heavier and

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higher sulphur crude slates. In many refineries, hydro-processing capacity and the associated H2 network is limiting refinery throughput and operating margins. Furthermore, higher H2 purities within the refinery network are becoming more important to boost hydro-treater capacity, achieve product value improvements and lengthen catalyst life cycles. Improved H2 utilisation and expanded or new sources for refinery H2 and H2 purity optimisation are now required to meet the needs of the future transportation fuel market and the drive towards higher refinery profitability. Hydrogen Consumption Data for a typical refinery producing 82SCFD of Hydrogen from Natural gas at a purity of 99.9 vol% .

Hydrogen is usually manufactured by steam reforming process. In some cases partial oxidation has also been used, particularly where heavy oil is available at low cost. However, oxygen is then required and the capital cost of producing oxygen plant makes partial oxidation high in capital cost.



Amine gas treating, also known as gas sweetening and acid gas removal, refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various alkyl-amines (commonly referred to simply as amines) to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases.[1][2] It is a common unit process used in refineries, and is also used in petrochemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industries.Processes within oil refineries or chemical processing plants that remove hydrogen sulphide and/or mercaptans are commonly referred to as sweetening processes because they result in products which no longer have the sour, foul odours of mercaptans and hydrogen sulphide. There are many different amines used in gas treating:

Monoethanolamine (MEA) Diethanolamine (DEA) Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Diisopropylamine (DIPA) Aminoethoxyethanol (diglycolamine) (DGA)
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The most commonly used amines in industrial plants are the alkanolamines MEA, DEA, and MDEA. Amines are also used in many oil refineries to remove sour gases from liquid hydrocarbons such as liquified petroleum gas (LPG).



The Amine Treating Unit removes CO2 and H2S from sour gas and hydrocarbon streams in the Amine Contactor. The Amine (MDEA) is regenerated in the Amine Regenerator, and recycled to the Amine Contactor. The sour gas streams enter the bottom of the Amine Contactor. The cooled lean amine is trim cooled and enters the top of the contactor column. The sour gas flows upward counter-current to the lean amine solution. An acid-gas-rich-amine solution leaves the bottom of the column at an elevated temperature, due to the exothermic absorption reaction. The sweet gas, after absorption of H2S by the amine solution, flows overhead from the Amine Contactor. The Rich Amine Surge Drum allows separation of hydrocarbon from the amine solution. Condensed hydrocarbons flow over a weir and are pumped to the drain. The rich amine from the surge drum is pumped to the Lean/Rich Amine Exchanger. The stripping of H2S and CO2 in the Amine Regenerator regenerates the rich amine solution. The Amine Regenerator Reboiler supplies the necessary heat to strip H2S and CO2 from the rich amine, using steam as the heating medium. Acid gas, primarily H2S and water vapor from the regenerator is cooled in the Amine Regenerator Overhead Condenser. The mixture of gas and condensed liquid is collected in the Amine Regenerator Overhead Accumulator. The uncondensed gas is sent to Sulfur Recovery. The Amine Regenerator Reflux Pump, pumps the condensate in the Regenerator Accumulator, mainly water, to the top tray of the Amine Regenerator A portion of the pump discharge is sent to the sour water tank.

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Lean amine solution from the Amine Regenerator is cooled in the Lean/Rich Exchanger. A slipstream of rich amine solution passes through a filter to remove particulates and hydrocarbons, and is returned to the suction of the pump. The lean amine is further cooled in the Lean Amine Air Cooler, before entering the Amine Contactor.



H2S removed in the AGR process is sent to the sulphur recovery unit (SRU) as acid gas. SRU recovers H2S as elemental sulphur through the Claus reaction (see the attached figure). Reactions occur in two stages: the flame reaction stage and the catalytic reaction stage. The former consists of a high-performance burner, mixing chamber, and heat removing boiler, while the latter has two to three reactor stages. The sulphur recovery rate of the Claus process is about 95 to 97%. The tail gas that contains unrecovered sulphur is fed to the tail gas treating unit (TGT). The recovered sulphur is stored in the sulphur pit and shipped as product after undergoing a degassing process to remove H2S. The Claus process is an equilibrium process, and a modified version of it with direct oxidation catalysts stored in the final stage is called SUPERCLAUS. Since this improved process does not depend on Claus equilibrium, it can attain a 99% recovery ratio without TGT



The primary purpose of the LPG treating units is to remove mercaptans so that final product meets sulphur and corrosion specifications. Sulphur present in LPG in the form of mercaptans is removed by catalytic oxidation of mercaptans. The process is used for LPG sweetening.



