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A very good morning to you all ladies and gentlemen.

My talk today will be on Communicating effectively in spoken English in selected social contexts. What is communication? Communication is an essential part of our lives. We communicate everyday with different people, at different times, in different ways. We communicate with ourselves in our thoughts. At times, we may even need to communicate with a larger audience such as members of the public. Before we explore the topic further, I would like to share the definition of communication. 1 Introduction Definition 1.1.1 Carl Rogers (1952) says that: Real communication occurs when we listen with understanding to see the expressed idea and attitude from the other persons point of view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the thing he is talking about. 1.1.2 Elizabeth Tierney (1998) describes: "Communication as a process which begins when you have a message that you want to deliver to an audience. Your audience receives the message, reacts to it and then responds to your message. That response may lead you to react and give another message. This process may then go on and on. 1.1.3 According to Julia T. Wood (2009): Communication is a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interprete meanings. The key terms in this definition are: Process It is ongoing, continuous and always changing. Systemic It happens within a system of interconnected parts that affect each other. Symbols These are what people use to represent things e.g. all language, nonverbal behaviours, art, and music. Meanings Any act of communication involves two essential aspects - the literal

message and the relationship between those who communicate with each other 1.1.4 Joseph Devito (2009) says that: Communication occurs when one person (or more) sends and receives messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback. It means that the message can be anything that you wish to communicate to an audience. It can range from a simple greeting to a friend to a lengthy report at a formal meeting where many people may be present. What is important is that there is a sender and a receiver of the message as what we are having right now.

Importance of speaking English Ladies and gentlemen, We spend most our lives interacting with others. The ability to communicate effectively takes real skill and learning this skill never ends. Being able to

communicate effectively is probably one of the most important skills one person can have. A key component to becoming an effective communicator is to know how to express your feelings and ideas honestly and openly. My dear audience, Why is speaking English very important? As we all know, English is the one of important language in this world. Learning English does not mean giving up culture, background or a native tongue, its simply adding a new and valuable skill that will make the transition much smoother for most people. English is the perfect verbal communication medium for many governments around the world, and it is also well known in business, education, world news, health sector and communication. Let us specify the importance of speaking English for study and work purposes. The importance of speaking English in education and study According to the research that have been made by the group of Malay University, 70% of undergraduate student especially Malay student do not use English as the medium for communication. This shows that most student do not use English as the main language in their daily life. We

must learn English for better future prospects such as in the seeking employment, communicating with foreigners, ICT access for information in order to survive the present global age. Students need to speak well to survive in the corporate world, workplaces, where the fittest survive. They need to attend meetings, make presentations, do discussions and present arguments individually and groups. If basic speaking skills, students range of goals and can become

must be able to accomplish a wide

successful with an extra strong language, that is English.

The importance of speaking English for work purposes One of the reason why we need to learn English and speak it daily is because it is important for us to get a job. In this age, many people are jobless eventhough they have a degree. However, they do not have soft skills. Despite the best academic results students cannot speak English, hence it is hard for them to get a job. Careers in education have

provided those with English speaking skills satisfactory jobs in the past and will continue to do so. In fact, being an English major is an invaluable preparation for many professional careers. A number of

studies have consistently demonstrated that those who have an advance knowledge of the English language are much more likely to advance in their careers. In addition to this, these studies also show that a strong command of the English language will lead to higher paying jobs, more social mobility, and a great deal of social success.

Basic principles of Oral Communication Ladies and gentlemen, Clearly, having a mastery of oral communication skills play a vital role in helping you achieve success. Oral communication involves two important skills: a. Listening; and b. Speaking. 1.3.1 Listening skills involve a. Mindful Attention

According to Devito (2009), effective listening comprises five components as shown in Figure 1 below:





b. Active Listening 1.3.2 Speaking skills list out four principles that explain oral communication and how they affect us. a. Interpretation of symbols create meaning b. There are rules in communication Verbal communication has its own set of unspoken but widely understood rules. c. Punctuation Affects Meaning The full stop, for instance, marks the end of one sentence or idea and the beginning of another. d. Voice Attributes To be an effective speaker, you need to pay attention to the following voice attributes as they affect the quality of your speech; volume, pitch, intonation, tone, tempo, enunciation and pronunciation.

Forms of Oral Communication Oral communication has been described as the process of people using verbal and non-verbal messages to generate meanings within and across various contexts, cultures, channels and media. The seven forms of oral communication are and

intrapersonal , interpersonal, small group, public, mass, corporate intercultural. Oral Communication

According to Camp & Satterwhite (2002), there are three types of communication: (a) Oral Communication (b) Written Communication (c) Non-Verbal Communication However, today we are only focusing on the oral communication. There is always a

purpose for communicating. The only way we can gain any knowledge is by interacting with others. We cant communicate if we did not listen. You could be asking someone a question. Yet, if no one is there to listen, the question you asked will never be answered. In order for any of us to communicate effectively with one another, we have to understand. To succeed, the ability to convey or share knowledge and interact with other people is a concern. Actually, there are three models of oral communication. First is Linear model, second is Interactive model and third is the one that we are going to focus today is Transactional model.

