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Reliability Analysis* State Estimation * Dynamic Modelling (DSL) * System Dynamics (RMS / EMT) Motor Starting * Real-Time Simulation* Small Signal Stability * Interfacing PowerFactory * Installation Options

Rev 1.14/4/2010

PowerFactory V14

Basic Software Features & Calculation Functions Advanced Functions and Features

Protection Coordination * Distribution Network Optimization * Harmonic Analysis * Optimal Power Flow Reliability Analysis * State Estimation * Dynamic Modelling (DSL) * System Dynamics (RMS / EMT) Motor Starting * Real-Time Simulator * Small Signal Stability * Interfacing PowerFactory * Installation Options

Table

of

Contents

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

6

2 PowerFactory Overview

8

2.1 Functional Integration and Applications

8

2.2 PowerFactory Software Concept

8

3

Network Models

11

3.1 Grid Representations and Power Equipment

11

3.2 Built-in Calculation and Integrated Modelling Functions

15

3.3 Load and Generation Profiles

15

4

Data Management

16

4.1

V14 Standard Data Model

16

4.1.1 Arrangement of Data in Project Folders

16

4.1.2 Study Time

17

4.2

Data Organisation

17

5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities

19

6 Results and Reporting

22

6.1 Text Reports

22

6.2 Spreadsheet Reports (Tabular Views)

22

6.3 Reporting in Network Diagrams

23

6.4 Result File Management

23

6.5 Plots and Diagrams

23

6.6 Additional Features

25

7

External Data Format Support

26

7.1 Standard Data Formats

26

7.2 DIgSILENT Data Base Level Exchange (DGS)

26

8 DPL- DIgSILENT Programming Language

27

9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation

29

 

9.1

Standard Windowing Mode

29

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Table of Contents

9.2 Engine & Hybrid Execution Mode

29

10 Power Flow Analysis

30

11 Fault Analysis

33

11.1 Supported Standards

33

11.2 Complete Method/Multiple Faults

34

11.3 Fault Analysis Results (all Methods)

35

12

Network Reduction

36

12.1

General Features

36

13

Voltage Stability Analysis

37

13.1 PV Curves

37

13.2 Q-V Analysis

37

14 Load Flow Sensitivities

38

15 Contingency Analysis

39

16 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation

41

16.1 Overhead Line Parameter Calculation

41

16.2 Cable Parameter Calculation

41

17

Distribution Network Analysis

42

17.1 Feeder Analysis

42

17.2 Low-Voltage Network Analysis

42

17.3 Stochastic Load Modelling

42

17.4 Cable Reinforcement Optimization

43

17.5 Feeder Tools

44

18

Protection Functions

45

18.1 Protection Model Library and Functionality

45

18.2 Output & Graphical Representation

47

18.3 Overcurrent-Time Protection

48

18.4 Distance Protection

48

19

Distribution Network Optimization

50

19.1

Optimal Capacitor Placement

50

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19.2

Open Tie Optimization

50

20

Harmonic Analysis Functions

52

20.1 Harmonic Load Flow

52

20.2 Frequency Sweep

53

20.3 Ripple Control Signals

54

20.4 Filter Rating

54

21

Optimal Power Flow

55

21.1 AC Optimization

55

21.2 DC Optimization

56

22

Reliability Analysis

58

22.1 Failure Models

58

22.2 State Enumeration

59

22.3 Failure Effect Analysis

59

22.4 System Indices and Results

60

22.5 Special Features

62

22.5.1 High Flexibility

62

22.5.2 Tracing of Individual Cases

62

22.5.3 Powerful Output Tools for Result Representation

62

22.5.4 Contribution to Reliability Indices

63

22.5.5 Development of Indices over Years

63

23 State Estimation

64

24 Dynamic Modelling Flexibility (DSL)

66

25 Power System Dynamics

68

25.1 General Capabilities

68

25.2 Stability Analysis Functions

71

25.2.1 RMS Simulation with a-b-c Phase Representation

71

25.2.2 Long-term Stability

71

25.3 Transient Motor Starting

72

25.4 Electromagnetic Transients (EMT)

73

25.5 Dynamic System Parameter Identification

74

25.6 PowerFactory Real-Time Simulators

74

26

Small Signal Stability

76

Table

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27

PowerFactory Interfaces

78

27.1 DGS Interface

78

27.2 OPC Interface

78

27.3 Shared Memory Interface

79

28

Interfacing PowerFactory

81

28.1 PowerFactory - GIS integration

81

28.2 PowerFactory - SCADA integration

83

28.3 PowerFactory - Simulation Interface (SIMULINK, etc.)

84

28.4 PowerFactory - A/D Signal Interfacing Capability

84

29

PowerFactory Installation Options

85

29.1 PowerFactory Workstation License

85

29.2 PowerFactory Server License

86

29.3 License Overview

90

29.4 Installation Requirements

90

30

PowerFactory Function Definitions and Prices

91

30.1 PowerFactory Function Definitions

91

30.2 PowerFactory Prices

92

31 The DIgSILENT Company

93

32 History of the DIgSILENT Software

94

1

Introduction

1 Introduction

1 Introduction

DIgSILENT has set standards and trends in power system modelling, analysis and simulation for more than 25 years. The proven advantages of the PowerFactory software are its overall functional integration, its applicability to the modelling of generation-, transmission-, distribution- and industrial grids, and the analysis of these grids’ interactions.

Electrical grids, planning processes and operation processes are becoming increasingly complex due to market unbundling, expansion of interconnections and distributed generation. This increases the demands on software tools in terms of data quality, flexibility and manageability.

With PowerFactory Version 14, DIgSILENT presents a further step towards seamless integration of functionality and data management within a multi-user environment. The building and organizing of schemes, scenarios, versions and running arrangements has been added for improved handling.

Version 14 Key Features

Single- and multi-user project data administration environment

Database with historical data storage and auditing functionality.

Time-stamped data model

Management of operational scenarios

Baselining, versioning and publishing of models

Integrated node and branch, and switch and component modelling

Integrated overview diagrams, simplified and detailed single line diagrams

Fast contingency analysis tools (AC and DC load flow)

Contingency-constrained economic dispatch including quad booster optimization

Distributed/embedded power generation modelling

New models for wind power and virtual power plants

DIgSILENT PowerFactory is the most economical solution, as data handling, modelling capabilities and overall functionality replace a set of other software systems, thereby minimizing project execution costs and training requirements. The all-in-one PowerFactory solution promotes highly-optimized workflow.

1

Introduction

1 Introduction

DIgSILENT PowerFactory is easy to use and caters for all standard power system analysis needs, including high- end applications in new technologies such as wind power and distributed generation and the handling of very large power systems. In addition to the stand-alone solution, the PowerFactory engine can be smoothly integrated into GIS, DMS and EMS supporting open system standards.

into GIS, DMS and EMS su pporting open system standards. DIgSILENT PowerFactory v14 integrated features overview

DIgSILENT PowerFactory v14 integrated features overview

2

PowerFactory

Overview

2 PowerFactory Overview

2 PowerFactory Overview

2.1 Functional Integration and Applications

Implemented as a single software solution allowing for fast 'walk around' through the database and execution environment

No need to reload modules and update, transfer and convert data and results between different program applications

Vertically integrated power equipment model concept allowing models to be shared by all analysis functions

Support of transmission-, distribution- and industrial system design and simulation

Modelling and simulation of railway systems

Simulation of any kind of wind turbines and wind parks

Smart Grid modelling including virtual power plants and distributed generation such as PV- panels, micro turbines, battery storage, CHP, etc.

2.2 PowerFactory Software Concept

Single Database Concept

Optimal data organization and project definitions for performing any type of calculation, storage of settings, diagrams and visualization options or software operation sequences.

No need for tedious organization of several files for defining the various analysis aspects and project execution workflows.

Database environment fully integrates all necessary data, such as that required for defining cases, scenarios, variants, single-line graphics, outputs, run conditions, calculation options, graphics or user- defined models. Saving a project includes everything required to rerun all defined cases at a later stage.

Access to all data via a comfortable and powerful data manager, object browser, plus various types of diagrams and wizards.