In this unit, the foul smelling mercaptans are converted to less objectionable disulphides. The oxidation is carried out in the presence of an aqueous alkaline solution (generally

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NaOH) and a catalyst. The disulphide formed in the process, remains in the hydrocarbon and no net reduction in the total sulphur content takes place.

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Lake Monitors offers a rugged line of flow rate gauges, alarms/switches, transmitters and hydraulic system analyzers. The basis for our product, the sharp-edged, variablearea, measurement method, provides accurate and repeatable flow rate measurements for both liquids and gases.

Flow Meter Operating Theory

Enclosed within a high pressure casing (A), a high strength magnet (F) in tandem with the sharp-edged annular orifice disk (E) is pressed towards the zero flow rate position by a linear rate compression spring (G). A tapered metering pin (D) is positioned concentrically within the annular orifice disk and provides a variable-area opening that increases by the square of linear displacement of the orifice disk. Fluid flow creates a pressure differential across the orifice disk, pressing the magnet/orifice disk duo against the compression spring. Flow rate is read by aligning the magnetically coupled follower (C) with the graduated scale located within the environmentally sealed window (B). The variable-area orifice design provides pressure differential and orifice displacements that are linearly proportional to fluid flow rate.

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Lake Monitors' sharp-edged orifice provides a more reliable and accurate reading in applications where fluid viscosity varies.

The unique design of the monitor allows installation in any piping orientation. The high-strength magnetic coupling between internal and external components eliminates mechanical seals and linkages that can fail.

With more than 20 different port options and three materials of construction, Lake Monitors has the correct product to match your system requirements.

Most Lake variable area meters are backed by a five year parts and labour warranty against all defects in materials and workmanship. .


A rotameter is a device that measures the flow rate of liquid or gas in a closed tube. It belongs to a class of meters called variable area meters, which measure flow rate by allowing the cross-sectional area the fluid travels through to vary, causing some measurable effect. A rotameter consists of a tapered tube, typically made of glass with a 'float', actually a shaped weight, inside that is pushed up by the drag force of the flow and pulled down by gravity. Drag force for a given fluid and float cross section is a function of flow speed squared only, see drag equation. A higher volumetric flow rate through a given area results in increase in flow speed and drag force, so the float will be pushed upwards. However, as the inside of the rotameter is cone shaped (widens), the area around the float through which the medium flows increases, the flow speed and drag force decrease until there is mechanical equilibrium with the float's weight. Floats are made in many different shapes, with spheres and ellipsoids being the most common. The float may be diagonally grooved and partially colored so that it rotates axially as the fluid passes. This shows if the float is stuck since it will only rotate if it is free. Readings are usually taken at the top of the widest part of the float; the center for an ellipsoid, or the top for a cylinder. Some manufacturers use a different standard.

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Note that the "float" does not actually float in the fluid: it has to have a higher density than the fluid, otherwise it will float to the top even if there is no flow.


Reduction of cross-section of the flowing stream in passing through orifice increases the velocity head at the expense of pressure head Reduction of pressure between taps is measured using manometer Complications: Formation of Vena-contracta- Fluid stream separates from the downstream side of the orifice plate and forms a free-flowing jet in the downstream side. Orifice coefficients are more empirical than those for the Venturi meter. Orifice coefficient, generally, is 0.61 in case of flange taps and vena-contracta taps for NRe< 30,000. In the process of calculating fluid velocity with a orifice meter, the velocity of approach is not included.

Velocity through an orifice meter:


The simplest apparatus, is a tubular setup known as a Venturi tube or simply a venturi. Fluid flows through a length of pipe of varying diameter. To avoid undue drag, a Venturi

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tube typically has an entry cone of 30 degrees and an exit cone of 5 degrees. To account for the assumption of an inviscid fluid a coefficient of discharge is often introduced, which generally has a value of 0.98.

