Reliability Analysis* State Estimation * Dynamic Modelling (DSL) * System Dynamics (RMS / EMT) Motor Starting * RealTime Simulation* Small Signal Stability * Interfacing PowerFactory * Installation Options
Rev 1.14/4/2010
PowerFactory V14
Basic Software Features & Calculation Functions Advanced Functions and Features
Protection Coordination * Distribution Network Optimization * Harmonic Analysis * Optimal Power Flow Reliability Analysis * State Estimation * Dynamic Modelling (DSL) * System Dynamics (RMS / EMT) Motor Starting * RealTime Simulator * Small Signal Stability * Interfacing PowerFactory * Installation Options
Rev 1.16/7/2011_E
Table
of
Contents
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 
6 

2 PowerFactory Overview 
8 

2.1 Functional Integration and Applications 
8 

2.2 PowerFactory Software Concept 
8 

3 
Network Models 
11 
3.1 Grid Representations and Power Equipment 
11 

3.2 Builtin Calculation and Integrated Modelling Functions 
15 

3.3 Load and Generation Profiles 
15 

4 
Data Management 
16 
4.1 V14 Standard Data Model 
16 

4.1.1 Arrangement of Data in Project Folders 
16 

4.1.2 Study Time 
17 

4.2 Data Organisation 
17 

5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities 
19 

6 Results and Reporting 
22 

6.1 Text Reports 
22 

6.2 Spreadsheet Reports (Tabular Views) 
22 

6.3 Reporting in Network Diagrams 
23 

6.4 Result File Management 
23 

6.5 Plots and Diagrams 
23 

6.6 Additional Features 
25 

7 
External Data Format Support 
26 
7.1 Standard Data Formats 
26 

7.2 DIgSILENT Data Base Level Exchange (DGS) 
26 

8 DPL DIgSILENT Programming Language 
27 

9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation 
29 

9.1 Standard Windowing Mode 
29 
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9.2 Engine & Hybrid Execution Mode 
29 

10 Power Flow Analysis 
30 

11 Fault Analysis 
33 

11.1 Supported Standards 
33 

11.2 Complete Method/Multiple Faults 
34 

11.3 Fault Analysis Results (all Methods) 
35 

12 
Network Reduction 
36 
12.1 
General Features 
36 
13 
Voltage Stability Analysis 
37 
13.1 PV Curves 
37 

13.2 QV Analysis 
37 

14 Load Flow Sensitivities 
38 

15 Contingency Analysis 
39 

16 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation 
41 

16.1 Overhead Line Parameter Calculation 
41 

16.2 Cable Parameter Calculation 
41 

17 
Distribution Network Analysis 
42 
17.1 Feeder Analysis 
42 

17.2 LowVoltage Network Analysis 
42 

17.3 Stochastic Load Modelling 
42 

17.4 Cable Reinforcement Optimization 
43 

17.5 Feeder Tools 
44 

18 
Protection Functions 
45 
18.1 Protection Model Library and Functionality 
45 

18.2 Output & Graphical Representation 
47 

18.3 OvercurrentTime Protection 
48 

18.4 Distance Protection 
48 

19 
Distribution Network Optimization 
50 
19.1 
Optimal Capacitor Placement 
50 
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19.2 
Open Tie Optimization 
50 
20 
Harmonic Analysis Functions 
52 
20.1 Harmonic Load Flow 
52 

20.2 Frequency Sweep 
53 

20.3 Ripple Control Signals 
54 

20.4 Filter Rating 
54 

21 
Optimal Power Flow 
55 
21.1 AC Optimization 
55 

21.2 DC Optimization 
56 

22 
Reliability Analysis 
58 
22.1 Failure Models 
58 

22.2 State Enumeration 
59 

22.3 Failure Effect Analysis 
59 

22.4 System Indices and Results 
60 

22.5 Special Features 
62 

22.5.1 High Flexibility 
62 

22.5.2 Tracing of Individual Cases 
62 

22.5.3 Powerful Output Tools for Result Representation 
62 

22.5.4 Contribution to Reliability Indices 
63 

22.5.5 Development of Indices over Years 
63 

23 State Estimation 
64 

24 Dynamic Modelling Flexibility (DSL) 
66 

25 Power System Dynamics 
68 

25.1 General Capabilities 
68 

25.2 Stability Analysis Functions 
71 

25.2.1 RMS Simulation with abc Phase Representation 
71 

25.2.2 Longterm Stability 
71 

25.3 Transient Motor Starting 
72 

25.4 Electromagnetic Transients (EMT) 
73 

25.5 Dynamic System Parameter Identification 
74 

25.6 PowerFactory RealTime Simulators 
74 

26 
Small Signal Stability 
76 
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27 
PowerFactory Interfaces 
78 
27.1 DGS Interface 
78 