Comprehensive, non-redundant data model supporting all calculation functions

2

PowerFactory

Overview

2 PowerFactory Overview

User Roles

Access to user information through a user accounting system

Protection of data through different types of access rights

Folder sharing between users with “read-only” access. This is especially useful for libraries and network base cases which should be administrated only by authorized personnel.

Multi-User Operation and Team working

Multi-user data administration supporting MS-SQL or ORACLE databases

Support of user accounting, access rights and data sharing, featuring the powerful option of allowing several users to work on the same project in a coordinated way. This demonstrates the concept of non- redundant data management in PowerFactory

Management of multi-user data editing via the definition of a base project, project versions and derived projects (virtual projects).

Support of version control including rollback functions and merge/compare tools.

Network Variations, Expansion Stages Management and Operational Scenarios

Support of time-stamped network variations.

Variation scheduler for easy handling of sub-projects

Definition of study cases and operational scenarios

Activation of network stages according to study time. This automatically addresses the handling of power system components according to their commissioning and de-commissioning dates

Multi-Level Models

Data describing network models such as cables, machines, loads, transformers, etc., are subdivided into element data and type data which point to libraries.

All data to be entered are grouped into basic data (data required for all calculations) and function level data (data required only for executing specific calculations).

Data are simply entered in physical quantities rather than in per unit values, minimizing the need for manual recalculation and conversion of data.

Verification of input data, with detailed warning and error messages

2

PowerFactory

Overview

2 PowerFactory Overview

Integrated calculators for asynchronous machines, cable data and tower configurations

Batch Mode, Engine Mode and Interfaces

Fully interactive windowing mode according to the latest, proven standards

Engine mode for background operation

Various communication features to exchange data with other applications such as GIS, SCADA and real- time control systems via OPC, shared memory, DGS (CSV, ODBC), etc.

Hybrid operation switching between background and windowing mode according to users’ needs

Data exchange via CIM, PSS/E, UCTE and many other file formats

3

Network

Models

3 Network Models

3 Network Models

3.1 Grid Representations and Power Equipment

Grid Models

Meshed and radial AC systems with 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-phases

Meshed and radial DC systems

Combined AC and DC system modelling

Model validity from LV up to ultra-high voltage

Phase Technologies

Single phase with/without neutral

Two-phase with/without neutral

Bi-phase with/without neutral

Three-phase with/without neutral

Substations

Simple terminal models to be used for “node and branch” representation, marshalling panels, terminal blocks, terminal strips, clamping bars, joints and junctions.

Complex substation models with the provision of various standard busbar configurations such as single- and double busbars with/without tie-breakers, bypass busbars, 1½ busbar systems and flexible busbar configurations according to user-specific needs.

Templates for holding any type of user-specific busbar configuration, including pre-configured protection schemes

Generators and Sources

Synchronous and asynchronous generator

Doubly-fed induction generator

Static generator (for PV, fuel cell, wind generator, battery storage, etc.)

3

Network

Models

3 Network Models

External grid

AC voltage source

AC current source

2-terminal AC voltage source

Loads

General load model (for HV and MV-feeders)

Complex load model (for feeders with a large number of induction motors)

Low voltage load (can be assigned across line and cable sections)

Reactive Power Compensation

Static Var Compensator (SVC)

Shunt/Filter (RLC, RL, C, RLCR p , RLCCR p )

Branch models

Overhead line and cable models (π-models and distributed parameter models)

Circuits and line sub-sections

Mutual data, line couplings, tower geometries

2-, 2-N-winding transformer and auto transformer

3-winding transformer, booster transformer

Series reactor, series capacitor and common impedance

DC Models

1-terminal and 2-terminal DC voltage source and DC current source

DC/DC converter

Inductive DC-coupling

3

Network

Models

3 Network Models

Power Electronics Devices

Thyristor/Diode converter models

Self-commutated converter models (VSC-converter)

DC valve (for building individual converter topologies)

Softstarter

Switches and Substation Equipment

Circuit Breaker and Disconnector

Load-Break-Disconnector

Load-Switch

Grounding Switch

Fuse

NEC/NER, grounding devices

Surge arrester

Composite Models

Composite node models, e.g. representing complex substations

Composite branch models

Template library for handling composite models

Parameter characteristics

Time characteristics and discrete characteristics

Scalar, vector and matrix characteristics

File references and polygons

Continuous and discrete triggers

Frequency and time scales

3

Network

Models

3 Network Models

Controllers

Station controller, secondary controller (SCO), virtual power plant

Tap controller, shunt controller

User-definable capability diagrams and controllers

Organisation and Grouping

Site, station, substation, area, zone

Feeder, branch, bay

Operator, owner

Boundaries

Operational Library

Substation running arrangements

CB ratings

Thermal ratings

Library of faults/contingencies

Library of (planned) outages

Others

Protection relays with over 30 basic protection function blocks

Manufacturer-specific relay library with relay models from all major manufacturers

CT, VT and various measurement transducers (P, Q, f, etc.)

Fourier source, harmonic source, FFT

Clock, sample & hold, sample & hold noise generator

3

Network

Models

3 Network Models

PowerFactory supports 500 different objects for defining, organizing and storing users’ grid definitions and project settings. The above-listed objects are a summary of those most frequently used.

3.2 Built-in Calculation and Integrated Modelling Functions

PowerFactory provides a number of functions which assist users in entering data which may have come from datasheets or product catalogues. Not only do these functions greatly simplify data entry, but they also provide valuable output and results.

Identification of asynchronous machine parameters

Support of two different parameter input modes: (a) electrical parameters and (b) slip-torque/current characteristic

When entering electrical parameters, such as the rated mechanical power, stator resistance and reactance, magnetisation reactance, etc., all electrical parameters which precisely define and describe the asynchronous machine are then calculated. This includes the determination of the torque-/speed characteristic.

The alternative definition via the slip-torque/current characteristic requires entering data such as characteristics at nominal operation point, torque at stalling point, locked rotor torque and other parameters typically available from manufacturer handbooks or test reports. This alternative data entering method will then determine the electrical machine parameters.

Calculation of Overhead Line Parameters and Cable Parameters

Please refer to section 16.

3.3 Load and Generation Profiles

Load and generator parameter characteristics can be defined on a per-element basis for parametric studies. Parameter characteristics can be imposed on each input parameter. They may be time- dependent, refer to predefined discrete cases, or result from external sources.

All operational data (generation and demand patterns, switch positions, etc) can be saved and maintained in distinct Operation Scenarios.

4

Data

Management

4 Data Management

4 Data Management

4.1 V14 Standard Data Model

4.1.1 Arrangement of Data in Project Folders

All data required for grid modelling, project organization and project execution are arranged in project folders. Project data are structured into Libraries, Network Models, Operation Scenarios and Study Cases.

Libraries

Libraries contain equipment types, special operation information, DPL scripts, templates and user- defined models.

The Equipment Type Library can store manufacturer and standard data for cables, conductors, circuit breakers, transformers, motors, generators, protection devices, PV panels, converters, wind turbines, etc.

Operational Libraries help organize standard settings and operational structures of grids. Typical entries include specific device Mvar limits and capability curves, outages, fault conditions and sequences, specific thermal ratings, running arrangements, etc.

Network Models

All network data are organized and stored in various folders such as grid- and area folders, folders for boundaries, circuits, feeders, routes, zones, etc.

Comprehensive network topology handling defining: Nodes, Substations, Sites, Boundaries, Circuits, Routes, Operators and Owners.

Graphical information such as overview diagrams, simplified single line diagrams and detailed single line diagrams are automatically organized in a separate diagram folder

Grid Variations are linked to the original grid data, allowing non-redundant grid variation management.

Easy and non-redundant handling of grid expansion alternatives.

Planned grid expansions are organized by time-stamped Expansion Stages which are considered depending on the selected Study Time. Expansion Stages are stored in Variations and handled via the Variation Scheduler. In other words, variations can be seen as expansion plans composed of different stages which are activated chronologically.

