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STARTING AND REVERSING Note Book for Marine Engineers STARTING: For starting the engine with air,

, it is necessary for each cylinder to be fitted with a starting air valve, the opening of which is dedicated by a distributor. The distributor ensures that air is introduced into the relevant cylinder at the correct time to achieve starting in the desired direction from any position of rest. There will be an overlap period during which two cylinders at extremities of their air injection periods, will both receive air. This ensures positive starting in the correct direction. (The starting sequence is same as the firing order of the engine.) Modern practice is to introduce air into the cylinder slightly before TDC. This allows the air to accumulate in the clearance volume ready to force down the piston once it is over TDC. At the same time, another cylinder will be receiving air (because of the overlap). This unit will be one in which the crank is well past TDC so that it generates an adequate turning moment to carry the above unit over TDC. The first unit, already pressurized, will be able to accelerate the engine up to the fuel ignition speed. The useful expansion of the starting air will cease at the opening of the exhaust. To continue air injection any further would be wasteful. This limit is normal to 3-cylinder engines but is unnecessarily long in engines with more than 3 units. A starting air pressure well below the compression pressure of an engine will be able to turn the engine over against the compression because the compression pressure is only reached towards the end of the stroke, whereas starting air is introduced for a much longer period of the stroke. The momentum built up in the rotating elements of the crankshaft will help in smooth starting once the initial inertia has been overcome. REVERSING: Reversibility can be achieved by introducing air into a cylinder where the piston is approaching TDC in the direction of rotation in which it was stopped. Exactly the same concepts as above then apply, but in the reverse firing order. Control can be achieved through the distributor or by varying the position of the starting air cams (sliding camshaft usually dependent of the fuel pump camshaft). STARTING AIR VALVE: Description and Operation: The body of the starting valve is a casing. The upper part is considerably larger in diameter than the lower part. The valve is held closed due to compression spring acting underneath of operating piston together with the cylinder pressure acting over the valve lid. Air from the manifold enters into the valve where it forms a pressure balance between underside of the valve lid and balanced piston of equal area on the valve spindle. Consequently this does not cause to open the valve. On top of the operating piston, a connection of small bore piping is provided from distributor valve. When the distributor valve opens, compressed air is passed through pipe connection to upper part of starting valve operating piston which is having greater area and moves the piston downward against spring pressure and opens the valve. So maximum starting air enters into the cylinder to start the engine. After distributor valve closes, the spring forces the operating piston to close the valve.

Indicator Closing spring Valve stem Main starting air Valve head Air from distributor Operating piston balancing piston Valve guide Starting Valve Faults:

The starting valves are sometimes prone to leakage due to any one or more of the following reasons: 1. Guide stem worn out, thus the valve head does not seat properly on the seat. Engineer Abdul Hamid

2. 3. 4.

STARTING AND REVERSING Note Book for Marine Engineers Foreign particles (i.e. products of combustible materials) trapped between the seat and head. Closing spring tension is reduced due to fatigue. Balancing piston or operating piston seize due to moisture presents in the air (i.e. air bottle not drained of water regularly).

If the Starting Air Valve Leaks: It cause 1. Rapid decrease of air from the air bottle. 2. Temperature of starting air manifold near to the leaky valve is quite high enough. If the Starting Air Valve is permitted to Leak: It cause 1. Bursting of starting air manifold. 2. Starting air line explosion. 3. The valve seat being eroded (if the valve leak is very small). Measures or Maintenance of starting air valve: 1. Check manifold temperature regularly by feeling, particularly during manoeuvring time. 2. Lubricate the actuating piston in the starting air valve prior to manoeuvring but care must be taken not to avoid over lubricate. 3. After certain periods of servicing, starting air valves are changed and overhauled. 4. Care should be taken to ensure the piston rings are free inside grooves and end clearance must be checked out if required renew the piston rings. 5. Valves and valve seats are grinded by grinding machine and finished to fine surface by lapping paste. 6. The seat must be tested after boxed up the valve. In the starting air system, following features are considered desirable: 1. Non-return valve: Between the engine and the starting air receiver there should be a robust and effective noreturn valve. This valve should be situated as close to the engine manifold as is practically possible, so that any explosion in the starting air manifold is contained in as small a length of piping as possible, and should be prevented from getting back to the air bottles. Locating the valve close to the engine limits the distance traveled and hence build up in speed of the explosive wave that would otherwise occur as the wave front travels down the pipe line seeking out oxygen and fuel. This high velocity wave front has been responsible in the past for destroying pipelines and valves. It must therefore be contained to as small a range as possible. 2. Relief valve: Between the above non-return valve and the cylinder valves some form of relief should be fitted (to vent the forces of an explosion as quick as possible). These devices may take the form of: a) An ordinary spring loaded relief valve(s). b) Bursting discs or caps. c) Quick closing valves (air operated).