27.2 OPC Interface 
78 

27.3 Shared Memory Interface 
79 

28 
Interfacing PowerFactory 
81 
28.1 PowerFactory  GIS integration 
81 

28.2 PowerFactory  SCADA integration 
83 

28.3 PowerFactory  Simulation Interface (SIMULINK, etc.) 
84 

28.4 PowerFactory  A/D Signal Interfacing Capability 
84 

29 
PowerFactory Installation Options 
85 
29.1 PowerFactory Workstation License 
85 

29.2 PowerFactory Server License 
86 

29.3 License Overview 
90 

29.4 Installation Requirements 
90 

30 
PowerFactory Function Definitions and Prices 
91 
30.1 PowerFactory Function Definitions 
91 

30.2 PowerFactory Prices 
92 

31 The DIgSILENT Company 
93 

32 History of the DIgSILENT Software 
94 
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Introduction
1 Introduction
DIgSILENT has set standards and trends in power system modelling, analysis and simulation for more than 25 years. The proven advantages of the PowerFactory software are its overall functional integration, its applicability to the modelling of generation, transmission, distribution and industrial grids, and the analysis of these grids’ interactions.
Electrical grids, planning processes and operation processes are becoming increasingly complex due to market unbundling, expansion of interconnections and distributed generation. This increases the demands on software tools in terms of data quality, flexibility and manageability.
With PowerFactory Version 14, DIgSILENT presents a further step towards seamless integration of functionality and data management within a multiuser environment. The building and organizing of schemes, scenarios, versions and running arrangements has been added for improved handling.
Version 14 Key Features
Single and multiuser project data administration environment
Database with historical data storage and auditing functionality.
Timestamped data model
Management of operational scenarios
Baselining, versioning and publishing of models
Integrated node and branch, and switch and component modelling
Integrated overview diagrams, simplified and detailed single line diagrams
Fast contingency analysis tools (AC and DC load flow)
Contingencyconstrained economic dispatch including quad booster optimization
Distributed/embedded power generation modelling
New models for wind power and virtual power plants
DIgSILENT PowerFactory is the most economical solution, as data handling, modelling capabilities and overall functionality replace a set of other software systems, thereby minimizing project execution costs and training requirements. The allinone PowerFactory solution promotes highlyoptimized workflow.
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Introduction
DIgSILENT PowerFactory is easy to use and caters for all standard power system analysis needs, including high end applications in new technologies such as wind power and distributed generation and the handling of very large power systems. In addition to the standalone solution, the PowerFactory engine can be smoothly integrated into GIS, DMS and EMS supporting open system standards.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory v14 integrated features overview
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PowerFactory
Overview
2 PowerFactory Overview
2.1 Functional Integration and Applications
Implemented as a single software solution allowing for fast 'walk around' through the database and execution environment
No need to reload modules and update, transfer and convert data and results between different program applications
Vertically integrated power equipment model concept allowing models to be shared by all analysis functions
Support of transmission, distribution and industrial system design and simulation
Modelling and simulation of railway systems
Simulation of any kind of wind turbines and wind parks
Smart Grid modelling including virtual power plants and distributed generation such as PV panels, micro turbines, battery storage, CHP, etc.
2.2 PowerFactory Software Concept
Single Database Concept
Optimal data organization and project definitions for performing any type of calculation, storage of settings, diagrams and visualization options or software operation sequences.
No need for tedious organization of several files for defining the various analysis aspects and project execution workflows.
Database environment fully integrates all necessary data, such as that required for defining cases, scenarios, variants, singleline graphics, outputs, run conditions, calculation options, graphics or user defined models. Saving a project includes everything required to rerun all defined cases at a later stage.
Access to all data via a comfortable and powerful data manager, object browser, plus various types of diagrams and wizards.
Comprehensive, nonredundant data model supporting all calculation functions
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PowerFactory
Overview
User Roles
Access to user information through a user accounting system
Protection of data through different types of access rights
Folder sharing between users with “readonly” access. This is especially useful for libraries and network base cases which should be administrated only by authorized personnel.
MultiUser Operation and Team working
Multiuser data administration supporting MSSQL or ORACLE databases
Support of user accounting, access rights and data sharing, featuring the powerful option of allowing several users to work on the same project in a coordinated way. This demonstrates the concept of non redundant data management in PowerFactory
Management of multiuser data editing via the definition of a base project, project versions and derived projects (virtual projects).
Support of version control including rollback functions and merge/compare tools.
Network Variations, Expansion Stages Management and Operational Scenarios
Support of timestamped network variations.
Variation scheduler for easy handling of subprojects
Definition of study cases and operational scenarios
Activation of network stages according to study time. This automatically addresses the handling of power system components according to their commissioning and decommissioning dates
MultiLevel Models
Data describing network models such as cables, machines, loads, transformers, etc., are subdivided into element data and type data which point to libraries.
All data to be entered are grouped into basic data (data required for all calculations) and function level data (data required only for executing specific calculations).
Data are simply entered in physical quantities rather than in per unit values, minimizing the need for manual recalculation and conversion of data.
Verification of input data, with detailed warning and error messages
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PowerFactory
Overview
Integrated calculators for asynchronous machines, cable data and tower configurations
Batch Mode, Engine Mode and Interfaces
Fully interactive windowing mode according to the latest, proven standards
Engine mode for background operation
Various communication features to exchange data with other applications such as GIS, SCADA and real time control systems via OPC, shared memory, DGS (CSV, ODBC), etc.
Hybrid operation switching between background and windowing mode according to users’ needs