4

Data

Management

4 Data Management

Operation Scenarios

Definition of operation and dispatch conditions, grid loading, ambient temperature, daily load variation pattern, etc

Organisation of characteristics to generate ranges of values such as daily load curves, temperature dependencies, wind conditions, solar radiation pattern, etc

Definition of triggers for easy selection of certain conditions to be analysed

Comparison of Operation Scenarios

Study Cases

Grid configurations, operation conditions, trigger settings, calculation options, fault sequences, results and DPL scripts to be executed are all stored in Study Cases

Study Cases can be activated to reproduce any grid condition and its associated calculation results

4.1.2 Study Time

PowerFactory V14 extends grid modelling into the dimension of time. The model may span a period of months or years considering network expansions, planned outages and other system events. The period of validity of a project therefore specifies the time span that the of the model’s validity.

The Study Time automatically determines which expansion stages of a variation will be considered.

Selection of Study Time along with the operational conditions will automatically create grid expansion scenarios

4.2 Data Organisation

Simultaneous use of grid data takes place when two different parties work with the same project. This kind of situation occurs most frequently in larger companies where software-based teamworking capabilities are a basic requirement.

Versioning

Project Versions constitute a snapshot of a project at a specific point in time

Project versions are under full control of owner rights

Rollback functions allow a controlled “Undo” of a project’s execution steps, thereby “rolling back” to a specific stage of the project

4

Data

Management

4 Data Management

Reporting facilities for Derived Projects which depend on a certain version

Derived Projects

Master Projects can be published in a public area of the database

Derived Projects are “virtual” copies of a Version of a Master Project that can be developed by any number of users simultaneously. Only the differences to the original version are stored

Derived Projects are always linked to their original Master Project

The users will be automatically notified if a new version of their Master Project is available

Comprehensive tools for merging several derived projects and/or their versions into a new project via the Merge Tool. This allows the consolidation of independent and parallel model modifications introduced by different users.

5

Network

Diagrams

&

Graphic

Capabilities

5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities

5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities

Categories of Network Diagrams

Simplified Single Line Diagrams with various options for a schematic view of substation topology and switching status

Detailed Single Line Diagrams showing all switches (circuit breakers and disconnectors)

Intelligent Overview Diagrams providing a node and branch representation of the network. Can be schematically, geographically or semi-geographically arranged

General Features

Handle mixed representations of Detailed Single Line Diagrams, Simplified Single Line Diagrams and Overview Diagrams

Access equipment editing menus in the single line diagram via cursor selection of the appropriate element, region or composite model

Zoom-in or zoom-out of area networks or composite model graphics

Initiate calculation events directly within the graphical environment, including circuit breaker switching, fault implementation and other data changes

Option to immediately reflect any editing activity on the graphical level

Display any calculation results immediately in result boxes in single line diagrams. All program variables and signals can be displayed according to a highly flexible user definition for various object categories and analysis functions

Display any calculation result to be defined on various functional levels and categories for any object

Insert freely-configured result displays

Provision of auxiliary graphics editing for enhanced documentation

Perform copy/paste operation on single objects and groups

View and operate several graphic windows with different layers and grid sections simultaneously. Utilize several graphical representations of the same system simultaneously.

Spread large diagrams over several pages

5

Network

Diagrams

&

Graphic

Capabilities

5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities

Support of pre-defined and user-defined graphical layers

Placement of user-definable icons as buttons for executing DPL scripts. This way users can create custom panels of frequently-executed DPL-initiated commands.

Colouring of Network Diagrams

Provision of various colouring modes according to topology criteria such as areas, zones, owners, operators, routes, station connectivity, energizing status, boundaries/interior regions, isolated grids, etc.

Colouring options to display voltage levels, equipment loading and operation ranges

Define colouring based on AC/DC equipment category and phase technology

Display of grid modifications and variants, recording of expansion stage modifications, missing grid connections

Provision of feeder colouring and path definitions

User-defined filters based on complex equations or DPL scripts

User-definable Symbols

Support of user-definable symbols based on standard graphical formats (.wmf,.bmp). E.g. use your own symbols for wind turbines, PV panels, hydro units, etc.

Define specific graphical representations for transformers, shunts, circuit breakers, isolators to fit individual needs.

Composite Graphics

Elements can be grouped together and stored as Composite Graphics. Typical applications are standard busbar arrangements, switchboard configurations, HVDC structures, PV panels, typical wind turbine configurations or complete wind parks.

Composite Graphics can be easily handled via the Template Manager. Templates can be populated with type and element data. For drawing Composite Graphics, the Template Manager is operated as Drawing Tool Box.

Virtual Instruments

DIgSILENT PowerFactory applies the concept of Virtual Instruments (VI) as a tool for displaying any calculated result or variable.

Results may be displayed in the form of bar graphs, plotted curves, or even tables of values, with all of these representations being completely user-definable.

5

Network

Diagrams

&

Graphic

Capabilities

5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities

VIs are used to display protection curves, harmonics analysis results or to view electrical variables from any location in the network single line diagram, and any model variable during RMS and EMT simulations.

Many VIs provide additional built-in functionality such as curve labelling and measuring, scaling, curve fitting, filtering and digitizer functions.

Typical Virtual Instruments Available

x-t and x-y plots, bar diagrams, harmonic distortion diagram

Overcurrent-time-diagrams, distance-time diagrams, vector diagram, path diagram

Voltage sag diagram, waveform diagram

Eigenvalue diagram, phasor diagram

Bitmaps, buttons, DPL-command buttons, digital display

Curve-digitizing diagram

Text label

6

Results

and

Reporting

6 Results and Reporting

6 Results and Reporting

6.1 Text Reports

Automatic reports for calculation results, such as load flow, short-circuit, harmonic calculations, contingency calculation, reliability analysis, etc.

Numerous predefined reports for all key calculation functions

Flexible selection of elements for reporting

Reports can be user-configured allowing user-definable formatting

Automatic reports for documentation of network components, such as transformers, lines, generators, relay settings, etc.

Flexible selection of network components for documentation

Flexible selection of calculation module, e.g. report only input data required for load flow and short- circuit

6.2 Spreadsheet Reports (Tabular Views)

Numerous predefined spreadsheet reports for all key calculation functions via “Flexible Data Pages”

User-definable setup of “Flexible Data Pages”. Tabular view of any combination of input parameters/ calculation results

Several “Flexible Data Page” definitions (variable selections) may exist concurrently

Independent variable selections for every calculation

Sorting facilities for tabular views

Automatic statistical summaries for values in tables

Flexible filters for selecting elements for output

Output facilities to: Output window, clipboard and clipboard with column headers for use in spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel

6

Results

and

Reporting

6 Results and Reporting

6.3 Reporting in Network Diagrams

Concept of “result boxes” in network diagrams to flexibly display any element/type parameter, as well as any calculation result

Easy-to-configure “result box” format on both component and calculation levels

6.4 Result File Management

More complex calculation results can be stored in “Result Files”, e.g. for calculations such as transient stability results, harmonic analysis results, contingency results, etc.

Allows easy configuration of outputs (plots, reports, etc…)

Accessible by post-processing through DPL

Export functionality to export result data to:

- Output window

- Clipboard (compatible with spreadsheet programs such as MS EXCEL)

- Text file (compatible with spreadsheet programs such as MS EXCEL)

- COMTRADE (for transient data)

- PowerFactory measurement file (ASCII)

6.5 Plots and Diagrams

DIgSILENT PowerFactory applies the concept of Virtual Instruments (VI) as a tool for visualizing calculation results as plots and diagrams.

VIs are used to display (for example):

- Results of RMS and EMT simulations (any pre-selected monitoring variable/signal)

- Protection configurations and results (R-X diagrams, automatic time-distance diagrams, relay characteristics, etc)

- Harmonic analysis results

Many VIs provide additional built-in functionality such as curve labelling and measuring, scaling, curve fitting, filtering and digitizer functions.

