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Year

1803

Month, Day

Event
Congressional Act of 1803 - This act, generally considered the first piece of disaster legislation, provided assistance to a New Hampshire town following an extensive fire. In the century that followed, ad hoc legislation was passed more than 100 times in response to hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)

1916

08 (August) 29 WWI

Civil Defense or Civilian Defense is born with the creation of the Council of National Defense - Council of National Defense created by act of Congress (39 Stat. 649; 50 U.S.C. ch.l). Composed of the Secre- taries of War (Newton D. Baker, Chairman), Navy, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor, Council was charged with coordination of industries and resources for the national security and welfare, and with creation of relations ren- dering possible in time of need immediate concentration and utilization of resources of the Nation.

Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)

1916

10 (October) 11

Civil Defense: Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense appointed by the President; composed of seven members, each chosen for special knowledge in one of the following fields: transportation and communications, manufacturing and industrial relations, supplies, raw materials, minerals and metals, engineering and education, labor, medicine and sanitation. Civil Defense: Council of National Defense created by act of Congress (39 Stat. 649; 50 U.S.C. ch.l). Composed of the Secre- taries of War (Newton D. Baker, Chairman), Navy, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor, Council was charged with coordination of industries and resources for the national security and welfare, and with creation of relations ren- dering possible in time of need immediate concentration and utilization of resources of the Nation.

Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)

1916

Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)

1917 1917

04 (April) 04 (April) 06

Civil Defense: Council appointed a Woman's Committee to coordinate and stimulate war activities of Nation's women. Civil Defense: War declared by Congress. . . . Council of National Defense established State Council Section to guide growth and work of State defense councils. Civil Defense: Council Chairman requested all State Governors to establish councils of defense. Such councils were organized in every State, and by November 11, 1918, local units numbered 182,000. Civil Defense: Armistice resulted in rapid dissolution of State and local defense councils.

Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)

1917

04 (April) 09

1918

11 (November) 11

Year
1918

Month, Day
12 (December) 02

Event
Civil Defense: In response to the United States Employment Service, Council of National Defense adopted resolution asking State and local defense councils to keep organizations intact to assist Federal agencies in meeting postwar adjustments. Reconstruction Finance Corporation was given authority to make disaster loans for repair and reconstruction of certain public facilities following an earthquake, and later, other types of disasters.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)

1930

1930's

1934

Bureau of Public Roads was given authority to provide funding for highways and bridges damaged by natural disasters. Flood Control Act, which gave the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers greater authority to implement flood control projects, was also passed.

1934

1939

1939 - 1945 WWII

Council of National Defense was reactivated and created the Division of State and Local Cooperation to further assist the Council's efforts. Civil Defense Corps, run by the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD)

1939

1939 - 1945 WWII

1940

05 (May) 25

Civil Defense: Office for Emergency Management established within Executive Office of the President by administrative order, in accordance with Executive Order 8248 of September 8, 1939. OEM had certain stated functions performed under direction of the Liaison Officer for Emergency Management. (OEM, primarily a framework within which various civilian war agencies were established, is now inactive.)

Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

Year
1940

Month, Day
05 (May) 29

Event
Civil Defense: President approved regulation of Council of National Defense that Advisory Commission provided for in sec. 2 of act of Aug. 29, 1916 (39 Stat 649) shall be composed of an Adviser on Industrial Production; an Adviser on Industrial Materials; an Adviser on Employment; an Adviser on Farm Products; an Adviser on Price Stabilization; and an Adviser on Consumer Protection. This was the beginning of the National Defense Program of WW II. Realignment of relationships necessitated by expansion of the program decentralized the Advisory Commission by merging its divisions with other newly created national defense units. Agencies which evolved from the Advisory Comission, with the exception of Office for Agricultural War Relations and Office of Price Administration, became units of Office for Emergency Management.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1940

08 (August) 02

Civil Defense: Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense appointed by the President, and State Governors advised to reestablish defense councils. Civil Defense: Establishment of Division of State and Local Cooperation by Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense announced. Civil Defense: First regional conference on civil defense held in New York City; followed by conferences in New Orleans, Salt Lake City, Chicago, and Memphis. Civil Defense: Drafts of model law sent to States for consideration of legislature with a view to securing uniformity of civil defense organization on the State level. Civil Defense: President asked Congress to appropriate $150,000,000 "for the purpose of providing community facilities made necessary by defense activities." Division of State and Local Cooperation helped to sponsor the community facilities bill, which became known as the Lanham Act. Council of National Defense Then more responsibility was vested at the federal level, instead of local with the creation of the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) within the Office of Emergency Planning (OEP) in the Executive Office of the President (EOP)
Civil Air Patrol (CAP); search and rescue;

1940

08 (August) 05

1940

11 (November) 01

1940

12 (December)

1941

02 (February) 24

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1941

05 (May) 20

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

Year
1941

Month, Day
05 (May) 20

Event
Civil Defense: Office of Civilian Defense established within Office for Emergency Management by EO 8757, to assure effective coordination of Federal relations with State and local governments engaged in furtherance of war programs; to provide for necessary cooperation with State and local governments with respect to measures for adequate protection of civilian population in war emergencies; and to facilitate participation by all persons in war programs. . . . Mayor Fiorello La Guardia of New York City named as Director, serving on volunteer basis without compensation.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1941

06 (June) 20

Civil Defense: Executive Order 8799 amended EO 8757 to provide for a wider and more effective functioning of the Volunteer Participation Committee by increasing its membership from 20 to 45. Civil Defense: Lanham Act approved by Congress (five weeks after Division of State and Local Cooperation was supplanted by OCD). Civil Defense: First training course given at Edgewood Arsenal, Md. (These courses continued weekly thereafter.) Civil Defense: Emergency Medical Services established with representative of U.S. Public Health Service as Chief Medical Officer. EMS was responsible for establishment of necessary emergency medical facilities in communities throughout the country, including organization of emergency field units and casualty stations. Civil Defense: OCD established nine regional offices: Boston, New York City, Baltimore, Atlanta, Cleveland, Chicago, Omaha, San Antonio (later Dallas), and San Francisco. Civil Defense: Executive Order 8822 amended EO 8757 to include American Red Cross among organizations invited to designate representatives to serve as members of the Board for Civilian Protection in OCD. Civil Defense: Official CD insignia adopted by OCD; included the basic CD insigne and 15 distinctive identification symbols for volunteer workers: Air Raid Warden, Auxiliary Police, Bomb Squad, Auxiliary Firemen, Fire Watcher, Road Repair Crew, Decontamination Corps, Staff Corps, Rescue Party, Medical Corps, Nurses Aides Corps, Messenger, Drivers Corps, Emergency Food and Housing, Demolition and Clearance Crew. The insignia were developed by Charles T. Coiner, consultant on design to Division of Information, Office for Emergency Management, in collaboration with Col. Walter B. Burn, an OCD staff member.
Air Raid Warden, Auxiliary Police, Bomb Squad, Auxiliary Firemen, Fire Watcher, Road Repair Crew, Decontamination Corps, Staff Corps, Rescue Party, Medical Corps, Nurses Aides Corps, Messenger, Drivers Corps, Emergency Food and Housing, Demolition and Clearance Crew. The insignia were developed by Charles T. Coiner, consultant on design to Division of Information, Office for Emergency Management, in collaboration with Col. Walter B. Burn, an OCD staff member.

1941

06 (June) 28

1941

06 (June) 30

1941

07 (July) 05

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1941

07 (July) 10

1941

07 (July) 16

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1941

07 (July) 24

Year
1941

Month, Day
08 (August)

Event
Civil Defense: During that month "The United States Citizens Defense Corps" was published. It gave the first complete and coordinated plan for local organization of civilian defense, and was the prototype of all following CD organizations. Civil Defense: Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt appointed Assistant Director, OCD, heading Volunteer Participation activities, to administer the nonprotective aspects of civilian defense. She reported November 1, 1941, and resigned February 20, 1942. Civil Defense: Official CD insigne patented (U.S. Letters Patent No. D129,797) by Col. Walter P. Burn, who assigned rights to Government. (CD insigne continued by Federal Civil Defense Administration under Public Law 920, the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950.) Civil Defense: Physical Fitness Division established under direction of John B. Kelly, with headquarters in Philadelphia. Also during October, OCD initiated active program of training Citizens Defense Corps personnel in every State and city. Civil Defense: During that month first consolidated reports from States showed over one million volunteers trained, or in training; first regionwide test blackout was held in OCD Region 1 was held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., and selection of (New England); final definitive test of warning devices approved type was made. Civil Defense: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

Affiliations/Partners

President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1941

09 (September) 22

1941

10 (October) 07

1941

10 (October) 15

1941

11 (November)

1941

12 (December) 07

1941

12 (December) 08

Civil Defense: Director La Guardia announced establishment of Civil Air Patrol (CAP) under OCD. (In April 1943, CAP was transferred from OCD to War Department and operated as an auxiliary of the Army Air Force.) Civil Defense: Boy Scouts of America accepted assignment of messenger training; over one million messengers were trained for CD. American Water Works, American Hotel, and National Retail Dry Goods Association accepted assignments from OCD to recommend protection programs for their member institutions. Civil Defense: Special 10-day course for 150 Reserve and National Guard officers, assigned to regional and State offices, began at Edgewood Arsenal, Md.; conducted by Chemical Warfare and OCD officers. Civil Defense: James M. Landis, Dean of Harvard Law School, appointed Special Assistant to the President to devote full time to executive work of OCD.

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1942

01 (January) 03

1942

01 (January) 06

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1942

01 (January) 12

Year
1942

Month, Day
01 (January) 27

Event
Civil Defense: Congress approved act to "provide protection of persons and property from bombing attacks in the United States," which authorized an appropriation not to exceed $100,000,000 to enable the Director of OCD to provide such protection. Civil Defense: First schools in emergency CD duties of regular police and duties of auxiliary police opened in 46 cities by FBI in cooperation with OCD. Civil Defense: Melvyn Douglas (Hesselberg), actor, named Director of OCD Art Council, to mobilize volunteer activities of Nation's writers, artists, musicians, and actors for Division of Civilian Participation program; served without compensation; resigned December 5, 1942, to enter Army. Civil Defense: Joint Committee on Evacuation (interdepartmental) created. (Apparently abolished prior to July 1, 1944. No reference to it after that date.) Civil Defense: La Guardia resigned as Director of OCD. (His last day in office was February 11, 1942.) Civil Defense: James M. Landis took over as Director of OCD

Affiliations/Partners

President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1942

01 (January) 28

1942

01 (January) 31

1942

02 (February) 04

1942

02 (February) 10

1942

02 (February) 12

1942

02 (February) 21

Civil Defense: Congress approved act appropriating $100,000,000 to OCD, specifying that no part of the money be used for "the employment of persons, the rent of facilities or the purchase of equipment and supplies to promote, produce or carry on instruction or direct instruction in physical fitness by dancers, fan dancing, street shows, theatrical performances or other public entertainment." Civil Defense: Executive Order 9134 expanded functions of OCD Director by authorizing him to maintain a clearinghouse of information on State and local defense activities in cooperation with appropriate Federal departments and agencies; and replaced both the Board of Civilian Protection and the Volunteer Participation Committee by a single Civilian Defense Board to advise and assist the Director. . . . James M. Landis received official appointment as Director of OCD at a salary of $10,000 a year. Civil Defense: Executive Order 9165 established Facility Security Division for protection of essential facilities from sabotage and other destructive acts, and placed responsibility for facility security program upon OCD.

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1942

04 (April) 15

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1942

05 (May) 19

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

Year
1942

Month, Day
05 (May) 28

Event
Civil Defense: War Emergency Radio Service (WEBS) authorized by Defense Communications Board (name changed to Board of War Communications by EO 9183, June 15, 1942) for civilian defense, Civi Airs Patrol, and State guard systems, to permit licensing for defense purposes limited number of amateur shortwave stations, all of which had been closed the first of the year for security reasons. By end of 1944, 250 licenses (covering 5,213 radio transmitters) were issued to civilian defense stations. Civil Defense: Conference on emergency CD Driver Training at Yale University launched program in which American Automobile Assn. trained 800,000 drivers for CD. Civil Defense: Landis named Liaison Officer to Civil Defense of Canada for coordination of policies, air raid signals, equipment, etc. Civil Defense: Director Landis resigned and recommended abolition of OCD. John B. Martin, deputy, became Acting Director. Civil Defense: War Department announced that Aircraft Warning Service would be placed on standby basis. Civil Defense: Executive Order 9389 expanded authority of OCD Director to permit him to provide for the internal organization and management of OCD, and to delegate authority to carry out his powers and duties to such agencies and officials as he might designate. Civil Defense: Six Army officers who had been section or unit chiefs in Protection Branch relieved to go overseas to organize Passive Air Defense for the invasion of Normandy, under SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces). Left in February 1944. Civil Defense: Lt. Gen. William N. Haskell (Retired) assumed duties as Director of OCD. Civil Defense: Executive Order 9437 abolished Facility Security Program assigned to OCD by EO 9165. Civil Defense: OCD regional offices abolished.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1942

06 (June) 17

1942

08 (August) 25

1943

09 (September) 08

1943

10 (October) 04

1943

10 (October) 18

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1943

12 (December) 30

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1944

02 (February)

1944

04 (April)

1944

07 (July) 01

Year
1944

Month, Day
11 (November) 03

Event
Civil Defense: U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey established, pursuant to Presidential directive, to study effects of air war over Germany with two objectives: help plan impending expansion of air war against Japan, and help assess and evaluate air power as a military instrument in the interest of future planning for national defense. (Resulted in Summary Report. (European War), GPO, 1945.) Civil Defense: President Truman signed Executive Order 9562 calling for termination of OCD on June 30, 1945.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945)

1945

05 (May) 04

1945

05 (May) 08

Civil Defense: Victory in Europe (V-E Day).

1945

06 (June) 04

Civil Defense : At the end of the war, the wartime Office of Civil Defense was shut down by President Harry S Truman, with Executive Order 9562 on June 4, 1945. Civil Defense: OCD abolished. This action was followed by the disbanding of most State and local civil defense organizations. All protective property acquired under act of January 27, 1942, and act of February 21, 1942, was transferred to Department of Commerce; liquidation of OCD fiscal affairs assigned to Treasury Department. Civil Defense: Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.

Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Franklin D. Roosevelt (19331945) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1945

06 (June) 30

1945

08 (August) 06

1945

08 (August) 09

Civil Defense: Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki.

1945

08 (August) 15

Civil Defense: Victory in Japan (V-J Day) . . . . President Truman requested U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey to study effects of air war on Japan, particularly the effects of bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (Resulted in Summary Report (Pacific War), GPO, 1946.)