Data exchange via CIM, PSS/E, UCTE and many other file formats
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Network
Models
3 Network Models
3.1 Grid Representations and Power Equipment
Grid Models
Meshed and radial AC systems with 1, 2, 3, and 4phases
Meshed and radial DC systems
Combined AC and DC system modelling
Model validity from LV up to ultrahigh voltage
Phase Technologies
Single phase with/without neutral
Twophase with/without neutral
Biphase with/without neutral
Threephase with/without neutral
Substations
Simple terminal models to be used for “node and branch” representation, marshalling panels, terminal blocks, terminal strips, clamping bars, joints and junctions.
Complex substation models with the provision of various standard busbar configurations such as single and double busbars with/without tiebreakers, bypass busbars, 1½ busbar systems and flexible busbar configurations according to userspecific needs.
Templates for holding any type of userspecific busbar configuration, including preconfigured protection schemes
Generators and Sources
Synchronous and asynchronous generator
Doublyfed induction generator
Static generator (for PV, fuel cell, wind generator, battery storage, etc.)
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Network
Models
External grid
AC voltage source
AC current source
2terminal AC voltage source
Loads
General load model (for HV and MVfeeders)
Complex load model (for feeders with a large number of induction motors)
Low voltage load (can be assigned across line and cable sections)
Reactive Power Compensation
Static Var Compensator (SVC)
Shunt/Filter (RLC, RL, C, RLCR _{p} , RLCCR _{p} )
Branch models
Overhead line and cable models (πmodels and distributed parameter models)
Circuits and line subsections
Mutual data, line couplings, tower geometries
2, 2Nwinding transformer and auto transformer
3winding transformer, booster transformer
Series reactor, series capacitor and common impedance
DC Models
1terminal and 2terminal DC voltage source and DC current source
DC/DC converter
Inductive DCcoupling
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Network
Models
Power Electronics Devices
Thyristor/Diode converter models
Selfcommutated converter models (VSCconverter)
DC valve (for building individual converter topologies)
Softstarter
Switches and Substation Equipment
Circuit Breaker and Disconnector
LoadBreakDisconnector
LoadSwitch
Grounding Switch
Fuse
NEC/NER, grounding devices
Surge arrester
Composite Models
Composite node models, e.g. representing complex substations
Composite branch models
Template library for handling composite models
Parameter characteristics
Time characteristics and discrete characteristics
Scalar, vector and matrix characteristics
File references and polygons
Continuous and discrete triggers
Frequency and time scales
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Network
Models
Controllers
Station controller, secondary controller (SCO), virtual power plant
Tap controller, shunt controller
Userdefinable capability diagrams and controllers
Organisation and Grouping
Site, station, substation, area, zone
Feeder, branch, bay
Operator, owner
Boundaries
Operational Library
Substation running arrangements
CB ratings
Thermal ratings
Library of faults/contingencies
Library of (planned) outages
Others
Protection relays with over 30 basic protection function blocks
Manufacturerspecific relay library with relay models from all major manufacturers
CT, VT and various measurement transducers (P, Q, f, etc.)
Fourier source, harmonic source, FFT
Clock, sample & hold, sample & hold noise generator
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Network
Models
PowerFactory supports 500 different objects for defining, organizing and storing users’ grid definitions and project settings. The abovelisted objects are a summary of those most frequently used.
3.2 Builtin Calculation and Integrated Modelling Functions
PowerFactory provides a number of functions which assist users in entering data which may have come from datasheets or product catalogues. Not only do these functions greatly simplify data entry, but they also provide valuable output and results.
Identification of asynchronous machine parameters
Support of two different parameter input modes: (a) electrical parameters and (b) sliptorque/current characteristic
When entering electrical parameters, such as the rated mechanical power, stator resistance and reactance, magnetisation reactance, etc., all electrical parameters which precisely define and describe the asynchronous machine are then calculated. This includes the determination of the torque/speed characteristic.
The alternative definition via the sliptorque/current characteristic requires entering data such as characteristics at nominal operation point, torque at stalling point, locked rotor torque and other parameters typically available from manufacturer handbooks or test reports. This alternative data entering method will then determine the electrical machine parameters.
Calculation of Overhead Line Parameters and Cable Parameters
Please refer to section 16.
3.3 Load and Generation Profiles
Load and generator parameter characteristics can be defined on a perelement basis for parametric studies. Parameter characteristics can be imposed on each input parameter. They may be time dependent, refer to predefined discrete cases, or result from external sources.
All operational data (generation and demand patterns, switch positions, etc) can be saved and maintained in distinct Operation Scenarios.
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Data
Management
4 Data Management
4.1 V14 Standard Data Model
4.1.1 Arrangement of Data in Project Folders
All data required for grid modelling, project organization and project execution are arranged in project folders. Project data are structured into Libraries, Network Models, Operation Scenarios and Study Cases.
Libraries
Libraries contain equipment types, special operation information, DPL scripts, templates and user defined models.
The Equipment Type Library can store manufacturer and standard data for cables, conductors, circuit breakers, transformers, motors, generators, protection devices, PV panels, converters, wind turbines, etc.
Operational Libraries help organize standard settings and operational structures of grids. Typical entries include specific device Mvar limits and capability curves, outages, fault conditions and sequences, specific thermal ratings, running arrangements, etc.
Network Models
All network data are organized and stored in various folders such as grid and area folders, folders for boundaries, circuits, feeders, routes, zones, etc.
Comprehensive network topology handling defining: Nodes, Substations, Sites, Boundaries, Circuits, Routes, Operators and Owners.
Graphical information such as overview diagrams, simplified single line diagrams and detailed single line diagrams are automatically organized in a separate diagram folder
Grid Variations are linked to the original grid data, allowing nonredundant grid variation management.
Easy and nonredundant handling of grid expansion alternatives.