Selected List of Most Common Virtual Instruments:

Plots for simulation results

6

Results

and

Reporting

6 Results and Reporting

- Monitored variables/signals over time

- Trajectories

Harmonics

- Harmonic distortion diagram

- FFT diagrams

- Waveform plots

Protection

- Time-overcurrent diagrams

- Time-distance diagrams

- Relay characteristic diagram

Additional diagrams for results of load flow, short circuit, harmonics, etc.:

- Bar diagrams

- Vector diagrams

- Path diagram

- x-y diagrams

Voltage sag diagram

Eigenvalue calculation

- Eigenvalue diagram

- Phasor diagrams and bar diagrams (controllability, observability, participation)

Measurement VIs

- Digital display

- Metering device (vertical/horizontal scales)

- Combination of both

Picture box for displaying graphic files. Supported file formats are:

- Windows metafiles (*.wmf)

- AutoCAD graphic file (*.dxf)

- Bitmaps (*.bmp)

Curve-digitizing diagram

6

Results

and

Reporting

6 Results and Reporting

6.6 Additional Features

The PowerFactory graphic windows such as the single line graphic, plots, and block diagrams, offer the following functionality:

Printing or plotting to any device supported by the Windows Print Manager to produce high quality graphical documents from within the program.

Export to standard file formats such as:

- Windows Metafile (*.wmf) with high precision coordinates

- Bitmap (*.bmp)

Conversion of graphic files between several file formats such as *.png, *.dxf, *.gif, *.tiff, *.eps, etc. This is achieved via an external tool which is shipped with PowerFactory.

7

External

Data

Format

Support

7 External Data Format Support

7 External Data Format Support

7.1 Standard Data Formats

In many cases, migration of data from other power system software is required. PowerFactory therefore supports foreign file Import of several versions from the following software packages:

PSS/E, PSS/U and PSS/Adept (Siemens)

DVG and UCTE (ucte.org)

NEPLAN (BCP)

ISU (SAP, billing data)

NETCAL (STZ Konstanz), NEPS ( I+P Consult) and ReticMaster (Inspired Interfaces)

Foreign file Export is supported for PSS/E and UCTE.

CIM object and format definitions are increasingly used for standardized data exchange. Although the CIM standards are still under development, PowerFactory already supports CIM import and export:

CIM 61970 (CIM for Transmission)

7.2 DIgSILENT Data Base Level Exchange (DGS)

DGS is PowerFactory’s standard bi-directional interface specifically designed for bulk data exchange with other applications such as GIS and SCADA, and for example, for exporting calculation results to produce Crystal Reports, or to interchange data with any other power system software. DGS (“DGS”=DIgSILENT-GIS-SCADA) does not feature the exchange of PowerFactory execution commands.

User-specific definition of objects and object parameters

Supported objects: elements, types and libraries, graphics and results

Import and export of complete network models as well as incremental data for updating existing models

Database support for: Oracle, MS-SQL and ODBC System DSN

File formats supported: ASCII Text (CSV), XML, MS-Excel and MS Access

Available for PowerFactory Interactive Window Mode and PowerFactory Engine Mode

8

DPL-

DIgSILENT

Programming

Language

8 DPL- DIgSILENT Programming Language

8 DPL- DIgSILENT Programming Language

The DPL-Programming Language offers a flexible interface for automating PowerFactory execution tasks. The DPL scripting language adds a new dimension to PowerFactory software by allowing the implementation of new calculation functions. Typical examples of user-specific DPL-scripts are:

Parametric sweep calculations (e.g. sliding fault location, wind profile load flows)

Implementation of user-specific commands (e.g. transfer capability analysis, penalty factor calculation)

Automatic protection coordination and device response checks

Specific voltage stability analysis via PV-/QV-curve analysis, etc.

Contingency screening according to user-specific needs

Verification of connection conditions

Data pre-processing including input/output handling

Equipment sizing and dimensioning

Report generation

The DPL object-oriented scripting language is intuitive and easy to learn. The basic set of commands includes:

C++- like, object-oriented syntax

Flow commands such as "if-then-else", "do-while"

Input/import, output/export and reporting routines

Mathematical expressions, support of vectors and matrices

Access to any PowerFactory object and parameter including graphical objects

Definition and execution of any PowerFactory command

Object filtering and batch execution

PowerFactory object procedure calls and DPL subroutine calls

New: Calling of external libraries (DLLs) for linking and executing other applications

8

DPL-

DIgSILENT

Programming

Language

8 DPL- DIgSILENT Programming Language

Easy Development

DPL’s basic syntax allows for the quick creation of simple high-level commands to automate tasks. Such tasks may include renaming objects, search and replace, post-processing calculation results and creating specific reports.

Transparency

All parameters of all objects in the network models are accessible. DPL can be used to query the entire database and to process all user-input and result parameters without restrictions.

Standardizing Commands

The DPL language can be used to create new 'standardized' DPL commands that can be used over and over again. DPL commands allow input parameters to be defined, and can be executed for specific selections of objects. Proven DPL commands can be safely stored in DPL command libraries and be used from there without the risk of damaging the scripts.

Control

DPL commands can configure and execute all PowerFactory commands. This includes not only the load flow and short-circuits calculation commands, but also the commands for transient simulation, harmonic analysis, reliability assessment, etc. New objects can be created by DPL in the database, and existing objects can be copied, deleted and edited. New reports can be defined and written to the output window; new graphs can be created and existing graphs can be adjusted to reflect a user-defined selection or the current calculation results.

Modularity

A

DPL command may contain other DPL commands as subroutines. This modular approach allows the execution

of

subroutines as independent commands. Existing commands can be combined to quickly create more complex

commands.

9

PowerFactory

Modes

of

Operation

9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation

9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation

9.1 Standard Windowing Mode

9.2 Engine & Hybrid Execution Mode

The standard execution of DIgSILENT PowerFactory is via the classical windowing mode operated via mouse and keyboard. When operated in “Engine Mode” PowerFactory is executed as a background process featuring a number of additional application options:

Bi-directional, high-speed exchange of data via “DIgSILENT Shared Memory Interface” or via “OPC” (OLE for Process Control). When using OPC, PowerFactory is executed as an OPC-Client.

Remote-execution of any PowerFactory command including activation of projects, modification of data, execution of analysis functions and DPL scripts, generation of output and reports, etc.

Temporary activation/popup of the “Windowing Mode” featuring interactive windowing operation until the windowing mode is closed and the engine mode resumes (“Hybrid Operation Mode”).

In principle, a number of additional application features may be operated as background processes in situations where it is integrated into GIS/NIS or SCADA systems or linked with other simulation tools such as Matlab/SIMULINK, ASPENTECH’s process simulation tool or other software systems requiring interaction with network analysis procedures. The engine mode also features parallel processing with other PowerFactory processes.

The “Engine Mode” permits the remote control of all PowerFactory functions with fast data and execution command exchange.

Hybrid operation mode is supported by activating the Windowing Operation mode for combined operation.

1 0

Power

Flow

Analysis

1 0 Power Flow Analysis

10 Power Flow Analysis

Within the Load Flow analysis environment, the accurate representation of a variety of network configurations and power system components is possible.

DIgSILENT PowerFactory offers a selection of calculation methods, including a full AC Newton-Raphson technique (balanced and unbalanced) and a linear DC method. The enhanced non-decoupled Newton- Raphson solution technique with current or power mismatch iterations, typically yields round-off errors below 1 kVA for all buses. The implemented algorithms exhibit excellent stability and convergence. Several iteration levels guarantee convergence under all conditions, with optional automatic relaxation and modification of constraints. The DC load flow, solving for active power flows and voltage angles, is extremely fast and robust (linear system; no iterations required).

Any combination of meshed 1-, 2-, and 3-phase AC and/or DC systems can be represented and solved simultaneously, from HV transmission systems, down to residential and industrial loads at LV voltage levels. Neutral conductors can be modelled explicitly.

The Load Flow tool accurately represents unbalanced loads, generation, grids with variable neutral potentials, HVDC systems, DC loads, adjustable speed drives, SVSs and FACTS devices, etc., for all AC and DC voltage levels.

DIgSILENT PowerFactory offers a new, intuitive and easy-to-use modelling technique which avoids the definition of bus types such as SL, PV, PQ, PI, AS, etc. PowerFactory simply provides the control mechanisms and device characteristics which are found in reality.

More Load Flow Analysis Features

Consideration of reactive power limits: detailed model for generator Mvar capability curves (including voltage-dependency).

Practical station control features with various local and remote control modes for voltage regulation and reactive power generation. Reactive power is automatically adjusted to ensure that generator output remains within its capability limits.

Various active power control modes, e.g. as dispatched, according to secondary or primary control, or inertial response.

Supports device characteristics, such as voltage-dependent loads and asynchronous machines with saturation and slip dependency, etc.