Instrumentation and Measurement : Venturis are used in industrial and in scientific laboratories for measuring the flow of liquids.

Flow rate : A venturi can be used to measure the volumetric flow rate Q. Since


A venturi can also be used to mix a liquid with a gas. If a pump forces the liquid through a tube connected to a system consisting of a venturi to increase the liquid speed (the diameter decreases), a short piece of tube with a small hole in it, and last a venturi that decreases speed (so the pipe gets wider again), the gas will be sucked in through the small hole because of changes in pressure. At the end of the system, a mixture of liquid and gas will appear.


The capillary flowmeter is used to measure the rate of flow of a fluid. Measurement of flow rate forms an integral part in the industries and is of utmost importance.

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It consists of a set of capillary tubes and a pressure gauge or a manometer to maintain or measure the pressure drop. Alternately, it can also use a combination of mechanisms such as an electrical transducer and a differential pressure gauge sensor that when operated together can produce electrical signals in response to change in pressure.

Even though the flow of the fluid may be turbulent outside, it becomes laminar due to the condition imposed on the radius of the capillary. The measurement of the pressure at both ends gives ?P which when substituted in eqn 9 gives the Q and hence subsequently velocity of the fluid V. Using a large number of capillary tubes will negate the effect of roughness of each capillary tube.


A magnetic flow meter (mag flowmeter) is a volumetric flow meter which does not have any moving parts and is ideal for wastewater applications or any dirty liquid which is conductive or water based. Magnetic flowmeters will generally not work with hydrocarbons, distilled water and many non-aqueous solutions). Magnetic flowmeters are also ideal for applications where low pressure drop and low maintenance are required.

Principle of Operation : The operation of a magnetic flowmeter or mag meter is based upon Faraday's Law, which states that the voltage induced across any conductor as it moves at right angles through a magnetic field is proportional to the velocity of that conductor.

Faraday's Formula: E is proportional to V x B x D where:

E = The voltage generated in a conductor V = The velocity of the conductor B = The magnetic field strength D = The length of the conductor

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To apply this principle to flow measurement with a magnetic flowmeter, it is necessary first to state that the fluid being measured must be electrically conductive for the Faraday principle to apply. As applied to the design of magnetic flowmeters, Faraday's Law indicates that signal voltage (E) is dependent on the average liquid velocity (V) the magnetic field strength (B) and the length of the conductor (D) (which in this instance is the distance between the electrodes).In the case of wafer-style magnetic flowmeters, a magnetic field is established throughout the entire cross-section of the flow tube (Figure 1). If this magnetic field is considered as the measuring element of the magnetic flowmeter, it can be seen that the measuring element is exposed to the hydraulic conditions throughout the entire cross-section of the flowmeter. With insertion-style flowmeters, the magnetic field radiates outward from the inserted probe.



An ultrasonic flow meter is a type of flow meter that measures the velocity of a liquid or gas (fluid) by using the principle of ultrasound. Using ultrasonic transducers, the flow meter can measure the average velocity along the path of an emitted beam of ultrasound, by averaging the difference in measured transit time between the pulses of ultrasound propagating into and against the direction of the flow. Ultrasonic flow meters are affected by the temperature, density and viscosity of the flowing medium. They are inexpensive to use and maintain because they do not use moving parts, unlike mechanical flow meters.

8.1.7. ANUBAR :
An anubar is similar to a pitot tube used to measure the flow of gas or liquid in a pipe. The pitot tube measures the difference between the static pressure and the flowing pressure of the media in the pipe. The volumetric flow is calculated from that difference using Bernoulli's principle and taking into account the pipe inside diameter. The biggest difference between an anubar and a pitot tube is that an anubar takes multiple samples across a section of a pipe or duct. In this way, the anubar averages the differential pressures encountered accounting for variations in flow across the section. A pitot tube
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will give a similar reading if the tip is located at a point in the pipe cross section where the flowing velocity is close to the average velocity.