Transactional Model The transactional model shows that the elements in communication are interdependent. Each person in the communication act is both a speaker and a listener, and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages. This model acknowledges neither creators nor consumers of messages, preferring to label the people associated with the model as communicators who both create and consume messages. The model presumes additional symmetries as well, with each participant creating messages that are received by the other communicator. This is, in many ways, an excellent model of the face-to-face interactive process which extends readily to any interactive medium that provides users with symmetrical interfaces for creation and consumption of messages, including notes, letters, C.B. Radio, electronic mail, and the radio. It is, however, a distinctly interpersonal model that implies an equality between communicators that often doesn't exist, even in

interpersonal contexts. However, there are three implications in the transactional model that makes the process complex.


Transactional means that communication is an ongoing and continuously changing process. You are changing, the people with whom

you are communicating are changing, and your environment is also continually changing as well.

In any transactional process, each element exists in relation to all the other elements. There is this interdependence where there can be no source without a receiver and no message without a source.


Each person in the communication process reacts depending on factors such as their background, prior experiences, attitudes, cultural beliefs and self-esteem.

Figure 2 : A transactional model of communication

Figure 2 shows a transactional model of communication that takes into account noise or interference in communication as well as the time factor. The outer lines of the model indicate that communication happens within systems that both communicators share (e.g., a common campus, hometown, and culture) or personal systems (e.g., family, religion, friends, etc). It also takes into account changes that happen in the communicators fields of personal and common experiences. Interpersonal Communication

Ladies and gentlemen, Do you remember the seven forms of oral communication? Next, I would like to share three of the seven forms which could make our communication more effective. Firstly, I want to touch on the Interpersonal Communication.

Interpersonal Communication is the process by which people exchange information, feelings and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages. This definition highlights the important fact that interpersonal communication is not only concerned with what is said, i.e., the language used, but how it is said, e.g. the non-verbal messages sent, such as tone of voice and facial expressions. Hartley (1999) defines interpersonal communication as having the following characteristics:

Communication from one individual to another. Communication which is face-to-face. Both the form and the content of the communication reflect the personal characteristics of the individuals as well as their social roles and relationships.

Effective interpersonal communication helps us express ourselves and share our thoughts with the people around us. To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. - Anthony Robbins. It is important to know that, this form of communication may range from the impersonal to the very personal. Impersonal communication is define as a type of communication or interaction that is based specifically on social roles, such as communication between a sales representative and a potential customer. The manner of communication is informal and superficial, covering topics necessary to instigate a sale or similar transaction. Impersonal communication is when you talk with a person you do not really care about there is often a coldness or an indifference in your attitude when you engage in this kind of communication.

Then, there is social communication where you engage in niceties with people you meet in a social context. The most personal type of communication occurs when you talk with people who are close to you, for example, your best friend, family members and colleagues. Such relationships are interdependent, meaning that the actions of one party very often directly affects the other party. Interpersonal communication can take place face to face as well as through electronic channels like video-conferencing, chat rooms, e-mail and Twitter.

Appropriate topics A good interpersonal communication also involves good topics of discussion. In rder to start or to keep a conversation going you have to know what topics to approach and how to approach it. For example at a party you can relate to the surroundings in order to start a conversation. Here are the tips on appropriate topics of casual conversation. What ever the topics, I propose that:

Even if you find yourself inadvertently in a conversation you wish you hadn't gotten yourself into; diplomacy and generosity are always the best way to go. Kindness will not always be repaid with kindness; but petty sarcasm usually is. Television and Movies are generally safe; but be smart - steer away from anything with a controversial bent. Sports is good; especially if the local team is doing well - Keep it light, and play to the audience. Factors that Determine the Efficiency of Communication Clarity of Message: The way in which the sender presents a message plays an instrumental role in the success or failure of the communication process. Communication Channel: Choose the right communication channel according to the situation and the receiver. Rapport between Sender and Receiver: If the sender and the receiver share a common background and have faced similar experiences, it increases the mutual understanding level and hence enhances the outcome of the communication process. Small Group Communication Ladies and gentlemen, Next I would like to talk on the small group communication. Small group communication able to fulfill the needs of communicating effectively. Actually, small group

communication has three characteristics. Size 4.1.1 most researcher define a small group as having at least 3 and not more than 10

members. 4.1.2 needs to have at least 3 members, otherwise it would simply a dyad 4.1.3 with 3 members, coalitions can be formed and some kind of organization is present. 4.1.4 large number in a group ( more than 10) inhibits group members ability to communicate with everyone else in the group. 4.2 Interaction 4.2.1 group members must be able to communicate freely and openly with all the other members of the group. 4.2.2 groups will develop norms about discussion and group members will develop roles which will affect the groups interaction. 4.3 Goals 4.3.1 a group must has a common purpose or goal and they must work together to achieve the goal. 4.3.2 the goal brings the group together and holds it together through conflict and tension. Dear Ladies and gentlemen, 4.4 What is the purpose of forming small group? 4.4.1 groups form to accomplish some objectives 4.4.2 objectives may be to complete some kind of task or it may be to promote interpersonal relationships between the group members 4.4.3 many groups, however fulfill both of these functions Skills for leading and participating Small group leadership and membership skills are the skills required to achieve the best results from team meetings. Skill in meetings can be divided into two areas, `leadership' and `membership'. These are the two major roles people play in groups. A group must have an appointed leader to coordinate it's activity, and this person's leadership ability is critical to how well the group will work together. But equally important are the membership abilities of the others who make up the group. Membership ability is the ability to be part of a group so that your contributions are always positive, and so that you also help others to contribute in the best possible