Comprehensive area/network power exchange control features using Secondary Controllers (SCO) with flexible participation factors.

1 0

Power

Flow

Analysis

1 0 Power Flow Analysis

Transformer OLTC able to control local or remote bus voltages, reactive power flows and voltage-drop compensation (LDC) within distribution systems. Special transformer controller model for parallel transformers. Transformer tap adjustment supports discrete and continuous methods.

Device controllers for shunts, doubly-fed asynchronous machines and other power electronics elements such as self-commutated converters (VSC), thyristor/diode converters or integrated FACTS devices.

Local and remote control mechanisms for SVCs. Automatic and continuous control of TCR and TSC switching is performed within component ratings to hold the voltage at a given value.

Correct representation of transformer vector groups and phase displacement.

Shunts can be modelled to consist of a combination of series and/or parallel connected capacitors, reactors and resistors. Shunts can be connected to busbars and feeders or to the remote ends of cables and lines. Filters may consist of any number of shunt combinations, and automatic shunt switching can be included in the automatic voltage regulation.

Support of the Virtual Power Plant model for generator dispatch based on merit order algorithm.

Feeder load scaling to control power flows at feeder entry point – including nested and parallel feeders.

Full support of any parameter characteristic and scale to allow parametric studies or easy definition of loading scenarios or load profiles.

All operational data (generation and demand patterns, switch positions, etc) can be saved and maintained in distinct Operational Scenarios.

Further Special Functions

Analysis of system control conditions

Consideration of protection devices

Determination of ‘Power at Risk’

Calculation of Load Flow Sensitivities. Evaluation of expected active/reactive power flow and voltage changes in the network based on the effect of demand/generation or transformer tap change.

Support of DPL scripts; e.g. to perform load balancing, determination of penalty factors or any other parameter required.

Load Flow Results

Implicit calculation of a large number of individual result variables and summary figures

Display of any variable within the single line graphic, station diagram, and a tabular Flexible Data Page

1 0

Power

Flow

Analysis

1 0 Power Flow Analysis

Various colouring modes for the single line graphic to visualize quantities such as calculated loading and/or voltage levels

Detailed analysis reporting, which can list overloaded system elements, unacceptable bus voltages, system islands, out-of-service components, voltage levels, area summaries, and more

Detailed textual output with pre-defined or user-defined filters and levels

DPL interactivity with all results

Result export to other software applications such as MS-EXCEL

1 1

Fault

Analysis

1 1 Fault Analysis

11 Fault Analysis

DIgSILENT PowerFactory features fault calculation functionality based on international standards as well as the most accurate DIgSILENT General Fault Analysis (GFA) method.

The following features and options are supported by all implemented fault analysis methods:

Calculation of fault levels at all busbars.

Calculation of short-circuit quantities at a selected busbar or along a defined section of line/cable, including all branch contributions and busbar voltages

Calculation of all symmetrical components as well as phase quantities.

User-definable fault impedance

Provision of specially designed graphs and diagrams including all quantities typically required by the protection engineer

Thermal overloads highlighted on the single line graphic for busbars and cables, with all equipment overloads available in a summary text report

Calculation of Thevenin impedances as seen from the faulty node

Calculation of apparent phase impedances (magnitude and angle) at any location along a transmission line/cable or busbar, for all branches, selected subsets thereof, or 1, 2 or 3 nodes from the faulted node

11.1 Supported Standards

IEC 60909 and VDE 0102/0103

PowerFactory provides a strict and complete implementation of the most frequently used standard for component design world-wide; the IEC 60909 and VDE 0102/0103 fault calculation standard, according to the most recently published versions.

Calculation of the initial symmetrical peak current I k" and short-circuit power S k" , peak short-circuit current i p , symmetrical short-circuit breaking current I b , and thermal equivalent current I th (IEC 60909-0 2001). Both minimum and maximum short-circuit currents can also be calculated based on network voltage c-factors

Support of all fault types (three-phase, two-phase, two-phase to ground, single-phase to ground)

Calculation of I k with selectable “Decaying Aperiodic Component”

1 1

Fault

Analysis

1 1 Fault Analysis

Selectable method for calculating the peak short-circuit current in meshed networks

User-definable fault impedance, conductor temperature and c-voltage factor.

Fault calculation can optionally include or exclude motor contribution to the fault current

Provision of specially designed graphs and diagrams required by the protection engineer for protection coordination and design

IEEE 141 / ANSI e 37.5

PowerFactory provides a thorough implementation of the IEEE 141/ANSI e37.5 fault calculation standard according to the latest published version. Special features are:

Transformer tap positions can be included in the fault current calculation

User-defined fault impedance and pre-fault voltage can be included in the fault current calculation

Other Standards

G 74 and IEC 61363

11.2 Complete Method/Multiple Faults

DIgSILENT PowerFactory’s Complete Method is especially designed for protection coordination purposes or for analyzing observed system contingencies. It provides the required algorithms and precision for determining the “true” or “operational” short-circuit currents without considering the simplifications or assumptions typically made in standard fault analysis.

In addition to the high precision network model, multiple faults which occur simultaneously in the system or unusual fault conditions such as inter-circuit faults or single-phase interruptions can be analysed.

The Multiple Fault Analysis executes a complete network analysis based on subtransient and transient representations of electrical machines taking into account all specified network devices with their full representation and pre-faulted load conditions.

Combination with IEC60909 principles for the calculation of aperiodic components and peak short-circuit currents

Calculation of peak-break and break-RMS currents

Consideration of a complete multi-wire system representation. Applicable to single-phase or two-phase networks.

Analysis of multiple fault conditions

1 1

Fault

Analysis

1 1 Fault Analysis

Calculation of any asymmetrical, single or multiple fault condition with or without fault impedance, including single- and double-phase line interruptions.

11.3 Fault Analysis Results (all Methods)

PowerFactory offers many reporting options, including detailed reporting on all short-circuit levels for all faults, or alternatively, a specific report for a particular fault type. Special protection reports can also be generated to include impedance, current and voltage information.

Display of any variable within the single line graphic, station diagram and Flexible Data Page

Fully flexible filter mechanisms to display objects in colour mode

Detailed analysis reporting, which can list overloaded system elements, unacceptable bus voltages, system islands, out-of-service components, voltage levels, area summaries and more

Detailed text output with pre-defined or user-defined filters and levels

DPL interactivity with all results

Result export to other software applications such as MS-EXCEL or MS-ACCESS

1 2

Network

Reduction

1 2 Network Reduction

12 Network Reduction

The typical application of the network reduction tool is a project where a specific network has to be analyzed but cannot be studied independently of a neighbouring network of the same or of a higher or lower voltage level. In this case, one option is to model both networks in detail for the calculation. However, there may be situations in which it is not desirable to perform studies with the complete model; for example when the calculation time would increase significantly, or when the data of the neighbouring network is confidential. In such cases it is good practise to provide a representation of the neighbouring network which contains the interface nodes (connection points) which may be connected by equivalent impedances and voltage sources.

The objective of Network Reduction is to calculate the parameters of a reduced AC equivalent of part of a network, as defined by a boundary. This boundary must completely split the network into two parts. The equivalent network is valid for both load flow and short-circuit calculations. ,Following this, a model variation can be optionally created in the PowerFactory database, whereby the full representation of the portion of network that has been reduced is replaced by the equivalent.

12.1 General Features

Flexible definition and maintenance of network boundaries. Various features such as colouring of boundaries and topological checks

Network Reduction can be calculated at any appropriate boundary

Support of Standard Ward (PQ-equivalent), Extended Ward (PV-equivalent) and equivalent loads

Support of short-circuit equivalents for transient, subtransient, peak-make and peak-break currents

The reduced network can be created in a network variation. This allows for simple comparison and swapping between reduced and non-reduced cases.

Robust reduction algorithms based on the sensitivity approach, i.e. reduced network matches for the current operating point as well as for network sensitivities

Implicit result verification feature

1 3

Voltage

Stability

Analysis

1 3 Voltage Stability Analysis

13 Voltage Stability Analysis

13.1 PV Curves

PowerFactory supports the calculation of PV curves by applying specifically implemented scripts. These scripts perform the calculation of voltage variations against:

Load variation in a selected area

Load shift across boundaries (keeping the total load constant)

Generator shift across boundaries (keeping the total generation constant)

PV curves can be calculated for a selected set of contingencies. Diagrams are automatically created.