Thermal mass flow meters are used almost entirely for gas flow applications. As the name implies, thermal mass flow meters use heat to measure flow. Thermal mass flow meters introduce heat into the flow stream and measure how much heat dissipates using one or more temperature sensors. This method works best with gas mass flow measurement. It is difficult to get a strong signal using thermal mass flow meters in liquids, due to considerations relating to heat absorption. While all thermal flow meters use heat to make their flow measurements, there are two different methods for measuring how much heat is dissipated. One method is called the constant temperature differential. Thermal flow meters using this method have two temperature sensors a heated sensor and another sensor that measures the temperature of the gas. Mass flow rate is computed based on the amount of electrical power required to maintain a constant difference in temperature between the two temperature sensors. A second, and less popular concept, is called a constant current method. Thermal mass flow meters using this method also have a heated sensor and another one that senses the temperature of the flow stream. The power to the heated sensor is kept constant. Mass flow is measured as a function of the difference between the temperature of the heated sensor and the temperature of the flow stream. Both methods are based on the principle that higher velocity flows result in a greater cooling effect. Both measure mass flow based on the measured effects of cooling in the flow stream.


A mas flow meter, also known as inertial flow meter and coriolis flow meter, is a device that measures how much liquid is flowing through a tube. It does not measure the volume of the liquid passing through the tube, it measures the amount of mass flowing through the device.

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Volumetric flow rate metering is proportional to mass flow rate only when the density of the fluid is constant. If the fluid has varying density, or contains bubbles, then the volume flow rate multiplied by the density is not an accurate measure of the mass flow rate. In a mass flow meter the fluid is contained in a smooth tube, with no moving parts that would need to be cleaned and maintained, and that would impede the flow. Operating principle : There are two basic configurations: the curved tube flow meter and the straight tube flow meter. The animations on the right do not represent an actually existing coriolis flow meter design. The purpose of the animations is to illustrate the operating principle, and to show the connection with rotation. The motion of the fluid relative to the axis of rotation determines what is happening. I will refer to the section of tubing in which the liquid flows away from the axis of rotation as the 'outward arm'. I will refer to the section of tubing in which the liquid flows towards the axis of rotation again as the 'inward arm'. During no-flow the outward arm and inward arm remain parallel to each other. The fluid furthest away from the axis of rotation is moving at greater velocity than the "inside track" fluid, but this doesn't require a force in radial direction. When there is mass flow then in the outward arm fluid is moving away from the axis of rotation, and bringing it up to speed takes some pushing; the arm must exert a force on the fluid, and that makes the arm bend backwards somewhat. The inward arm on the other hand must exert a force on the fluid to decrease its velocity again, hence that arm will bend forwards.

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The main parts of this instruments are as follows:

An elastic transducer, that is bourdon tube which is fixed and open at one end to receive the pressure which is to be measured. The other end of the bourdon tube is free and closed. The cross-section of the bourdon tube is elliptical. The bourdon tube is in a bent form to look like a circular arc. To the free end of the bourdon tube is attached an adjustable link, which is in turn connected to a sector and pinion as shown in diagram. To the shaft of the pinion is connected a pointer which sweeps over a pressure calibrated scale.


This instrument uses two impulse lines coming out of two different places, between which the pressure has to be measured. The differential pressure to be measured is fed on two sides of a diaphragm, which expands in the direction of low pressure. The deflection of the central point is measured using the change in capacitance due to this movement.

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In the SMART INSTRUMEENTS that have come up recently, the delta-p is given across a piezo-electric crystal that produces a voltage proportional to the differential pressure.




Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors or resistive thermal devices (RTDs), are temperature sensors that exploit the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing temperature. As they are almost invariably made of platinum, they are often called platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs). They are slowly replacing the use of thermocouples in many industrial applications below 600 C, due to higher accuracy and repeatability.

Resistance thermometers are constructed in a number of forms and offer greater stability, accuracy and repeatability in some cases than thermocouples. While thermocouples use the Seebeck effect to generate a voltage, resistance thermometers use electrical resistance and require a power source to operate. The resistance ideally varies linearly with temperature. Resistance thermometers are usually made using platinum, because of its linear resistance-temperature relationship and its chemical inertness. The platinum detecting wire needs to be kept free of contamination to remain stable. A platinum wire or film is supported on a former in such a way that it gets minimal differential expansion or other strains from its former, yet is reasonably resistant to vibration. RTD assemblies made from iron or copper are also used in some applications.

