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EE2721

Electric Circuit Analysis

6. Three phase circuits

After attending this lecture, you should be able to :

Understand the Y- and - connection Calculate the line and phase voltage/current and 3-phase power of balanced load Measure the 3-phase power by 2-wattmeter method

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3-phase Equation and Phasor

power by 2-wattmeter method 1 3-phase Equation and Phasor 2 (connecting R-Y’, Y-B’, and B-R’) (connecting
power by 2-wattmeter method 1 3-phase Equation and Phasor 2 (connecting R-Y’, Y-B’, and B-R’) (connecting
power by 2-wattmeter method 1 3-phase Equation and Phasor 2 (connecting R-Y’, Y-B’, and B-R’) (connecting

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power by 2-wattmeter method 1 3-phase Equation and Phasor 2 (connecting R-Y’, Y-B’, and B-R’) (connecting
(connecting R-Y’, Y-B’, and B-R’)
(connecting R-Y’, Y-B’, and B-R’)
and Phasor 2 (connecting R-Y’, Y-B’, and B-R’) (connecting R’-Y’-B’) (Y’) V YR RB (B’) V

(connecting R’-Y’-B’)

(Y’) V YR RB (B’) V BY
(Y’)
V YR
RB
(B’)
V BY

V

(R)

(Y’) V YR RB (B’) V BY V ( R ’ ) V R N V
(Y’) V YR RB (B’) V BY V ( R ’ ) V R N V
V R N V B V Y
V R
N
V B
V Y

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i R V R V V RY RY V Y N V BR V B
i R
V R
V V
RY RY
V Y
N
V BR
V B
V YB
Phase values
Line values

are internal

are external

V RY V RY =V R V Y
V RY
V RY =V R V Y
V RY Since V R =V Y =V B =V P for balanced system, it
V RY
Since V R =V Y =V B =V P for balanced system, it concludes that for y connection
(V L = 3 V P )
(I L = I p )

Note: For Y-connection, V R is short-form of V RN

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V RY V BR V YB
V
RY
V BR
V
YB
I R =I 1 I 2
I R =I 1 I 2
(V L =V P ) (I L = 3 I p )
(V L =V P )
(I L = 3 I p )

Summary of Line and Phase relationship

Note: V L , V P , I L , I P are all scalars.

Note: V L , V P , I L , I P are all scalars. 5

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V L , V P , I L , I P are all scalars. 5 P
V L , V P , I L , I P are all scalars. 5 P

P = 3V P I P cos = 3(V L / 3) I L cos

P = 3V P I P cos = 3(V L / 3) I L cos P

P = 3V P I P cos = 3V L (I L / 3) cos

In general

3-phase power P = 3V P I P cos = 3 V L I L cos 3-phase reactive power Q = 3V L I L sin (+ve Q for lagging PF)

3-phase apparent power S = 3 V L I L = (P 2 +Q 2 ) Power factor at supply=P/S

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Worked example-1:

A 3-phase 380V is connected to a three-phase load and each of impedance Z=10/20°. Calculate the line current and power if the load is a) Y-connected , b) -connected

Solution:

a) V L =380V, V P = V L / 3 = 219.4V Let V RN =219.4/0, I R =V RN /Z =22/-20°, I P =22 (=I L ) Power P Y = 3 V L I L cos (20°) =13569 W Reactive power Q Y = 3 V L I L sin(20°) = 4939 VAr Note: for R-phase, 1-ph VA: S P =P+jQ=V RN I R *=219.4 22/+20 =4523+j1646 3-ph VA: S=3S P =13569+j4939, i.e. if Z=Z/ , is used for P & Q calculation

b) V P =V L =380V Let V RB =380/0 V, I RB =V RB /Z=38/-20° A , I P =38 , I L = 3I P =65.8A Power P = 3 V L I L cos (20°) = 40707W =3P Y Reactive power Q = 3 V L I L sin (20°) = 14816 VAr =3Q Y

Note: Usually the current calculation is based on phase value because impedance (internal) must be phase. The working sequence is: V L V P I P (=V P /Z) I L

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One-line equivalent circuit for balanced load

For balance load, the line current can be obtained when only one of them is calculated. Very often the exact angle of line voltage/current are of not interest (as one line voltage is associated with two line current, or vice versa.)

Worked example-2:

A 3-phase 380V is connected to a three-phase load and each of impedance Z=10/20°. Calculate the line current and active/reactive/apparent power if the load is a) Y-connected , b) -connected.