13.2 Q-V Analysis

For analyzing the required reactive power reserve at individual busbars, PowerFactory provides scripts for the calculation of Q-V curves.

1 4

Load

Flow

Sensitivities

1 4 Load Flow Sensitivities

14 Load Flow Sensitivities

Supplementing PowerFactory’s voltage stability analysis suite is the Sensitivity Analysis tool. It is often required to not only know the critical point of a system, but also how this critical point is affected by changes in system conditions. PowerFactory’s Sensitivity Analysis tool performs a static voltage stability calculation according to the following options:

Sensitivity to a single busbar (calculation of the voltage sensitivities of all busbars and branch flow sensitivities according to variations in power (P and Q) at the selected busbar).

Option to calculate sensitivities with respect to all busbars simultaneously.

Sensitivity to a transformer tap position change (calculation of the voltage sensitivities of all busbars and branch flow sensitivities according to changes of a transformer/quad booster tap).

Modal analysis

- Identification of “weak” and “strong” parts of the network based on modal transformation of the v/Q sensitivity matrix.

- Eigenvalue calculation on the v/Q sensitivity matrix, with a user-defined number of eigenvalues to be calculated.

- Results of eigenvalues are displayed (in descending order according to magnitude), and branch/bus sensitivities can be displayed for each mode.

1 5

Contingency

Analysis

1 5 Contingency Analysis

15 Contingency Analysis

The new Contingency Analysis tool in DIgSILENT PowerFactory has been designed to offer a high degree of flexibility in configuration, calculation methods and reporting options. Single- and multiple- time-phase contingency analyses are available, both of which offer automatic or user-defined contingency creation based on events, and the consideration of controller time constants and thermal (short-term) ratings.

Calculation Options for Contingency Analysis:

Support of three calculation methods:

- AC load flow calculation

- DC load flow calculation

- Combined DC/AC calculation; i.e. full DC load flow calculation and automatic recalculation of critical contingencies by AC load flow

Single- and Multiple- Time-Phase calculations. Multiple time-phase contingency analysis facilitates user- defined post-fault actions within discrete time periods.

Generator Effectiveness and Quad Booster Effectiveness calculation:

This calculation feature assists the planner in defining appropriate measures for overstressed components in critical contingency cases: During contingency analysis, the possible impact of individual generator re-dispatch or transformer tap changes on overstressed lines is evaluated. Corresponding reports are available that list the generator and quad booster effectiveness on a per-case basis.

Ultimate Performance via Grid Computing: Possibility to perform the contingency analysis calculation in parallel (on multi-core machines and/or clustered PCs)

Management of Contingencies/Fault Cases:

User-friendly definition of contingencies (n-1, n-2, n-k, busbar) as ‘Fault Cases’ supporting user-defined events to model post-fault actions (re-switching, re-dispatching, tap adjustment, load shedding)

Clustering of ‘Fault Cases’ into ‘Fault Groups’ for efficient data management

Special Operational Libraries to manage ‘Fault Cases’ and ‘Fault Groups’ for future re-use

Automatic creation of contingency cases based on Fault Cases, considering current network topology

1 5

Contingency

Analysis

1 5 Contingency Analysis

Result File Management:

Recording of results in (sparse) result file; accessible for any kind of export and/or customer-specific post-processing

Predefined and user-definable monitoring lists for recording of results; selection of individual components, component classes and their associated variables to be recorded. Any available calculation result for a standard load flow calculation is accessible during contingency analysis.

User-defined limits for recording of results (thermal loadings, voltage limits, voltage step change)

Reports:

A wide range of standard reports is available, facilitating summary views or the presentation of results on a per- contingency basis:

Maximum Loadings Report

Loading Violations (per case) Report

Voltage Ranges Report

Voltage Violations (per case) Report

Generator and Quad Booster Effectiveness Report

Other key features:

Tracing Facilities: Use of the new ‘Trace’ function to step through events in a multiple time-phase contingency, while viewing updated results in the single-line graphic

Support of component-wise Short-Term Ratings based on pre-fault loading and post-fault time

Special “Contingency Analysis” toolbar for user-friendly configuration, calculation and reporting

1 6

Overhead

Line

and

Cable

Parameter

Calculation

1 6 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation

16 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation

DIgSILENT PowerFactory incorporates the automatic calculation of the electrical parameters of any cable/overhead line configuration starting from layout and geometric characteristics which are typically available in manufacture’s datasheets. The calculation is applicable over a wide range of frequencies and supports the step-up process of highly accurate line and cable models for harmonic analysis, frequency sweep and EMT- simulation among others. The supported options are described below.

16.1 Overhead Line Parameter Calculation

Any combination of line circuits (1-, 2- and 3-ph), neutral conductors and earth wires, with/without automatic reduction of earth wires

A flexible definition of tower types and tower geometries, including conductor sags, allowing a multiple combination of tower geometries and conductor types that avoids entry of redundant data

Circuit-wise, symmetrical and perfect transposition and user-defined phasing for the definition of any non-standard transposition scheme

Solid and tubular conductor types, including sub-conductors for phase circuits and earth wires

Skin effect

Equivalent impedance and admittance matrices in natural, reduced and symmetrical components

16.2 Cable Parameter Calculation

Multi-phase single core and pipe type cable systems

Flexible definition of cable layouts, including conducting, semi-conducting and insulating layers

Compact and hollow core shapes, filling factor for stranded conductors

Consideration of skin effect

Calculation of layer impedances and admittances in natural, reduced and symmetrical components, including sheath and armour reduction, cross-bonding

1 7

Distribution

Network

Analysis

1 7 Distribution Network Analysis

17 Distribution Network Analysis

17.1 Feeder Analysis

Feeder Plots: Graphical display feature (Virtual Instrument, VI) to increase transparency in grid loading and voltage profile analysis along the feeder. Displayed result variables are freely configurable. Full interactivity is given via the VI to access all relevant data of the components belonging to the feeder.

Schematic Visualization of Feeder: Automatic generation of single line diagram to visualize components of the feeder with distance/index view.

Feeder Load Scaling: A load flow calculation feature that allows the automatic adjustment of individual bus loads to match a specified total feeder load. The selection of loads which are to participate in the feeder scaling procedure is user-defined. This method allows for complex scaling scenarios with nested and parallel feeders.

17.2 Low-Voltage Network Analysis

PowerFactory integrates enhanced features designed especially for the analysis of LV networks. These functions enable the user to:

Define loads in terms of numbers of customers connected to a line

Consider load diversity

Perform a load flow analysis that considers load diversity for calculating maximum voltage drops and maximum branch current

Perform cable reinforcement optimization to either automatically reinforce selected cables, or to provide a report of recommendations

Perform voltage drop and cable loading analysis

Perform statistical calculations of neutral currents caused by unbalanced single-phase loading and load diversity, to represent a realistic network

17.3 Stochastic Load Modelling

On the basis of defined ‘customer units’ the user may specify a number of customers connected to a line. Load flow options are provided to define the load per unit customer according to:

Power per customer unit

1 7

Distribution

Network

Analysis

1 7 Distribution Network Analysis

Power factor

Coincidence factor for an infinite number of loads (i.e. ‘simultaneity factor’)

In addition, the user may select one of two methods for considering the stochastic nature of loads:

Stochastic evaluation (theoretical approach, also applicable to meshed networks)

Maximum current estimation (application of stochastic rules for estimating maximum branch flow and maximum voltage drops)

The Load Flow with stochastic load modelling then provides maximum currents for each branch component, maximum voltage drops, and minimum voltages at every bus bar

The usual variables for currents and voltages in this case represent average values of voltages and currents.

Losses are calculated based on average values; the maximum circuit loading is calculated using maximum currents.

17.4 Cable Reinforcement Optimization

PowerFactory’s Cable Reinforcement Optimization determines the most cost-effective option for upgrading overloaded cables. The objective function is to minimize annual costs for reinforcing lines (i.e. investment, operational costs and insurance fees). Constraints for the optimization are the admissible voltage band and cable loading limits for the planned network.