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A thermocouple is a device consisting of two different conductors (usually metal alloys) that produce a voltage proportional to a temperature difference between either end of the pair of conductors. Thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor for measurement and control and can also be used to convert a heat gradient into electricity. They are inexpensive, interchangeable, are supplied with standard connectors, and can measure a wide range of temperatures. In contrast to most other methods of temperature measurement, thermocouples are self powered and require no external form of excitation. The main limitation with thermocouples is accuracy and system errors of less than one degree Celsius (C) can be difficult to achieve.

Any junction of dissimilar metals will produce an electric potential related to temperature. Thermocouples for practical measurement of temperature are junctions of specific alloys which have a predictable and repeatable relationship between temperature and voltage. Different alloys are used for different temperature ranges. Properties such as resistance to corrosion may also be important when choosing a type of thermocouple. Where the measurement point is far from the measuring instrument, the intermediate connection can be made by extension wires which are less costly than the materials used to make the sensor. Thermocouples are usually standardized against a reference temperature of 0 degrees Celsius; practical instruments use electronic methods of coldjunction compensation to adjust for varying temperature at the instrument terminals.

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Electronic instruments can also compensate for the varying characteristics of the thermocouple, and so improve the precision and accuracy of measurements. Thermocouples are widely used in science and industry; applications include temperature measurement for kilns, gas turbine exhaust, diesel engines, and other industrial processes.

A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau ofthermal and resistor. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters, temperature sensors, self-resetting over current protectors, and self-regulating heating elements. Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use pure metals. The temperature response is also different; RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges, while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a limited temperature range [usually 90 C to 130 C].

Assuming, as a first-order approximation, that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear, then:

where R = change in resistance T = change in temperature k = first-order temperature coefficient of resistance Thermistors can be classified into two types, depending on the sign of k. If k is positive, the resistance increases with increasing temperature, and the device is called apositive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistor, or posistor. If k is negative, the resistance
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decreases with increasing temperature, and the device is called a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor. Resistors that are not thermistors are designed to have a k as close to zero as possible, so that their resistance remains nearly constant over a wide temperature range. Instead of the temperature coefficient k, sometimes the temperature coefficient of resistance T (alpha sub T) is used. It is defined as[2]




Ultrasonic level sensors are used for non-contact level sensing of highly viscous liquids, as well as bulk solids. They are also widely used in water treatment applications for pump control and open channel flow measurement. The sensors emit high frequency (20 kHz to 200 kHz) acoustic waves that are reflected back to and detected by the emitting transducer. Ultrasonic level sensors are also affected by the changing speed of sound due to moisture, temperature, and pressures. Correction factors can be applied to the level measurement to improve the accuracy of measurement. Turbulence, foam, steam, chemical mists (vapours), and changes in the concentration of the process material also affect the ultrasonic sensors response. Turbulence and foam prevent the sound wave from being properly reflected to the sensor; steam and chemical mists and vapors distort or absorb the sound wave; and variations in concentration cause changes in the amount of energy in the sound wave that is reflected back to the sensor. Stilling wells and wave guides are used to prevent errors caused by these factors. Proper mounting of the transducer is required to ensure best response to reflected sound. In addition, the hopper, bin, or tank should be relatively free of obstacles such as weldments, brackets, or ladders to minimise false returns and the resulting erroneous response, although most modern systems have sufficiently "intelligent" echo processing to make engineering changes largely unnecessary except where an intrusion blocks the
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"line of sight" of the transducer to the target. Since the ultrasonic transducer is used both for transmitting and receiving the acoustic energy, it is subject to a period of mechanical vibration known as ringing. This vibration must attenuate (stop) before the echoed signal can be processed. The net result is a distance from the face of the transducer that is blind and cannot detect an object. It is known as the blanking zone, typically 150mm 1m, depending on the range of the transducer.