Planned grid expansions are organized by timestamped Expansion Stages which are considered depending on the selected Study Time. Expansion Stages are stored in Variations and handled via the Variation Scheduler. In other words, variations can be seen as expansion plans composed of different stages which are activated chronologically.
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Data
Management
Operation Scenarios
Definition of operation and dispatch conditions, grid loading, ambient temperature, daily load variation pattern, etc
Organisation of characteristics to generate ranges of values such as daily load curves, temperature dependencies, wind conditions, solar radiation pattern, etc
Definition of triggers for easy selection of certain conditions to be analysed
Comparison of Operation Scenarios
Study Cases
Grid configurations, operation conditions, trigger settings, calculation options, fault sequences, results and DPL scripts to be executed are all stored in Study Cases
Study Cases can be activated to reproduce any grid condition and its associated calculation results
4.1.2 Study Time
PowerFactory V14 extends grid modelling into the dimension of time. The model may span a period of months or years considering network expansions, planned outages and other system events. The period of validity of a project therefore specifies the time span that the of the model’s validity.
The Study Time automatically determines which expansion stages of a variation will be considered.
Selection of Study Time along with the operational conditions will automatically create grid expansion scenarios
4.2 Data Organisation
Simultaneous use of grid data takes place when two different parties work with the same project. This kind of situation occurs most frequently in larger companies where softwarebased teamworking capabilities are a basic requirement.
Versioning
Project Versions constitute a snapshot of a project at a specific point in time
Project versions are under full control of owner rights
Rollback functions allow a controlled “Undo” of a project’s execution steps, thereby “rolling back” to a specific stage of the project
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Data
Management
Reporting facilities for Derived Projects which depend on a certain version
Derived Projects
Master Projects can be published in a public area of the database
Derived Projects are “virtual” copies of a Version of a Master Project that can be developed by any number of users simultaneously. Only the differences to the original version are stored
Derived Projects are always linked to their original Master Project
The users will be automatically notified if a new version of their Master Project is available
Comprehensive tools for merging several derived projects and/or their versions into a new project via the Merge Tool. This allows the consolidation of independent and parallel model modifications introduced by different users.
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Network
Diagrams
&
Graphic
Capabilities
5 Network Diagrams & Graphic Capabilities
Categories of Network Diagrams
Simplified Single Line Diagrams with various options for a schematic view of substation topology and switching status
Detailed Single Line Diagrams showing all switches (circuit breakers and disconnectors)
Intelligent Overview Diagrams providing a node and branch representation of the network. Can be schematically, geographically or semigeographically arranged
General Features
Handle mixed representations of Detailed Single Line Diagrams, Simplified Single Line Diagrams and Overview Diagrams
Access equipment editing menus in the single line diagram via cursor selection of the appropriate element, region or composite model
Zoomin or zoomout of area networks or composite model graphics
Initiate calculation events directly within the graphical environment, including circuit breaker switching, fault implementation and other data changes
Option to immediately reflect any editing activity on the graphical level
Display any calculation results immediately in result boxes in single line diagrams. All program variables and signals can be displayed according to a highly flexible user definition for various object categories and analysis functions
Display any calculation result to be defined on various functional levels and categories for any object
Insert freelyconfigured result displays
Provision of auxiliary graphics editing for enhanced documentation
Perform copy/paste operation on single objects and groups
View and operate several graphic windows with different layers and grid sections simultaneously. Utilize several graphical representations of the same system simultaneously.
Spread large diagrams over several pages
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Network
Diagrams
&
Graphic
Capabilities
Support of predefined and userdefined graphical layers
Placement of userdefinable icons as buttons for executing DPL scripts. This way users can create custom panels of frequentlyexecuted DPLinitiated commands.
Colouring of Network Diagrams
Provision of various colouring modes according to topology criteria such as areas, zones, owners, operators, routes, station connectivity, energizing status, boundaries/interior regions, isolated grids, etc.
Colouring options to display voltage levels, equipment loading and operation ranges
Define colouring based on AC/DC equipment category and phase technology
Display of grid modifications and variants, recording of expansion stage modifications, missing grid connections
Provision of feeder colouring and path definitions
Userdefined filters based on complex equations or DPL scripts
Userdefinable Symbols
Support of userdefinable symbols based on standard graphical formats (.wmf,.bmp). E.g. use your own symbols for wind turbines, PV panels, hydro units, etc.
Define specific graphical representations for transformers, shunts, circuit breakers, isolators to fit individual needs.
Composite Graphics
Elements can be grouped together and stored as Composite Graphics. Typical applications are standard busbar arrangements, switchboard configurations, HVDC structures, PV panels, typical wind turbine configurations or complete wind parks.
Composite Graphics can be easily handled via the Template Manager. Templates can be populated with type and element data. For drawing Composite Graphics, the Template Manager is operated as Drawing Tool Box.
Virtual Instruments
DIgSILENT PowerFactory applies the concept of Virtual Instruments (VI) as a tool for displaying any calculated result or variable.
Results may be displayed in the form of bar graphs, plotted curves, or even tables of values, with all of these representations being completely userdefinable.
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Network
Diagrams
&
Graphic
Capabilities
VIs are used to display protection curves, harmonics analysis results or to view electrical variables from any location in the network single line diagram, and any model variable during RMS and EMT simulations.
Many VIs provide additional builtin functionality such as curve labelling and measuring, scaling, curve fitting, filtering and digitizer functions.
Typical Virtual Instruments Available
xt and xy plots, bar diagrams, harmonic distortion diagram
Overcurrenttimediagrams, distancetime diagrams, vector diagram, path diagram