Solution (a) V P =380/ 3, I P =V P /10=21.94=I L

P = 3V L I L cos = 13569.2 W

Q= 3V L I L sin = 4938.8 VAr

S = (P 2 +Q 2 ) =14440 VA power factor=P/S=0.9397 [check: cos(20)=0.9397] Y or
S = (P 2 +Q 2 ) =14440 VA
power factor=P/S=0.9397
[check: cos(20)=0.9397]
Y or
Y

One-line equivalent

(b) V P =380, I P =V P /10=38, I L = 3I P =65.8

P = 3V L I L cos = 40707.5 W Q= 3V L I L sin = 14816.4 VAr S= (P 2 +Q 2 ) =43320 VA power factor=P/S=0.9397

Note: The calculation does not particularly refer to any phase, nor to any voltage/current angle

Z Y Z Can be solved by mesh or nodal
Z Y
Z
Can be solved by mesh or nodal

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Using per

unit system

Worked example-3

What is the line current and power factor of a 3-ph 200V system feeding balanced load of

(a)

-connected phase impedance of Z =15 /15°

(b)

Y-connected phase impedance of Z Y =7.071/30°

(c)

consisting both (a) and (b)

Solution

(a)

V P =200, I P = V P /15=13.333, I L = 3I P =23.094, pf a =cos(15°)=0.966

(b)

V P =200/ 3, I P = V P /7.071=16.333=I L , pf b =cos(30°)=0.866

(c)

P a = 3V L I La cos(15°) = 7727.4, Q a = 3V L I La sin(15°) = 2070.6

P b = 3V L I Lb cos(30°) = 4899.0, Q b = 3V L I Lb sin(30°) = 2828.5

P T = P a +P b = 12626.4, Q T = Q a +Q b = 4899.1, S T = (P T 2 +Q T 2 ) =13543.5 S T = 3 V L I LT I LT =39.1A, power factor=P T /S T =0.932

Exercise:

Repeat the above with V L =380V, Z =25/-20 , Z Y =10/40 Ans: (a) 26.32A; 0.94 lead (b) 21.94A, 0.766 (c) 41.86A, pf=0.993

Measurement of 3-phase power

0.766 (c) 41.86A, pf=0.993 Measurement of 3-phase power Both current & voltage coils are measuring phase

Both current & voltage coils are measuring phase values and the W-reading is for R-phase only

Repeat the measure for the power for Y- & B- phases

9 Only applicable to star-load with accessible neutral

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Worked example-4

A -connected balanced load with Z =15/30° and a Y-connected balanced load with Z Y =10/-30° are both connected to a 3-ph 208V system. Find the line current, the total system power and the two wattmeter readings.

Two-Wattmeter method

power and the two wattmeter readings. Two-Wattmeter method 0 ° Instantaneous power = p 1 +

0°

Instantaneous power

= p 1 + p 2

= i R (V RN -V YN ) + i B (V BN -V YN )

= i R V RN + i B V BN - (i R +i B ) V YN

= i R V RN + i B V BN + i Y V YN

=3-phase power since i R +i B +i Y =0

Y
Y

R

Y

B

Solution Converting to Y Recall Z A =Z 1 Z 2 /(Z 1 +Z 2 +Z 3 ): if Z 1 =Z 2 =Z 3 =Z ,

Y ’=Z A =Z /3=5/30°

Z

Z Y and Z Y ’ are in parallel such that Z // = Z / eq = 3.78/10.9°

V P =208/ 3=120, I P =120/3.78=31.8, I L =31.8A, P= 3V L I L cos(10.9°)=11239W

To evaluate wattmeter readings:

Let V RN =120/0°, V RY =208/30°, I R =31.8/-10.9° , Angle between V RY and I R : 1 = 10.9+30 W 1 =208 31.8 cos 1 =4995W

V BY =208/90° , I B =31.8/120 10.9 Angle between V BY and I B : 2 =90-(120-10.9)= 10.9 30 W 2 =208 31.8 cos 2 =6244W

The derivation here assumes Y-connection. In actual case, the load can be of any combination

For balanced Y-load only if V RN =V P /0 , V RY =V L /30°,V BY =V L /90°

if I R =I L /- , I B =I L /120-

Check: W 1 +W 2 =11239

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11 In general, the 2 wattmeters readings are V L I L cos( eq 30°) for balanced load