The requirement for electronic signal processing circuitry can be used to make the ultrasonic sensor an intelligent device. Ultrasonic sensors can be designed to provide point level control, continuous monitoring or both. Due to the presence of a microprocessor and relatively low power consumption, there is also capability for serial communication from to other computing devices making this a good technique for adjusting calibration and filtering of the sensor signal, remote wireless monitoring or plant network communications. The ultrasonic sensor enjoys wide popularity due to the powerful mix of low price and high functionality Ultrasonic level sensors are used for non-contact level sensing of highly viscous liquids, as well as bulk solids. They are also widely used in water treatment applications for pump control and open channel flow measurement. The sensors emit high frequency (20 kHz to 200 kHz) acoustic waves that are reflected back to and detected by the emitting transducer. Ultrasonic level sensors are also affected by the changing speed of sound due to moisture, temperature, and pressures. Correction factors can be applied to the level measurement to improve the accuracy of measurement.

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Turbulence, foam, steam, chemical mists (vapours), and changes in the concentration of the process material also affect the ultrasonic sensors response. Turbulence and foam prevent the sound wave from being properly reflected to the sensor; steam and chemical mists and vapors distort or absorb the sound wave; and variations in concentration cause changes in the amount of energy in the sound wave that is reflected back to the sensor. Stilling wells and wave guides are used to prevent errors caused by these factors. Proper mounting of the transducer is required to ensure best response to reflected sound. In addition, the hopper, bin, or tank should be relatively free of obstacles such as weldments, brackets, or ladders to minimise false returns and the resulting erroneous response, although most modern systems have sufficiently "intelligent" echo processing to make engineering changes largely unnecessary except where an intrusion blocks the "line of sight" of the transducer to the target. Since the ultrasonic transducer is used both for transmitting and receiving the acoustic energy, it is subject to a period of mechanical vibration known as ringing. This vibration must attenuate (stop) before the echoed signal can be processed. The net result is a distance from the face of the transducer that is blind and cannot detect an object. It is known as the blanking zone, typically 150mm 1m, depending on the range of the transducer. The requirement for electronic signal processing circuitry can be used to make the ultrasonic sensor an intelligent device. Ultrasonic sensors can be designed to provide point level control, continuous monitoring or both. Due to the presence of a microprocessor and relatively low power consumption, there is also capability for serial communication from to other computing devices making this a good technique for adjusting calibration and filtering of the sensor signal, remote wireless monitoring or plant network communications. The ultrasonic sensor enjoys wide popularity due to the powerful mix of low price and high functionality.


A radar signal is emitted via an antenna, reflected on the product surface and received after a time t. The radar principle used is FMCW (Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave). The FMCW-radar transmits a high frequency signal whose frequency increases linearly during the measurement phase (called the frequency sweep).

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The signal is emitted, reflected on the measuring surface and received with a time delay, t. Delay time, t=2d/c, where d is the distance to the product surface and c is the speed of light in the gas above the product. For further signal processing the difference f is calculated from the actual transmit frequency and the receive frequency. The difference is directly proportional to the distance. A large frequency difference corresponds to a large distance and vice versa. The frequency difference f is transformed via a Fourier transformation (FFT) into a frequency spectrum and then the distance is calculated from the spectrum. The level results from the difference between tank height and measuring distance.


There are fundamentally two ways to measure level of a fluid in a vessel, which are: 1. Direct level measurement 2. Inferential level measurement Float, magnetostrictive, retracting, capacitance, radar, ultrasonic and laser level measurement falls under direct level measurement technique, whereas weight and differential pressure level measurement comes under inferential level measurement technology. Differential pressure level sensors or Differential pressure transmitters are probably the most widely employed devices for the purpose of level detection. Using DP for level is

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really an inferential measurement. A DP is used to transmit the head pressure that the diaphragm senses due to the height of the material in the vessel multiplied by a density variable.[1]

LEVEL DETECTION USING DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE : Differential pressure level measurement technique makes use of a differential pressure detector which is installed at the bottom of the tank whose level is to be detected. The liquid inside the tank creates pressure which is comparatively higher than the reference atmospheric pressure. This pressure comparison is performed via the Differential pressure detector. A standard differential pressure transmitter connected to an open tank is shown in the figure below.

