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Computer App.s Study Guide What is feedback? Feedback is information.

Feedback tells people how close to a desired target they are. List and describe the different types of feedback. Auditory feedback (hearing) Visual feedback (vision) Kinesthetic feedback (movement) Proprioceptive feedback (position) Tactile feedback (touch)

The comments that clinicians make bout a clients production could be described as external auditory verbal feedback. What is biofeedback? Biofeedback is a type of visual display (a computer) providing simultaneous information about a persons physical behavior; providing information to the clients behavior while it is happening. What is the difference between regular feedback and biofeedback? The key differences are the immediacy and direct link between physical change and the delivery of information about the change. Describe two biofeedback methods. Low-tech biofeedback often provided by clinicians to help clients monitor their airflow; examples include straws, nasal mirrors, and pinwheels. High-tech biofeedback example would be using the computer

Clients may view the computer as a more objective, less personal judge of their performance. What does research tell us about computer-based feedback during speech therapy? Even though they have studied these technologies, there are still gaping holes in our understanding of how well they work and with whom. What is Computerized Speech Lab (CSL)? CSL is software and hardware that has replaced traditional methods of evaluating a persons voice; it is more objective, precise, and more reliable. Please explain what is meant by frequency and amplitude. Frequency (pitch)= is a measure of how many times a vibration occurs in a given amount of time o Fundamental frequency frequency in reference to the human voice; refers to the basic rate the vocal folds are vibrating (times per second)

Amplitude (loudness/volume) = how much energy is present as measured by how far molecules are vibrating away from its resting position

What is jitter and what does the computer look at? It is a measure of the cycle-to-cycle variation in frequency. The computer looks at the data collected about each cycle of opening and closing of the vocal folds and calculates how much change in rate is happening how much variation is there from cycle to cycle; the more stable the frequency, the less jitter there would be and vice versa. What is shimmer? It is a measure of cycle-to-cycle variation in amplitude; the more constant the amplitude is, the lower shimmer will be and vice versa. One of the earliest computer-based biofeedback systems was the Visi-Pitch from Kay Elemetrics. What is Visi-pitch designed to do? It is designed for computer-based voice assessment and remediation. Describe what is meant by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR or S/N). In simple terms, we are looking at how difficult speech is to discriminate when compared to the background noise. This comes up frequently us audiology and aural rehabilitation. The purpose is to help eliminate as much noise as possible so that the noise wont interfere with the voice analysis.