Voltage sag diagram, waveform diagram
Eigenvalue diagram, phasor diagram
Bitmaps, buttons, DPLcommand buttons, digital display
Curvedigitizing diagram
Text label
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Results
and
Reporting
6 Results and Reporting
6.1 Text Reports
Automatic reports for calculation results, such as load flow, shortcircuit, harmonic calculations, contingency calculation, reliability analysis, etc.
Numerous predefined reports for all key calculation functions
Flexible selection of elements for reporting
Reports can be userconfigured allowing userdefinable formatting
Automatic reports for documentation of network components, such as transformers, lines, generators, relay settings, etc.
Flexible selection of network components for documentation
Flexible selection of calculation module, e.g. report only input data required for load flow and short circuit
6.2 Spreadsheet Reports (Tabular Views)
Numerous predefined spreadsheet reports for all key calculation functions via “Flexible Data Pages”
Userdefinable setup of “Flexible Data Pages”. Tabular view of any combination of input parameters/ calculation results
Several “Flexible Data Page” definitions (variable selections) may exist concurrently
Independent variable selections for every calculation
Sorting facilities for tabular views
Automatic statistical summaries for values in tables
Flexible filters for selecting elements for output
Output facilities to: Output window, clipboard and clipboard with column headers for use in spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel
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Results
and
Reporting
6.3 Reporting in Network Diagrams
Concept of “result boxes” in network diagrams to flexibly display any element/type parameter, as well as any calculation result
Easytoconfigure “result box” format on both component and calculation levels
6.4 Result File Management
More complex calculation results can be stored in “Result Files”, e.g. for calculations such as transient stability results, harmonic analysis results, contingency results, etc.
Allows easy configuration of outputs (plots, reports, etc…)
Accessible by postprocessing through DPL
Export functionality to export result data to:
 Output window
 Clipboard (compatible with spreadsheet programs such as MS EXCEL)
 Text file (compatible with spreadsheet programs such as MS EXCEL)
 COMTRADE (for transient data)
 PowerFactory measurement file (ASCII)
6.5 Plots and Diagrams
DIgSILENT PowerFactory applies the concept of Virtual Instruments (VI) as a tool for visualizing calculation results as plots and diagrams.
VIs are used to display (for example):
 Results of RMS and EMT simulations (any preselected monitoring variable/signal)
 Protection configurations and results (RX diagrams, automatic timedistance diagrams, relay characteristics, etc)
 Harmonic analysis results
Many VIs provide additional builtin functionality such as curve labelling and measuring, scaling, curve fitting, filtering and digitizer functions.
Selected List of Most Common Virtual Instruments:
Plots for simulation results
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Results
and
Reporting
 Monitored variables/signals over time
 Trajectories
Harmonics
 Harmonic distortion diagram
 FFT diagrams
 Waveform plots
Protection
 Timeovercurrent diagrams
 Timedistance diagrams
 Relay characteristic diagram
Additional diagrams for results of load flow, short circuit, harmonics, etc.:
 Bar diagrams
 Vector diagrams
 Path diagram
 xy diagrams
Voltage sag diagram
Eigenvalue calculation
 Eigenvalue diagram
 Phasor diagrams and bar diagrams (controllability, observability, participation)
Measurement VIs
 Digital display
 Metering device (vertical/horizontal scales)
 Combination of both
Picture box for displaying graphic files. Supported file formats are:
 Windows metafiles (*.wmf)
 AutoCAD graphic file (*.dxf)
 Bitmaps (*.bmp)
Curvedigitizing diagram
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Results
and
Reporting
6.6 Additional Features
The PowerFactory graphic windows such as the single line graphic, plots, and block diagrams, offer the following functionality:
Printing or plotting to any device supported by the Windows Print Manager to produce high quality graphical documents from within the program.
Export to standard file formats such as:
 Windows Metafile (*.wmf) with high precision coordinates
 Bitmap (*.bmp)
Conversion of graphic files between several file formats such as *.png, *.dxf, *.gif, *.tiff, *.eps, etc. This is achieved via an external tool which is shipped with PowerFactory.
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External
Data
Format
Support
7 External Data Format Support
7.1 Standard Data Formats
In many cases, migration of data from other power system software is required. PowerFactory therefore supports foreign file Import of several versions from the following software packages:
PSS/E, PSS/U and PSS/Adept (Siemens)
DVG and UCTE (ucte.org)
NEPLAN (BCP)
ISU (SAP, billing data)
NETCAL (STZ Konstanz), NEPS ( I+P Consult) and ReticMaster (Inspired Interfaces)
Foreign file Export is supported for PSS/E and UCTE.
CIM object and format definitions are increasingly used for standardized data exchange. Although the CIM standards are still under development, PowerFactory already supports CIM import and export:
CIM 61970 (CIM for Transmission)
7.2 DIgSILENT Data Base Level Exchange (DGS)
DGS is PowerFactory’s standard bidirectional interface specifically designed for bulk data exchange with other applications such as GIS and SCADA, and for example, for exporting calculation results to produce Crystal Reports, or to interchange data with any other power system software. DGS (“DGS”=DIgSILENTGISSCADA) does not feature the exchange of PowerFactory execution commands.
Userspecific definition of objects and object parameters
Supported objects: elements, types and libraries, graphics and results
Import and export of complete network models as well as incremental data for updating existing models
Database support for: Oracle, MSSQL and ODBC System DSN
File formats supported: ASCII Text (CSV), XML, MSExcel and MS Access
Available for PowerFactory Interactive Window Mode and PowerFactory Engine Mode
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DPL
DIgSILENT
Programming
Language
8 DPL DIgSILENT Programming Language
The DPLProgramming Language offers a flexible interface for automating PowerFactory execution tasks. The DPL scripting language adds a new dimension to PowerFactory software by allowing the implementation of new calculation functions. Typical examples of userspecific DPLscripts are:
Parametric sweep calculations (e.g. sliding fault location, wind profile load flows)
Implementation of userspecific commands (e.g. transfer capability analysis, penalty factor calculation)
Automatic protection coordination and device response checks
Specific voltage stability analysis via PV/QVcurve analysis, etc.
Contingency screening according to userspecific needs
Verification of connection conditions
Data preprocessing including input/output handling
Equipment sizing and dimensioning
Report generation
The DPL objectoriented scripting language is intuitive and easy to learn. The basic set of commands includes:
C++ like, objectoriented syntax
Flow commands such as "ifthenelse", "dowhile"
Input/import, output/export and reporting routines
Mathematical expressions, support of vectors and matrices
Access to any PowerFactory object and parameter including graphical objects
Definition and execution of any PowerFactory command
Object filtering and batch execution
PowerFactory object procedure calls and DPL subroutine calls
New: Calling of external libraries (DLLs) for linking and executing other applications
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DPL
DIgSILENT
Programming
Language
Easy Development
DPL’s basic syntax allows for the quick creation of simple highlevel commands to automate tasks. Such tasks may include renaming objects, search and replace, postprocessing calculation results and creating specific reports.
Transparency
All parameters of all objects in the network models are accessible. DPL can be used to query the entire database and to process all userinput and result parameters without restrictions.
Standardizing Commands
The DPL language can be used to create new 'standardized' DPL commands that can be used over and over again. DPL commands allow input parameters to be defined, and can be executed for specific selections of objects. Proven DPL commands can be safely stored in DPL command libraries and be used from there without the risk of damaging the scripts.
Control
DPL commands can configure and execute all PowerFactory commands. This includes not only the load flow and shortcircuits calculation commands, but also the commands for transient simulation, harmonic analysis, reliability assessment, etc. New objects can be created by DPL in the database, and existing objects can be copied, deleted and edited. New reports can be defined and written to the output window; new graphs can be created and existing graphs can be adjusted to reflect a userdefined selection or the current calculation results.
Modularity
A 
DPL command may contain other DPL commands as subroutines. This modular approach allows the execution 
of 
subroutines as independent commands. Existing commands can be combined to quickly create more complex 
commands.
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9
PowerFactory
Modes
of
Operation
9 PowerFactory Modes of Operation
9.1 Standard Windowing Mode
9.2 Engine & Hybrid Execution Mode
The standard execution of DIgSILENT PowerFactory is via the classical windowing mode operated via mouse and keyboard. When operated in “Engine Mode” PowerFactory is executed as a background process featuring a number of additional application options:
Bidirectional, highspeed exchange of data via “DIgSILENT Shared Memory Interface” or via “OPC” (OLE for Process Control). When using OPC, PowerFactory is executed as an OPCClient.
Remoteexecution of any PowerFactory command including activation of projects, modification of data, execution of analysis functions and DPL scripts, generation of output and reports, etc.
Temporary activation/popup of the “Windowing Mode” featuring interactive windowing operation until the windowing mode is closed and the engine mode resumes (“Hybrid Operation Mode”).
In principle, a number of additional application features may be operated as background processes in situations where it is integrated into GIS/NIS or SCADA systems or linked with other simulation tools such as Matlab/SIMULINK, ASPENTECH’s process simulation tool or other software systems requiring interaction with network analysis procedures. The engine mode also features parallel processing with other PowerFactory processes.
The “Engine Mode” permits the remote control of all PowerFactory functions with fast data and execution command exchange.
Hybrid operation mode is supported by activating the Windowing Operation mode for combined operation.
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Power
Flow
Analysis
10 Power Flow Analysis
Within the Load Flow analysis environment, the accurate representation of a variety of network configurations and power system components is possible.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory offers a selection of calculation methods, including a full AC NewtonRaphson technique (balanced and unbalanced) and a linear DC method. The enhanced nondecoupled Newton Raphson solution technique with current or power mismatch iterations, typically yields roundoff errors below 1 kVA for all buses. The implemented algorithms exhibit excellent stability and convergence. Several iteration levels guarantee convergence under all conditions, with optional automatic relaxation and modification of constraints. The DC load flow, solving for active power flows and voltage angles, is extremely fast and robust (linear system; no iterations required).
Any combination of meshed 1, 2, and 3phase AC and/or DC systems can be represented and solved simultaneously, from HV transmission systems, down to residential and industrial loads at LV voltage levels. Neutral conductors can be modelled explicitly.
The Load Flow tool accurately represents unbalanced loads, generation, grids with variable neutral potentials, HVDC systems, DC loads, adjustable speed drives, SVSs and FACTS devices, etc., for all AC and DC voltage levels.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory offers a new, intuitive and easytouse modelling technique which avoids the definition of bus types such as SL, PV, PQ, PI, AS, etc. PowerFactory simply provides the control mechanisms and device characteristics which are found in reality.
More Load Flow Analysis Features
Consideration of reactive power limits: detailed model for generator Mvar capability curves (including voltagedependency).
Practical station control features with various local and remote control modes for voltage regulation and reactive power generation. Reactive power is automatically adjusted to ensure that generator output remains within its capability limits.
Various active power control modes, e.g. as dispatched, according to secondary or primary control, or inertial response.
Supports device characteristics, such as voltagedependent loads and asynchronous machines with saturation and slip dependency, etc.
Comprehensive area/network power exchange control features using Secondary Controllers (SCO) with flexible participation factors.
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Transformer OLTC able to control local or remote bus voltages, reactive power flows and voltagedrop compensation (LDC) within distribution systems. Special transformer controller model for parallel transformers. Transformer tap adjustment supports discrete and continuous methods.
Device controllers for shunts, doublyfed asynchronous machines and other power electronics elements such as selfcommutated converters (VSC), thyristor/diode converters or integrated FACTS devices.
Local and remote control mechanisms for SVCs. Automatic and continuous control of TCR and TSC switching is performed within component ratings to hold the voltage at a given value.
Correct representation of transformer vector groups and phase displacement.
Shunts can be modelled to consist of a combination of series and/or parallel connected capacitors, reactors and resistors. Shunts can be connected to busbars and feeders or to the remote ends of cables and lines. Filters may consist of any number of shunt combinations, and automatic shunt switching can be included in the automatic voltage regulation.
Support of the Virtual Power Plant model for generator dispatch based on merit order algorithm.
Feeder load scaling to control power flows at feeder entry point – including nested and parallel feeders.
Full support of any parameter characteristic and scale to allow parametric studies or easy definition of loading scenarios or load profiles.
All operational data (generation and demand patterns, switch positions, etc) can be saved and maintained in distinct Operational Scenarios.
Further Special Functions
Analysis of system control conditions
Consideration of protection devices
Determination of ‘Power at Risk’
Calculation of Load Flow Sensitivities. Evaluation of expected active/reactive power flow and voltage changes in the network based on the effect of demand/generation or transformer tap change.
Support of DPL scripts; e.g. to perform load balancing, determination of penalty factors or any other parameter required.
Load Flow Results
Implicit calculation of a large number of individual result variables and summary figures
Display of any variable within the single line graphic, station diagram, and a tabular Flexible Data Page
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Various colouring modes for the single line graphic to visualize quantities such as calculated loading and/or voltage levels
Detailed analysis reporting, which can list overloaded system elements, unacceptable bus voltages, system islands, outofservice components, voltage levels, area summaries, and more
Detailed textual output with predefined or userdefined filters and levels
DPL interactivity with all results
Result export to other software applications such as MSEXCEL
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Fault
Analysis
11 Fault Analysis
DIgSILENT PowerFactory features fault calculation functionality based on international standards as well as the most accurate DIgSILENT General Fault Analysis (GFA) method.
The following features and options are supported by all implemented fault analysis methods:
Calculation of fault levels at all busbars.
Calculation of shortcircuit quantities at a selected busbar or along a defined section of line/cable, including all branch contributions and busbar voltages
Calculation of all symmetrical components as well as phase quantities.
Userdefinable fault impedance
Provision of specially designed graphs and diagrams including all quantities typically required by the protection engineer
Thermal overloads highlighted on the single line graphic for busbars and cables, with all equipment overloads available in a summary text report
Calculation of Thevenin impedances as seen from the faulty node
Calculation of apparent phase impedances (magnitude and angle) at any location along a transmission line/cable or busbar, for all branches, selected subsets thereof, or 1, 2 or 3 nodes from the faulted node
11.1 Supported Standards
IEC 60909 and VDE 0102/0103
PowerFactory provides a strict and complete implementation of the most frequently used standard for component design worldwide; the IEC 60909 and VDE 0102/0103 fault calculation standard, according to the most recently published versions.
Calculation of the initial symmetrical peak current I _{k}_{"} and shortcircuit power S _{k}_{"} , peak shortcircuit current i _{p} , symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current I _{b} , and thermal equivalent current I _{t}_{h} (IEC 609090 2001). Both minimum and maximum shortcircuit currents can also be calculated based on network voltage cfactors
Support of all fault types (threephase, twophase, twophase to ground, singlephase to ground)
Calculation of I _{k} with selectable “Decaying Aperiodic Component”
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Analysis
Selectable method for calculating the peak shortcircuit current in meshed networks
Userdefinable fault impedance, conductor temperature and cvoltage factor.
Fault calculation can optionally include or exclude motor contribution to the fault current
Provision of specially designed graphs and diagrams required by the protection engineer for protection coordination and design
IEEE 141 / ANSI e 37.5
PowerFactory provides a thorough implementation of the IEEE 141/ANSI e37.5 fault calculation standard according to the latest published version. Special features are:
Transformer tap positions can be included in the fault current calculation
Userdefined fault impedance and prefault voltage can be included in the fault current calculation
Other Standards
G 74 and IEC 61363
11.2 Complete Method/Multiple Faults
DIgSILENT PowerFactory’s Complete Method is especially designed for protection coordination purposes or for analyzing observed system contingencies. It provides the required algorithms and precision for determining the “true” or “operational” shortcircuit currents without considering the simplifications or assumptions typically made in standard fault analysis.
In addition to the high precision network model, multiple faults which occur simultaneously in the system or unusual fault conditions such as intercircuit faults or singlephase interruptions can be analysed.
The Multiple Fault Analysis executes a complete network analysis based on subtransient and transient representations of electrical machines taking into account all specified network devices with their full representation and prefaulted load conditions.
Combination with IEC60909 principles for the calculation of aperiodic components and peak shortcircuit currents
Calculation of peakbreak and breakRMS currents
Consideration of a complete multiwire system representation. Applicable to singlephase or twophase networks.
Analysis of multiple fault conditions
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Fault
Analysis
Calculation of any asymmetrical, single or multiple fault condition with or without fault impedance, including single and doublephase line interruptions.
11.3 Fault Analysis Results (all Methods)
PowerFactory offers many reporting options, including detailed reporting on all shortcircuit levels for all faults, or alternatively, a specific report for a particular fault type. Special protection reports can also be generated to include impedance, current and voltage information.
Display of any variable within the single line graphic, station diagram and Flexible Data Page
Fully flexible filter mechanisms to display objects in colour mode
Detailed analysis reporting, which can list overloaded system elements, unacceptable bus voltages, system islands, outofservice components, voltage levels, area summaries and more
Detailed text output with predefined or userdefined filters and levels
DPL interactivity with all results
Result export to other software applications such as MSEXCEL or MSACCESS
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Network
Reduction
12 Network Reduction