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In case of open tanks i.e. tanks which are open to the atmosphere, only high pressure ends of the DP transmitter is needed to be connected whereas the low pressure end of the DP transmitter is expelled into the atmosphere. Hence, the differential pressure happens to be the hydrostatic head or weight of the fluid contained in the tank. The highest level detected by the differential pressure transmitter usually depends upon the maximum height of fluid above the transmitter, whereas the lowest level detected is based upon the position where the transmitter is attached to the tank or vessel. Now, in cases where tanks or vessels are not open to the atmosphere i.e. in pressurized tanks, both the high and low pressure ends of the differential pressure detector are required to be connected. These tanks are entirely covered in order to avoid release of vapors or steam outside. Due to this, the liquid inside the tank gets pressurized.

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Instrumentation is defined as the art and science of measurement and control of systems. An instrument is a device that measures and/or regulates physical quantity/process variables such as flow, temperature, level, or pressure. Instruments include many varied contrivances that can be as simple as valves and transmitters, and as complex as analyzers. Instruments often comprise control systems of varied processes such as refineries, factories, and vehicles. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. Instrumentation can also refer to handheld devices that measure some desired variable. Diverse handheld instrumentation is common in laboratories, but can be found in the household as well. For example, a smoke detector is a common instrument found in most western homes. Output instrumentation includes devices such as solenoids, valves, regulators, circuit breakers, and relays. These devices control a desired output variable, and provide either remote or automated control capabilities. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. Transmitters are devices that produce an output signal, often in the form of a 4 20 mA electrical current signal, although many other options using voltage, frequency, pressure, or ethernet are possible. This signal can be used for informational purposes, or it can be sent to a PLC, DCS, SCADA system, Lab View or other type of computerized controller, where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system. Control Instrumentation plays a significant role in both gathering information from the field and changing the field parameters, and as such are a key part of control loops.

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Taking into consideration , the furistic demand of the petroleum products and the aim to meet the future challenges for Oil Sector and the Environmental aspects , the Barauni Refinery Expansion Project (BXP) was commissioned in the year 1999 , as a major expansion plan for Barauni Refinery at the cost of 1803 crores. After the successful implementation of the project , the refining capacity of the refinery has gone up to 6.0 mmtpa. The proposal envisaged the augmentation of the capacity of the existing units and the installation of the secondary processing units based on the latest state of the art technologies like Resid Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit , Hydrotreater for improving diesel quality , Sulphur Recovery Unit to minimize sulphur dioxide emission alongwith the associated utility and offsite facilities. This unit has helped the refinery to get more valuable products from the same crude. the Resid Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit is the most important unit as it has reduced the production of coke from 40% to 27% and at the same time more valuable products like LPG , Light Naptha , Heavy Naptha etc are being produced in higher proportions. The production of LPG has increased by 500 tonnes. Earlier, the refinery was supplied with low sulphur crude from Naharkatia, but with the supply of crude from Nigeria, the sulphur content in the crude has increased. So, it was necessary to extract the crude and hence the SRU found its utility. The DHDT unit has improved the quality of diesel by increasing the cetane number i diesel. The HGU produces very high purity hydrogen for DHDT and at the same time produces large quantity of steam which is used in various units. Cooling water unit provides cold water to BXP after chemical treatment and purification.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. IOCL : Indian Oil Corporation Limited MMTPA : million metric tonnes per annum FCCU : fluidized catalytic cracking unit LPG : liquid petroleum gas LCO : light cycle oil HCO : heavy cycle oil ARU : amine regeneration unit RTD : resistance temperature detector PSU : public sector unit

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I took references from certain websites to complete my report on industrial training which i pursued from IOCL BARAUNI REFINERY . They are as follow : 1.

3. 4. 5.

I also referred to a book. Petroleum refining: technology and economics - James H. Gary, Glenn E. Handwerk

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Prepares students physically,mentally and emotionally for the rigours of work

as executives in real organizations. Develop students individual maturity,self awareness and confidence. To train and prepare students with knowledge and skill requirements of current and future industry environments. Enable students to acquire effective communication skills in organisation. To train the students about the working methodology.

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