Optimization along pre-definable feeder

User-definable library of available cable/OHL types with costs that can be used for reinforcement

Consideration of:

- Admissible voltage band limits

- Maximum voltage drop limit at the end of the feeder

- Maximum admissible Cable/OHL overloading

Various plausibility checks for final solution

Calculated results: report of the recommended new cable/overhead types for lines and cost evaluation for the recommended upgrading

Report mode to propose cable/OHL type changes or automatic type replacement

1 7

Distribution

Network

Analysis

1 7 Distribution Network Analysis

17.5 Feeder Tools

The PowerFactory Feeder Tools comprise a set of tools for radial systems to change voltage levels, phase technology or to optimize phasing from a particular point downwards.

Voltage and Phase Technology Change Tool

Automatic change of the voltage level and/or phase technology inside a pre-defined feeder

Automatic replacement of type data (for transformers, lines, loads and motors) according to pre- configurable type mapping tables – including automatic creation of new compatible types if necessary

Auto-Balancing Tool

Automatic balancing of feeders such that voltage unbalance at terminals is minimized

Reconfiguration of phasing of loads, lines, or transformers and combinations thereof

Supports fixed phasing elements

Colouring modes to visualize phase technology before and after change

1 8

Protection

Functions

1 8 Protection Functions

18 Protection Functions

The basic functional model library of DIgSILENT PowerFactory’s protection analysis tool has been extended to include additional devices such as CTs, VTs, relays, fuses and more complex protection schemes including user- defined modelling capabilities. Additionally, there are specially designed interactive VIs (Virtual Instruments) for displaying system quantities and, more importantly, for modifying protection settings in the graphical environment. This last feature is especially useful, as coordinated settings between different protection schemes can be modified via the cursor in the graphical environment, following which the settings in both the database and the simulation environment are also updated.

All protective devices are fully-functional under steady-state and transient conditions, allowing device response assessment under all possible simulation modes, including load flow calculation, fault analysis, RMS and Instantaneous Values (EMT) simulation.

PowerFactory’s main protection features are:

Extensive relay database

Accurate steady-state relay checking via short-circuit and load flow (balanced & unbalanced)

Precise dynamic relay checking with RMS and EMT simulations

Consideration of current transformer saturation

Diagrams for overcurrent and distance coordination:

o

Time-overcurrent diagrams

o

R-X characteristic diagrams

o

Time distance diagrams

Automatic Protection Coordination Wizard for time-overcurrent protection schemes

18.1 Protection Model Library and Functionality

The DIgSILENT PowerFactory protection analysis tool contains a comprehensive protection device model library. All relays are modelled for steady-state calculations (short-circuit, load flow), RMS and EMT simulation modes. The definition of relay types is highly flexible via block diagrams. For RMS and EMT simulation purposes, relays may be extended and adopted to cope with user specific requirements via the PowerFactory DSL language The features of the protection model library are listed below.

Fuses are represented by their melting curves. It is possible to take minimum and maximum melting curves into account.

1 8

Protection

Functions

1 8 Protection Functions

Time-Overcurrent Relays for 1-phase, 3-phase, ground and negative sequence time over-currents. Additionally, the relay characteristics can incorporate the following standards and solution methods:

IEC 255-3, ANSI/IEEE and ANSI/IEEE squared

ABB/Westinghouse CO (Mdar)

Linear approximation, Hermite-spline approximation

Analytical expressions via built-in formula editor and analyzer (DSL)

Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays for 1- phase, 3-phase, ground and negative sequence time over-currents.

Directional Relays for overcurrent, power, ground current, and any combination of time and instantaneous overcurrent relays. Additionally, voltage and current polarization is used for the detection of negative and zero sequence components considering also dual polarization. Optional: with voltage memory.

Distance Relays for phase, ground and zone distance protection. Provision is available for incorporating overcurrent and under-impedance starting units (U-I or Z) as well as angle under-impedance.

Different characteristics are available for distance relay zones including:

MHO, offset MHO

Polygonal, offset polygonal

Tomatoes, lens and circle

R/X Blinders and quadrilateral

Support of various polarizations such as:

Self-polarized

Cross polarized (90ø connection)

Positive, negative sequence polarized

Optional: voltage memory

Zero sequence and parallel line compensation

Voltage Relays for under-voltage, instantaneous voltage, voltage balance and unbalance.

Additional devices such as: Breaker Fail, Motor Protection, Generator Protection, Differential Protection, Reclosing Relays, Low Voltage Circuit Breakers, and Out-of-Step Relays.

1 8

Protection

Functions

1 8 Protection Functions

In addition to these protection functions and relays, DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides further devices and characteristics for more detailed protection system modelling, such as:

Current and voltage transformers that include saturation effects

Conductor, cable damage curves, cable overload curves and inrush peak current modelling

Transformer damage curves (ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.109-1985) and inrush peak current modelling

Motor starting curves, cold and hot stall, in-rush peak current modelling, and any user-defined curves

All protection device models are implemented within the composite model frame environment. This allows users to easily design and implement their own models, by utilizing the graphical user interface for constructing block diagrams.

18.2 Output & Graphical Representation

Time-Overcurrent Diagrams

- Overcurrent curve adjustment using drag & drop

- Display of tripping curve tolerances during drag & drop

- User-defined labels

- Tripping times are automatically displayed for calculated currents in time-overcurrent diagrams

- Display of an unlimited number of overcurrent curves in diagrams

- Simple creation and addition of diagrams via single line graphics

- Display of motor starting curves, conductor/cable and transformer damage curves

- Balloon help showing name of relay, etc.

- Double-click on curves to change relay settings

- Additional axis for voltage levels

R-X Characteristic Diagrams

- Display branch impedances with several options

- Automatic display of calculated impedances

1 8

Protection

Functions

1 8 Protection Functions

- Adding relays with offset

- Flexible display of zones (starting zones, etc.)

Time Distance Diagrams

- Different methods for calculating curves: kilometrical or short-circuit sweep method

- Forward and/or reverse diagram

- Selectivity check of distance and overcurrent relays/fuses in same diagram

- Separate overreach zone representation

- Additional axis showing relay locations and busbars/terminals

- Selectable x-axis scaling (length, impedance, reactance, 1/conductance)

Single Line Diagram

- Colouring of switches according to relay locations, relay tripping times

- Display of relay tripping times in result boxes

- Additional text boxes for relay settings

Relay Setting Report

Relay Tripping Report

18.3 Overcurrent-Time Protection

The coordination of overcurrent-time protection is performed graphically using the current-time diagram as the basis. Relay settings are modified using drag & drop to move characteristics. Short-circuit currents calculated by the short-circuit command, are shown in the diagram as a vertical line. In addition, the corresponding tripping times of the relays are displayed. Coordination between relays at different voltage levels is available. Therefore, currents are automatically based on the leading voltage level, which can be selected by the user.

18.4 Distance Protection

For distance protection coordination, two powerful graphical features are integrated. The first of these features is the R-X diagram for displaying the tripping zone of distance relays and the line impedances. Several relays can be visualized in the same R-X diagram. This can be useful for the comparison of two relays that are located at different ends of the same line. The relay characteristics and the impedance characteristic of the connecting line

1 8

Protection

Functions

1 8 Protection Functions

will be shown in the same R-X diagram. Following short-circuit calculations, the measured impedances are visualized with a marker in the shape of a small arrow or cross. From the location of the marker the user can see the tripped zone and its associated tripping time. For dynamic simulation, measured impedances of the relays can be displayed, thereby visualizing the functioning of power swing blocking or out-of-step tripping relays.

The second powerful graphical feature is the time-distance diagram, which is used for checking the selectivity between relays along a coordination path. The relays on a coordination path can be displayed in diagrams for forward, reverse or for both directions. Consequently, it is very easy to check the selectivity of the relays along a coordination path. Two different methods for calculation of the tripping curves are provided. These are the kilometric and the short-circuit method.

Kilometric method: The reach of the zones is calculated from the intersection of the given positive sequence impedance of the lines, and the impedance characteristic of the relays.

Short-circuit method: This is the main method for checking the selectivity. Short-circuits (user-defined fault type) are calculated along the coordination path. The tripping times for the time-distance curve are determined using the calculated impedances. The starting signal of a relay is also considered.

