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KNF2033 ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS III

SOLUTIONS OF LINEAR SYSTEMS

Introduction to Linear Systems


A line in the xy-plane can be represented algebraically by an equation in the form a 1x + a 2y = b An equation of this kind is called a linear equation in the variables x and y. In general, we define a linear equation in the n variables x1, x2, ...., xn to be one that can be expressed in the form a1x1 + a2x2 + .... + anxn = b where a1, a2, , an, and b are real constants. The variables in a linear equation are sometimes called the unknowns.

Introduction to Linear Systems A sequence of numbers s1, s2, , sn is called a solution of the system if x1 = s1, x2 = s2, , xn = sn is a solution of every equation in the system. Every system, of linear equations has either no solutions, exactly one solution or infinitely many solutions.

Linear Systems

Linear Systems

Augmented Matrix

This is known as the augmented matrix for the system.

Augmented Matrix
For example, the augmented matrix for the system of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

Consistency of a set of equations

General Properties of Solutions

General Properties of Solutions

Homogeneous System

Homogeneous System

Nonhomogenous System

Linear Systems
Now try to form the linear systems for solving the following problem:
An investment firm offers three stock portfolios: A,B and C. The number of blocks of each type of stock in each of these portfolios is summarized in the following table: Portfolio A High Risk Moderate Low 6 3 1 B 1 2 5 C 3 3 3

A client wants 35 blocks of high-risk stock, 22 blocks of moderate-risk stock and 18 blocks of low-risk stock. For the equations to solve this problem.

Elementary Row Operations The basic method for solving a system of linear equations is to replace the given system that has the same solution but which is easier to solve. The elementary row operation can be used to solve systems of linear equations. Method:
Multiply a row by a non-zero constant. Interchange two rows. Add a multiple of one row to another row.

Elementary Row Operations

[R2 = R2-2R1]

[R3 = R3-3R1]

Elementary Row Operations

[R2 = R2]

[R3 = R3-3R2]

[R3 = -2R3]

Elementary Row Operations

[R1 = R1-R2]

[R1 = R1-11/2R3] [R2 = R2+7/2R3]

Elementary Row Operations


Now you try it!! Solve the following linear systems using elementary row operations:

x 5 y z 11 3z 12 2x 4 y 8 2z