Year
1946

Month, Day
04 (April) 30

Event
Civil Defense: Provost Marshal General Study 3B-1, "Defense Against Enemy Action Directed at Civilians," concluded that atomic warfare did not eliminate the possibility of effective civil defense but, rather, increased its importance; that civil defense be considered an integral and essential part of national defense; that a national shelter program and other passive defense policies must be planned at once and continuously studied and updated; and that advance planning include: updated inventories of essential materials and facilities available, maintenance of reserve stockpiles of critical materials, studies of dispersal of facilities as well as emergency evacuation of civilians, and development of intelligence detection systems as well as warning systems.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1946

06 (June)

Civil Defense: U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey issued special report: "The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Report is one of the earliest descriptions of the atomic bomb--how it works, its main effects (heat, radiation, blast), and how it compares with conventional weapons; suggested immediate planning for action in four areas: (1) shelters and construction, (2) decentralization, (3) civilian defense, and (4) active defense. "Shelters and construction" envisaged not only a national shelter program, but also modification of new construction to make buildings more blast- and fire-resistant.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1946

11 (November) 25

Civil Defense: War Department Memorandum 400-5-5 (signed by Chief of Staff Dwight D. Eisenhower) established WD Civil Defense Board (Bull Board, headed by Maj. Gen. Harold R. Bull) to study problem of civil defense. Civil Defense: National Security Council/Commission (NCS) The NSC was created in 1947 during President Harry Trumans administration. Through the decades, most presidents have rejiggered the councils membership to reflect shifting priorities.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1947

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1947 1947 1947

02 (February) 28 07 (July) 26 08 (August) 29

Civil Defense: Report (then classified Confidential) of WD Civil Defense Board issued, and Board adjourned. Civil Defense: Public Law 253 (Unification Act) approved; law established National Security Resources Board (NSRB). Civil Defense: National Convention of American Legion at New York City adopted report of Legion's Civil Defense Commission, urging the President to establish a civil defense planning agency under direction of a civilian, and outlining minimum requirements for civil defense. This report, when presented to the President, became the basis for establishment of the Office of Civil Defense Planning.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1947

Month, Day

Event
National Security Act of 1947, was a military and intelligence reorganization. Also created was The Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP); the OEP, after various reorganizations, is the ancestor of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA, headed by W. Craig Fugate, is now part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) under Janet Napolitano Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP). Besides the better-known military and intelligence reorganizations in the National Security Act of 1947, the Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP) was created; the OEP, after various reorganizations, is the ancestor of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA, headed by W. Craig Fugate, is now part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) under Janet Napolitano, There were many reorganizations during the Cold War, but the U.S. never made civil defense a national priority, and assistance for natural and accidental disasters tended to be an ad hoc Federal response, with much of the work at state and local level. As the Cold War ended, the emphasis of the disaster shifted to response to natural disasters and major accidents; the role was to change again after the 9/11 Attacks. Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP). Whether you are a responder, public health official, emergency manager, practitioner, or just passing through our site, we hope that you find the information we have provided interesting, useful and informative. OEP is an office within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and has the departmental responsibility for managing and coordinating Federal health, medical, and health related social services and recovery to major emergencies and Federally declared disasters including: Search, NDMS, Counter Terrorism

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1947

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1947

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1948 1948

01 (January) 13 02 (February) 15

Civil Defense: Bull Board report declassified by authority of Secretary of Defense. Civil Defense: "A Study of Civil Defense," a pamphlet presenting conclusions and recommendations of the War Department Civil Defense Board (Bull Board), released to the public. It was first report on a civil defense program for the United States. . . . New York Times featured story on first page captioned: "Civilian Defense To Be Established--Forrestal to Set Up Interim Organization as Soon as He Can Find Suitable Head." Civil Defense: Russell J. Hopley, President, Northwestern Bell Telephone Company, asked by Secretary of Defense James Forrestal to organize and direct committee to plan for establishing civil defense organization for the Nation.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1948

02 (February) 22

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1948

Month, Day
03 (March) 27

Event
Civil Defense: Mr. Forrestal created Office of Civil Defense Planning, with Mr. Hopley as director, within National Military Establishment (predecessor to the Department of Defense, which was established as an executive department by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (P.L. 81-216, approved August 10, 1949).) Civil Defense: Office of Civil Defense Planning submitted Hopley Report, "Civil Defense for National Security," to Secretary Forrestal. Released to the public November 13, 1948, The New York Times of November 14 carried feature story on page 1: "Civil Defense Plan Mapped Against Enemy Action." (Considered to be most detailed and complete plan available for setting up operational civil defense organization, including a peacetime organization to be used in natural disaster (even though it may never be used for war.)

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1948

10 (October) 01

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1949

03 (March) 03

Civil Defense: In memorandum to Acting Chairman John R. Steelman, the President assigned to National Security Resources Board primary responsibility for civil defense planning. Civil Defense: Acting Chairman of NSRB requested Director, Office of Mobilization Procedures and Organization, NSRB, to initiate a study of problems and submit a report. Civil Defense: Acting Chairman, NSRB, requested: (a) Administrator, Federal Works Agency (which became General Services Administration July 1, 1949) to assume responsibility for "wartime civil disaster relief planning," including activities and supplies, rescue, evacuation, demolition, regulation of transportation, communications, and restoration of order; (b) Secretary of National Defense to assume responsibility for planning civilian participation in active defense, including detection, observation, and identification of aircraft, air-raid-warning systems, border patrol, anti-aircraft defense, civil air patrol, camouflage, and protective construction.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1949

03 (March) 29

1949

06 (June) 03

1949

06 (June) 06

Civil Defense: NSRB Document 112, "A Report on Civil Defense Planning," transmitted by Acting Chairman to Federal departments and agencies for comment. (This was report requested March 29.) Civil Defense: Secretary Forrestal abolished Office of Civil Defense Planning and established Civil Defense Liaison Office. Lt. Col. (later Col.) Barnet W. Beers named as Assistant for Civil Defense Liaison. Civil Defense: General Services Administration submitted planning prospectus to Acting Chairman, NSRB.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1949

08 (August) 01

1949

08 (August) 23

Year
1949

Month, Day
09 (September)

Event
Civil Defense: Department of Defense held "Operation Lookout" in 10 northeastern States to test air-defense plans. Exercise was sponsored jointly by Air Defense Command and Civil Defense Liaison Office (formerly Office of Civil Defense Planning). Civil Defense: President Truman announced that Russians had exploded their own atomic bomb in the Soviet Union. Civil Defense: A statement of policy for relations with State and local governments, the first in a series of Civil Defense Planning Advisory Bulletins (Doc. 121), sent by NSRB to all State Governors. Civil Defense: Senator Brian McMahon, Chairman, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, announced that public hearings on problem of civil defense would be held early during next session of Congress. Federal Civil Defense Administration: With the detonation of the first Soviet nuclear weapon in 1949, Truman created the Federal Civil Defense Administration by Executive Order in December 1949. Civil Defense: The second of NSRB Civil Defense Planning Bulletins (Doc. 121/1) sent to all State Governors. Bulletin outlined Federal Government's objectives in planning, set forth information on planning activities in progress, made recommendations for State and local action, and requested information on specific questions relating to State civil defense programs. Civil Defense: NSRB Doc. 121/2, "Medical Aspects of Atomic Weapons," sent to all State Governors. Civil Defense: President directed Atomic Energy Commission to study possibilities of building thermonuclear (hydrogen) bombs. Civil Defense: NSRB Doc. 121/3, announcing training courses in radiological monitoring and medical aspects of civil defense against atomic attack, sent to all State Governors. Civil Defense: Paul J. Larsen appointed Director, Civilian Mobilization Office, NSRB. Civil Defense: Hearings on civil defense were begun by the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy and the Senate Armed Services Committee Civil Defense: Hearings on civil defense continued by Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy Civil Defense: Start of testimony on civil defense before Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy and Senate Armed Services Committee. Civil Defense: Radiological monitoring and medical and health courses sponsored by NSRB began; continued through July 1950.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1949 1949

09 (September) 23 10 (October) 05

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1949

10 (October) 24

1949

12 (December)

1949

12 (December) 01

1950 1950 1950

01 (January) 13 01 (January) 31 02 (February) 03

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950 1950

03 (March) 01 03 (March) 03

1950 1950

03 (March) 17, 20, 23,30, 04 (April) 03 03 (March) 23

1950

03 (March) 27

Year
1950 1950

Month, Day
04 (April) 10 05 (May) 01

Event
Civil Defense: Nomination of W. Stuart Symington as Chairman of NSRB confirmed by the Senate. (Took oath of office April 26.) Civil Defense: NSRB Doc. 121/4 transmitted to State Governor. Suggested course of action for States, described radiological and medical training activities, suggested approach to civil defense, and defined responsibility for civil defense planning. Civil Defense: NSRB Doc. 121/5, defining role of American Red Cross in civil defense, transmitted to all State Governors. Civil Defense: President Truman announced invasion of South Korea by North Korea. Civil Defense: Atomic Energy Commission disclosed that "great steps" had been achieved in developing the hydrogen bomb. Civil Defense: In letter to NSRB Chairman, Senator Estes Kefauver, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Civil Defense of the Senate Armed Services Committee, pointed out that "if it is humanly possible to do so, legislation in this field should be submitted to the Congress prior to September." Civil Defense: AEC issued "The Effects of Atomic Weapons," predecessor to "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons," which was issued in 1957 and revised in April 1962. (Book was prepared by Defense Atomic Support Agency of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant governmental agencies and published by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. . . . Public Law 93-483 abolished AEC and created two new agencies, effective January 19, 1975: U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and Nuclear Regulatory Commission.)

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950 1950 1950 1950

05 (May) 18 06 (June) 25 06 (June) 29 07 (July) 12

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

08 (August) 08

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

09 (September) 08

Civil Defense: Public Law 774, Defense Production Act of 1950, approved. . . NSRB Doc. 128, "United States Civil Defense" (Symington Report), proposing a national civil defense plan (then referred to as the "National Plan" or "The Blue Book"), transmitted to the President. (Exhibit C of Doc. 128 is proposed bill "To authorize a Federal Civil Defense Program and for other purposes.") . . . Paul J. Larsen resigned as Director of NSRB's Office of Civil Defense (formerly Office of Civilian Mobilization); succeeded by James J. Wadsworth. Civil Defense: H.R. 9689, "To authorize "Federal Civil Defense Program," introduced in House of Representatives by Carl T. Durham (North Carolina) . . . . "National Plan" released to the press. Civil Defense: S. 4162, "To authorize a Federal Civil Defense Program," introduced in the Senate by Ernest W. McFarland (Arizona) and Brian McMahon (Conn.).

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

09 (September) 18

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

09 (September) 19

Year
1950

Month, Day
09 (September) 30

Event
Civil Defense: Public Law 875 (81st Congress), "To authorize Federal assistance to States and local governments in major authority to coordinate activities of Federal agencies in providing disaster assistance. . . . NSRB Doc. 128/1 transmitted to all State Governors. Discussed Mutual Aid disasters, and for other purposes," bested in President and Mobile Support Systems,with Critical Area Map of hypothetical State of Columbia. Civil Defense: NSRB Doc. 121/6 announced training courses for professional nurses. Civil Defense: NSRB Doc. 130, "Survival Under Atomic Attack," published; first of a series designed to instruct the public in individual protection against special weapons. Civil Defense: Revised bill (H.R. 9798, "To authorize a Federal Civil Defense Program") introduced in House of representatives by Congressman Durham; revised civil defense bill (S. 4219) introduced in Senate the next day by Senators Estes Kefauver (Tenn.) and Harry P. Cain (Wash.). Civil Defense: Executive Order 10186 created Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA) within Office for Emergency Management, Executive Office of the President. On same day President Truman appointed Millard F. Caldwell, Jr., former Governor of Florida, as Administrator, succeeding James J. Wadsworth, Acting Director, Civil Defense Office, NSRB. (Mr. Wadsworth was named Deputy Administrator.) Civil Defense: Hearings on proposed civil defense legislation were begun by the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy, the Senate Armed Services Committee, and the House Armed Services Committee. Civil Defense: FCDA announced that model interstate civil defense and disaster compact had been submitted to all State Governors and civil defense directors as a legal basis for mutual aid and mobile support among the States in the event of enemy attack. It applied particularly to use of fire, police, medical, and rescue personnel and equipment. Civil Defense: NSRB Doc. 132, "Fire Effects of Bombing Attacks," released. Prepared for NSRB by the Civil Defense Liaison Office and Office of the Secretary of Defense, booklet sent to all State Governors as background information on fire problem.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950 1950

10 (October) 18 10 (October) 29

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

11 (November) 30

1950

12 (December) 01

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

12 (December) 04

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

12 (December) 12

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

12 (December) 13

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1950

Month, Day
12 (December) 15

Event
Civil Defense: A basic code of public air raid warning signals, to be used by all States and cities in event of attack, announced by FCDA. The two-stage warning code--"Red Alert" and "All Clear"--was developed by a panel consisting of representatives of FCDA, the Department of Defense, State and city civil defense authorities, and sound engineers. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10193 established Office of Defense Mobilization within Executive Office of the President to direct, control, and coordinate all mobilization activities of the Government, including production, procurement, manpower, stabilization, and transport activities. Civil Defense: FCDA released a 248-page volume on "Civil Defense Health Services and Special Weapons Defense." Prepared for FCDA by Health Resources Office of NSRB with assistance and technical advice of number of Federal and private agencies, booklet gave detailed information required by State and local planners for civil defense health services against atomic, biological, and chemical warfare. N.A.T.O. states/countries participate in Civil Defensc thru the 1950's & 60's

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

12 (December) 16

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

12 (December) 28

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1950

1950 - 1960

1950 1951 01 (January) 12

Federal Civil Defense Act Civil Defense: President Truman signed the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 (Public Law 920, 81st Congress), establishing FCDA as an independent agency in the executive branch of the Government. Civil Defense: Designation of certain amateur frequencies for civil defense use by licensed amateur radio operators, after any suspension of normal amateur activity, announced jointly by FCDA and Federal Communications Commission (FCC); made possible for State and local civil defense authorities to plan for utilization of Nation's amateur operators for civil defense purposes Civil Defense: FCDA announced at a national meeting of State civil defense directors that matching Federal funds would be made available for construction of individual or family-type shelters, but that no contributions would be made for shelters outside critical target areas.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

01 (January) 17

1951

02 (February) 12

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1951

Month, Day
02 (February) 21

Event
Civil Defense: Meeting of United States and Canadian civil defense officials in Ottawa for further informal exploration of possible agreements on mutual civil defense problems. Discussions covered interstate-provincial and international mutual aid agreements, exchange of medical services, and standardization of civil defense supplies and equipment; also possible exchange of civil defense personnel between United States and Canada. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10221 authorized Housing and Home Finance Administrator to act for President in carrying out provisions of P.L. 875, to assist States and local governments in major disasters. Civil Defense: Canada and United States effected a civil defense mutual aid agreement. Civil Defense: First issue of THE CIVIL DEFENSE ALERT, official monthly publication of FCDA, distributed to all FCDA personnel and all CD staff members in States, cities, and territories to keep them currently and uniformly informed on civil defense activities, plans, and programs; and to help maintain the teamwork and morale essential to the FCDA program. Civil Defense: First FCDA motion picture, "Survival Under Atomic Attack," released: 16mm, one-reel, sound, black and white; produced by United World Films, Inc., and distributed by Castle Films. Civil Defense: First meeting of Joint United States-Canadian Civil Defense Committee held in Washington, D.C. Eight Canadian representatives, headed by Paul Martin, Minister of National Health and Welfare, and six U.S. officials took part in conference. Civil Defense: National Civil Defense Training Center opened at Olney, Md., consisting of Staff College for training in civil defense administration and operations, and Rescue School for training in rescue operations and related skills. Civil Defense: First FCDA Advisory Council (12 members) appointed by the President. Appointment of Council members was in accordance with section 102 of the Federal Civil Defense Act.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

03 (March) 02

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951 1951

03 (March) 27 04 (April) 05

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

04 (April) 15

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

04 (April) 28

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

04 (April) 30

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

05 (May) 05

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1951

Month, Day
05 (May) 07 - 08

Event
Civil Defense: Civil Defense Conference, Washington, D.C.; called to mobilize organizational leadership of Nation to survival; attended by some 1,200 leaders of State and local civil defense organizations and representatives of about 300 national associations whose membership numbered over 50 million. A series of forums on civil defense organization, volunteer technical services, public education, health and welfare services, shelters, attack warning and communications, training, and other program activities were held during the conference.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