State why it is necessary to have air-starting overlap and explain how the type of engine will affect the amount of overlap required. Overlap: Overlap means a period during which two cylinders air-starting valves at extremities of their air injection period will receive air. The amount of overlap is dependent upon the number of cylinders, the timing of the exhaust opening and so on. Requirement of Overlap: Overlap in the timing of starting air valve is required to start the engine from any crank position. The greater the number of cylinders, the less overlap required. One valve will be always open when air is put on engine to start. All angular position there will be sufficient starting air turning moment to give a positive start. If there is no overlap in the starting air valves, it would be possible for engine to stop in position where all the valves remain closed. The usual minimum overlap is 15 o. The amount of overlap depends upon: Number of cylinders and Timing of exhaust openings. Air admittance period = Crank angle + Overlap. Overlap for Type of Engine: 4 - stroke engine (6 cylinder): - The air injection period is 125 o. - Firing interval 720 / 6 = 120 o. - Overlap is 125 o - 120 o = 5 o, which is insufficient. Engineer Abdul Hamid

STARTING AND REVERSING Note Book for Marine Engineers By opening air starting valve 5 o early and closing 5 o later, the overlap period can be increased to 15 o, but it will be difficult to arrange in a turbocharged engine where exhaust opens earlier. A 7 cylinder, 4-stroke engine will be easier to accommodate overlap.

2 -stroke engine (6 cylinder): - Firing interval = 360 o/ 6 = 60 o. - Air starting period = 60 o + 25 o = 85 o. - Easily accommodates starting valve overlap. - Valve opens 15 o after TDC and closes 10 o before opening exhaust valve. Overlap can be maintained above 25o. Furthermore, exhaust valve can also be arranged to open earlier for highly turbocharged engine. Overlap is affected by: a) The number of cylinder: In case of 2-stroke engine: - The air starting period = 115 o. - If 6 cylinder, then overlap = 115 o - 360 o/ 6 = 55 o. - If 9 cylinder, then overlap = 115 o - 360 o/ 9 = 75 o. - So, if the number of cylinder increases, crank angle between the cylinders reduces and overlap increases. - Hence, exhaust valve opening can be increased. b) The exhaust valve timing: - If the number of cylinder is increased, crank angle between the cylinders reduced and hence overlap increases. - But starting air valve must close 10o before opening exhaust valve. Otherwise, air will be wasted and there will be possibility of explosion in exhaust trunking. - In modern highly turbocharged engine, the exhaust valve should open early to evacuate gases after combustion. - So, by increasing number of cylinders to engine the overlap and exhaust opening can be made satisfactory. REVERSING: Reversing Arrangement (Lost Motion Type): Reversing is carried out by the circumferential translation of the fuel pump camshaft relative to crankshaft by a servomotor. The servomotor is one of gear wheels forming the camshaft drives. The servomotor consists of a pair of vanes attached to the gearwheel rim. The camshaft is fitted with a pair of flaps which can move between the vanes fitted in the gearwheel rim. So, the camshaft can turn inside the servomotor through an angular distance. The flap with the camshaft is turned by hydraulic oil pressure. Reversing manoeuver is initiated by the acknowledgement of the telegraph lever when the reversing cock is simultaneously turned. The control oil under pressure is admitted in one side of the flap, while the other side is connected to the drain. The flap together with the camshaft is rotated relative to the gear till it travels up to the end position and held against it. This relative movement of the camshaft changes the fuel pump timing for ahead and astern operation and changes the firing order of the cylinder. The distributor cam is also turned at the same time being engaged the camshaft rotation, thus changes the sequence of starting air distributor. The reversing servomotor turns the camshaft through a definite angular distance so that the same fuel timing in rotation of TDC of piston is obtained both in the ahead and astern direction. The rotation of camshaft is independent of the rotation of crankshaft, hence it is called as lost motion of camshaft. The following protective device is incorporated with the reversing system. a) Reversing can be initiated only by acknowledgement of the telegraph lever. This protection is achieved by the reversing cock in simultaneously turned with the telegraph lever. b) Engine can not be started unless reversing is completed before air can be put on the engine, thus preventing the engine from starting with wrong direction of rotation. The starting hand lever remains locked by the hydraulic device. When reversing is completed, oil pressure acts on the interlock device and released the starting hand lever.

Engineer Abdul Hamid

STARTING AND REVERSING Note Book for Marine Engineers Control oil under pressure Safety System: Pneumatic system has an independent electronic controlled safety system, which actuates solenoid valve 127. Air signal is sent to puncture valve; this covers a) Lube oil low pressure. b) Over speed trip. c) Turning gear interlock. d) Wrong way alarm or running gear interlock. e) Jacket / piston cooling low pressure. Pneumatic Manoeuvring System: Wrong - Way Alarm: This alarm is activated if crankshaft operates in direction opposite to given order. Causes: a) Manoeuvring system error. b) In case of crash stop, while trying to brake the engine, starting air is not able to overcome the torque of propeller, the engine still rotates in opposite direction. Operation: Crankshaft direction of rotation is indicated by tacho-generator. The polarity of which closes a relay in alarm circuit when the rotor turns in opposite direction to that ordered by engine telegraph.

Engineer Abdul Hamid