A special feature of the distance protection is the consideration of blocking signals or POTT (permissive over-

reach transfer tripping), PUTT (permissive under-reach transfer tripping), which are also taken into account. In addition to tripping curves of distance relays, the curves of overcurrent relays can be displayed and coordinated

in the same diagram using the short-circuit method.

Both the kilometric and the short-circuit method consider breaker opening times in the calculation of tripping times. The breaker opening time can be optionally ignored.

1 9

Distribution

Network

Optimization

1 9 Distribution Network Optimization

19 Distribution Network Optimization

In order to reduce network unbalance and improve quality of supply, DIgSILENT PowerFactory incorporates features to assist the user in distribution network optimization:

Optimal capacitor placement

Open tie optimization

Cable reinforcement optimization

Feeder tools for voltage/technology change

Auto-balancing to minimize voltage unbalance

19.1 Optimal Capacitor Placement

PowerFactory’s Optimal Capacitor Placement determines the optimal locations, types and sizes of capacitors to be installed in radial distribution networks. The economic benefits due to energy loss reduction are weighted against the installation costs of the capacitors while keeping the voltage profile within defined limits. This feature includes:

User-definable library of proposed capacitor candidates together with annual installation costs

Consideration of:

- Benefits due to loss reduction

- Voltage limits

- Maximum total investment costs

Support of load profiles

Calculated results: set of locations where capacitors should be installed, which type of capacitor(s) should be installed at each site, and whether or not a switched capacitor is proposed.

User-friendly presentation of results with fully-integrated post-processing features

19.2 Open Tie Optimization

PowerFactory’s Open Tie Optimization finds a loss-minimal switch configuration of the network, which results in a radial topology while maintaining all thermal limits. This feature includes:

1 9

Distribution

Network

Optimization

1 9 Distribution Network Optimization

Heuristic algorithm which explores all potential meshes in the grid to evaluate the optimal tie-points to open

Consideration of loading limits

User-definable section of the network where optimal open tie-points should be determined

Report mode to propose switch status changes or automatic switch reconfiguration

2 0

Harmonic

Analysis

Functions

2 0 Harmonic Analysis Functions

20 Harmonic Analysis Functions

The harmonic analysis functionality is ideal for applications in transmission, distribution and industrial networks for filter design, ripple control signal simulation or for the determination of network resonance frequencies.

For analyzing the impact of harmonics in power systems, DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides two harmonic analysis functions.

20.1 Harmonic Load Flow

The DIgSILENT PowerFactory harmonic load flow features the calculation of harmonic voltage and current distributions based on defined harmonic sources and grid characteristics. It allows the modelling of any user- defined harmonic voltage or current source, both in magnitude and phase including inter-harmonics. The harmonic sources can be located at any busbar in the power system and may be implemented within any network topology.

Harmonic current sources can be associated with any load, SVC (TCR injection), rectifier or inverter. Harmonic voltage sources can be modelled using the AC voltage source model or the PWM AC/DC converter model. The built-in rectifier models inject the spectrum of ideal 6-pulse rectifiers if no other injection has been defined.

DIgSILENT PowerFactory supports any type of characteristic harmonic, un-characteristic harmonic (even harmonics etc.) and non-integer (inter-) harmonics. Unbalanced harmonic sources (e.g. single-phase rectifiers) are also fully-supported. The analysis of inter-harmonics or unbalanced harmonic sources is based on a complete abc-phase network model.

Because of the phase correct representation of harmonic sources and network elements, the superposition of harmonic currents injected by 6-pulse rectifiers (via Y-Y and Y-D transformers leading to a reduction in 5 th , 7 th , 17 th , 19 th etc. harmonic currents) is modelled correctly.

DIgSILENT PowerFactory calculates all symmetrical and asymmetrical harmonic indices for currents and voltages, as defined by relevant IEEE standards, including harmonic current indices and harmonic losses, such as:

THD and HD ((Total) Harmonic Distortion)

TAD (Total Arithmetic Distortion)

IT product

Harmonic losses

Active and reactive power at any frequency

Total active and reactive power, displacement and power factor

2 0

Harmonic

Analysis

Functions

2 0 Harmonic Analysis Functions

Network impedances at selected buses

RMS values

Unbalance factors

Integer and non-integer harmonic order values

Flicker Assessment:

- Pst, Plt (Short-, and long-term Flicker Disturbance Factors; continuous and switching operation) - Relative voltage change value

Results can be represented:

In the single line diagram (total harmonic indices)

As histograms (frequency domain)

As waveform (transformation into the time domain)

As profile (e.g. THD versus busbars)

The frequency dependent representation of network elements such as lines, cables, two- and three-winding transformers, machines, loads, filter banks etc. for considering skin effects is fully-supported.

20.2 Frequency Sweep

The frequency sweep performs a continuous analysis in the frequency domain. The most common application is the calculation of self- and mutual network impedances for identifying the resonance points of the network and for supporting filter design.

All impedances are calculated simultaneously in the same run. Since DIgSILENT PowerFactory uses a variable step-size algorithm, the calculation time of frequency sweeps is very low while the resolution around resonance points remains very high (typically 0.1 Hz).

Frequency sweeps can either be performed with the positive-sequence network model (very fast) or the complete three-phase abc-network model.

Calculation of self- and mutual network impedances

Calculation of voltage amplification factors

Impedance plots may be created in either Bode, Nyquist or magnitude/phase forms.

2 0

Harmonic

Analysis

Functions

2 0 Harmonic Analysis Functions

In addition to common applications relating to harmonic distortion, PowerFactory’s Frequency Sweep function can also be used for subsynchronous resonance studies. The calculation of damping and undamping torques is supported by special scripts.

Network Modelling

The skin effect is considered by associating frequency characteristics with line or transformer resistances and inductances. These characteristics can be specified by either setting the parameters of a polynomial expression or by entering the characteristic point by point using tables. DIgSILENT PowerFactory uses cubic splines or hermite polynoms for appropriate interpolation.

Lines are modelled either by approximate PI sections or by the highly-accurate distributed parameter line model that should always be used for long lines or high frequency applications. The skin effect can be included in both line models.

Filters can be specified by either ‘layout’ parameters or ‘design’ parameters. ‘Layout’ parameters are typically the rated reactive power, the resonance frequency and the quality factor. ‘Design’ parameters are the actual R, L, and C values.

In addition to the explicit specification of frequency dependent resistance or inductance via parameter characteristics, overhead lines can be modelled by defining the tower geometry and cables can be modelled by specifying the cable layout. In such cases, frequency dependent effects, such as the skin effect or frequency dependent earth return, are automatically calculated and considered by the model.

20.3 Ripple Control Signals

DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides full support for analyzing and dimensioning ripple control systems. Series and parallel coupling of ripple control systems can be modelled including all necessary filter elements.

The level of the ripple control signal in the entire network is calculated and reported in the single line diagram, the output window or the browser.

20.4 Filter Rating

DIgSILENT PowerFactory features a special, easy-to-use function for calculating the rating of all components of a filter. All relevant voltages across all components are calculated and made available in the ‘Filter Sizing’ report.

2 1

Optimal

Power

Flow

2 1 Optimal Power Flow

21 Optimal Power Flow

The PowerFactory Optimal Power Flow (OPF) serves as the ideal complement to the existing load flow functions. Where the standard load flow calculates branch flows and busbar voltages based on specified “set points” (active/reactive power generation, generator voltage, transformer tap positions, etc.), the OPF also calculates the “best possible” values for optimizing a user-specified objective function and a number of user-defined constraints. In this way, the OPF adds intelligence and consequently improves efficiency and throughput of power system studies significantly.

Building on the load flow calculation, PowerFactory offers two calculation methods:

AC optimization based on a state-of-the-art interior-point algorithm

DC optimization based on linear programming using simplex methods, also supporting contingency constrained optimization.

OPF in PowerFactory allows easy configuration of the optimization task via the simple selection of an objective function, controls (i.e. system variables to be optimized), and constraints. The optimal solution for the selected objective function is calculated under the consideration of a number of possible constraints with which the final solution must comply. All controls and constraints can be flexibly-defined on a component level.

21.1 AC Optimization

Supported Objective Functions: