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WinFlume

Version 1.05 September 2001

Software for Design and Calibration of Long-Throated Flumes and Broad-Crested Weirs for Open-Channel Water Flow Measurement

Users Manual
For proper display and printing of graphics in this document, use Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0 or newer

WinFlume
Software for Design and Calibration of Long-Throated Flumes and Broad-Crested Weirs for Open-Channel Water Flow Measurement
Version 1.05 September 2001

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
WinFlume is the latest in a series of long-throated flume design tools originally developed through the cooperative research efforts of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI). Albert J. Clemmens and John A. Replogle of ARS, and Marinus G. Bos of ILRI developed many of the original hydraulic design criteria and computation procedures. This newest version of the software was developed through the cooperative efforts of the U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Water Resources Research Laboratory and ARSs U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory, with funding from Reclamations Water Conservation-Field Services Program. Finally, numerous beta testers within Reclamation, ARS, and other organizations have contributed to the fine-tuning of the software. Thanks to all of you. Tony L. Wahl Bureau of Reclamation Denver, Colorado

HOW TO CONTACT THE AUTHOR


Tony L. Wahl Bureau of Reclamation Water Resources Research Laboratory, D-8560 P.O. Box 25007 Denver, Colorado 80225-0007 Phone: 303-445-2155 FAX: 303-445-6324 E-mail: twahl@do.usbr.gov Program updates are available on the Internet at http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/winflume/ If you are having problems related to a specific flume design, please save the flume file and e-mail it to me with a description of how I can recreate the problem.

DISTRIBUTION TERMS AND DISCLAIMER


This software is a public-domain product of the United States government. You may distribute it freely to others. Although this software has been extensively tested to eliminate errors and inaccuracies, the author, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Agricultural Research Service, and the International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement cannot guarantee the fitness of this software for any particular purpose.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgments _____________________________________________________________ i How to Contact the Author ______________________________________________________ i Distribution Terms and Disclaimer________________________________________________ i Documentation Overview________________________________________________________1 Introduction __________________________________________________________________1
Purpose__________________________________________________________________________ Installing and Starting WinFlume ____________________________________________________ Additional Methods for Starting WinFlume____________________________________________ Using WinFlume - An Overview _____________________________________________________ 1 2 2 2

Menu Reference _______________________________________________________________3


File Menu ________________________________________________________________________ 3
New Flume ____________________________________________________________________________3 Open Existing Flume File ________________________________________________________________3 Load Flume from FLUME 3.0 Database _______________________________________________________3 Review Data for Current Flume Using the Flume Wizard________________________________________3 Save Flume____________________________________________________________________________3 Save Flume As _________________________________________________________________________3 Printer Setup _____________________________________________________________________________3 Print Flume Drawing ____________________________________________________________________3 Copy Flume Drawing to Clipboard ___________________________________________________________4 Close ___________________________________________________________________________________4 Exit ____________________________________________________________________________________4

Flume & Canal Menu ______________________________________________________________ 4


Flume Properties & Canal Data ______________________________________________________________4 Dimensions____________________________________________________________________________4 Undo ___________________________________________________________________________________4

Design Menu _____________________________________________________________________ 4


Site Selection Tips ________________________________________________________________________4 Flume Wizard__________________________________________________________________________4 Flume Properties, Canal Data, & Design Requirements _________________________________________5 Dimensions____________________________________________________________________________5 Review Current Design __________________________________________________________________5 Evaluate Alternative Designs ______________________________________________________________5 Undo ___________________________________________________________________________________6

Reports/Graphs Menu _____________________________________________________________ 6


Rating Tables & Graphs__________________________________________________________________6 Rating Equation ________________________________________________________________________6 Measured Data Comparison _______________________________________________________________6 Wall Gages____________________________________________________________________________6 Flume Data Report ______________________________________________________________________6 Flume Drawing Printout__________________________________________________________________6 Copy Flume Drawing to Clipboard ___________________________________________________________6

Options Menu ____________________________________________________________________ 6


Units ___________________________________________________________________________________6 User Name ______________________________________________________________________________6 Calibrate Screen for Wall Gage Preview _______________________________________________________7 Calibrate Printer for Wall Gage Output ________________________________________________________7 iii

Show Maximum Water Surface Profile ________________________________________________________7 Show Minimum Water Surface Profile ________________________________________________________7 Explorer File-Open Dialog __________________________________________________________________7 File-Open Dialog with Flume Summary _______________________________________________________7 Save Current Settings as Defaults_____________________________________________________________7 Save Settings on Exit ______________________________________________________________________7

Help Menu _______________________________________________________________________ 8


Contents ________________________________________________________________________________8 Search for Help On ______________________________________________________________________8 Review Flume Definition Sketch _____________________________________________________________8 How to Use Help _________________________________________________________________________8 About WinFlume _________________________________________________________________________8

Primary Forms and Dialog Boxes_________________________________________________9


Flume Geometry and Dimensions Form _______________________________________________ 9 Section Shape & Dimensions Form __________________________________________________ 10 Flume and Canal Properties & Design Requirements Form _____________________________ 11 Flume and Canal Properties Form __________________________________________________ 12 Flume Wizard Dialog _____________________________________________________________ 13 Flume Design Module Form________________________________________________________ 14 File-Open Dialogs ________________________________________________________________ 15 Create New Flume Dialog__________________________________________________________ 16 Import from FLUME 3.0 Dialog ____________________________________________________ 16 Printer Setup Dialog ______________________________________________________________ 17 Units Dialog _____________________________________________________________________ 17 Calibrate Screen for Wall Gage Previews Dialog_______________________________________ 18 Calibrate Printer for Wall Gage Output Dialog________________________________________ 19 Flume Reports Form ______________________________________________________________ 20 Rating Table Output Form_________________________________________________________ 21 Measured Data Comparison Form __________________________________________________ 22 Equation Output Form ____________________________________________________________ 23 Wall Gage Output Form___________________________________________________________ 24

Flume Design Guidance _______________________________________________________25


Advantages of Long-Throated Flumes _______________________________________________ 25 Components of Long-Throated Flumes ______________________________________________ 25
Stationary-Crest Flumes ___________________________________________________________________26 Movable-Crest Flumes ____________________________________________________________________26

Suggested Flume Dimensions _______________________________________________________ 27


Sill height, p1 ___________________________________________________________________________27 Length of approach channel ________________________________________________________________27 Length of converging transition _____________________________________________________________27 Length of the control section (i.e., throat, crest, or sill) ___________________________________________27 Slope of the downstream expansion __________________________________________________________27

Flume Site Selection ______________________________________________________________ 28


Upstream Channel Considerations ___________________________________________________________28 Upstream Structures ______________________________________________________________________28 Freeboard ______________________________________________________________________________28 Tailwater Levels _________________________________________________________________________29 Sediment Transport_______________________________________________________________________29 Construction Stability _____________________________________________________________________29

Using the Flume Design Module ____________________________________________________ 30 WinFlume's Design Algorithm______________________________________________________ 30


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If an Acceptable Design Is Not Found on the First Trial __________________________________________31

Determining Tailwater Levels ______________________________________________________ 31


Manning's equation using n and S ___________________________________________________________32 Manning's equation using one Q-y2 measurement _______________________________________________32 Power curve using 2 Q-y2 measurements ______________________________________________________32 Power curve with offset using 3 Q-y2 measurements _____________________________________________33 Linear interpolation/extrapolation from Q-y2 lookup table ________________________________________33

Design Criteria___________________________________________________________________ 33 Flume Warnings and Error Messages________________________________________________ 33

Software Technical Details _____________________________________________________36


Files____________________________________________________________________________ 36
FLM Files ______________________________________________________________________________36 DBF Files ______________________________________________________________________________37

WinFlume Registry Entries ________________________________________________________ 37

Glossary ____________________________________________________________________37
Approach Channel _______________________________________________________________ Control, Crest, Sill, or Throat Section________________________________________________ Converging Transition ____________________________________________________________ Critical Depth and the Froude Number ______________________________________________ Diverging Transition ______________________________________________________________ Energy Grade Line _______________________________________________________________ Freeboard_______________________________________________________________________ Gaging Station ___________________________________________________________________ Long-Throated Flume_____________________________________________________________ Modular Limit ___________________________________________________________________ Submergence Protection ___________________________________________________________ Tailwater Channel________________________________________________________________ 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39

References __________________________________________________________________40

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DOCUMENTATION OVERVIEW
Documentation for this software and basic flume design guidance is contained in this online help file and the companion users manual. The suggested reference publication for those seeking additional guidance on design and construction of long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs is ILRI Publication 58: Water Measurement with Flumes and Weirs (Clemmens, Wahl, Bos and Replogle 2001). This book is available from: International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, www.ilri.nl

INTRODUCTION
The term long-throated flume describes a broad class of critical-flow flumes and broad-crested weir devices used to measure flow in open channels. These devices are adaptable to a variety of measurement applications in both natural and man-made channels, and both new and existing canal systems. The unique characteristic of these structures as compared to most other open-channel measurement devices is the fact that they can be rated (calibrated) by computer analysis, eliminating the need for laboratory calibration of each different flume or weir configuration. Basic components of long-throated flume flow measurement structures include an approach channel and head-measurement location, a converging transition, a control section, an optional diverging transition, and the tailwater channel. Bos, Replogle, and Clemmens, (1984) describe the theory for determining discharge through these flumes, which has been well-developed over the course of the late 19th and 20th centuries. Procedures for determining head loss and designing flumes for specific applications have been developed in the last two decades, and with the advent of relatively low-cost personal computers, these have become accessible through interactive computer programs (Clemmens, Bos, and Replogle, 1993). The design calculations needed to properly size and locate flumes are iterative; as a result, several generations of computer codes to assist in the design of long-throated flumes have been developed in recent years, primarily by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Water Conservation Laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Most of these programs operated in a batch mode and were written in FORTRAN. An interactive program written in the Clipper database language was released through the International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands, with the 1993 publication by Clemmens, Bos, and Replogle, titled FLUME: Design and Calibration of Long-Throated Measuring Flumes: Version 3.0. The WinFlume program is the latest version of this flume design software, rewritten to operate in the Windows computing environment. The new program makes use of the same hydraulic theory used in the previous FORTRAN- and Clipper-based programs, but has an improved user interface, a new design optimization/analysis routine, and several additional features not contained in any of the previous programs. The WinFlume program is available in a 32-bit version for Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows NT systems, or a 16-bit version for Windows 3.1 systems.

Purpose
The WinFlume program serves two primary purposes: 1) Calibration of existing flow measurement structures fitting the criteria for analysis as long-throated flumes - WinFlume can generate rating tables, Q vs. h1 charts, curve-fit equations for use in data loggers, and wall gage data and plots. WinFlume can also compare field-measured Q vs. h1 data to the theoretical rating curve of a structure. WinFlume can be used as a design review tool to identify design deficiencies in existing structures. 2) Design of new structures - WinFlume can be used to design new flow measurement structures for new and existing canal systems. Designs can be developed manually by the user and analyzed using WinFlume to ensure proper operation, or WinFlumes design module can be used to develop designs that have desired head loss characteristics and meet other performance requirements.

Installing and Starting WinFlume


WinFlume can be obtained on CD-ROM or by downloading from www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/winflume/. The 32-bit version of the program is recommended for computers running Windows 95/NT or later Windows operating systems. The 16-bit version is required for computers running Windows 3.1. If you have the CD-ROM, installation will start automatically on most computers when the CD-ROM is inserted. If installation does not start automatically, run the INSTALL.EXE program located in the root directory of the CDROM, or run the SETUP.EXE program located in the appropriate SETUP32\DISK1 or SETUP16\DISK1 directory. If you downloaded WinFlume from the Internet, the setup kit will be in a compressed form in a single file. To extract the setup kit files, run the file you downloaded. Detailed installation instructions will be provided on the Internet. If you need to create a set of floppy disks for installing the program onto a computer that does not have a CD-ROM drive, you may copy the contents of the each of the appropriate DISK1, DISK2, DISK3, DISK4, DISK5 subdirectories onto a 1.44 MB floppy disk. To install the program from this set of disks, run SETUP.EXE from DISK1, and the setup program will prompt for the additional disks as they are needed. Once installation is completed, you may start WinFlume from the Windows 95 Start Menu, or by double-clicking on the WinFlume icon located in the WinFlume program group (Windows 3.1 users).

Additional Methods for Starting WinFlume


WinFlume can be started from a DOS prompt in Windows 95 or Windows NT and accepts the following commandline options: winflume [flume.flm] where flume.flm is the flume file to be loaded on program startup. You can also drag and drop a FLM file onto the WinFlume program icon to start the WinFlume program with a particular FLM file loaded. You can use the Windows Explorer to define a default open action for the FLM file type, which will allow you to double-click on any FLM file to start WinFlume with that file loaded.

Using WinFlume - An Overview


Use of WinFlume is relatively straightforward. After starting the program you may load an existing flume file from the File menu, or you may create a new flume using the File | New Flume command. Assuming you choose to create a new flume, you may choose to use the Flume Wizard, which guides you step-bystep through the data entry process needed to define a new flume's geometric and hydraulic properties, or you may choose to provide these data at your own pace, in your own order. In either case, you will define both the geometry of the flume and canal (cross-section shapes, dimensions, etc.), and the hydraulic characteristics of the flume and canal (discharge range, flume construction material, tailwater levels vs. discharge, etc.). If you are designing a new flume or wish to evaluate the design of an existing flume, you should also provide information about the water level measurement method, the required measurement accuracy, and the required freeboard in the upstream channel. If you only wish to develop rating tables for an existing flume, these data are not required. After you have defined the basic flume and canal geometry and other properties, you may use the various design evaluation reports and tools to refine the design to meet your design criteria. Once you have obtained an acceptable design, or if you want only to determine the calibration of an existing flume, you proceed to using the optional output modules of the program. These include the rating table module, the curve-fit equation module, the wall-gage output module, and the comparison of theoretical and measured discharge data. Details of each of these modules are described later in this users manual.

MENU REFERENCE
File Menu New Flume
Creates a new flume based on a copy of an existing flume, or using default dimensions provided by WinFlume. You may choose to start the flume wizard at the same time that the new flume is created. The wizard will guide you through all screens necessary to define the basic geometry and hydraulic properties of the flume and canal.

Open Existing Flume File


Loads an existing flume file (*.Flm file) into memory.

Load Flume from FLUME 3.0 Database


Loads a flume originally created with the FLUME 3.0 program. To load the flume, specify the name of the dBase file containing the flume, usually FLM.DBF or FLMBAK.DBF. Then browse through the list of flumes contained in that file to select the flume you wish to load. The flume definition will be loaded and converted into WinFlume's *.Flm file format.

Review Data for Current Flume Using the Flume Wizard


Starts the flume wizard, which leads the user through a series of screens that prompt for all necessary geometric and hydraulic properties of the flume and canal. The wizard is most useful when creating a new flume, but can be invoked at any time as a means of reviewing the input data for an existing flume.

Save Flume
Saves the current flume to a *.Flm file. If this is a new flume, you will be prompted for a file name. If this is an existing flume, the file will be saved under its current name.

Save Flume As
Saves the current flume to a *.Flm file. This command always prompts the user for a new file name.

Printer Setup
Allows the user to choose a Windows system printer to be used by WinFlume, and allows the user to select fonts for reports and wall gage printouts.

Print Flume Drawing


Prints an image of the flume bottom profile and cross-sections to the Windows system printer.

Copy Flume Drawing to Clipboard


Copies an image of the flume bottom profile and cross-sections to the Windows clipboard. Once on the clipboard, the image can be pasted into a word-processor or other application.

Close
Closes the current flume file, without exiting WinFlume. If the current flume has been modified, but not saved, WinFlume will prompt the user to save the file.

Exit
Exits the WinFlume program. If the current file has been modified, but not saved, WinFlume will prompt the user to save the file.

Flume & Canal Menu


The Flume and Canal Menu provides access to those screens needed when defining the geometric and hydraulic properties of an existing flume to be calibrated using WinFlume.

Flume Properties & Canal Data


Opens the form used to specify the flume crest type and construction material, as well as the required discharge range and associated tailwater levels.

Dimensions
Displays the screen used to edit the bottom profile and cross-section shapes for the flume and the approach and tailwater channels.

Undo
Offers the user the opportunity to undo the last operation that changed the flume definition. The nature of the operation to be undone will be described on the menu.

Design Menu
The Design Menu offers the user access to the screens necessary to design a new flume.

Site Selection Tips


Opens help screens providing tips on site selection and flume design issues.

Flume Wizard
Starts the flume wizard, which leads the user through a series of screens that prompt for all necessary geometric and hydraulic properties of the flume and canal. The wizard is most useful when creating a new flume, but can be invoked at any time as a means of reviewing the input data for the flume currently in memory.

Flume Properties, Canal Data, & Design Requirements


Opens the form used to enter the non-geometric properties of the flume and canal, and the user-chosen design requirements. Information is needed in four primary areas: 1) Flume construction material and associated roughness height - The material entered should be that used to construct the flume crest, not the material used to construct the canal. Several materials and their roughness heights are pre-programmed into WinFlume, or you may type in your own material description and roughness height. The roughness height value is used to calculate head loss due to friction, an important factor in determining the flume rating curve. 2) Flume discharge range and associated tailwater levels - The user should enter the minimum and maximum flow for which accurate flow rate measurements are required. These data are used to evaluate the expected error in the flow rate measurements at minimum and maximum flow and compare those errors to user-specified limits described in 3) below. The tailwater data are used to ensure that the flume does not become submerged and operates with modular flow (i.e., critical depth in the control section) over the full discharge range. For detailed information about determining tailwater levels, see Determining Tailwater Levels. 3) Head measurement method and allowable discharge measurement error at minimum and maximum flow The user should choose a head measurement method from the list, or type in their own description of the head measurement method. If a method is chosen from the list, WinFlume supplies a default measurement error for the method, otherwise, the user must enter their own value. This value should be the expected error in any one measurement of the sill-referenced head due to factors such as waves, difficulty seeing the staff gage or water surface, electronic noise, resolution of the device, etc. The user also specifies allowable discharge measurement errors at minimum and maximum flow. WinFlume combines the errors due to the accuracy of the rating table with the errors related to head measurement to determine an overall discharge measurement error. If this error exceeds the user-specified criteria, WinFlume's design module can attempt to improve the design, or WinFlume will provide the user with suggestions for modifying the design. 4) Required freeboard - The user can specify the required freeboard in the approach channel as either an absolute vertical distance, or as a percentage of the upstream energy head. WinFlume will require that the vertical distance between the top of the approach channel and the upstream energy grade line (not the upstream water surface) be equal to or greater than the specified amount.

Dimensions
Displays the form used to enter dimensions for the canal and flume bottom profile and cross-section shapes.

Review Current Design


Performs a review of the current design based on the six design criteria: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Upstream Froude number < 0.5 Upstream freeboard >= user-specified limit Allowable tailwater > actual tailwater level at minimum flow Allowable tailwater > actual tailwater level at maximum flow Expected discharge measurement error meets design requirement at minimum flow Expected discharge measurement error meets design requirement at maximum flow

A report is generated on-screen summarizing the results of the review. If the design does not meet one or more of the design criteria, WinFlume will make suggestions for improving the design. The report can be printed, saved to a text file, or copied to the system clipboard.

Evaluate Alternative Designs


Opens the design module form used to develop alternative designs based on the current flume definition.

Undo
Offers the user the opportunity to undo the last operation that changed the flume definition. The nature of the operation to be undone will be described on the menu.

Reports/Graphs Menu
Rating Tables & Graphs
Opens the Rating Table Output Form used to create rating tables and graphs of rating table data (for example, Q vs. h1 curves).

Rating Equation
Opens the Rating Equation Form used to determine a simplified rating equation for the flume that can be used in a data logger at the flume site to automate discharge measurements.

Measured Data Comparison


Opens the Measured Data Comparison Form used to compare the theoretical rating curve developed by WinFlume to actual field measurements of discharge vs. upstream sill-referenced head. The discharge measurements are made independently of the flume structure, perhaps with current-metering techniques or other flow measurement structures.

Wall Gages
Opens the Wall Gage Output Form used to create wall gages and reports of the data needed to construct wall gages. Wall gages can be previewed on screen and then printed full-scale on your Windows system printer.

Flume Data Report


Creates a text report of the flume and canal properties and the user-specified design requirements. The report can be printed, saved in a text file, or copied to the clipboard.

Flume Drawing Printout


Prints an image of the flume bottom profile and cross-sections to the Windows system printer.

Copy Flume Drawing to Clipboard


Copies an image of the flume bottom profile and cross-sections to the Windows clipboard. Once on the clipboard, the image can be pasted into a word-processor or other application.

Options Menu
Units
Opens the Units Dialog Box used to choose the system of units for discharge, velocity, and length measurements.

User Name
Prompts the user to enter their name. The user name will be printed on all flume reports produced by the program.

Calibrate Screen for Wall Gage Preview


Opens the Screen Calibration Form used to calibrate your screen for accurate display of the wall gage previews. You should recalibrate your screen following any change of display resolution or system font size. WinFlume computes a calibration factor for your screen and remembers it the next time you use WinFlume.

Calibrate Printer for Wall Gage Output


Performs a calibration procedure for your printer to ensure that printed wall gages are correctly scaled. Many laser printers sold for business use consistently make gages too long or too short, sometimes by a significant percentage. Plotters tend to be more accurate, but should still be checked. The calibration procedure prints a page with a reference line on it. You measure the reference line and enter that value into WinFlume. The software will compute a calibration factor to be used for future printing of wall gages on this printer. WinFlume can remember 20 different calibration factors that can be recalled at any time. If your printer can print with several different sizes and paper orientations, you should go through the calibration procedure for each combination of options, as calibrations factors tend to vary.

Show Maximum Water Surface Profile


Enables or disables the display of the water surface profile at maximum flow on the bottom profile of the canal and flume. The checkbox at the left edge of the bottom profile drawing performs the same function.

Show Minimum Water Surface Profile


Enables or disables the display of the water surface profile at minimum flow on the bottom profile of the canal and flume. The checkbox at the left edge of the bottom profile drawing performs the same function.

Explorer File-Open Dialog


Selecting this option causes WinFlume to use a standard Windows Explorer-type dialog box when opening a new flume file (or a standard system dialog box in Windows 3.1). This dialog box provides full support for long filenames and access to shared resources on a network even if those resources are not mapped to a drive letter. This option does not show any summary information about the flume when browsing the list of files.

File-Open Dialog with Flume Summary


If this option is selected, WinFlume uses a customized file-open dialog box that provides summary information about the contents of each flume file as the user browses the file list. The disadvantage of this option is that it may not fully show long filenames and does not provide access to files on network resources unless they are mapped to a drive letter.

Save Current Settings as Defaults


Saves all current user-preferences (e.g., display of water surface profiles, units settings, screen calibration factors, etc.) in the system registry.

Save Settings on Exit


Enables or disables the option to save all current user-preferences (e.g., display of water surface profiles, units settings, screen calibration factors, etc.) in the system registry when exiting WinFlume. This option will cause WinFlume to restart with the same options used in the last session.

Help Menu
Contents
Opens the contents listing of the help file.

Search for Help On


Opens the search dialog to perform a keyword search on the help file.

Review Flume Definition Sketch


Shows the flume definition sketch for the current flume type (stationary crest vs. movable crest). This sketch shows nomenclature for flume dimensions and provides some design guidance on recommended flume dimensions. For a more detailed discussion see Suggested Flume Dimensions.

How to Use Help


Opens a standard Windows help file explaining how to use the Windows help system.

About WinFlume
Provides version information and details on how to obtain the WinFlume program.

PRIMARY FORMS AND DIALOG BOXES


Flume Geometry and Dimensions Form

This form is used to edit the dimensions and geometry of the flume structure and the upstream and downstream canals. Elevation and length dimensions through the structure can be edited on the bottom profile drawing shown in the upper half of the screen. Flume cross-section shapes and dimensions are edited by clicking one of the Edit....Section buttons that appear on the tabbed views of the cross-sections in the lower left corner of the screen, or by clicking the toolbar icon . This form normally remains open whenever a flume design is in memory, but if it should become closed, it can be reopened from the toolbar or from the Flume & Canal menu.

Section Shape & Dimensions Form

Use this form to edit the section shape and dimensions for the approach, control, and tailwater sections of the structure. The shape can be selected using the list box in the upper left corner of the form. Dimensions are edited using the text boxes attached to each section component. A thumbnail sketch of each section shape is also displayed to assist the user. Six simple shapes and the complex trapezoid shape are available for the approach and tailwater sections. For the control section, seven additional compound shapes are available. These compound shapes allow for accurate measurement of a wider range of discharges than the simple shapes. This form can be opened from the toolbar ( ), or by right-clicking on the cross-section drawing in the lower left corner of the Flume Geometry and Dimensions Form, or by clicking the Edit....Section button that appear above and to the right of each cross-section drawing.

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Flume and Canal Properties & Design Requirements Form

This form can be opened from the toolbar, or from the Design menu. Information is needed in four primary areas: 1) Flume construction material and associated roughness height - The material entered should be that used to construct the flume crest, not the material used to construct the canal. Several materials and their roughness heights are pre-programmed into WinFlume, or you may type in your own material description and roughness height. The roughness height value is used to calculate head loss due to friction, an important factor in determining the flume rating curve. 2) Flume discharge range and associated tailwater levels - The user should enter the minimum and maximum flow for which accurate flow rate measurements are required. These data are used to evaluate the expected error in the flow rate measurements at minimum and maximum flow and compare those errors to user-specified limits described in 3) below. The tailwater data are used to ensure that the flume does not become submerged and operates with modular flow (i.e., critical depth in the control section) over the full discharge range. For detailed information about determining tailwater levels, see Determining Tailwater Levels. 3) Head measurement method and allowable discharge measurement error at minimum and maximum flow The user should choose a head measurement method from the list, or type in their own description of the head measurement method. If a method is chosen from the list, WinFlume supplies a default measurement error for the method, otherwise, the user must enter their own value. This value should be the expected error in any one measurement of the sill-referenced head due to factors such as waves, difficulty seeing the staff gage or water surface, electronic noise, resolution of the device, etc. The user also specifies allowable discharge measurement errors at minimum and maximum flow. WinFlume combines the errors due to the accuracy of the rating table with the errors related to head measurement to determine an overall discharge measurement error. If this error exceeds the user-specified criteria, WinFlume's design module can attempt to improve the design, or WinFlume will provide the user with suggestions for modifying the design. 11

4) Required freeboard - The user can specify the required freeboard in the approach channel as either an absolute vertical distance, or as a percentage of the upstream energy head. WinFlume will require that the vertical distance between the top of the approach channel and the upstream water level) be equal to or greater than the specified amount.

Flume and Canal Properties Form

This is an abbreviated version of the Flume and Canal Properties & Design Requirements Form, showing only the tabs for flume construction material and discharge and tailwater data. The design requirements related to allowable measurement error and required freeboard are not needed to developing rating tables for existing structures. This form is opened from the Flume & Canal menu.

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Flume Wizard Dialog


The flume wizard leads the user through a step-by-step process that prompts for all necessary geometric and hydraulic properties of the flume and canal. The wizard is most useful when creating a new flume, but can be invoked at any time as a means of reviewing the input data for the flume currently in memory. To use the wizard, read the text in the box at the top of the form, which describes the purpose of each step of the flume wizard process, and follow the specific instructions given in the text box at the bottom of the form. The flume wizard can be started from the toolbar, the File menu, or the Design menu.

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Flume Design Module Form

The design module form allows the user to analyze alternative designs derived from a single starting design to identify flumes meeting the design criteria and having satisfactory desired head loss characteristics. For additional help, see the help topics Using the Flume Design Module and WinFlume's Design Algorithm. This form can be opened from the toolbar or the Design menu.

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File-Open Dialogs

Two File-Open dialog options are available in WinFlume. You select which option to use from the Options menu. The File-Open Dialog with Flume Summary shows a brief summary of the flume design as you browse the file list to select a flume to load. If you need access to network resources that are not mapped to a drive letter, you should choose the Explorer File-Open Dialog.

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Create New Flume Dialog


The form creates a new flume based on a copy of an existing flume, or using default dimensions provided by WinFlume. You may choose to start the flume wizard at the same time that the new flume is created. The wizard will guide you through all screens necessary to define the basic geometry and hydraulic properties of the flume and canal. This dialog box can be opened from the toolbar, or by selecting New Flume from the File menu.

Import from FLUME 3.0 Dialog

This form is used to import a flume design originally created with the FLUME 3.0 program. To load the flume, specify the name of the dBase file containing the flume, usually FLM.DBF or FLMBAK.DBF. Then browse through the list of flumes contained in that file to select the flume you wish to load. The flume definition will be loaded and converted into WinFlume's *.Flm file format. This form is opened from the File menu.

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Printer Setup Dialog

This dialog box allows the user to choose a Windows system printer to be used by WinFlume, and allows the user to select fonts for reports and wall gage printouts. This form can be accessed from the File menu, or from several other printing-related forms.

Units Dialog

This dialog box allows the user to choose the system of units for displaying and entering length, discharge, and velocity data. Internally, all flume designs are stored using SI units. This form can be accessed from the Options menu.

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Calibrate Screen for Wall Gage Previews Dialog

This dialog box is used to calibrate your screen for accurate display of the wall gage previews. You should recalibrate your screen following any change of display resolution or system font size. WinFlume computes a calibration factor for your screen and remembers it the next time you use WinFlume. This form can be accessed from the Options menu, or from the Wall Gage Output Form.

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Calibrate Printer for Wall Gage Output Dialog

This dialog box allows you to calibrate a new printer or recall calibration factors for printers you have previously calibrated. The calibration procedure ensures that printed wall gages are correctly scaled. Many laser printers sold for business use consistently make gages too long or too short, sometimes by a significant percentage. Plotters tend to be more accurate, but should still be checked. The calibration procedure prints a page with a reference line on it. You measure the reference line and enter that value into WinFlume. The software will compute a calibration factor to be used for future printing of wall gages on this printer. WinFlume can remember 20 different calibration factors that can be recalled at any time. If your printer can print with several different sizes and paper orientations, you should go through the calibration procedure for each combination of options, as calibrations factors tend to vary. This form can be accessed from the Options menu, or from the Wall Gage Output Form.

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Flume Reports Form

This form is used to present the Flume Data Report and Flume Design Review Report. The reports can be printed, copied to the clipboard, or saved to a text file. This form can be opened from the Reports/Graphs menu or from the toolbar. Flume Data Report - Provides a text report documenting the flume properties, cross-section shapes, and basic dimensions. Design Review Report - Reviews the hydraulic design of the flume based on the six design criteria and displays any warnings or error messages related to the calculation of the flume rating at minimum and maximum flow.

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Rating Table Output Form

The rating table output form is used to create rating tables and graphs of rating table data for existing or new flume designs. In addition to Q vs. h1 curves and data tables, the rating tables can include numerous additional parameters that may be of interest to the designer. For detailed descriptions of these parameters, use the What's This? help feature and click on the check boxes that enabled and disable the display of the additional parameters. Two types of rating tables are available. The standard rating table lists one flow rate and sill-referenced head on each line of the table, with corresponding values of the selected additional parameters. Error messages and warnings related to the design or the hydraulic calculations used to create the table are noted in the last column of the table. The ditchrider's rating table shows values of sill-referenced head along the left side and top of the table, and discharge values in the body of the table, and does not show any other parameters. To determine the flow for a given head, scan down the left side and across the top to find the row and column corresponding to the given head. The flow rate will be contained in the cell located at the intersection of the row and column. The ditchrider's table can be modified to show sill-referenced slope distances rather than sill-referenced heads. This allows the table to be used with a standard staff gage installed on a sloped canal bank. Rating tables can be printed, saved, or copied to the clipboard. When the user clicks on the Copy to Clipboard button, options are presented for copying in either a space- or tab-delimited format. The tab-delimited format is the best choice if you plan to paste the rating table into a spreadsheet. Right-clicking on the Copy to Clipboard button will copy the rating table in space-delimited format automatically. Holding down the Shift, Ctrl, or Alt keys while right-clicking Copy to Clipboard will automatically copy the rating table in tab-delimited format. This form can be opened from the toolbar or the Reports/Graphs menu.

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Measured Data Comparison Form

This form allows the user to compare field measurements of discharge vs. sill-referenced head against the rating curve computed by WinFlume. Such a comparison may be helpful in debugging potential problems, such as errors in zero-setting of the head sensor. The user enters field-measured values of discharge and sill-referenced head into a data table. WinFlume then computes the rating table for the structure and presents a comparison in both tabular and graphical form. This form can be opened from the toolbar or the Reports/Graphs menu.

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Equation Output Form

This form is used to generate a power-curve equation that approximates the Q vs. h1 rating curve of the flume. This equation can be programmed into a data logger for automating the measurement storage of discharge data. WinFlume determines a curve-fit equation of the form:

Q = K1 ( h1 + K 2 ) u
You may also force K2 = 0 when performing the curve-fit calculations. The resulting simplified equation form may be more easily programmed into some data loggers. The curve-fitting routine uses a rating table generated by WinFlume. The user specifies the type of rating table (range of heads vs. range of discharges) and the range and increment for the rating table on the Options tab. The second and third tabs of the form allow the user to review the rating table and curve-fitting results in tabular and graphical form. At least 6 data points are needed in the rating table to develop a rating equation. This form can be opened from the toolbar or the Reports/Graphs menu.

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Wall Gage Output Form

The wall-gage output form can create data tables needed to build custom wall gages, or you can print full-scale images of wall gages directly to your system printer. Two primary types of gages can be created: 1) Fixed-head interval gages - These gages have tick marks located at a constant interval of upstream sillreferenced head. The labels on the gage may show either the sill-referenced head or the flow rate. 2) Fixed-discharge interval gages - These gages have tick marks located so that the distance between each mark corresponds to a fixed increment of discharge. Gages may be constructed so that they are referenced to either the approach channel invert, or the sill of the throat section. Gages may also be constructed for vertical installation, or for installation on the sloped bank of the approach channel. This form can be opened from the toolbar or the Reports/Graphs menu.

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FLUME DESIGN GUIDANCE


Advantages of Long-Throated Flumes
Long-throated flumes are the measurement device of choice for many applications. Advantages include: Rating tables with error of less than 2% in the computed discharge can be computed for any combination of prismatic control section and an arbitrarily shaped approach channel Throat can be any shape in the direction perpendicular to the flow, allowing the complete range of discharges to be measured with good precision Required head loss across the flume is minimal Long-throated flumes can be operated with partial submergence (i.e., downstream water level above the sill elevation), and the submergence limit and the associated head loss requirement can be determined using the WinFlume program With properly constructed gradual converging transition, there is virtually no problem passing floating debris Can be designed to pass sediment transported by channels having subcritical flow If the throat is horizontal in the direction parallel to the flow, accurate rating tables can be computed using asbuilt dimensions Economical to construct Very adaptable to installation in existing canals

Components of Long-Throated Flumes


Long-throated flumes generally include five primary structural components, shown in the figure below: 1) An approach channel that is necessary for the development of uniform and symmetric flow conditions and the establishment of a stable water surface whose elevation can be determined accuratelythe approach channel may be lined as shown in figure 1.1 or may be the original earthen channel; 2) A converging transition section in which the subcritical approach flow accelerates smoothly toward the throat with no discontinuities or flow separationthe transition may consist of plane surfaces or may be rounded; 3) A throat, or control section, in which the flow passes through critical depththe throat must be horizontal in the direction of flow, but in the direction perpendicular to the flow any shape may be used; 4) A diverging transition in which the velocity of the supercritical flow exiting the throat section is reduced and energy is dissipated or partially recoveredif energy recovery is not needed, an abrupt transition can be used; 5) A tailwater channel where the water level is a function of canal operations, flow rate, and the hydraulic properties of the downstream channel and structuresthe range of water levels in this channel is fundamentally important to the design of the structure because it determines the elevation and size of the control section needed to maintain critical flow conditions through the flume. In addition to these five structural components, a gaging station in the approach channel is necessary. At the gaging station, the difference in elevation between the approach water level and the crest of the throat section will be measured. The flow rate through the flume will be computed as a function of this upstream sill-referenced head.

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Stationary-Crest Flumes
Stationary-crest flumes have a crest section that is horizontal in the flow direction and fixed in elevation. These structures serve only as flow measurement devices. Typical dimensions of stationary-crest flumes are shown below.

Movable-Crest Flumes
The movable-crest flume is a combination flow measurement and water level regulation structure. The flow rate is determined by measuring the height of the crest required to maintain a constant upstream water level. Common dimensions of movable-crest flumes are shown below.

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Suggested Flume Dimensions


Sill height, p1
When developing alternative designs for analysis, WinFlume will usually increase the contraction in an attempt to satisfy the user-specified design conditions. Although WinFlume can reduce the contraction (the FLUME 3.0 program could not), it is easier for WinFlume to increase the contraction. Because the designer does not usually have information on the needed sill height or side contraction we recommend you specify minimal or no contraction (p1 should be less than 15 % of the water depth y1) in the initial structure.

Length of approach channel (gaging station to flume)


The gaging- or head-measurement station should be located sufficiently far upstream of the structure to avoid the area of water surface drawdown, yet it should be close enough for the energy loss between the gaging station and the structure to be negligible. To meet these requirements, the gaging station should be located at a distance between two and three times H1max from the leading edge of the sill or at H1max from the beginning of the converging transition, whichever is greater.

Length of converging transition


The function of the converging transition is to provide a smooth acceleration of flow with no discontinuities or flow separation at the beginning of the throat. With stationary structures the transition commonly consists of plane surfaces. The converging transition should be flatter than 2.5 to 1 (horizontal to vertical). When the structure is viewed in plan, the angle of the line describing the intersection of the water surface with the side walls of the converging transition should also have a "slope" less than or equal to 2.5 to 1 (longitudinal to transverse distance) at both minimum and maximum flow conditions. With the movable weir the transition usually is rounded with a radius of r = 0.2H1max.

Length of the control section (i.e., throat, crest, or sill)


For accurate flow measurement the throat length should be chosen so that the ratio of the sill-referenced energy head, H1, to the throat length, L, is in the range: 0.070 H1/L 0.70 Within this range WinFlume calculates rating tables with an error of less than 2%. Outside this range the error slowly increases to about 4% at H1/L = 1.0. If a structure is to be designed with a high value of the ratio Qmax/Qmin the full range of H1/L values should be used.

Slope of the downstream expansion


If the downstream water level, y2, is sufficiently low, there is no need for a gradual transition between the throat and the downstream channel, and a sudden expansion can be selected. If the head loss over the structure is limited to such an extent that the downstream water head, h2, becomes higher than the critical water depth in the throat, a gradual transition with a 6-to-1 slope can be added to regain potential energy. The amount of potential energy that can be regained depends mainly on the degree of expansion of the transition. Rather sudden expansion ratios like 1-to-1 or 2-to-1 are not very effective in energy conversion because the high velocity jet leaving the throat cannot change direction suddenly to follow the boundaries of the transition. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of the expansion ratios 1-to-1, 2-to-1, or 3-to-1.

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Flume Site Selection


Upstream Channel Considerations
To ensure suitably uniform approach flow conditions and a stable upstream water level that can be accurately measured, the channel upstream from the flow measurement structure should satisfy the following requirements, evaluated at the maximum design flow. The Froude number should not exceed 0.5 at the gaging station or for a distance of 30 times H1max upstream from the gaging station location. If feasible, better measurements can be obtained if the Froude number is limited to a value no greater than 0.2. For channels with high sediment loads, the Froude number should be kept relatively high. The upstream channel should be straight and uniform for a distance of at least 30 times H1max upstream from the gaging station location. There should be no flow of highly turbulent water (e.g., undershot gates, drop structures, hydraulic jumps) into the upstream channel for a distance of 30 times H1max upstream from the gaging station. If there is a bend close to the structure (closer than 30 times H1max), the water surface elevations at the two sides of the structure will be different. Reasonably accurate measurements can be made (added error about 3%) if the upstream straight channel has a length equal to at least six times H1max. In this case, the water level should be measured at the inner bend of the channel. To ensure accurate head measurement, there should be no offsets or sudden changes in sidewall alignment within a distance of H1max upstream from the gaging station location (see Figures 3.28 and 3.29). Such offsets could cause local flow separation that would affect the measurement of h1.

It is not always possible to fully satisfy the requirements listed above. In situations in which the upstream water level proves to be unsteady or approach flows are found to be significantly non-uniform, baffles or wave suppressors may be used to improve the situation. If baffles are used, the distance from the baffles to the gaging station should be at least 10 times H1max. The requirements related to the length of the upstream channel that are summarized above differ somewhat from the recommendations provided in previous design guides. For channels with so-called efficient sections (e.g., a rectangular channel with depth equal to half its width), the requirement of 30 times H1max produces a similar approach length requirement as the previous recommendation of ten times the average channel width. For channels that deviate significantly from the efficient-section assumption, an approach length based upon H1max produces a more appropriate recommendation than one based on channel width.

Upstream Structures
The weir or flume should be sufficiently far downstream from any structures that discharge highly turbulent water (e.g. undershot gates, drop structures) to enable the accurate measurement of the water level upstream from the planned weir or flume. In practice this means that the flume should be more than thirty times H1max downstream from structures discharging turbulent flows. If no drop in the channel bottom is available to accommodate the head loss required for critical flow in the control section, the flume will cause a rise in the upstream water level. This rise may subsequently reduce the head loss available over the upstream structure. You should check to be sure that it does not lead to an unwanted reduction in the discharge capacity of the upstream structure.

Freeboard
In irrigation canals, the freeboard, F1, upstream from the flume should be greater than 20% of the upstream sillreferenced head, h1, at design flow. In terms of constructed canal depth, d1, this becomes;

d1 = 12h1 + p1 .
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In natural streams and in drainage canals, a site should be selected which avoids increased inundation at the maximum anticipated flow, Qmax. In this context, it should be noted that the head-versus-discharge relationship of the flume is known very accurately (error less than 2%) in comparison with the water-depth-versus-discharge-curve of the channel. Usually, because of uncertainty about the depth-discharge relation, the additional required head falls within the safety margin of the channel freeboard. The program allows the selection of a minimum freeboard at maximum flow.

Tailwater Levels
To obtain a unique relationship between the (measured) sill-referenced head in the approach channel and the (associated) discharge, the upstream water level must be sufficiently higher than the tailwater level. Hence, to enable the design of a structure, the tailwater level, y2, must be known over the range of discharges to be measured (i.e. minimum and maximum discharge). WinFlume offers five methods by which this Q-versus-y2 curve can be determined. The water level downstream of a planned flume or weir does not always depend on the characteristics of the channel in which the structure is planned or on the discharge to be measured. For example, the tailwater level may be determined by: a downstream structure, flow conditions in a larger channel into which the considered channel discharges, or by the operation of a downstream gate. The effects of these conditions on tailwater levels should be known.

Sediment Transport
Besides transporting water, almost all natural streams and drains transport sediment. The most appropriate method of avoiding sediment deposition in the channel reach upstream of the flume or weir is to avoid a decrease in the hydraulic gradient. To achieve this, the structure should be designed in such a way that it does not create a backwater effect with respect to the approach channel bottom. This means that the discharge versus (h1 + p1) curve of the control must coincide with the discharge versus water depth curve of the upstream channel. This near coincidence should occur for those flows that are expected to transport bed-load material. This design rule requires a drop in the channel bottom at the selected site a drop that is sufficient to guarantee modular flow. Data are needed on: Shape and dimensions of the upstream channel; Available drop in channel bottom at selected site; Allowable water depths, y1, for the considered flow rates.

Construction Stability
In constructing weirs and flumes, the designer may select any locally available construction material. The design should match the permeability and the bearing capacity of the sub-soil. A structure consisting of (wooden) sheet piling and a metal control section can be used if the soil has a very low bearing capacity. To prevent erosion downstream of the weir or flume, the earthen tailwater channel must be protected by riprap over a length which is: Not less than four times the maximum depth in the tailwater channel; Nor less than the earth transition between the structure and the channel; Nor less than 1.5 m (5 ft).

Under extreme climatic conditions (frost/heat, wet/dry cycles), extra care must be given to the stability of the structure and the head-detection device with respect to each other. Changes in the relative elevation of these two will cause a systematic head detection error.

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Using the Flume Design Module


The WinFlume design module consists of a single form used to evaluate design alternatives and seek designs having specified performance characteristics. Details of the algorithm used by the design module are given on a separate help page. To use the design module: Begin by specifying the basic geometry and hydraulic properties of the flume and canals, perhaps with the assistance of the flume wizard. Once you have a starting design, invoke the design module by selecting Evaluate Alternative Designs from the Design menu. Choose a method for adjusting the amount of control section contraction, and choose an increment of dimension change to be used for increasing and decreasing the contraction of the control section. View the results of the analysis on the tab marked Review Possible Designs.

WinFlume builds virtual flumes based on your initial design and then evaluates them against four primary and two secondary design criteria. The four primary criteria are: Upstream Froude number less than 0.5 Upstream freeboard at maximum flow meets user requirement Tailwater below allowable level at minimum flow Tailwater below allowable level at maximum flow

The secondary design criteria are: Design meets accuracy requirements at minimum flow Design meets accuracy requirements at maximum flow

All designs meeting at least the four primary design criteria are shown to the user. The accuracy requirement is considered a secondary criteria because the user can improve the accuracy of the flume without modifying the structure design through the choice of a more precise method for measuring the upstream sill-referenced head. In addition to designs at even increments of the contraction change specified by the user, WinFlume will also attempt to find the designs having the minimum and maximum possible head loss for a given site, the design having intermediate head loss (exactly balancing extra freeboard against submergence protection), and the design that produces a head loss that matches the bed drop at the site. After examining the results, the user can choose to make any of the presented designs the new design, or the original design can be retained. To assist the user in comparing the designs, additional details about head loss, estimated measurement errors, available freeboard, and submergence protection is presented. Submergence protection is the vertical distance between the allowable tailwater level and the actual tailwater level. This can be thought of as insurance against errors in estimating tailwater conditions at the site. Choosing a design with more submergence protection (and thus, more head loss), allows for some error in estimated tailwater levels without causing the flume to be submerged. If a flume is being added to an existing canal system and little head is available, the designer may have no choice but to select a design with less submergence protection.

WinFlume's Design Algorithm


1) The user chooses one of the four methods of contraction change, and an increment at which to evaluate designs (e.g., evaluate designs at sill height increments of 0.1 ft). 2) WinFlume brackets the range of possible designs by evaluating flume performance at the maximum design flow: The maximum possible throat-section contraction is that needed to produce a maximum upstream water level equal to the channel depth. The minimum contraction is that which produces an upstream Froude number of 0.5 or less at maximum discharge, and an upstream water level that is at least as high as the downstream tailwater at maximum discharge.

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3) WinFlume builds and evaluates designs of virtual flumes between the lower and upper contraction limits at the interval specified by the user. WinFlume identifies the range of acceptable designs, and uses a bisection search to determine the minimum and maximum amounts of contraction that will yield acceptable designs. These become the minimum and maximum head loss designs. Designs having intermediate head loss (extra freeboard equal to submergence protection) and head loss equal to the bed drop at the site (if any) are located using a similar bisection search technique. 4) Results are presented to the user, who may choose to accept one of the designs or discard the results of the analysis. Only designs meeting the four primary design criteria (freeboard, Froude number, no submergence at minimum and maximum flow) are presented to the user, unless there are no acceptable designs. Designs that meet the four primary criteria, but do not meet measurement error requirements may be improved by the user by specifying a more precise water level measurement method.

If an Acceptable Design Is Not Found on the First Trial


If the contraction increment specified by the user is too large, or if design criteria are too limiting, no acceptable design will be found in step 3. In this case, WinFlume searches for two adjacent designs for which the unsatisfied criteria in each design are satisfied in the adjacent design. This indicates that with a smaller increment of contraction change, it may be possible to find an acceptable design between these two designs. If a possible region of acceptable designs is identified, the contraction change increment is divided by ten and the analysis is repeated using the smaller increment of contraction change. This process is repeated until an acceptable design is found, or until WinFlume determines that there is no possible region of acceptable designs. If no region of acceptable designs is found, then the results of the analysis are presented to the user, with suggestions for how to relax the design criteria or change the initial design so that an acceptable design may be found.

Determining Tailwater Levels


In order to have a unique relationship between the upstream sill-referenced head and the discharge for all flow conditions (i.e., modular flow), the flume must be set sufficiently high above the downstream tailwater level to allow for the necessary head loss across the structure. Hence, accurate knowledge of downstream tailwater levels is needed for the range of flows that the flume is required to measure. WinFlume provides five methods for specifying tailwater conditions. Manning's equation using n and S Manning's equation using one Q-y2 measurement Power curve using 2 Q-y2 measurements Power curve with offset using 3 Q-y2 measurements Linear interpolation/extrapolation from Q-y2 lookup table The first two methods rely on Manning's equation, and are thus appropriate when the downstream channel is known to operate at normal depth. This flow condition occurs when the downstream channel is of uniform section, slope, and roughness for a sufficient distance that the flow depth at the head of the tailwater channel (i.e., the downstream side of the flume) is solely a function of the section shape, channel slope, and the roughness coefficient, Manning's n, as given by:

Q=

. 1486 AR 2 / 3 S 1/ 2 f n

where Q, A, R, and Sf are the discharge, wetted area, hydraulic radius, and friction slope, respectively. The equation form shown is for English units of feet and cubic feet/sec. When using metric units of meters and cubic meters/sec, the factor 1.486 is replaced with the factor 1.000.

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The last three methods are appropriate when the tailwater channel does not flow at normal depth, perhaps due to backwater influences from a downstream gate, weir, outfall, or bridge opening, or a downstream change in channel shape, slope, or roughness. In these cases, the designer must determine tailwater levels corresponding to a range of flows, either through field surveys or detailed hydraulic analysis of the backwater profile in the downstream channel. These data can be used by WinFlume to extrapolate tailwater conditions over the full range of flows for which the flume will operate. To specify tailwater levels, the user enters the minimum and maximum flows that the flume is required to measure, then chooses one of the five methods and supplies the required details, discussed below. If tailwater levels cannot be calculated using the data provided, the tailwater levels will be shown as 0.000 in red.

Manning's equation using n and S


Tailwater values can be determined using Manning's equation if flow in the tailwater channel is at normal depth (i.e., flow depth is established by friction control, not by the operation of downstream structures). The user provides estimates of Manning's n and the hydraulic gradient, or friction slope, Sf. When a canal flows at normal depth, the friction slope is equal to the bed slope. The value of Manning's n used should be the highest expected roughness during the water delivery season, considering the effects of increased vegetation in the mid- to late-season. A list of suggested roughness values for channels of various types is provided in WinFlume, or the user may enter their own value directly into the text box.

Manning's equation using one Q-y2 measurement


This method is similar to that described above, except that values of Manning's n and the hydraulic gradient are not needed. Instead, the designer supplies known values of the discharge and downstream tailwater level for one observed flow condition. These data are used to compute the value of (Sf0.5)/n, which will be constant for all flow conditions. With this information, Manning's equation can then be solved to yield the tailwater level corresponding to any discharge.

Power curve using 2 Q-y2 measurements


If the downstream channel does not flow at normal depth, this method or one of the methods described below should be used. The power curve using 2 Q-y2 measurements is based on the following empirical equation relating the discharge, Q, and the flow depth, y2.
u Q = Ky 2

in which K and u are empirical coefficients. The value of K is dependent on the size of the channel, and the value of u depends on the shape of the channel, normally varying from about 1.6 for shallow, wide channels, to 2.4 for narrow, deep channels. With values of discharge and tailwater depth at two different flow rates, the values of K and u can be determined, and the equation can then be used to extrapolate tailwater levels at other flow rates. Note that the use of this equation form implies that at a discharge of zero, the tailwater level is also zero. The values of Q and y2 can be determined from field surveys or through a detailed hydraulic analysis. If field surveys are used, the designer should ensure that the data are collected under operating scenarios and seasonal channel roughness conditions that produce the highest possible tailwater levels. To minimize the degree of extrapolation, it is best to obtain data as close as possible to the minimum and maximum flows that the flume will be required to measure.

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Power curve with offset using 3 Q-y2 measurements


The power curve using two Q-y2 measurements assumes that the tailwater level is zero at a discharge of zero. In some cases, this may not be true, such as when there is a weir or other similar structure a short distance downstream of the site. In this case, the tailwater level may be non-zero when the flow rate is zero. The power curve with offset addresses this problem by modeling the downstream tailwater relationship using the empirical equation:

Q = K ( y2 C ) u
in which C is a constant indicating the offset, or tailwater level at zero flow. To apply this method, the user must provide values of discharge and tailwater depth for three different flow conditions; to allow determination of C, the tailwater depth at zero flow must be provided. WinFlume uses these data to solve for C, u, and K, and can then compute tailwater levels corresponding to other flow rates. As with the previous method, the values of Q and y2 can be determined from field surveys or through a detailed hydraulic analysis. If field surveys are used, the designer should ensure that the data are collected under operating scenarios and seasonal channel roughness conditions that produce the highest possible tailwater levels.

Linear interpolation/extrapolation from Q-y2 lookup table


This method is also appropriate when the tailwater level is non-zero at zero discharge. It can be used to specify unusual tailwater curves that the power curve methods may not approximate well. This is the best method to use if you have the unusual situation of a tailwater curve that is constant or decreasing as discharge increases. The values of Q and y2 can be determined from field surveys or through a detailed hydraulic analysis. If field surveys are used, the designer should ensure that the data are collected under operating scenarios and seasonal channel roughness conditions that produce the highest possible tailwater levels. To minimize the degree of extrapolation, it is best to collect data points at flows near the minimum and maximum discharge to be measured with the flume. A total of 20 pairs of Q-y2 data can be entered.

Design Criteria
Designs are evaluated against six basic design criteria. Within the design alternatives module these are subdivided into four primary criteria and two secondary criteria. The four primary criteria are: Upstream Froude number less than 0.5 Upstream freeboard at maximum flow meets user requirement Tailwater below allowable level at minimum flow Tailwater below allowable level at maximum flow

The secondary design criteria are: Design meets accuracy requirements at minimum flow Design meets accuracy requirements at maximum flow

In addition to these design criteria, flume warnings and error messages are given in rating tables and design review reports when conditions occur that make a design impossible or might adversely affect the accuracy of the flume.

Flume Warnings and Error Messages


Warning and error messages are given in rating tables and design review reports when conditions occur that adversely affect the accuracy of a flume or make it impossible to compute the flume rating. Detailed information regarding each of these messages is given below: 1 - Froude number exceeds 0.5 at the gage - This is a primary design criterion intended to ensure that the water level in the upstream pool can be measured with reasonable accuracy. To eliminate this error, increase the size of the approach channel, reduce the control section width, or increase the height of the sill relative to the invert of the approach channel.

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2 - FATAL: Approach area too small compared to control area - There is insufficient contraction to cause critical flow in the throat. To eliminate this error message, reduce the control section size or increase the size of the approach channel. Errors 2 and 7 are similar, with error 2 occurring in the routines that determine flow for a given head, and error 7 occurring in the routines that determine head for a given flow. 3 - FATAL: Maximum allowable tailwater depth is zero or less - The calculation of allowable tailwater depth has indicated that the allowed tailwater depth is zero or less, which makes it impossible to develop any workable design. If this error occurs, please contact the author. 4 - FATAL: Tailwater area too small compared to control area - The cross-sectional area of the tailwater channel at the maximum allowable tailwater depth must be at least 5 percent larger than the corresponding crosssectional area of the control section. If this condition is not met, it is possible that flow control may occur in the tailwater channel rather than in the intended control section. To eliminate this error message, increase the size of the tailwater channel, or reduce the size of the control section. 5 - Upstream energy head / control section length is less than 0.07 - The ratio H1/L should be in the range of 0.07 to 0.7 to obtain the most accurate flow measurement. This error message is generally associated with the low end of the discharge range of the structure. To eliminate this error, either reduce the control section length or narrow the bottom width of the control section (thereby increasing H1 at minimum flow). 6 - Upstream energy head / control section length exceeds 0.7 - The ratio H1/L should be in the range of 0.07 to 0.7 to obtain the most accurate flow measurement. This error message is generally associated with the upper end of the discharge range of the structure. To eliminate this error, either increase the control section length or widen the control section (especially the top width) to reduce H1 at maximum flow. 7 - FATAL: Approach area too small compared to control area - This error indicates that there is insufficient contraction from the approach channel to the control section to ensure that critical flow will take place in the throat. To eliminate this error, increase the approach channel size, or reduce the size of the control section. This error can also occur if the control section has an extremely complex shape for which the exponent U cannot be determined (numerical solution fails to converge). Errors 2 and 7 are similar, with error 2 occurring in the routines that determine flow for a given head, and error 7 occurring in the routines that determine head for a given flow. 8 - FATAL: Head is zero. This is not allowed - Flume ratings cannot be determined for an upstream head of zero. If this error occurs, choose a non-zero head as the minimum to be shown in the rating table. 9 - FATAL: Discharge is zero. This is not allowed - Flume ratings cannot be determined for a flow rate of zero. If this error occurs, choose a non-zero discharge as the minimum to be shown in the rating table. 10 - Converging section length is too short (ramp is too steep) - In flumes whose contraction is primarily formed by a raised sill, the converging ramp slope should be in the range of 2.5:1 to 4.5:1 (horizontal:vertical) to obtain the most accurate flow measurement. If the ramp is too steep, the transition is too abrupt and there will be significant flow separation in the upstream reach of the control section. To remove this error message, increase the length of the converging section so that the ramp slope is 2.5:1 or flatter. In unusual circumstances it may be impossible to eliminate all of the errors related to converging section length (10, 11, 22, and 23). In these cases, a converging section that is too gradual (errors 11 and 23) is better than a converging section that is too abrupt (errors 10 and 22). 11 - Converging section length may be too long (ramp is too flat) - In flumes whose contraction is primarily formed by a raised sill, the converging ramp slope should be in the range of 2.5:1 to 4.5:1 (horizontal:vertical) to obtain the most accurate flow measurement. If the ramp is too flat, there may be excessive friction loss between the gaging station location and the control section, and the construction cost of the flume may be greater than necessary. To remove this error message, reduce the length of the converging section so that the ramp slope is 4.5:1 or steeper. In unusual circumstances it may be impossible to eliminate all of the errors related to converging section length (10, 11, 22, and 23). In these cases, a converging transition that is too gradual (errors 11 and 23) is better than a converging transition that is too abrupt (errors 10 and 22). 12 - Gage is too close to converging section and/or throat - The gaging- or head-measurement station should be located sufficiently far upstream from the structure to avoid the area of water surface drawdown, yet it should be close enough for the energy loss between the gaging station and the structure to be negligible. To meet these requirements, the gaging station should be located at a distance between two and three times H1max from the leading 34

edge of the sill or at H1max from the beginning of the converging transition, whichever is greater. To eliminate this error, increase the approach channel length on the flume bottom profile drawing. 13 - Tailwater ramp is too flat - A gradually sloped tailwater ramp helps to recover energy downstream from the flume by converting some of the kinetic energy of the flow in the critical section back into potential energy in the tailwater channel. A slope of 6:1 (horizontal:vertical) is recommended. If the slope is flatter than 10:1, the ramp becomes so long that additional friction loss along the length of the ramp probably exceeds the additional energy recovery. To eliminate this error message, increase the slope of the tailwater ramp or reduce its length to obtain a slope of 10:1 or steeper. 14 - Upstream energy head exceeds channel depth - This error message indicates that the approach channel energy head (water level plus velocity head) is above the banks of the upstream channel. If the velocity head is a large part of the total energy head, the water level may actually be within the channel banks, but this is still an undesirable flow condition because there is so little freeboard in the approach channel that it could conceivably spill over the banks if the flow were brought to a stop by a local offset in the canal lining or an obstruction in the approach channel. To eliminate this error message, reduce the contraction in the control section or increase the size or top elevation of the approach channel. Note that WinFlume will compute an h1 vs. Q rating if the water level is below the top of the channel, even though the energy head may be above the top of the channel. This is considered a fatal error in WinFlumes design evaluation routines. 15 - FATAL: Attempt to lower movable weir sill too much. Try reducing sill radius - Movable weirs cannot be lowered to a sill height that is less than the sill radius. To eliminate this error, reduce the sill radius, or increase the width of the control section (which reduces the required head and allows the movable weir to be operated at a higher sill height). 16 - FATAL: Movable weir water depth must be over 1.5 times sill radius - The constant operating depth upstream from a movable weir must be at least 1.5 times the radius of the approach transition on the movable weir crest. To eliminate this error, reduce the sill radius or increase the operating depth. 17 - FATAL: Approach channel water level exceeds 0.9 times diameter - When the approach channel is circular, the flow depth in the approach channel cannot be greater than 90 percent of the diameter. This flow condition is susceptible to unpredictable filling of the circular conduit due to the rapid increase in wetted perimeter as the depth increases. To eliminate this error, increase the approach channel diameter or enlarge the control section (perhaps by reducing the sill height). 18 - FATAL: Control section water level exceeds 0.9 times diameter - When the control section is circular, the water level in the control section cannot be in the top 10 percent of the circular section. This flow condition is susceptible to unpredictable filling of the circular conduit due to the rapid increase in wetted perimeter as the depth increases. To eliminate this error, reduce the contraction in the control section, and/or increase the control section diameter. 19 - Tailwater channel water level limited to 0.9 times diameter - When the tailwater channel is circular, the flow depth in the tailwater channel cannot be greater than 90 percent of the diameter. This flow condition is susceptible to unpredictable filling of the circular conduit due to the rapid increase in wetted perimeter as the depth increases. To eliminate this error, increase the tailwater channel diameter. 20 - FATAL: Approach channel water level exceeds top of control section circle - The water level in the approach channel cannot be higher than the crown of a circular control section, because such a condition will likely lead to pressurized flow in the control section, or an inlet-controlled orifice flow condition rather than a criticaldepth controlled open-channel flow. To eliminate this error, increase the control section diameter, or enlarge the control section (thereby reducing the upstream water level). 21 - FATAL: Submergence ratio exceeds modular limit. Flow will not be critical - If the modular limit is exceeded, the flow in the control section will not be critical and there will not be a unique relation between upstream sill-referenced head and discharge (the relation will vary as a function of tailwater depth). To eliminate this error message, increase the contraction of the control section. 22 - Converging section length is too short (side contraction is too abrupt) - When viewed in plan, flumes that are primarily side-contracted should have a contraction angle from the approach channel to the control section that is in the range of 2.5:1 to 4.5:1 (longitudinal to lateral distance). WinFlume checks to see that this condition is met 35

at two elevations, the invert of the control section and the level of the approach channel water surface. If the transition is too abrupt there will be significant flow separation in the upstream reach of the control section. To eliminate this error, increase the length of the converging section, or reduce the difference in width between the approach channel and the control section. In unusual circumstances it may be impossible to eliminate all of the errors related to converging section length (10, 11, 22, and 23). In these cases, a converging section that is too gradual (errors 11 and 23) is better than a converging section that is too abrupt (errors 10 and 22). 23 - Converging section length may be too long (side contraction is too flat) - When viewed in plan, flumes that are primarily side-contracted should have a contraction angle from the approach channel to the control section that is in the range of 2.5:1 to 4.5:1 (longitudinal to lateral distance). WinFlume checks to see that this condition is met at two elevations, the invert of the control section and the level of the approach channel water surface. If the transition is too long, there will be excessive friction loss between the gaging station location and the control section, and the structure may be more expensive to construct. To eliminate this error, reduce the length of the converging section. In unusual circumstances it may be impossible to eliminate all of the errors related to converging section length (10, 11, 22, and 23). In these cases, a converging transition that is too gradual (errors 11 and 23) is better than a converging transition that is too abrupt (errors 10 and 22). 24 - For width-contracted flumes, L/W 2 is recommended for throat section. - Preliminary laboratory tests have shown that flumes that are solely width-contracted (i.e., no sill to create a vertical contraction of flow entering the throat section), have the potential to not properly develop critical-depth flow across the full width of the throat section. At this time, a length-to-width ratio of 2:1 is recommended for width-contracted flumes. The L/W ratio is evaluated using the average of the throat widths at the sill elevation and at the elevation corresponding to h1. Future research may allow refinement of this criterion.

SOFTWARE TECHNICAL DETAILS


Files
FLM Files
WinFlume stores individual flume design data in flume files having an extension of FLM. These files contain all of the geometric and hydraulic properties of the flume and the upstream and downstream canal sections, as well as all pertinent user-preferences related to design criteria and output options. These include units system settings, rating table ranges, wall gage appearance options, etc. The FLM file is a binary-format file, and cannot be usefully viewed with a text editor. The WinFlume program is the only useful tool for viewing and editing the contents of the FLM file. Internally, the FLM file has three parts. The first 2 bytes of the file is a binary-coded integer that identifies the revision number of the file format. The FLM file format has undergone several revisions during the development of WinFlume. WinFlume can read files in the current format, as well as all previous formats. The program is designed so that files in future formats will be readable as well, although data in the files pertaining to new features will be ignored unless the user upgrades to the latest version of WinFlume. Files are always saved in the current format, so that the upgrading of FLM files to the current format is completely transparent to the user. The next 1030 bytes is the flume data structure. This data structure is defined in the WinFlume program, and contains all geometric and hydraulic properties of the flume, as well as the user-preferences mentioned above. The third part of the FLM file is the array of measured H-Q data used for comparing the theoretical rating curve to actual field data. The array is preceded by a long integer (4 bytes) indicating the number of H-Q data pairs stored in the file. If the user has not entered any H-Q data for comparison, then this third part of the FLM file will consist only of a single pair of H-Q data with values of H=0 and Q=0. Each pair of H-Q data adds another 8 bytes to the length of the file. Thus, the length of the FLM file will be at least 1044 bytes, plus 8 bytes for each additional H-Q data pair.

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DBF Files
The last DOS-based version of this flume design software (FLUME 3.0) stored flume design data in dBase format files, having an extension of .DBF. A catalog of flumes was maintained, and the data for all flumes was saved together in a single file named FLM.DBF. FLUME 3.0 also had a backup function that would copy one or more flumes into a backup file that could be used to transfer designs to other computer systems. This file was named FLMBAK.DBF. FLUME 3.0 also created other DBF files whose base name was derived from the name of the flume. These files only contained rating table data computed by FLUME 3.0; the flume design data is always in the FLM.DBF file, or its backup, FLMBAK.DBF. WinFlume can load designs originally created in FLUME 3.0 from either the FLM.DBF or FLMBAK.DBF file. Once loaded into WinFlume, the designs can be modified and saved in WinFlumes standard FLM file format for future use. WinFlume does not make use of the rating table DBF files created by FLUME 3.0.

WinFlume Registry Entries


WinFlume stores a small number of program preference choices in the system registry. On Windows 95 and Windows NT systems, the registry is a hierarchical database file maintained by the operating system, in which program settings and other details of system configuration are stored. The registry can be viewed and edited using the REGEDIT program, but only experienced users should attempt this. WinFlumes settings are stored in the branch of the registry named: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\VB and VBA Program Settings\WinFlume\Startup On Windows 3.1 systems, the registry does not exist as a single entity, but is instead the collection of all the INI files on the system. The 16-bit version of WinFlume maintains an INI file called WINFLUME.INI, which serves as its registry. This file will usually be found in the C:\WINDOWS directory. The settings stored in the registry are those that are not tied to any specific flume design, but are applicable to a particular computer system running WinFlume. These include printer calibration settings, the recently used files list, choices of rating table parameters to be shown, formatting of graphs, username, and screen calibration factors. There should never be any reason to modify the WinFlume data stored in the registry. This information is only provided here to so that the user is aware of the changes WinFlume makes to their system.

GLOSSARY
Approach Channel
The approach channel is the canal reach between the gaging station location and the beginning of the converging transition. The approach channel is necessary for the development of uniform and symmetric flow conditions and the establishment of a stable water surface whose elevation can be determined accuratelythe approach channel may be lined or may be the original earthen channel.

Control, Crest, Sill, or Throat Section


The control section of the flume is the region in which the flow goes through critical depth. The general term control section is usually used to describe this flume component, but the alternatives terms crest, sill, or throat are also used at times, depending somewhat on the particular configuration. The control section must be horizontal in the direction of flow, but in the direction perpendicular to the flow, any shape may be used.

Converging Transition
The converging transition connects the approach channel to the control section of the structure. In the converging transition section the subcritical approach flow must accelerate smoothly toward the control section with no discontinuities or flow separationthe transition may consist of plane surfaces or may be rounded.

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Critical Depth and the Froude Number


Critical depth occurs in open-channel flows when the Froude number is equal to 1.0. The Froude number is defined as the ratio of the flow velocity, V, to the celerity (speed) of a gravity wave:

Fr =

V gD

where g is the acceleration of gravity and D is the hydraulic depth, which is defined as the cross-sectional area of the channel normal to the flow direction divided by the width of the free surface. When the Froude number is less than 1.0, the flow is subcritical and it is possible for gravity waves to propagate upstream (the wave celerity is high enough to overcome the flow velocity). When the Froude number is greater than 1.0, the flow is supercritical and it is impossible for a gravity wave to propagate upstream because the celerity is less than the flow velocity. Long-throated flumes and other critical-flow measurement devices create a transition from subcritical to supercritical flow. Flow conditions in the tailwater channel cannot affect flow conditions in the approach channel because gravity waves in the flow cannot propagate upstream through the critical section. As long as critical flow can be maintained in the throat of the flume, there is a unique relation between upstream sillreferenced head and discharge through the critical section; this relation is unaffected by flow conditions in the tailwater channel.

Diverging Transition
The diverging transition is the section in which the velocity of the supercritical flow exiting the throat section is reduced and energy is dissipated or partially recovered. If energy recovery is not needed, an abrupt transition can be used.

Energy Grade Line


The energy grade line is a line along the channel profile specifying the total energy head at any point in the channel. The elevation of the line at any point is the sum of the channel invert elevation, the flow depth, and velocity head, V2/2g. If a stick were held in the flow so as to bring the water velocity to zero on the upstream side of the stick, the water level upstream of the stick would theoretically rise to the height of the energy grade line (neglecting losses).

Freeboard
Freeboard is the distance between the upstream water level and the top of the upstream channel, as specified in the Channel Depth text box on the flume bottom profile drawing. It should be noted that WinFlume will not allow the design of a flume for which the upstream energy grade line (water level plus velocity head) exceeds the channel depth, and will not compute rating tables for this range of flows. Thus, although you could specify an allowable freeboard of zero, WinFlume will still require a freeboard at least equal to the upstream velocity head.

Gaging Station
The gaging station is located in the approach channel and is the location at which the difference in elevation between the approach water level and the crest of the throat section will be measured. The flow rate through the flume will be computed as a function of this upstream sill-referenced head. The upstream sill-referenced head can be measured with a staff gage or any of a variety of available automated sensors. The measurement can be made directly in the canal or in a stilling well tapped into the canal at the gaging location.

Long-Throated Flume
The term long-throated flume is used to describe a broad class of critical-flow devices used to measure the flow of water in open channels. Long-throated flumes are hydraulically similar to broad-crested weirs. The name implies that the control section is of sufficient length in the flow direction that two-dimensional flow is produced at the 38

critical section. This permits the application of two-dimensional hydraulic theory to the problem of determining a calibration, or rating curve for a flume. Thus, with the use of the WinFlume software, long-throated flumes can be calibrated without the need for laboratory testing. The common configuration of a ramp and sill in a trapezoidal channel has also come to be known as a Replogle flume or ramp flume.

Modular Limit
The modular limit is the maximum submergence ratio (H2/H1) for which a flume will operate with critical depth flow in the throat section. If the actual submergence ratio is less than or equal to the modular limit, there will be a unique functional relationship between the upstream sill-referenced head and the discharge.

Submergence Protection
Submergence protection is the vertical distance between the flumes allowable tailwater level and the actual tailwater level at the site. It can be thought of as the designers insurance against errors made in estimating tailwater conditions at the site. Choosing a design with more submergence protection (and thus, more head loss), allows for some error in estimated tailwater levels without causing the flume to be submerged. If a flume is being added to an existing canal system and little head is available, the designer may have no choice but to select a design with less submergence protection.

Tailwater Channel
The tailwater channel is on the downstream side of the structure. Within the tailwater channel the water level is a function of canal operations, the flow rate, and the hydraulic properties of the downstream channel and structures. The range of water levels in this channel is fundamentally important to the design of the structure because it determines the elevation and size of the control section needed to maintain critical flow conditions through the flume.

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REFERENCES
Bos, M.G., 1989, Discharge Measurement Structures, 3rd ed., ILRI Publication 20, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, The Netherlands. www.alterra.wur.nl/UK/publications/ILRI-publications/Downloadable/ Bos, M.G., J.A. Replogle, and A.J. Clemmens, 1984, Flow Measuring Flumes for Open Channel Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Note: The 1984 printing is no longer available, but this book has been republished as:

Bos, M.G., J.A. Replogle, and A.J. Clemmens, 1991, Flow Measuring Flumes for Open Channel Systems, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan, USA. Bureau of Reclamation, 2001, Water Measurement Manual, 3rd ed., revised reprint, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Clemmens, Albert J., Tony L. Wahl, Marinus G. Bos, and John A. Replogle, 2001, Water Measurement with Flumes and Weirs, ILRI Publication 58, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands. www.alterra.wur.nl/UK/publications/ILRI-publications/Downloadable/ This is the primary and most current reference for WinFlume and for long-throated flumes and broadcrested weirs in general. The book is available for direct purchase from ILRI at www.ilri.nl Clemmens, A.J., M.G. Bos, and J.A. Replogle., 1993, FLUME: Design and Calibration of Long-Throated Measuring Flumes: Version 3.0, ILRI Publication 54, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, The Netherlands. (Includes FLUME 3.0 software)

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