05 (May) 24 - 25

Civil Defense: First meeting of FCDA Technical Committee on Street and Highway Traffic held at Evanston, Ill., home of the Traffic Institute of Northwestern University, which FCDA had selected to develop the traffic training program. Matters concerning regulation and control of traffic in relation to CD were considered. Civil Defense: FCDA Eastern Training Center established at Olney, Md. This was in addition to Staff College and Rescue School established April 30, 1951. Civil Defense: FCDA released summary of system to be used for determining amount of shelter from atomic attack needed in a given area and amount of suitable shelter space available in existing buildings in that area. A conference to discuss system was held at FCDA Staff College, June 14-15, 1951. Among conferees were State engineers, Staff College technicians, and representatives of the Bureau of the Census and Lehigh University Institute of Research. Release of system for determining shelter in existing buildings marked the first phase of the shelter program

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

06 (June) 06

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

06 (June) 14

1951

06 (June) 22

Civil Defense: FCDA announced distribution to State and local directors of an illustrated bulletin containing a suggested organizational pattern for the communications section of municipal control centers, to be used as official guide. Civil Defense: Second meeting of FCDA Technical Committee on Street and Highway Traffic held at Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Committee reached agreement on overall objectives of traffic handling during CD emergencies. Civil Defense: FCDA announced distribution to State and local directors of bulletin covering plans and specifications for civil defense attack warning systems. Bulletin set forth specifications and methods for installing wellengineered and economical attack warning systems, and included tables and charts for determining area coverage of sound devices, with map showing layout of a public sound warning system for a typical city.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

07 (July) 02

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

07 (July) 03

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1951

Month, Day
07 (July) 13

Event
Civil Defense: First course for local civil defense instructors in midwestern States opened at Oklahoma A&M College, Stillwater, Okla. This was first training center for local instructors in the country, and continued operating for about one year. (Closed August 15, 1952.) Civil Defense: Manual on "Shelter from Atomic Attack in Existing Buildings," sent to State and local civil defense directors; provided method for determining census of persons in given locations and uniform evaluation of shelter space in existing buildings. Civil Defense: James J. Wadsworth, Deputy Administrator, announced that St. Mary's College of California, strategically located about 20 miles east of the San Francisco Bay area, had been selected as the Western Training Center of FCDA. (Center opened Sept. 4, 1951; discontinued Sept. 1953.) Civil Defense: FCDA Emergency Welfare Services Advisory Committee concluded its first meeting, a 2-day session. During meeting Committee reviewed welfare problems before and after an attack, including emergency shelters, food supply, emergency mass feeding, personal identification, notification of next-of-kin, and post-disaster legislation Civil Defense: FCDA announced that five States (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, New York) would share in the initial allocation of funds from a $20,000,000 Congressional appropriation for civil defense first aid stations and stockpiling of medical supplies and equipment. Civil Defense: FCDA released Advisory Bulletin No. 69 to furnish advice and guidance to States regarding a uniform method of issuing identification tags for civilians. Civil Defense: Initial meeting of new group, Advisory Council for Women's Participation, held at FCDA building (Gelmarc Towers), 1930 Columbia Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. Its mission was to assist Mrs. John L. Whitehurst, Assistant Administrator, in alerting and organizing American women for civil defense. Civil Defense: Beginning of Massachusetts Regional Project, a laboratory study of urban area target analysis and State and regional plan, cooperatively undertaken by FCDA, City of Boston, State of Massachusetts, and the Armed Forces.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

07 (July) 27

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

08 (August) 02

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

09 (September) 09

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

09 (September) 13

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

09 (September) 20

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

10 (October) 26

1951

11 (November) 02

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1951

Month, Day
11 (November) 09

Event
Civil Defense: FCDA published Advisory Bulletin No. 79, informing State directors of location and geographic boundries of nine regional offices: Region 1, Boston Mass. (New Jersey, New York, Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, Mass., Conn, Rhode Island); Region 2, Richmond, Va. (Pa., W. Va., Del., Md., North Carolina); Region 3, Atlanta Ga. (Tenn., Miss., Ala., Ga., South Carolina, Florida); Region 4, Cleveland, Ohio (Mich., Ohio, Kentucky); Region 5, Chicago Ill. (Ind., Ill., Wis., Iowa, Minn., North Dakota, South Dakota); Region 6, Dallas Tx. (Tex., Okla., Ark., La.); Region 7, Denver, Col. (Wyo., Col., New Mexico, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri); Region 8, Berkeley, Cal. (Cal., Nev., Utah, Ariz.); Region 9, Seattle, Wash. (Wash., Mont., Oregon, Idaho).

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

11 (November) 15

Civil Defense: FCDA announced the original cartoon character "Bert the Turtle" as the "star" of "Duck and Cover," an FCDA cartoon film produced by Archer Productions, Inc., New York City, in cooperation with the aT tional Education Association and FCDA. A turtle was chosen as the star of a children's civil defense campaign because his ability to duck and cover into his shell illustrates the basic principle of self-protection. Civil Defense: America's butchers, bakers, grocers, and milkmen called upon by FCDA and the Department of Agriculture to help set up immediate plans for nationwide emergency civil defense feeding in event of attack. Call for help was in form of an announcement that FCDA and USDA had reached agreement on detailed plans to provide adequate food for the Nation under emergency attack conditions. Civil Defense: A 16-page illustrated booklet, "Duck and Cover," issued by FCDA for distribution by the States and territories. Three million copies were sent out. Civil Defense: FCD Administrator Millard Caldwell, on completion of his first year in office (appointed Dec. 1, 1950), announced that over a million and a half volunteers were on guard as part of the growing homefront army for civil defense.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

11 (November) 29

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

12 (December) 02

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

12 (December) 09

Year
1951

Month, Day
12 (December) 10

Event
Civil Defense: Communications experts from throughout the Nation joined FCDA officials in a 6-day session to discuss technical details of a communications system for civil defense in a national emergency. The meeting, devoted chiefly to use of radio facilities, was held at FCDA Staff College, Olney, Md. Among the 120 delegates were representatives of 19 associations and such organizations as the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Western Union, Motorola, General Electric, and Radio Corporation of America. Civil Defense: FCDA established new office of volunteer manpower for recruiting. Mrs. John L. Whitehurst of Baltimore, Md., appointed Assistant Administrator in charge of its activities. Previously, Mrs. Whitehurst had served as Assistant Administrator in charge of Women's Participation. Purpose of new office was to "afford the necessary impetus and coordination essential to increase public participation in recruitment of additional volunteers for the growing U.S. Civil Defense Corps."

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

12 (December) 16

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

1951 - 1994

The US federal civil defense program was authorized by statute and ran from 1951 to 1994. Originally authorized by Public Law 920 of the 81st Congress it was repealed by Public Law 93-337 in 1994. Small portions of that statutory scheme were incorporated into the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Public Law 100-707) which superseded in part, amended in part, and supplemented in part the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-288). In the portions of the civil defense statute incorporated into the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act the primary modification was to use the term "Emergency Preparedness" wherever the term "Civil Defense" previously appeared in the statutory language.

Harry S Truman (19451953) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961) John F. Kennedy (19611963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Richard Nixon (19691974) Gerald Ford (19741977) Jimmy Carter (19771981) Ronald Reagan (19811989) George Bush (19891993) Bill Clinton (1993-2001)

1951

Civil Defense: Truman speaks to dozens of civic groups about the importance of civil defense

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1951

Month, Day

Event
Control of Electromagnetic Radiation Plan (CONELRAD) - Under the system, a few primary stations would be alerted of an emergency and would broadcast an alert. All broadcast stations throughout the country would be constantly listening to an upstream station and repeat the message, thus passing it from station to station. After broadcasting the message, all radio communications would cease except for two designated lower power AM frequencies (640 and 1240 kHz). This was designed to prevent enemy planes from using transmitters as navigation aids for direction finding. The later threat of ICBMs (which used internal guidance) made this obsolete, and it was phased out in the early 1960s.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1951

Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP): The OEP never really existed as an operational agency. The Federal Civil Defense Act formalized the organization and authorized a budget. This Administration was not a highprofile agency. Its first Director , Millard F. Caldwell, (1950-1951) was a former Florida governor and congressman. Caldwell, who had been known as a strong segregationist while governor, had his appointment protested, with suggestions he would protect only white Americans. In office, Caldwell had difficulties in working with state and local governments, a necessity for an organization that assumed much of the response was local.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1952

01 (January) 05

Civil Defense: FCDA launched series of nationwide radio programs to promote civil defense organizations in the country, featuring officials of FCDA, Atomic Energy Commission, and top senatorial and military leaders. Civil Defense: "Alert America" Convoy Exhibit opened to public at Interdepartmental Auditorium, Constitution Ave., Washington. Exhibit presented various aspects of civil defense and reasons why America needed a well-trained civil defense organization. After Washington showing, "Alert America" toured major U.S. cities to encourage public support and participation in civil defense. . . . National Civil Defense Advisory Council, created by President Truman, met in Washington to attend exhibit, to review first year's progress of FCDA, and to discuss plans for 1952.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1952

01 (January) 07

Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

Year
1952

Month, Day
01 (January) 09

Event
Civil Defense: State, territorial, and FCDA regional directors held 3-day conference at Wardman Park Hotel (now Sharaton Park), Washington, D.C., to map 1952 program. About 65 State representatives, 7 State deputies, 3 territorial, and 9 regional directors participated in discussions designed to present current policies of Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Defense, and FCDA. The 3 territorial directors represented Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico; Guam and Virgin Islands did not send representatives. Foremost on agenda were discussions on civil defense volunteer recruiting programs, which called for 17.5 million workers, or one out of every 12 Americans, to meet minimum manpower requirements throughout country. Top consideration also was given to grants-in-aid, fiscal relations between Federal and State governments, public information, and training and education of civil defense volunteers. Conference was open to members of press and radio.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1952

02 (February) 04

Civil Defense: FCDA Technical Training School opened at Ogontz, Pa.; reduced funds forced closing and move to Olney, Md., July 28, 1952. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10346 enjoined Federal departments and agencies to develop, in coordination with FCDA, civil defense emergency plans pursuant to sec. 302 of Public Law 920, the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950. Civil Defense: Mr. Millard F. Caldwell, Jr., resigned and Mr. James J. Wadsworth, formerly Deputy Administrator, designated Acting Administrator, FCDA. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10427 gave FCDA responsibility for providing assistance to localities stricken by major disasters under Public Law 875, and revoked Executive Order 10221, which had assigned responsibility to Housing and Home Finance Administrator. Civil Defense: Mr. (Frederick) Val Peterson, former Governor of Nebraska, sworn in as Administrator, FCDA. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10438 transferred certain functions of the National Security Resources Board to the Office of Defense Mobilization.

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1952

04 (April) 17

1952

11 (November) 15

Harry S Truman (1945-1953) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1953

01 (January) 16

1953

03 (March) 04

1953

03 (March) 13

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

Year
1953

Month, Day
06 (June) 12

Event
Civil Defense: Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1953 established a new Office of Defense Mobilization which assumed functions of former ODM, the National Security Resources Board, and critical materials stockpiling functions formerly vested in the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Interior, and of the Army and Navy Munitions Board. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10461 redefined functions of ODM, as provided in Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1953, including functions of original ODM and those under the Defense Production Act of 1950. Civil Defense: FCDA Advisory Bulletin No. 146 announced revision of regional areas. For economic reasons, number of regions reduced to seven: Region 1, Boston, Mass. (No change.) Region 2, Philadelphia, Pa. (Pa., Del., Md., Va., W. Va., Ky., Ohio); Region 3, Atlanta, Ga. (N.C., S.C., Ga., Fla., Tenn., Ala., Miss.); Region 4, Chicago, Ill. (Ill., Ind., Wis., Minn., Iowa, N.D., S.D.); Region 5, Dallas, Tex. (N.Mex., Tex., Okla., Ark., La.); Region 6, Denver, Col. (Wyo., Col., Neb., Kansas, Mo.); Region 7, San Francisco, Cal. (Cal., Nev., Mont., Idaho, Utah, Ariz.,Wash.,Oregon).

Affiliations/Partners

President
Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1953

06 (June) 18

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Harry S Truman (1945-1953)

1953

08 (August) 05

1954

04 (April) 22

Civil Defense: Executive Order 10529 authorized FCDA to coordinate participation by Federal employees in State and local civil defense preemergency training programs. First nationwide civil defense drill held

1954

06 (June)

1954

09 (September) 01

Civil Defense: FCDA moved to Battle Creek, Mich., leaving only a small liaison staff, including the Administrator, in Washington, D.C. Move included Staff College from Olney, Md., except Rescue School, which continued at Olney until its closing in 1958. Civil Defense: Except for Region 6, which remained near Denver, Col., FCDA regional offices moved to safer locations in keeping with national policy of locating civil defense headquarters outside areas of expected heavy damage: Region 1, Newton Center, Mass.; Region 2, West Chester, Pa.; Region 3, Thomasville, Ga.; Region 4, Joliet, Ill.; Region 5, Denton, Tex.; Region 6, Denver, Col.; Region 7, Santa Rosa, Cal. There were no changes in regional boundaries. (During 1955 Region 2 was moved to Olney, Md., and Region 4 to Battle Creek, Mich.)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1954

10 (October) 01

Year
1955

Month, Day
02 (February) 15

Event
Civil Defense: In response to growing public demands, Atomic Energy Commission issued a press release describing fallout from a multimegaton thermonuclear device exploded by the United States at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954 Civil Defense: In light of newly disclosed fallout problem, the Subcommittee on Civil Defense (Senator Estes Kefauver, Chairman) of the Senate Armed Services Committee began a series of major hearings on the operations and policies of the Federal Civil Defense Program. (Hearings were continued through June 20.) Civil Defense: Executive Order 10611 established Civil Defense Coordinating Board, to assist in the development of an orderly, integrated plan for participation of all Federal departments and agencies in the civil defense of the Nation, and to report to the President on progress of such plan. Civil Defense: The Subcommittee on Military Operations (Representative Chet Holifield, Chairman) of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, held major hearings on "Civil Defense for National Survival." Civil Defense: FCDA released "The National Plan for Civil Defense Against Enemy Attack," outlining Federal responsibilities and programs and suggesting plans for State and local organizations. Civil Defense: Mr. Val Peterson resigned and Mr. Lewis E. Berry designated Acting Administrator Civil Defense: Mr. Leo A. Hoegh, former Governor of Iowa, sworn in as Administrator, FCDA, serving in that capacity until July 1, 1958, when he was named Director of the Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, later redesignated Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (OCDM). Civil Defense: Executive Order 10737 expanded functions of FCDA in administering disaster relief under Public Law 875. Civil Defense: Eisenhower refuses to initiate a fallout shelter program

Affiliations/Partners

President
Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1955

02 (February) 22

1955

05 (May) 11

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1956

01 (January) - 06 (June)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1956

08 (August) 11

1957

06 (June) 14

1957

07 (July) 19

1957

10 (October) 29

1957

1958

03 (March) 01

Civil Defense: By Interim Directive No. 45, dated February 27, 1959, OCDM established Region 8, Everett, Wash., with jurisdiction over Alaska, Wash., Oregon, Montana, Idaho. (Region 8 was moved to Bothell, Wash., in December 1968, upon completion of underground facility.)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

Year
1958

Month, Day
04 (April) 24

Event
Civil Defense: President Eisenhower sent Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 to Congress, transferring all responsibilities of the Federal Civil Defense Administrator and the Director of the Office of Defense Mobilization to the President, and consolidating FCDA and ODM into a new Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization in the Executive Office of the President. Plan was to become effective July 1, 1958. Civil Defense: FCDA announced five-point national policy on attack; (2) survey existing structures, mines, subways, (1) disseminate public information on effects of nuclear tunnels, etc., to determine protection factor; (3) accelerate research to determine how fallout protection might be incorporated in existing and new buildings; (4) construct limited number of prototype shelters; and (5) incorporate fallout shelters in appropriate new Federal buildings designed for civilian use.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1958

05 (May) 07

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1958

06 (June) 09

Civil Defense: FCDA Eastern Instructor Training Center opened at Manhattan Beach, Brooklyn, New York. Civil Defense: Rescue Instructor Training School, Olney, Md., closed; training in rescue operations transferred to Eastern Instructor Training Center. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10773 delegated to the Director, Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, all functions transferred to the President by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958. (EO 10773 had the effect of transferring to the Director of new agency certain authorities delegated by Executive Orders 10219, 10242, 10260, 10296, 10312, 10346, 10421, 10427, 10460, 10480, 10494, 10524, 10529, 10560, 10590, 10601, 10634, 10638, 10655, 10660, 10700, 10705, and 10737. EO 10773 revoked Executive Orders 10224, 10276, 10293, 10350, 10475, 10611, and sec. 1.02 of 10480.)

1958

06 (June) 30

1958

07 (July) 01

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1958

08 (August) 08

Civil Defense: Public Law 85-606 amended Public Law 920 to vest responsibility for civil defense jointly in Federal Government and the States and their political subdivisions, and to authorize: (1) financial contributions to States and their political subdivisions for necessary and essential personnel and administrative expenses, commonly referred to as the P&A program; (2)reimbursement toward expenses of students attending civil defense schools, known as the Student Expense Program. Civil Defense: Public Law 85-763 redesignated the organization as the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (OCDM). (Note: This was done to restore the "CD" identity.)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1958

08 (August) 26

Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-

Year

Month, Day

Event

Affiliations/Partners

President
1961)

1958

09 (September) 06

Civil Defense: Exectutive Order 10782 amended Executive Order 10773 by deleting the words "Defense and Civilian Mobilization" and inserting therefor the words "Civil and Defense Mobilization," as authorized by Public Law 85-763 Civil Defense: OCDM issued "The National. Plan for Civil Defense and Defense Mobilization." Civil Defense: OCDM Western Instructor Training Center established at Alameda, Cal. Civil Defense: By Interim Directive No. 45, dated February 27, 1959, OCDM established Region 8, Everett, Wash., with jurisdiction over Alaska, Wash., Oregon, Montana, Idaho. (Region 8 was moved to Bothell, Wash., in December 1968, upon completion of underground facility.) Civil Defense: OCDM Western Instructor Training Center established at Alameda, Cal. Federal Disaster Assistance Administration, was established within the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). A series of major natural disasters hit the United States during these decades. Over 100 different federal agencies are collectively involved in the relief efforts and people often complain about the lack of coordination and poor results. There is growing recognition of the need for a centralized emergency management system. Hurricane Carla struck in 1962, Hurricane Betsy in 1965, Hurricane Camille in 1969 and Hurricane Agnes in 1972. The Alaskan Earthquake hit in 1964 and the San Fernando Earthquake rocked Southern California in 1971. These events served to focus attention on the issue of natural disasters and brought about increased legislation. In 1968, the National Flood Insurance Act offered new flood protection to homeowners, and in 1974 the Disaster Relief Act firmly established the process of Presidential disaster declarations. Civil Defense: Mr. Leo A. Hoegh resigned as Director of OCDM. (For about one week after resignation, Mr. John S. Patterson, former Deputy Director, served as Acting Director; then Mr. Lewis E. Berry was designated Acting Director and served as such until appointment of new Director.)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961)

1958

10 (October)

1958

1958 - 1959 (November) 03 (March) 01

1959

1959

11 (November)

1960

1960's - 1970's (early)

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1961

01 (January) 20

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

Year
1961 1961

Month, Day
03 (March) 09 05 (May) 25

Event
Civil Defense: Frank B. Ellis, former Governor of Louisiana, took oath of office as Director, OCDM. Civil Defense: President Kennedy, in a special message to the Congress, announced that under authority of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958 he was assigning responsibility for civil defense to the top civilian authority already responsible for continental defense, the Secretary of Defense; and that the OCDM would be reconstituted as a small staff agency to assist in the coordination of these functions, under the name of Office of Emergency Planning. . . . In his message, President Kennedy stressed several key points: "One major element of the national security program which this Nation has never squarely faced up to is civil defense. . . Public consideration has been largely characterized by apathy, indifference, and skepticism . . . it cannot deter a nuclear attack. . . . We will deter an enemy from making a nuclear attack only if our retaliatory power is so strong and so invulnerable that he knows he would be destroyed by our response. If we have that strength, civil defense is not needed to deter an attack. . . . But this deterrent concept assumes rational calculations by rational men. And the history of this planet, and particularly the history of the 20th century, is sufficient to remind us of the possibilities of an irrational attack, a miscalculation, an accidental war. . . . It is on this basis that civil defense can be readily justifiable--as insurance for the civilian population in case of an enemy miscalculation. . . . Once the validity of this concept is recognized, there is no point in delaying the initiation of a nationwide long-range program of identifying present fallout shelter capacity and providing shelter in new and existing structures..." Civil Defense: President Kennedy conferred with Premier Khrushchev in Vienna on a number of international issues. . . . Berlin Crisis precipitated by Soviet demand for a Peace Treaty from Germany. Situation intensified, culminating in the Berlin Wall, which was started August 15, 1961. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10952, effective August 1, 1961, transferred to the Secretary of Defense certain civil defense functions under the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended, and retained in the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization functions which had formerly been assigned to the Office of Defense Mobilization and natural disaster functions under Public Law 875. Civil Defense: President Kennedy addressed Nation, describing threat of war brought on by Berlin Crisis, calling up certain reserve units to cope with threat, and asking Congress for $207 million for group fallout shelters that could save 10 to 15 million Americans who would otherwise perish in a nuclear attack. The President stressed need for civil defense, and ordered a full-scale step-up in efforts to inform and aid the public on methods of protection.

Affiliations/Partners

President
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

06 (June) 03 - 04

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

07 (July) 20

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

07 (July) 25

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

Year
1961

Month, Day
07 (July) 31

Event
Civil Defense: In a memorandum to the heads of the Defense agencies and military departments, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara announced interim organization of the Office of Civil Defense, effective August 1, 1961, within the Department of Defense, and named Mr. Adam Yarmolinsky, Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, as the head of OCD until such time as a qualified successor could be named to assume that responsibility. Civil Defense: Executive Order 10958 delegated responsibility for civil defense food stockpiles to the Secretary of Agriculture, and for civil defense medical stockpiles to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Civil Defense: Mr. Steuart L. Pittman named by President Kennedy to be Assistant Secretary of Defense (Civil Defense); confirmed by Congress September 15. (DoD Directive 5140.1 covered functions of ASD(CD).) Civil Defense: Soviet Union announced resumption of nuclear-bomb testing. Kruschchev boasted of a monster 100-megaton bomb which he claimed could destroy vast reaches of United States. (A 58-megaton bomb was actually tested by the Soviets.) Civil Defense: Civil Defense Committed of the Governors' Conference met with Secretary of Defense McNamara and Assistant Secretary Pittman to discuss plans for a nationwide survey of fallout shelters. Civil Defense: Congress approved Public Law 87-296, changing name of OCDM to Office of Emergency Planning. Civil Defense: Kruschchev intimated he would delay threat to take certain action in Berlin until end of year. International crisis escalated. Inquiries from public to OCD for information on self-protection reached unprecedented proportions Civil Defense: Department of Defense news release announced initiation of National Fallout Shelter Survey (NFSS) to identify, license, mark with distinctive signs, and stock with essential food and other supplies suitable public fallout shelter space in existing structures, mines, caves, and tunnels throughout the United States. Directed by OCD and supervised by Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, work was done under contract by local architect-engineer firms.,. . . Also in December, OCD issued handbook (H-6) on "Fallout Protection--What to Know and Do About Nuclear Attack." Millions were distributed.

Affiliations/Partners

President
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

08 (August) 14

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

08 (August) 30

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

08 (August) 31

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

09 (September) 17

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961 1961

09 (September) 22 10 (October) 17

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

12 (December) 01

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

Year
1961

Month, Day
1961 - 1963

Event
Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP): President John F. Kennedy established the Office of Civil Defense within the Department of Defense,replacing the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization. It was headed by an appointee, Stewart Pittman. In the Johnson Administration, Pittman resigned, and the organization was placed at a lower reporting level in the Department of the Army. The Army National Guard (ARNG), usually under state control, and sometimes the U.S. Army, has been the principal Federal responding organization in disasters and civil disturbances.

Affiliations/Partners

President
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1961

Civil Defense: Kennedy leads the call for public and private shelters

1962

02 (February) 16

Civil Defense: President Kennedy signed various Executive orders assigning to other departments and agencies certain emergency preparedness functions in fields related to their activities: EO 10997, Secretary of the Interior EO 10998, Secretary of Agriculture EO 10999, Secretary of Commerce EO 11000, Secretary of Labor EO 11001, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare EO 11002, Postmaster General EO 11003, Federal Aviation Agency EO 11004, Housing and Home Finance Administrator EO 11005, Interstate Commerce Commission Civil Defense: Executive Order 11051 prescribed responsibilities of the Office of Emergency Planning in the Executive Office of the President.

Dwight D. Eisenhower (19531961) John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1962

09 (September) 27

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

Year
1962

Month, Day
10 (October) 22

Event
Civil Defense: Newspapers around the country began to break story of possible crisis brewing in Cuba. President Kennedy addressed the Nation "on a matter of great urgency." . . . Again people began to think of survival, and civil defense offices throughout the country were besieged by calls and letters asking what to do in case of attack. Because of Cuba's proximity to the United States, the Cuban Missile Crisis created even more concern among the U.S. populace than had the Berlin Crisis a year earlier. During week of October 22-27 (Monday-Saturday), all public media centered on the crisis, civil defense, and related protective measures. Civil defense awareness, and particularly the need for shelter in the event of nuclear attack, reached its zenith during the Cuban Missile Crisis. . . . Shelter survey, marking, and stocking accelerated by OCD.

Affiliations/Partners

President
John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)

1963

05 (May) 28

Civil Defense: A Subcommittee of the House Committee on Armed Services (Edward Hebert, Chairman) began major hearings on the fallout shelter program and on proposed amendments to the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950. Hearings were concluded August 27, 1963. Emergency Broadcast System to replace CONELRAD by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) John F. Kennedy (1961-1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)

1963

1964

03 (March) 27

Civil Defense: The Alaskan Earthquake, one of the strongest in recorded history (8.4 plus on the Richter scale), occurred on Good Friday, March 27. Because of the extensive involvement of people, organizations, and governmental entities in emergency operations, the Alaskan Earthquake provided a classic operational exercise. Earth shocks, tidal waves, and fires-with attendant casualties-- produced a situation comparable in many ways to that which could be expected in a nuclear attack. All of the elements were there except radioactive fallout. When the earthquake struck, power went off almost immediately, including most communications networks. The OCD Warning Officer for Alaska, stationed at Elmendorf Air Force Base, provided the first official situation report to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Defense News Room in the Pentagon over the National Warning System (NAWAS) through OCD Public Information. . . . Members of Alaska's Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Services (RACES) were among the first to establish communications between key emergency control points, and worked closely with the OCD Warning Officer.

Year
1964 1964

Month, Day
03 (March) 31 04 (April) 01

Event
Civil Defense: Mr. Steuart L. Pittman resigned as Assistant Secretary of Defense (Civil Defense). Civil Defense: a) Effective April 1, 1964, Secretary of Defense transferred all functions assigned to him by EO 10952 to the Secretary of the Army, with authority to redelegate. (DoD Directive 5160.50, March 31, 1964, and Federal Register notice published April 10, 1964 (29 F.R. 5017).) (b) Concurrently, Secretary of the Army established in his immediate office an Office of Civil Defense, headed by a Director of Civil Defense, redelegating to the Director of Civil Defense all functions assigned to the Secretary of the Army by the Secretary of Defense. (Also published in the Federal Register April 10, 1964, 29 F.R. 5017.) (c) Mr. William P. Durkee named to serve as Director of Civil Defense, and sworn in by Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes on April 7, 1964.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)

1964

12 (December)

Civil Defense: Office of Emergency Planning issued "The National Plan for Emergency Preparedness." The plan set forth basic principles, policies, responsibilities, preparations, and responses of civil government to meet any kind of national defense emergency; and described role of the Federal Government, the States and their political subdivisions , and, as appropriate, nongovernmental organizations and individual citizens. The OEP "National Plan" superseded the OCDM "National Plan for Civil Defense and Defense Mobilization" of October 1958.

Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)

1965

11 (November) 01

Civil Defense: Eastern and Western Instructor Training Centers closed; activities combined with OCD Staff College, Battle Creek, Mich. Civil Defense: Executive Order 11310 (sponsored by Office of Emergency Planning) assigned emergency preparedness functions to the Attorney General. Civil Defense: Mr. William P. Durkee resigned; Mr. Joseph Romm designated Acting Director of Civil Defense, effective January 1, 1967. Civil Defense: Office of Civil Defense released H-14, "In Time of Emergency-A Citizen's Handbook on Nuclear Attack . . . Natural Disasters." Millions of copies have been distributed. (In response to popular demand, a Spanish version (H-14-A) was released in November 1968.)

Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)

1966

10 (October) 11

1966

12 (December) 31

1968

03 (March)

Year
1968

Month, Day
05 (May) 20

Event
Civil Defense: Mr. Joseph Romm named Director of Civil Defense by Secretary of the Army Stanley Resor in memorandum to his Chief of Staff, Under Secretary, Assistant Secretaries, the General Counsel, Director of Civil Defense, Chief of Information, Chief of Legislative Liaison, and the Administrative Assistant; designation authenticated by The Adjutant General on May 22, 1968. Civil Defense: Office of Emergency Planning redesignated by sec. 402 of Public Law 90-608 (82 Stat. 1194) as Office of Emergency Preparedness Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP): an Office of Emergency Planning was formed. As a White House staff office, delivered a report on preparedness in 1970.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)

1968

10 (October) 21

Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969) Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1968

1969

05 (May) 20

Civil Defense: Mr. John E. Davis, former Governor of North Dakota, sworn in as Director of Civil Defense by Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird. Civil Defense: Executive Order 11490 (sponsored by Office of Emergency Preparedness) assigned emergency preparedness functions to various Federal departments and agencies; superseded previous Executive orders on subject. Civil Defense: Public Law 91-606, Disaster Relief Act of 1970, revised and extended Federal programs for relief from the effects of major disasters FEMA: FEMA response and its performance were not seen as a White House concern when it was part of Federal response to the Love Canal, (mid 1970s) the Cuban refugee boatlift (April 15 and October 31, 1980 ) and the Three Mile Island (March 28, 1979) nuclear power incident. Hurricane Hugo, hitting South Carolina in 1989, and Hurricane Andrew (August 16, 1992 - August 28, 1992) , affecting Florida in 1992 (George W. Bush Administration), did cause much political criticism of a perceived poor response. There was a break with political tradition in 1993, when James Witt was named FEMA director. This was a break because he was the first director with prior professional experience in civilian emergency management. Under Witt, most of the subordinate appointive offices were filled with people with relevant backgrounds; they were not treated as political sinecures. Witt served until 2001.

1969

10 (October) 28

1970

12 (December) 31

Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Gerald Ford (19741977) Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) George Bush (1989-1993)

1970

1970 - 1993

1971

12 (December) 09

Civil Defense: In letter to Secretary of the Army Robert A. Froehlke, OEP Director George A. Lincoln outlined plans for OCD participation in disaster operations.

Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

Year
1972

Month, Day
01 (January) 05

Event
Civil Defense: OCD Director John E. Davis replied to December 9, 1971, letter from OEP Director Lincoln, agreeing to plans proposed in letter to the Secretary of the Army. Civil Defense: OEP Director Lincoln wrote to OCD Director Davis in furtherance of proposal discussed in previous correspondence and enclosed a paper setting out "Policies and Procedures for Performance of Civil Defense Related to Local Government Preparations for Major Disasters." Civil Defense: OCD Director Davis acknowledged assignments made to OCD in paper forwarded by OEP Director with letter of February 18, 1972, and assured full cooperation of OCD with OEP in carrying out mutual responsibilities. Civil Defense: Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird established independent DoD agency, Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, headed by a Director reporting directly to the Secretary of Defense. John E. Davis continued as Director. Office of Civil Defense abolished. (DCPA charter covered in DoD Directive 5105.43, "Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA).") Civil Defense: Nixon refuses to augment civil defense programs Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP): created Defense Civil Preparedness Agency. Much of its planning was at state and regional level. Parallel to the Defense agencies, there were small White House, then General Services Administration, then Department of Housing and Urban Development civilian emergency planning agencies. Individual functions, such as communications restoral, were scattered throughout other government organizations.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1972

02 (February) 18

1972

03 (March) 08

Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1972

05 (May) 05

Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1972 1972

Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1973

01 (January)

Civil Defense: Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1973 proposed abolishment of Office of Emergency Preparedness as of June 30, 1973, with transfer of responsibilities to HUD (disaster functions), GSA (certain functions under Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 and Defense Production Act of 1950), and Treasury (import investigations under Trade Expansion Act of 1962). Civil Defense: DCPA established two regional suboffices: DCPA Region One Suboffice: New York City; responsible for New York, New Jersey. DCPA Region Six Suboffice: Kansas City, Mo.; responsible for Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska. Kentucky transferred from Region 4 to Region 3. Ohio transferred from Region 2 to Region 4. Utah transferred from Region 7 to Region 6.

Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1973

02 (February) 01

Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

Year
1973

Month, Day
06 (June) 27

Event
Civil Defense: Executive Order 11725, effective July 1, 1973, transferred functions of the Office of Emergency Preparedness to HUD, Treasury, and GSA. All delegations previously issued by President to OEP were to remain in effect until superseded or canceled by succeeding agencies Civil Defense: As authorized by Executive Order 11725: (a) Federal Disaster Assistance Administration (FDAA) established by Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to administer natural disaster functions. (b) Office of Preparedness (OP) established by Administrator, General Services Administration, to develop and coordinate civil preparedness policies and plans. (Note: Effective July 1, 1975, name changed by GSA to Federal Preparedness Agency.) Civil Defense: Executive Order 11749, "Consolidating Disaster Relief Functions Assigned to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development." Sec. 3 established National Council on Federal Disaster Assistance, composed of HUD (Chairman) and representatives from DoD (Army and DCPA), Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, HEW, Transportation, Small Business Administration, and Office of Economic Opportunity. Superseded Council established by EO 11526; also superseded EO 11526, 11575, 11662, 11678, and sec. 1 of EO 11725.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1973

07 (July)

Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1973

12 (December) 10

Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1974

01 (January)

Civil Defense: First issue of FORESIGHT, a bimonthly news magazine, published by DCPA. Distributed to Congressmen, other Federal agencies, State and local officials, industrial and civic organizations, and foreign civildefense counterparts, FORESIGHT serves as a forum for exchange of information on preparedness for all types of emergency situations Civil Defense: In his FY 1975 report to Congress, Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger stated: "The Federal Government must continue to meet its responsibilities under the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950--to provide leadership, guidance, and assistance to the State and local governments. Development of civil defense capabilities, which are essential to our national security, also generates, as a bonus, an improved readiness on the part of State and local governments to conduct coordinated operations in peacetime emergencies and disasters. Civil Defense: Public Law 93-288, Disaster Relief Act of 1974, repealed the Disaster Relief Act of 1970 (P.O. 91-606 as amended by P.L. 92-385) except sections 231, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 301, 302, 303, and 304. Provisions of P.L. 93-288 were retroactive to April 1, 1974.

Gerald Ford (19741977)

1974

02 (February)

Gerald Ford (19741977)

1974

05 (May) 22

Gerald Ford (19741977)

Year
1974

Month, Day
07 (July) 11

Event
Civil Defense: Executive Order 11795, "Delegating Disaster Relief Functions Pursuant to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974," effective May 22, 1974, to: (1) Secretary, Housing and Urban Development, with authority to redelegate to head of any agency of executive branch all powers vested in President, except sections 202c, 301, 313, 401, 409, and 412; (2) Secretary of Defense, provisions of section 202c concerning utilization of Federal civil defense communications system for disaster warnings; and (3) Secretary of Agriculture, all authority under sec. 409 concerning food coupons and distribution. Civil Defense: DCPA Director Davis signed "Statement of Understanding Between Federal Disaster Assistance Administration and Defense Civil Preparedness Agency." Statement continued assignments previously made by Office of Emergency Preparedness to Office of Civil Defense. Civil Defense: The January-February issue of FORESIGHT featured article by Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger in which he defined "Civil Defense Programs--Roles and Missions." In this article, Secretary Schlesinger emphasized that: "The civil defense program is an integral part of the United States' effort to ensure peace. it also provides many domestic benefits. . . . The Department of Defense reaffirms the need for a viable and vigorous civil defense program. Over the years, this need has not diminished. The civil defense program is, and will remain, an integral part of our total national security effort. It is the responsibility of all government officials-Federal, State, and local--to support this program in achieving its basic objective--the protection of our citizens in time of emergency." Civil Defense: In letter to President of the U.S. Civil Defense Council, President Ford stated: "I am particularly pleased that civil defense planning today emphasizes the dual use of resources. Through development of the capability to support and assist our citizens in time of war, we are also improving our ability to respond to humanitarian needs during natural disasters. . . . The basic goal is the same--to save lives. No goal imposes a higher priority." Crisis Relocation Plan: An important concept initiated by President Jimmy Carter was the so-called "Crisis Relocation Program" administered as part of the federal civil defense program. That effort largely failed under President Ronald Reagan who continued the Carter initiative because of opposition from areas potentially hosting the relocated population. SEE Presidential Review Memorandum/NSC-32 (September 30, 1977) and Presidential Decision Memorandum 42

Affiliations/Partners

President
Gerald Ford (19741977)

1974

11 (November) 06

Gerald Ford (19741977)

1975

01 (January)

Gerald Ford (19741977)

1975

03 (March) 18

Gerald Ford (19741977)

1977

1977 - 1983

Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)

Year
1979

Month, Day
03 (March) 31

Event
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) created Civil Defense duties will now be managed by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA is born with Executive Order 12127 merged many of the separate disaster-related responsibilities into the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Among other agencies, FEMA absorbed: the Federal Insurance Administration, the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, the National Weather Service Community Preparedness Program, the Federal Preparedness Agency of the General Services Administration and the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration activities from HUD. Civil defense responsibilities were also transferred to the new agency from the Defense Department's Defense Civil Preparedness Agency. FEMA was established under the 1978 Reorganization Plan No. 3, and activated April 1, 1979 by Jimmy Carter in his Executive Order 12127. In July, Carter signed Executive Order 12148 shifting disaster relief efforts to the new federal level agency. FEMA absorbed the Federal Insurance Administration, the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, the National Weather Service Community Preparedness Program, the Federal Preparedness Agency of the General Services Administration and the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration activities from HUD. FEMA was also given the responsibility for overseeing the nation's Civil Defense, a function which had previously been performed by the Department of Defense's Defense Civil Preparedness Agency. Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP): FEMA is born with Executive Order 12127: consolidating a variety of agencies, including: Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD) Dam Safety Coordination (EOP) Consequence Management in Terrorism (EOP) Warning and Emergency Broadcast (EOP) Earthquake Hazard Reduction (EOP) National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, (DOC) Community Preparedness Program, National Weather Service, (DOC) Federal Disaster Assistance Administration (HUD) Federal Insurance Administration (HUD) Federal Preparedness Agency

Affiliations/Partners

President
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)

1979

1979

Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)

1980

1980's

FEMA: During this decade, FEMA is not really tested by a major disaster and under Presidents Reagan and Bush, it endures scandal and becomes known as a sort of backwater and a parking lot for political appointees.

Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)

Year
1981

Month, Day

Event
Emergency Mobilization Preparedness Board (EMPB)/Principle Working Groups Established. Directed to Develop National Policies and Programs for Domestic Disasters and National Security Emergencies
Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) was formed in 1984 as a part of the Public Health Service in HHS as a public-private partnership between several branches of the federal government and private healthcare institutions; its purpose was to provide medical evacuation and definitive care in the U.S. for military casualties returning from an overseas war. A secondary mission of the system was to supplement state and local medical resources during disasters and emergencies. Formerly under FEMA provide medical care at disasters and are typically made up of doctors and paramedics. National Medical Response Teams (NMRT) are equipped to decontaminate victims of chemical and biological agents. Currently, federal agency participants include HHS as the lead response agency; DHS as the overall coordinating agency; and DoD and the Veterans Administration healthcare systems as the agencies responsible for logistics and transportation. Federal resources are to be supplemented, if needed, by private nonfederal hospitals that have signed agreements with NDMS to provide hospital beds if they can be made available. After the terrorist attacks of 2001, the NDMS mission was expanded to include medical response to terrorist attacks, as well as pre-staging for national security special events such as political conventions. NDMS consists of three components: deployable medical response, patient evacuation, and definitive care.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)

1984

NDMS Deployable Medical Response Teams Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) 55 National Medical Response Teams (NMRTs) 4 Burn teams 5 Pediatric DMATs 2 Crush Medicine Team 1 International Medical/Surgical Teams (IMSurTs) 3 Mental health teams 3 Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams (VMATs) 3 Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Teams (DMORTs) 11 Joint Management Team (JMT) 1 Nurse/Pharmacist Response Teams 3

1984

National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) formerly under FEMA The NDMS was transferred from the Department of Homeland Security to the Department of Health and Human Services, under the Pandemic and AllHazards Preparedness Act, signed by President George W. Bush, on 18 December 2006. NDMS is made of teams that provide medical and allied care to disaster victims. These teams include doctors, nurses, pharmacists, etc., and are typically sponsored by hospitals, public safety agencies or private organizations. Also, Rapid Deployment Force (RDF) teams, composed of officers of the Commissioned Corps of the United States Public Health Service, were developed to assist with the NDMS.

partnership between the Departments of Health and Human Services (where NDMS was first located), the department of Defense, Veterans Affairs, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency within the Department of Homeland Security

Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)

Year
1989

Month, Day

Event
Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) formerly under FEMA. The Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces perform rescue of victims from structural collapses, confined spaces, and other disasters, for example mine collapses and earthquakes. The origins of the FEMA Task Forces goes back to the early 1980s when the Fairfax County Fire and Rescue Department and MetroDade County Fire Department created search and rescue teams to deal with rescue operations in collapsed buildings. The State Department and the Office of Foreign Disaster Aid requested the help of these teams to assist with rescue operations in the 1985 Mexico City, the 1990 Luzon and the 1989 Leninakan earthquakes. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) established the National Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Response System in 1989 as a framework for structuring local emergency services personnel into integrated disaster response task forces Federal Response Plan (now the National Response Plan): was formed by FEMA and modeled after the National Urban Search and Rescue (US&R)), sponsoring 25 national urban search-and-rescue task forces.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) George Bush (1989-1993)

1991

George Bush (1989-1993)

1992

07 (July)

National Security Decision Directive 47 (NSDD-47) Approved by the President to Set forth Emergency Mobilization Preparedness Principles for: National Security Emergencies Domestic Emergencies FEMA: Hurricane Andrew This Category 5 hurricane -- the first in 23 years -strikes southern Florida south of Miami. Thousands are stranded without food and water. Overwhelmed local emergency managers wait and wait for FEMA. It takes five days for federal troops to arrive.

George Bush (1989-1993)

1992

George Bush (1989-1993)

1993

11 (November) 29

FEMA: Mitigation Directorate When the Mitigation Directorate was established on November 29, 1993, mitigation became the cornerstone of emergency management for the first time in the history of Federal disaster assistance. It is responsible for programs that take action before a disaster, in order to identify risks and reduce injuries, loss of property, and recovery time. The agency has major analysis programs for floods, hurricanes, dams, and earthquakes.

stakeholders in Federal, State, local, and tribal governments, and the private sector. Professional associations and non-governmental groups involved in public policy and administration, insurance, higher education, building sciences, and urban planning are private-sector partners.

Bill Clinton (19932001)

Year
1993

Month, Day
1993 - 2000

Event
FEMA: During Witt's tenure, both Democrats and Republicans credit him with reforming FEMA by lessening the bureaucracy, emphasizing the input of the agency's professional staff and focusing on working with communities to prepare for disasters. Charged with coordinating 22 different federal agencies as part of the Federal Response Plan to disasters, FEMA is elevated to a Cabinet-level status in 1996 by President Clinton FEMA: President Clinton nominated James L. Witt as the new FEMA director. He was the first director with prior professional experience in civilian emergency management. Under Witt, most of the subordinate appointive offices were filled with people with relevant backgrounds; they were not treated as political sinecures. Witt served until 2001.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George Bush (1989-1993) Bill Clinton (19932001)

1993

George Bush (1989-1993) Bill Clinton (19932001) Bill Clinton (19932001) Bill Clinton (19932001)

1994

11 (November)

Civil Defense: end of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 was repealed and all remnants of civil defense authority were transferred to Title VI of the Stafford Act Commissioned Corps Readiness Force (CCRF) under National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) Created by the PHS Office of the Surgeon General of PHS Officers uniquely qualified by education and skills to be mobilized: In times of extraordinary need during disaster, strife, or other public health emergencies; In response to domestic and international requests, to provide leadership and expertise by directing, enhancing,and supporting services of the PHS, DHHS OPDIVs, other U.S. Government agencies, and/or respondents. FEMA: is elevated to a Cabinet-level status InfraGard: Is born as a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) program that began in the Cleveland Field Office in 1996. It was a local effort to gain support from the information technology industry and academia for the FBIs investigative efforts in the cyber arena.

1994

1996 1996

Bill Clinton (19932001) Bill Clinton (19932001)

1998

05 (May)

Office of the National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Counter-Terrorism within the Executive Office of the President is created

Bill Clinton (19932001)

Year
1998

Month, Day

Event
Homeland Security is suggested in a study by the U.S. Commission on National Security in the 21st Century, chartered by DOD, and known as the Hart-Rudman Commission, began to reexamine U.S. national security policies. One of the Commissions recommendations was the creation of a Cabinet-level National Homeland Security Agency responsible for planning, coordinating, and integrating various U.S. government activities involved in homeland security. The commission defined homeland security as the protection of the territory, critical infrastructures, and citizens of the United States by Federal, State, and local government entities from the threat or use of chemical, biological, adiological, nuclear, cyber, or conventional weapons by military or other means. Legislation toward this end was introduced on March 29, 2001, but hearings continued through April of 2001 without passage of the legislation. InfraGard: The program expanded to other FBI Field Offices, and in 1998 the FBI assigned national program responsibility for InfraGard to the former National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) directed by RADM James B. Plehal USNR and to the FBI's Cyber Division in 2003.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Bill Clinton (19932001)

1998

Bill Clinton (19932001)

2001

10 (October) 11

DHS: Senator Joseph Lieberman (D-CT) introduced S. 1534, a bill to establish a Department of National Homeland Security, co-sponsored by Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA). Following the recommendations of the Hart-Rudman Commission, the bill intended to unite the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Customs Service, the Border Patrol, the Coast Guard, and agencies responsible for critical infrastructure protection in a Cabinet-level department. The language was similar to H.R 1158 introduced in the House by Mac Thornberry (R-TX) on March 21, 2001. Although hearings were held on the Lieberman bill, there was no further action taken. DHS: The first Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD-1) further delineated the organization and mission of the Homeland Security Council. Future HSPDs recorded and communicated presidential policy with regard to homeland security. DHS: Executive Order 13228,established two entities within the White House to determine homeland security policy: the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) within the Executive Office of the President, tasked to develop and implement a national strategy to coordinate federal, state, and local counter-terrorism efforts to secure the country from and respond to terrorist threats or attacks, and the Homeland Security Council (HSC), composed of Cabinet members responsible for homeland security-related activities, was to advise the President on homeland security matters, mirroring the role the National Security Council (NSC) plays in national security.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2001

10 (October) 29

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2001

10 (October) 8

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2001

Month, Day

Event
FEMA: President George W. Bush appointed Joe M. Allbaugh as the director of FEMA. In keeping with the Bush budget-cutting agenda, Allbaugh sets out to trim FEMA. He also wants to focus the agency: Allbaugh identifies the three most likely disasters facing the country -- an earthquake in Californa, a hurricane hitting New Orleans and a terrorist attack in New York.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Bill Clinton (19932001) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

01 (January)

USA Freedom Corps to promote volunteer service opportunities within the United States and abroad. Created within months of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the program sought in part to encourage volunteer participation in homeland security. Citizen Corps, a component of USA Freedom Corps, was developed to help coordinate such volunteer activities and to increase the capacity of American communities to respond to any emergency situation. The program's goal is to provide opportunities for people to participate in a range of measures to make their families, their homes, and their communities safer from the threats of crime, terrorism, and disasters of all kinds. The program is coordinated nationally by the Department of Homeland Security. In this capacity, the Department of Homeland Security works closely with other federal entities, state and local governments, first responders and emergency managers, the volunteer community, and the White House Office of the USA Freedom Corps. DHS: Governments first post-September 11 budget (FY2003) is released. The proposed FY 2003 Budget directed $37.7 billion (up from $19.5 billion in 2002) to homeland security efforts, including support for first responders, bioterrorism prevention efforts, border security, and technology, reflecting an increased focus on homeland security. DHS: Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3: Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS). Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3 creates a Homeland Security Advisory System to inform all levels of government and local authority, as well as the public, to the current risk of terrorist acts. The System involves a five-level, color-coded Threat Condition indicator to correspond to the current situation. Agency-specific Protective Measures associated with each Threat Condition will allow a flexible, graduated and appropriate response to a change in the nations level of risk. The system was created by Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3 on March 11, 2002, in response to the September 11 attacks. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Introduction of Homeland Security Advisory System at Yellow. As part of a series of initiatives to improve coordination and communication among all levels of government and the American public, President George W. Bush signed Homeland Security Presidential Directive 3, creating the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS).

Peace Corps; AmeriCorps; SeniorCorps

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

02 (February)

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

03 (March) 11

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

03 (March) 12

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2002

Month, Day
03 (March) 12

Event
DHS: Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was unveiled , by Tom Ridge, then the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security. However, responsibility for developing, implementing and managing the system was given to the U.S. Attorney General. After its introduction in 2002, the national threat level has been modified sixteen times. It has consistently remained at Yellow (Elevated) or Orange (High) and was elevated to Red (Severe) once on Aug. 10, 2006. HSAS has never been lowered to Green (Low) or Blue (Guarded). In August 2004, DHS began identifying specific sectors to possible terrorist threatsincluding aviation, financial services and mass transit.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

03 (March) 12

Homeland Security: Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was created to communicate with the American public and safety officials using a threat-based, color-coded system, so protective measures can be implemented to reduce the likelihood or impact of an attack on the homeland. DHS: Executive Order 13260, establishing the Presidents Homeland Security Advisory Council (PHSAC). Members of the PHSAC served as advisors to the president on homeland security matters and represented the private sector, academia, professional service associations, federally funded research and development centers, nongovernmental organizations, state and local governments, and other related professions and communities. The PHSAC held its first meeting on June 12, 2002.EO 13260 requires the PHSAC to renew its charter every two years. After the creation of DHS, the Council rechartered itself as the Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC) and became an advisory committee to the Secretary of Homeland Security. The Secretarys HSAC held its first meeting on June 30, 2003.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

03 (March) 21

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2002

Month, Day
06 (June) 06

Event
DHS: President Bush addressed the nation and proposed the creation of a permanent Cabinet-level Department of Homeland Security to unite essential agencies charged with protecting the homeland. He outlined four
essential missions that corresponded to the four proposed divisions in the department: Border and Transportation Security - Control the borders and prevent terrorists and explosives from entering the country. Emergency Preparedness and Response - Work with state and local authorities to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Countermeasures - Bring together the countrys best scientists to develop technologies that detect biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons to best protect citizens. Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection - Review intelligence and law enforcement information from all agencies of government, and produce a single daily picture of threats against the homeland.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

After his speech, the White House released a document outlining the proposed Department of Homeland Security. The proposal included organization
charts of the department, a chart of major government departments and agencies responsible for homeland security activities, congressional committees responsible for homeland security activities, appropriations requested for the new department in the FY2003 budget, and a timeline of administration activities after the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

2002

06 (June) 18

DHS: President Bush formally submitted to Congress his proposal (House Document 107-227) for the Department of Homeland Security, including his proposed text for the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The language of the proposal is almost identical to that in the June 6, 2002, document. An analysis of the bill is at the end of the proposal. DHS: Executive Order 13267 After proposing legislation to form the Department of Homeland Security, President Bush issued an executive order that created a Transition Planning Office (TPO) to coordinate, guide, and conduct transition related planning throughout the executive branch of the federal government in preparation for establishment of the proposed Department of Homeland Security. Bush appointed Assistant to the President for
Homeland Security Tom Ridge as the Transition Planning Office Director. The divisions of the Transition Planning Office aligned with the planned directorates and functions of the future department, including Border and Transportation Security, Information Analysis and Information Protection, Science and Technology, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Communications, etc. The Transition Planning Office drew its staff from the Office of Homeland Security (OHS), government entities identified for transfer to the Department, such as the Coast Guard, the Transportation Security Administration, and FEMA, as well as from departments and agencies expected to work with the Department, such as the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

06 (June) 20

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year

Month, Day

Event
Justice. Although the staffs often overlapped, the TPO was located within the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), not the Office of Homeland Security. OHS employees working in the TPO were required to maintain separate files, email addresses, and funds.

Affiliations/Partners

President

2002

06 (June) 24

DHS: Representative Dick Armey (R-TX) introduced the Presidents proposed legislation for the Department to the House of Representatives as H.R. 5005. After amendments in Committee, the bill passed the House by recorded vote (295 to 132) on July 26, 2002. The Senate passed the bill with amendments on November 19, 2002, by a vote of 90 to 9. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Orange The U.S. intelligence community received information, based on debriefings of a senior al Qaeda operative, of possible terrorists attacks timed to coincide with the anniversary of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the United States. Information indicated that al-Qaeda cells were established in several South Asian countries in order to conduct car-bomb and other attacks on U.S. facilities. These cells had been accumulating explosives since approximately January 2002 in preparation for attacks. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Orange to Yellow Based on a review of intelligence and an assessment of threats by the intelligence community, as well as the passing of the anniversary of the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disruption of potential terrorist operations in the United States and abroad, the Attorney General in consultation with the Homeland Security Council returned the threat level to an elevated risk of terrorist attack, or yellow.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

09 (September) 02

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

09 (September) 24

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2002

Month, Day
11 (November) 25

Event
Department of Homeland Security: born in response to 9/11. The Department of Homeland Security was established on November 25, 2002, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. It is the largest reorganization of government in 40 years, and as part of the process, 2 agencies were incorporated into the new department.
Other components: Domestic Nuclear Detection Office Develop nuclear threat detection capabilities at all levels of government and in the private sector * Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Interagency law enforcement training facility * National Protection and Programs Directorate risk-reduction, encompassing both physical and virtual threats and their associated human elements (o Federal Protective Service Federal law enforcement and security for federal buildings, properties, assets, and federal government interests o National Communications System) * Directorate for Science and Technology Research and development * Directorate for Management Responsible for internal budgets, accounting, performance monitoring, and human resources * Office of Policy Long-range policy planning and coordination (o Office of Immigration Statistics) * Office of Health Affairs Medical preparedness * Office of Intelligence and Analysis Identify and assess threats based on intelligence from various agencies * Office of Operations Coordination Monitor domestic security situation on a daily basis, coordinate activities with state and local authorities and private sector infrastructure * Office of the Secretary includes the Privacy Office, Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties, Office of Inspector General, Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman, Office of Legislative Affairs, Office of the General Counsel, Office of Public Affairs, Office of Counternarcotics Enforcement (CNE), Office of the Executive Secretariat (ESEC), and the Military Advisor's Office. * National Cyber Security Center

Affiliations/Partners
Child Agencies: United States Citizenship and Immigration Services; U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Federal Emergency Management Agency; U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement; Transportation Security ; United States Coast Guard; National Protection and Programs Directorate; United States Secret Service Advisory groups: Homeland Security Advisory Council State and local government, first responders, private sector, and academics * National Infrastructure Advisory Council Advises on security of public and private information systems * Homeland Security Science and Technology Advisory Committee Advise the Under Secretary for Science and Technology. * Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council Coordinate infrastructure protection with private sector and other levels of government * Interagency Coordinating Council on Emergency Preparedness and Individuals with Disabilities * Task Force on New Americans "An inter-agency effort to help immigrants learn English, embrace the common core of American civic culture, and become fully American."

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

11 (November) 25

DHS: A Reorganization Plan for the Department of Homeland Security (House Document 108-16, January 7, 2003). President George W. Bush in addition to his own office, the new Secretary was to begin establishing the directorates and offices newly created by the Homeland Security Act and appointing Under Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries. The plan established March 1, 2003, as the date on which the majority of the previously existing agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), the Coast Guard, the Customs Service, and the United States Secret Service would be transferred to the new department.The plan also includes a letters from Bush and Mitchell Daniels, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, outlining the plan.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2002

Month, Day
11 (November) 25

Event
DHS: President George W. Bush signed the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law 107-296) into law. Section 1502 of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 stipulates that the President could submit a reorganization plan to Congress no later than 60 days after the enactment of the Act. On November 25, 2002, the same day he signed the bill into law, President Bush submitted a reorganization plan in accordance with Section 1502. The plan outlined the time frame for the organization of the new department, setting January 24, 2003, as the effective date of establishment for the Department of Homeland Security.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2002

FEMA: USA Freedom Corps created to promote a culture of service, citizenship, and responsibility in America. Under the Freedom Corps initiative, the White House established Citizen Corps within FEMA to engage individual citizens through education, training, and volunteer service to make communities better prepared to prevent, protect, respond, and recover from all-hazards. Citizen Corps involves Americans in programs such as Community Emergency Response Teams, Fire Corps, Neighborhood Watch, Medical Reserve Corps, and Volunteers in Police Service.

Community Emergency Response Teams, Fire Corps, Neighborhood Watch, Medical Reserve Corps, and Volunteers in Police Service.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

01 (January)

DHS: Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) began administering the system. The decision to publicly announce threat conditions is made by the Secretary of Homeland Security in consultation with the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, according to Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5. DHS: Executive Order 13284, Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, January 23, 2003 & Executive Order 13286, Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary of Homeland Security, February 28, 2003 Just as the Homeland Security Act of 2002 altered statutes to account for the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, some executive orders required alteration. On January 23, 2003, President George W. Bush issued Executive Order 13284, which outlined changes related to the establishment of the Office of the Secretary on January 24. Later, on February 28, 2003, the President issued Executive Order 13286, which outlined changes that pertained to the transfer of most of the new components to the Department on March 1, 2003. This executive order also outlined the order of succession for the Department.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

01 (January) 23

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2003

Month, Day
01 (January) 24

Event
DHS: Becomes Operational sixty days after the Homeland Security Act was passed. On that same day, Tom Ridge was sworn in as the first Secretary of Homeland Security. An early DHS organization chart was posted on the DHS web site on January 24, 2003. Along the bottom are the original five directorates: Border and Transportation Security, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection, Management, and Science and Technology. The list of direct reports to the Secretary is incomplete. The chart lists the positions of Assistant Secretary for Border Security and the Commissioner of Customs under the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security. These positions were renamed as the Assistant Secretary for Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection in the Reorganization Plan of January 30, 2003.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

01 (January) 30

2003

02 (February)

DHS: A Reorganization Plan Modification for the Department of Homeland Security, Pursuant to Pub. L. 107-296, January 30, 2003 (House Document 108-32, February 4, 2003), President Bush submitted a modification to the November 2002 reorganization plan that established and described new organizational units in the Border and Transportation Security Directorate. Although Section 442 of the Homeland Security Act established a Bureau of Border Security within the Border and Transportation Security Directorate, it did not fully delineate its responsibilities, nor did the November 25, 2002, reorganization plan. The January 2003 plan renamed the Bureau of Border Security as the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (now known as U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or ICE), incorporating parts of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the Customs Service, and the Federal Protective Service (FPS) and outlined its functions: to enforce immigration and customs laws within the interior of the United States and to protect specified federal buildings. The January 2003 plan also renamed the U.S. Customs Service as the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (now known as U.S. Customs and Border Protection, or CBP). The new Bureau incorporated the border and ports of entry functions of the Customs Service, inspection responsibilities and the Border Patrol from INS, and agricultural inspection functions from the Department of Agriculture. The plan also outlined the FY2003 budget for the new Bureaus. Homeland Security: release DHS citizen preparedness website, Ready.gov launched. The Ready Campaign began a national public service advertising campaign produced by The Ad Council in partnership with DHS designed to educate and empower Americans to prepare for and respond to natural disasters and potential terrorist attacks

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2003

Month, Day
02 (February) 07

Event
DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Orange Intelligence reports suggested that Al Qaida leaders emphasized planning for attacks on apartment buildings, hotels, and other soft or lightly secured targets in the United States. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Orange to Yellow Threat level lowered based on a careful review of how specific intelligence evolved, as well as counter-terrorism actions taken to address specific aspects of the threat situation. FEMA: is downgraded from an independent agency to a sub-department of Homeland Security. Morale plummets. Scores of lifelong employees leave. Allbaugh leaves for the private sector and Michael Brown, FEMA counsel, takes over. FEMA: joined 22 other federal agencies, programs and offices in becoming the Department of Homeland Security. The new department, headed by Secretary Tom Ridge, brought a coordinated approach to national security from emergencies and disasters - both natural and man-made. DHS: Official Inception Date. The majority of the previously existing agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), the Coast Guard, the Customs Service, and the United States Secret Service transferred to the new department. FEMA officially under Homeland Security: It seemed logical to consolidate organizations with a more general emergency management response, but, when the overall DHS budget was concerned, in the event of competition between a terrorism-focused line item and a more general one, terrorism took priority. On March 1, 2003, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) became part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) FEMA, when independent, had had the capabilities to manage response to three major disasters, which could consist of teams handling geographically distant or otherwise separable aspects of the same event. In DHS, the number of teams were reduced to two, which was a less-known part of the problems in responding to Hurricane Katrina. Given that the damage to the New Orleans area needed a full command team, yet there was equal or greater damage to less densely populated areas in adjacent jurisdictions, there was a problem of ICS/NR resource availability. Some organizations brought into DHS, such as the Office of the Manager of the National Communications System (NCS), previously part of the Department of Defense, had been effective in their earlier homes, but suffered in DHS. While NCS had managed communications restoration

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

02 (February) 27

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

03 (March)

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

03 (March)

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

03 (March) 01

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

03 (March) 01

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year

Month, Day

Event
through the Cold War, it became necessary for the Federal Communications Commission, normally a regulatory agency, to take an active role in restoring post-Katrina communications. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Orange The intelligence community believed that terrorists would attempt multiple attacks against U.S. and Coalition targets worldwide in the event of a U.S led military campaign against Saddam Hussein. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Orange to Yellow Following a review of intelligence and an assessment of threats by the intelligence community, DHS, in consultation with the Homeland Security Council lowered the threat advisory level to an elevated risk of terrorist attack. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Orange In the wake of terrorist bombings in Saudi Arabia and Morocco, intelligence reports indicated that terrorists might attempt attacks against targets in the United States. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Orange to Yellow Following a review of intelligence and an assessment of threats by the intelligence community, DHS, in consultation with the Homeland Security Council lowered the threat advisory level to an elevated risk of terrorist attack. DHS National Cyber Security Division (NCSD): opened charged with improving the United States defense against Internet-based attacks. Homeland Security: The official seal of DHS was unveiled DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Orange The U.S. intelligence community received a substantial increase in the volume of threat-related intelligence reports. FEMA: During its integration into the Department of Homeland Security, FEMA loses money to other agencies. Director Brown protests but says "terrorism was the issue du jour." Despite the cutbacks, however, Brown has some planning under his belt for facing Hurricane Katrina. A year before Katrina, FEMA sponsored a disaster planning exercise called "Hurricane Pam". Its scenario: a devastating hurricane hitting New Orleans, with more than 100,000 people left behind in the city. However, the "Pam" exercise is

Affiliations/Partners

President

2003

03 (March) 17

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

04 (April) 16

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

05 (May) 20

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

05 (May) 30

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

06 (June) 06

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003 2003

06 (June) 19 12 (December) 21

2003

2003 - 2005 (November)

FEMA currently manages the National Flood Insurance Program. Other programs FEMA previously administered have since been internalized or shifted under direct DHS control. FEMA is also home to the National Continuity Programs Directorate (formerly the Office of National Security Coordination). ONSC was responsible for developing, exercising, and

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year

Month, Day

Event
not completed. The Bush administration cuts funding for it. A 121-page draft report shows key planning decisions were not yet made: the issue of medical care for hurricane victims wasn't finalized, communications were not addressed at all, and important transportation decisions were left "to be determined." eanwhile, plans are drawn up to further reduce FEMA. In June 2005, Director Brown writes a memo to a top official at Homeland Security that expresses "serious concerns about the direction this is taking emergency management in this nation. The proposed organizational structure is doomed to fail. " When Hurricane Katrina devastates the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005 and government at all levels takes days to help the stranded, suffering victims, no one receives more criticism than FEMA's director. A short time later, Michael Brown is removed from command of the crisis by Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff and subsequently resigns. On Oct. 18, 2005, President Bush signs a Homeland Security appropriations bill that takes responsibility for preparedness out of FEMA ... DHS Fusion centers: Fusion centers are terrorism prevention and response centers, many of which were created under a joint project between the Department of Homeland Security and the US Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs between 2003 and 2007. The fusion centers gather information not only from government sources, but also from their partners in the private sector. They are designed to promote information sharing at the federal level between agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Department of Justice, US Military and state and local level government. As of July 2009, the Department of Homeland Security recognized at least seventy-two fusion centers. Fusion centers may also be affiliated with an Emergency Operations Center that responds in the event of a disaster. There are a number of documented criticisms of fusion centers, including relative ineffectiveness at counterterrorism activities, the potential to be used for secondary purposes unrelated to counterterrorism, and their links to violations of civil liberties of American citizens and others. DHS National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) is responsible for the response system, risk management program, and requirements for cyber-security in the U.S. The division is home to US-CERT operations and the National Cyber Alert System. The DHS Science and Technology Directorate helps government and private end-users transition to new cyber-security capabilities. This directorate also funds the Cyber Security Research and Development Center, which identifies and prioritizes research and development for NCSD. The center works on the Internet's routing infrastructure (the SPRI program) and Domain Name System (DNSSEC), identity theft and other online criminal activity (ITTC), Internet traffic and networks research (PREDICT datasets and the DETER testbed), Department of Defense and HSARPA exercises (Livewire and Determined Promise), and wireless security in cooperation with Canada.

Affiliations/Partners
validating agency wide continuity of operations and continuity of government plans as well as overseeing and maintaining continuity readiness including the Mount Weather Emergency Operations Center. ONSC also coordinated the continuity efforts of other Federal Executive Agencies.

President

2003

2003 - 2007

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2003 2003

Month, Day

Event
Homeland Security absorbs Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) InfraGard: responsibility for InfraGard under the former National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) is transfered to the FBI's Cyber Division in 2003. National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) was transferred (along with other components of the Office of Emergency Preparedness) to the Department of Homeland Security, and then into FEMA. Some activities were placed in the Preparedness Division (Noble Training Center and the Metropolitan Medical Response System program, which has since been moved to the DHS Office of Domestic Preparedness). Other activities were placed in the Response Division some were placed in the Logistics Branch and the Response Operations Branch. The NDMS/medical section was retained in the Operations Branch. As currently structured, the NDMS Section is responsible for team management, deployment, training, and staffing.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2003

CIVILIAN MILITARY CONTINGENCY HOSPITAL SYSTEM (CMCHS) Endorsements by: American Burn Association American Hospital Association American Medical Association American Nurses Association American College of Emergency Physicians American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma American College of Healthcare Executives American Red Cross Emergency Nurses Association National Association of State EMS Directors National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians National Emergency Management Agency National Fire Protection Association National Funeral Directors Association Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2004

01 (January) 09

2004

01 (January) 15

DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Orange to Yellow Following a review of intelligence and an assessment of threats by the intelligence community, DHS, in consultation with the Homeland Security Council lowered the threat advisory level to an elevated risk of terrorist attack.. DHS: I-Staff was established , to assist DHS leadership to coordinate and integrate Department missions and operational activities, including threat response and preparedness, within DHS Headquarters. I-Staff also took the lead on drafting the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Incident Management System (NIMS) and implementing coordination between Headquarters and field offices as part of the Regions plan.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2004

Month, Day
03 (March) 01

Event
DHS: National Incident Management System (NIMS) was created. The stated purpose was to provide a consistent incident management approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments. Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, all federal departments were required to adopt the NIMS and to use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation program and activities. DHS: consolidated the Office for Domestic Preparedness and the Office of State and Local Government Coordination to form the Office of State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness, reporting directly to the Secretary. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Orange, specifically for the financial services sectors in New York City, Northern New Jersey, and Washington, D.C. Raised the threat level for the financial services sector in New York City, Northern New Jersey and Washington, D.C. as a result of new and unusually specific information about where al-Qaeda would like to attack. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Orange to Yellow, for the financial services sectors in New York City, Northern New Jersey, and Washington, D.C. State and local leaders as well as the private sector strengthened security in and around specific buildings and locations as well as throughout the financial services sector after the threat level was raised on Aug. 1, 2004. Permanent protective measures were put in place that did not exist before this date. DHS: National Response Plan (NRP) was created, in an attempt to align federal coordination structures, capabilities, and resources into a unified, alldiscipline, and all-hazards approach to domestic incident management. The NRP was built on the template of the NIMS. On January 22, 2008, the National Response Framework was published in the Federal Register as an updated replacement of the NRP, effective March 22, 2008. DHS: The position of the Director of the Office of Counternarcotics Enforcement was created on December 17, 2004, by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (Public Law 108-458). DHS: The organization chart on the DHS web site in August 2004 is the same as chart from March 2003, save for the addition of two new reports to the Secretary: the Headquarters Operational Integration Staff (I-Staff) and the Office of State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2004

03 (March) 26

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2004

08 (August) 01

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2004

11 (November) 10

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2004

12 (December)

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2004

12 (December) 17

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2004

2004 - 2008

Year

Month, Day

Event
(SGLCP).

Affiliations/Partners

President

2004

DHS: I-Staff activities were discontinued with the implementation of the Second Stage Review (2SR) reorganization in October 2005.

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2005

02 (February)

Homeland Security: Michael Chertoff takes over and initiated a Second Stage Review of the Departments organization, operations, and policies and resulted in the creation of a new Directorate of Preparedness and further integration of preparedness activities. DHS: Secretary Michael Chertoff took office and launched the Second Stage Review, or 2SR, a systematic evaluation of the departments operations, policies, and structures. More than 250 members of the department, formed into 18 action teams, participated. The teams also consulted with public and private partners at the federal, state, local, tribal, and international levels. Homeland Security: The National Preparedness Goal was first released in interim form DHS: The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office was established. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Orange for mass transit In light of the attacks in London, the United States government raised the threat level in the mass transit portion of the transportation sector, including regional and inner city passenger rail, subways, and metropolitan bus systems. DHS: Secretary Chertoff announced a six-point agenda, based upon the findings, which included a reorganization of the department. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Orange to Yellow for mass transit Since raising the threat level for mass transit systems on July 7, DHS worked with federal, state and local partners to develop and implement sustainable mass transit security measures tailored to the unique design of each regions transit system. In light of these increased long-term measures, the Department lowered the national threat level for the mass transit portion of the transportation sector.

2005

02 (February) 15

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2005 2005 2005

03 (March) 31 04 (April) 15 07 (July) 05

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2005

07 (July) 13

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2005

08 (August) 12

Year
2005

Month, Day
10 (October) 01

Event
DHS: At the end of July, DHS issued an organization chart that reflected the intended
end state of the department after the Second Stage Review (2SR) reorganization became effective on October 1, 2005. The reorganization abolished the Directorates for Border and Transportation Security, Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection, and Emergency Response and Preparedness. With the abolition of these Directorates, the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection, the Assistant Secretary for the Transportation Security Administration (incorrectly identified on the chart as Director), Director of Operations Coordination, Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis and the Assistant Secretary for Immigration and Customs Enforcement (incorrectly identified as Commissioner) now reported directly to the Secretary. The Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties remained a direct report to the Secretary, but is incorrectly identified as a Director. The reorganization created two new directorates. The Policy Directorate took on most of the policy responsibilities from the former Assistant Secretary for Policy and Planning in the Border and Transportation Security Directorate, as well as newly created Assistant Secretaries for Legislative and Intergovernmental Affairs (incorrectly identified on the chart as Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs), Strategic Plans, the Private Sector, and International Affairs. The Preparedness Directorate consisted of preparedness functions transferred from FEMA and also included the U.S. Fire Administration, the Office of National Capitol Region, the Office of Infrastructure Preparedness, functions of the Office of State and Local Government Coordination, and the new offices of the Assistant Secretary for Grants and Training and the Chief Medical Officer. The organization chart also reflects changes made to the departments structure prior to the Second Stage Review (2SR) reorganization. The two lines connecting the Chief Financial Officer to both the Under Secretary of Management and the Secretary show that the position reports to both, pursuant to the Department of Homeland Security Financial Accountability Act (Public Law 108334). In addition to the department-wide chart, DHS also released charts for the new Policy and Preparedness Directorates. Some of the proposed offices in this organization chart were not created as expected. DHS decided not to implement a Homeland Security Labor Relations Board. The Screening Coordination Office was moved to the Office of Policy, instead of directly reporting to the Secretary. The majority of the 2SR recommendations were implemented save for the Labor Relations Board.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2005 2005

10 (October) 18 11 (November) 07

FEMA: President Bush signs a Homeland Security appropriations bill that takes responsibility for preparedness out of FEMA DHS: Organization Chart, Department of Homeland Security is released and official.

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2005

Month, Day
2005 (March) 31 2006 (June)

Event
Homeland Security: Under Ridge, DHS took a fresh look at the way Federal, State, local, tribal and private sector resources work together to deal with emergencies. A new National Response Plan (NRP) was developed to replace the earlier Federal Response Plan, and the National Incident Management System (NIMS) was introduced to provide a common framework for incident management. A National Strategy for Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets was also developed, officially recognizing the role of the private sector and the need for partnerships between government and the private sector in protecting the nation. The structure for such partnerships was further detailed in the National Infrastructure Protection Plan, issued in June 2006.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2006

07 (July)

DHS/FEMA: Organization Chart Changes. Although the 2SR reorganization and FY2006 Appropriations Act placed FEMA closer to the Secretary, with the abolition of the Under Secretary for Emergency Preparedness and Response, the agency lacked a Senate-confirmed officer at its head. The July 2006 organization chart reflects the April 2006 reorganization by Secretary Michael Chertoff that created the position of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management, who also served as the Director of FEMA. DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Raised from Yellow to Red for flights originating in the United Kingdom bound for the United States; raised to Orange for all commercial aviation operating in or destined for the United States. The U.S. government raised the nation's threat level to the highest level for commercial flights originating in the United Kingdom and bound for the United States and raised the threat level for general aviation to High to include all in-bound international flights, other than flights from Great Britain, and all flights within the United States.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2006

08 (August) 10

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2006

08 (August) 13

DHS Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS): Lowered from Red to Orange for flights originating in the United Kingdom bound for the United States; remains at Orange for all domestic and international flights. DHS lowered the aviation threat level from red to orange for flights from the United Kingdom to the United States. The U.S. threat level remains at orange for all domestic and international flights. The ban on liquids and gels in carry on baggage remains in full effect.

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2006

Month, Day
10 (October) 04

Event
DHS/FEMA: the President signed into law the Post-Katrina Emergency Reform Act as part of the Homeland Security FY2007 Appropriations Bill (Public Law 109-295). The Act established new leadership positions within the Department, brought additional functions into the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and created and reallocated functions within the Department. Specifically, the Act renamed the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management as the Administrator of FEMA and elevated the position to the deputy secretary level. The Administrator was designated the principal advisor to the President, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary for all matters relating to emergency management and can be designated by the President to serve as a member of the Cabinet in the event of disasters. FEMA was legislatively protected as a distinct entity in the Department and is subject to reorganization only by statute. The Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act transferred to FEMA all functions of the Preparedness Directorate, including the Office of Grants and Training, the United States Fire Administration (USFA), and the Office of National Capital Region Coordination. The Office of Infrastructure Protection, the National Communications System, the National Cybersecurity Division, and the Office of the Chief Medical Officer remained in the Preparedness Directorate. Post-Katrina Emergency Reform Act DHS/FEMA: Security Accountability for Every Port Act, or SAFE Port Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-347) is passed by Congress. The act authorized the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and completed the reorganization of FEMA, transferring the Radiological Preparedness Program and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program to FEMA. Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act DHS Mail interception: In early April 2009, the Virginia Fusion Center came under criticism for publishing a terrorism threat assessment which stated that certain universities are potential hubs for terror related activity. The report targeted historically black colleges and identified hacktivism as a form of terrorism.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2006 2006

10 (October) 04 10 (October) 13

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2006 2006

12 (December) 18

bush George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2006

Month, Day

Event
DHS Mail interception: MSNBC reported that Grant Goodman, "an 81-yearold retired University of Kansas history professor, received a letter from his friend in the Philippines that had been opened and resealed with a strip of dark green tape bearing the words by Border Protection and carrying the official Homeland Security seal." The letter was sent by a devout Catholic Filipino woman with no history of supporting Islamic terrorism. A spokesman for U.S. Customs and Border Protection "acknowledged that the agency can, will and does open mail coming to U.S. citizens that originates from a foreign country whenever its deemed necessary": All mail originating outside the United States Customs territory that is to be delivered inside the U.S. Customs territory is subject to Customs examination, says the CBP Web site. That includes personal correspondence. All mail means all mail, said John
Mohan, a CBP spokesman, emphasizing the point. The Department declined to outline what criteria are used to determine when a piece of personal correspondence should be opened or to say how often or in what volume Customs might be opening mail. Goodman's story provoked outrage in the blogosphere,[67] as well as in the more established media. Reacting to the incident, Mother Jones remarked that "[u]nlike other prying government agencies, Homeland Security wants you to know it is watching you." CNN observed that "[o]n the heels of the NSA wiretapping controversy, Goodman's letter raises more concern over the balance between privacy and security." Th Obamas order largely makes incremental changes, rather than fundamental changes, Destler said. Steve Biegun, who was the NSCs executive secretary during Bushs first term, said there are no radical departures in the reorganization. The risk in Obamas approach is the possibility that the NSC becomes too big to make decisions quickly. The complications that could arise is a square of the number of people on the list, Destler said. The NSCs purview may continue to grow. Obama has ordered a 60-day review of whether to fold in the responsibilities of the White Houses Homeland Security Council, a separate group that Bush created after the Sept. 11 attacks. The two entities should be combined, said former Missouri Republican Senator Jim Talent, who is vice chairman of the Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Proliferation and Terrorism.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2006 2006 2007 01 (January) 01

National Emergency Management Association new logo announced The original CD triangle was retired and replaced with a new logo featuring a stylized EM (for emergency management) National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) was returned to DHHS (US Department of Health and Human Services) on January 1, 2007 by an Act of Congress

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2007

Month, Day
03 (March) 31

Event
DHS/FEMA: Security Accountability for Every Port Act, or SAFE Port Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-347) becomes effective. The reorganization placed national preparedness functions formerly in the Preparedness Directorate and legacy FEMA preparedness programs, except those within the U.S. Fire Administration, in a new National Preparedness Division in FEMA, which became responsible for policy, contingency planning, exercise coordination and evaluation, emergency management training, and hazard mitigation. Both disaster and non-disaster grant programs within FEMA were co-located within a Grant Program Directorate. The Preparedness Directorate was renamed the National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD) and retained some Preparedness elements not transferred to FEMA, including the Office of Infrastructure Protection; the Office of Cyber Security and Telecommunications combined with National Communications System and new Office of Emergency Communications and renamed the Office of Cyber Security and Communications; and the Office for State and Local Government Coordination, renamed the Office of Intergovernmental Programs. Additionally the new Directorate contains US-VISIT and the Office of Risk Management and Analysis, formerly a part of the Office of Infrastructure Protection. The Chief Medical Officer did not transfer to the National Protection and Programs Division; instead, the reorganization created a new Office of Health Affairs led by an Assistant Secretary/Chief Medical Officer. DHS: Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 (Public Law 110-53) was enacted. The Act built on the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006, focusing on the reorganization of the grant process as administered by FEMA. The Act also reorganized intelligence operations at the Department, elevating the Assistant Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis to the Under Secretary level, requiring Senate confirmation. DHS Data mining (ADVISE): Data mining (ADVISE) The Associated Press reported on September 5, 2007, that DHS had scrapped an anti-terrorism data mining tool called ADVISE (Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight and Semantic Enhancement) after the agency's internal Inspector General found that pilot testing of the system had been performed using data on real people without required privacy safeguards in place.[53][54] The system, in development at Lawrence Livermore and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since 2003, has cost the agency $42 million to date. Controversy over the program is not new; in March 2007, the Government Accountability Office stated that "the ADVISE tool could misidentify or erroneously associate an individual with undesirable activity such as fraud, crime or terrorism." Homeland Security's Inspector General later said that ADVISE was poorly planned, time-consuming for analysts to use, and lacked adequate justifications.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2007

08 (August) 07

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2007

09 (September) 05

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Year
2007

Month, Day
11 (November) 07-29

Event
DHS: A series of organization charts updated on November 7, 2007, and released on November 29, 2007, reflects the new Under Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis and a subsequent reorganization of the Office of Intelligence and Analysis. Alterations have also been made to reflect new or modified deputy positions designed to increase the presence of career executives in Department leadership: Deputy Under Secretaries in the Management and Science and Technology Directorates, a Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Office of Legislative Affairs, and a Deputy Director in the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office. Additionally, there were other organizational changes in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office. DHS/FEMA: Post-Katrina Emergency Reform Act passed As a result of the Katrina experience, where the performance of FEMA was much criticized. This reorganized FEMA, and gave it more resources and responsibilities, becoming effective on December 31, 2007. The head of FEMA, R. David
Paulison, received the higher organizational title of Administrator, and two new Deputy Administrator positions were created in support. The incumbent deputy director, Harvey Johnson, became Chief Operating Officer of FEMA. The other will be a Deputy Administrator for National Preparedness, a new division within FEMA.

Affiliations/Partners

President
George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2007

12 (December) 31

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

Transferred into FEMA were: United States Fire Administration Office of Grants and Training Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Division Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program Office of National Capital Region Coordination The Act explicitly forbade the transfer of a variety of national infrastructure preparedness organizations into FEMA, making the National Protection and Programs Directorate responsible for infrastructure. These programs include
risk analysis, critical infrastructure hardening, and a new combination of telecommunications security and emergency communications, the latter previously under the Manager, National Communications System.

FEMA focuses on operations, including national response and training of responders at all levels.

2008

01 (January) 08

DHS: National Cyber Security Center (NCSC) organizational change is made when President Bush issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 (HSPD-23), creating NCSC, which is responsible for coordinating cybersecurity efforts and improving situational awareness and information sharing across the federal government. DHS: National Response Plan (NRP) the National Response Framework was published in the Federal Register as an updated replacement of the NRP. DHS: National Response Plan (NRP) goes into effect

George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2008

01 (January) 22

George W. Bush (2001-2009) George W. Bush (2001-2009)

2008

03 (March) 22

Year
2009

Month, Day
02 (February) 13

Event
DHS National Security Council: Presidential Policy Directive 1 added agency heads and United Nations Ambassador Susan Rice to the reconfigured NSC, which advises the president on national security and foreign policy decisions. Vice President Joe Biden, Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, White House chief of staff Rahm Emanuel and national security adviser James Jones are also members of the group. DHS National Security Council: Presidential Policy Directive 1 - National Security Structure Is Set The first presidential directive, outlining the organization of his national security structure, adds the attorney general, the secretaries of energy and homeland security, and the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations to the formal National Security Council. The four-page directive
sketches wide input to NSC meetings, providing for "regular" inclusion of senior trade, economic and science advisers. The document puts national security adviser James L. Jones firmly in charge of setting the NSC agenda and communicating Obama's decisions to the others. Jones will determine when to call White House meetings of policymaking "principals" and will police implementation of assigned tasks. All post-World War II presidents, with the exception of Ronald Reagan in his first term, have begun their administrations with similar documents. Although most have contracted or enlarged the list of senior officials included in the formal structure -usually by one or two officials either way -- Obama's is by far the most expansive, in keeping with his definition of national security to include economic, climate, energy and cyber-threats. Obama also has divided his national security orders into two categories: presidential policy directives, and presidential study directives, designed to initiate and direct policy reviews. Study Directive 1, dated Feb. 23 and made available this week by Secrecy News, orders an interagency review of the White House homeland security and counterterrorism structure. Headed by counterterrorism adviser John O. Brennan, the review will recommend whether to retain the separate the Homeland Security Council established under the Bush administration, or to incorporate some or all of its functions within the NSC. Obama's security directive also establishes an elaborate system of interagency policy committees to coordinate analysis and reviews of issues "for consideration by the more senior committees . . . and ensure timely responses to decisions made by the President." Under the 1947 National Security Act that created it, the National Security Council included only the president, vice president, and secretaries of state and defense. The CIA director and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff have been added by most presidents. Obama's directive includes all of these and new members from Energy and Homeland Security, as well as the attorney general. He follows in the footsteps of President Bill Clinton by including his U.N. ambassador -- although Bush did not -- and mandating that his White House counsel, Gregory B. Craig, "shall be invited to attend every NSC meeting," along with Tom Donilon, his deputy national security adviser. International economic, homeland security, counterterrorism, science and technology advisers are to become "regular members" when their issues are "on the agenda of

Affiliations/Partners

President
Barack Obama (2009-present)

2009

02 (February) 27

Barack Obama (2009-present)

Year
2009

Month, Day
03 (March) 09

Event
the NSC," the directive says.

Affiliations/Partners

President

DHS National Security Council: President Barack Obama has expanded his National Security Council to seek a range of foreign policy viewpoints beyond the Defense and State departments. Hell soon find out if bigger is better. The success of Obamas national security reorganization may depend on how well a bigger group of top officials, including Attorney General Eric Holder, Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Homeland Security chief Janet Napolitano, can get along with the likes of Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Defense Secretary Robert Gates in the White House Situation Room. DHS fusion center program: 2009 Virginia Terrorism Threat Assessment: In early April 2009, the Virginia Fusion Center came under criticism for publishing a terrorism threat assessment which stated that certain universities are potential hubs for terror related activity.[64] The report targeted historically black colleges and identified hacktivism as a form of terrorism. Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act - Establish Anniversary of 9/11 as a National Day of Service and Remembrance DHS Homeland Security Council: President Obama is scrapping the way President George W. Bush oversaw homeland security, and will incorporate domestic security officials into an expanded National Security Council. The plan unveiled on Tuesday folds the White House Homeland Security Council, an advisory group created by Mr. Bush after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, into the National Security Council, which reports to Gen. James L. Jones, Mr. Obamas national security adviser. The homeland security council will continue to be Mr. Obamas first responder for natural disasters and other catastrophic events, White House officials said. But now homeland security council advisers will report to the National Security Council, and will have a seat at the table for meetings on national security issues. The council is separate from the Cabinet-level Homeland Security Department, which is not affected by Tuesdays announcement. Mr. Obama ordered a 60-day review of the homeland security apparatus in February, and General Jones has been up front in wanting to see a more expansive security structure, with an enlarged National Security Council that would address broad issues of cybersecurity, drug trafficking by terrorists, arms proliferation and other issues. DHS: Secretary Napolitano Announces 60-Day Review of Homeland Security Advisory System. The mission of the task force is to assess the effectiveness of the system in informing the public about terrorist threats and communicating protective measures within government and throughout the private sector.

2009

04 (April)

Barack Obama (2009-present)

2009 2009

04 (April) 21 , Tuesday 05 (May) 26

Barack Obama (2009-present) Barack Obama (2009-present)

2009

07 (July) 14

Barack Obama (2009-present)

Year
2009

Month, Day
11 (October)

Event
DHS opened the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center. The center brings together government organizations responsible for protecting computer networks and networked infrastructure.[ The National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) is a division of the Office of Cyber Security & Communications, within the United States Department of Homeland Security's Directorate for National Protection and Programs. DHS Fusion center program/MIAC Report: The Missouri Information Analysis Center (MIAC) made news in 2009 for targeting supporters of third party candidates (such as Ron Paul), pro-life activists, and conspiracy theorists as potential militia members.[61] Anti-war activists and Islamic lobby groups were targeted in Texas, drawing criticism from the ACLU. According to the Department of Homeland Security: [T]he Privacy Office has identified a number of risks to privacy presented by the fusion center program: Justification for fusion centers Ambiguous Lines of Authority, Rules, and Oversight Participation of the Military and the Private Sector Data Mining Excessive Secrecy Inaccurate or Incomplete Information Mission Creep DHS: Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano announced that the Homeland Security Advisory System would be replaced by a new two-level National Terrorism Advisory System in April 2011. Napolitano, who made the announcement at George Washington University, said the color-coded system often presented "little practical information" to the public and that the new system will provide alerts "specific to the threat" and that "they will have a specified end date". The NTAS was initially scheduled to completely replace the older system on April 27, 2011,[3] 90 days after it was announced. However, on April 20, 2011, Napolitano announced the NTAS would debut on April 26, a day earlier than what had been previously expected.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Barack Obama (2009-present)

2009

George W. Bush (2001-2009) Barack Obama (2009-present)

2011

01 (January) 27

Barack Obama (2009-present)

Year
2011

Month, Day
04 (April) 25

Event
DHS: National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) officially replaces the old Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) alert system. This new system will more effectively communicate information about terrorist threats by providing timely, detailed information to the public, government agencies, first responders, airports and other transportation hubs, and the private sector. It recognizes that Americans all share responsibility for the nation's security, and should always be aware of the heightened risk of terrorist attack in the United States and what they should do. DHS National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS): Current Alerts - There are NO current alerts. (The web page was last reviewed / modified on June 20, 2011.) DHS National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS): Expired Alerts - There are NO expired alerts. (The web page was last reviewed / modified on June 20, 2011.) Citizen Corps Affilations - The Citizen Corps Affiliate Program expands the resources and materials available to states and local communities by partnering with Programs and Organizations that offer resources for public education, outreach, and training; represent volunteers interested in helping to make their community safer; or offer volunteer service opportunities to support first responders, disaster relief activities, and community safety efforts.

Affiliations/Partners

President
Barack Obama (2009-present)

2011

07 (July) 13

Barack Obama (2009-present) Barack Obama (2009-present)


The American Association of Community Colleges; The American Legion; The American Legion Auxiliary; American Red Cross; American Radio Relay League (ARRL); Association of Public Television Stations (APTS); Civil Air Patrol; E9-1-1 Institute; Environmental Protection Agency; Home Safety Council; Meals on Wheels Association of America; Mercy Medical Airlift; myGoodDeed.org; National Association for Search and Rescue; National Crime Prevention Council; National Fire Protection Association; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); National Safety Council; National Volunteer Fire Council; National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster; Operation HOPE, Inc.; Points of Light Foundation and the HandsOn Network; Save A Life Foundation; United States Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools; United States Junior Chamber; Veterans of Foreign Wars; National Emergency Technology Guard USA Freedom Corps; Community Emergency Response Team; Fire Corps; Neighborhood Watch; Medical Reserve Corps; Volunteers in Police Program

2011

07 (July) 13

Citizen Corps Partner Programs - The Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Health and Human Services jointly administer five partner organizations that function as part of the Citizen Corps Program. Civil Defense - A Brief History of Civil Defence UK

Year

Month, Day

Event
Civil Defense agencies, affiliates and programs prior to FEMA

Affiliations/Partners
NYPD Auxiliary Police; Council of National Defense; Office of Emergency Planning (OEP) in the Executive Office of the President (EOP); Office of Civil Defense (OCD) in the Office of Emergency Planning; Civil Defense Corps within the Office of Civilian Defense; National Security Resources Board (NSRB), both as an independent agency and as an office within the Executive Office of the President; Office of Defense Mobilization in the Executive Office of the President; Defense Production Administration in the War Department, now called the Department of Defense; Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization in the Executive Office of the President; Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization in the Executive Office of the President; Office of Emergency Planning in the Executive Office of the President; Office of Emergency Preparedness in the Executive Office of the President; Office of Preparedness in the General Services Administration; Federal Preparedness Agency in the General Services Administration; Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA), both as an independent agency and as a board within the Executive Office of the President; Defense Civil Preparedness Agency

President

CIVIL DEFENSE AND EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY org chart Civil Defense and Homeland Security A Short History of National Preparedness Efforts-DHS Civil Defense-HS - Short History Mobile Emergency Response Support (MERS) FEMA vehicle provides communications support after a major hurricane. These teams provide communications support to local public safety. For instance, they may operate a truck with satellite uplink, computers, telephone and power generation at a staging area near a disaster so that the responders can communicate with the outside world. There are also Mobile Air Transportable Telecommunications System (MATTS) assets which can be airlifted in. Also portable Cellphone towers can be erected to allow local responders to access telephone systems.

Sources

http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Federal_Emergency_Management_Agency http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Cyber_Security_Division http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Terrorism_Advisory_System http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeland_Security_Advisory_System http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Homeland_Security http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/docs/DHS%20Civil%20Defense-HS%20-%20Short%20History.pdf http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=akzv9faU7Jko&refer=home http://www.civildefenceassociation.org.uk/HistCDWebA5V5.pdf http://www.civildefensemuseum.com/history.html http://www.dhs.gov/files/programs/Copy_of_press_release_0046.shtm http://www.dhs.gov/files/programs/ntas.shtm#current http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/editorial_0844.shtm http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/gc_1214508631313.shtm http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/brief_documentary_history_of_dhs_2001_2008.pdf http://www.dhs.gov/ynews/releases/pr_1247586668272.shtm http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/27/us/27homeland.html?ref=us http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/02/26/AR2009022604199.html?hpid=moreheadlines https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/~wgreen/Ecdflow.pdf