The typical application of the network reduction tool is a project where a specific network has to be analyzed but cannot be studied independently of a neighbouring network of the same or of a higher or lower voltage level. In this case, one option is to model both networks in detail for the calculation. However, there may be situations in which it is not desirable to perform studies with the complete model; for example when the calculation time would increase significantly, or when the data of the neighbouring network is confidential. In such cases it is good practise to provide a representation of the neighbouring network which contains the interface nodes (connection points) which may be connected by equivalent impedances and voltage sources.
The objective of Network Reduction is to calculate the parameters of a reduced AC equivalent of part of a network, as defined by a boundary. This boundary must completely split the network into two parts. The equivalent network is valid for both load flow and shortcircuit calculations. ,Following this, a model variation can be optionally created in the PowerFactory database, whereby the full representation of the portion of network that has been reduced is replaced by the equivalent.
12.1 General Features
Flexible definition and maintenance of network boundaries. Various features such as colouring of boundaries and topological checks
Network Reduction can be calculated at any appropriate boundary
Support of Standard Ward (PQequivalent), Extended Ward (PVequivalent) and equivalent loads
Support of shortcircuit equivalents for transient, subtransient, peakmake and peakbreak currents
The reduced network can be created in a network variation. This allows for simple comparison and swapping between reduced and nonreduced cases.
Robust reduction algorithms based on the sensitivity approach, i.e. reduced network matches for the current operating point as well as for network sensitivities
Implicit result verification feature
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Voltage
Stability
Analysis
13 Voltage Stability Analysis
13.1 PV Curves
PowerFactory supports the calculation of PV curves by applying specifically implemented scripts. These scripts perform the calculation of voltage variations against:
Load variation in a selected area
Load shift across boundaries (keeping the total load constant)
Generator shift across boundaries (keeping the total generation constant)
PV curves can be calculated for a selected set of contingencies. Diagrams are automatically created.
13.2 QV Analysis
For analyzing the required reactive power reserve at individual busbars, PowerFactory provides scripts for the calculation of QV curves.
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Load
Flow
Sensitivities
14 Load Flow Sensitivities
Supplementing PowerFactory’s voltage stability analysis suite is the Sensitivity Analysis tool. It is often required to not only know the critical point of a system, but also how this critical point is affected by changes in system conditions. PowerFactory’s Sensitivity Analysis tool performs a static voltage stability calculation according to the following options:
Sensitivity to a single busbar (calculation of the voltage sensitivities of all busbars and branch flow sensitivities according to variations in power (P and Q) at the selected busbar).
Option to calculate sensitivities with respect to all busbars simultaneously.
Sensitivity to a transformer tap position change (calculation of the voltage sensitivities of all busbars and branch flow sensitivities according to changes of a transformer/quad booster tap).
Modal analysis
 Identification of “weak” and “strong” parts of the network based on modal transformation of the ∂v/∂Q sensitivity matrix.
 Eigenvalue calculation on the ∂v/∂Q sensitivity matrix, with a userdefined number of eigenvalues to be calculated.
 Results of eigenvalues are displayed (in descending order according to magnitude), and branch/bus sensitivities can be displayed for each mode.
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Contingency
Analysis
15 Contingency Analysis
The new Contingency Analysis tool in DIgSILENT PowerFactory has been designed to offer a high degree of flexibility in configuration, calculation methods and reporting options. Single and multiple timephase contingency analyses are available, both of which offer automatic or userdefined contingency creation based on events, and the consideration of controller time constants and thermal (shortterm) ratings.
Calculation Options for Contingency Analysis:
Support of three calculation methods:
 AC load flow calculation
 DC load flow calculation
 Combined DC/AC calculation; i.e. full DC load flow calculation and automatic recalculation of critical contingencies by AC load flow
Single and Multiple TimePhase calculations. Multiple timephase contingency analysis facilitates user defined postfault actions within discrete time periods.
Generator Effectiveness and Quad Booster Effectiveness calculation:
This calculation feature assists the planner in defining appropriate measures for overstressed components in critical contingency cases: During contingency analysis, the possible impact of individual generator redispatch or transformer tap changes on overstressed lines is evaluated. Corresponding reports are available that list the generator and quad booster effectiveness on a percase basis.
Ultimate Performance via Grid Computing: Possibility to perform the contingency analysis calculation in parallel (on multicore machines and/or clustered PCs)
Management of Contingencies/Fault Cases:
Userfriendly definition of contingencies (n1, n2, nk, busbar) as ‘Fault Cases’ supporting userdefined events to model postfault actions (reswitching, redispatching, tap adjustment, load shedding)
Clustering of ‘Fault Cases’ into ‘Fault Groups’ for efficient data management
Special Operational Libraries to manage ‘Fault Cases’ and ‘Fault Groups’ for future reuse
Automatic creation of contingency cases based on Fault Cases, considering current network topology
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Contingency
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Result File Management:
Recording of results in (sparse) result file; accessible for any kind of export and/or customerspecific postprocessing
Predefined and userdefinable monitoring lists for recording of results; selection of individual components, component classes and their associated variables to be recorded. Any available calculation result for a standard load flow calculation is accessible during contingency analysis.
Userdefined limits for recording of results (thermal loadings, voltage limits, voltage step change)
Reports:
A wide range of standard reports is available, facilitating summary views or the presentation of results on a per contingency basis:
Maximum Loadings Report
Loading Violations (per case) Report
Voltage Ranges Report
Voltage Violations (per case) Report
Generator and Quad Booster Effectiveness Report
Other key features:
Tracing Facilities: Use of the new ‘Trace’ function to step through events in a multiple timephase contingency, while viewing updated results in the singleline graphic
Support of componentwise ShortTerm Ratings based on prefault loading and postfault time
Special “Contingency Analysis” toolbar for userfriendly configuration, calculation and reporting
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Overhead
Line
and
Cable
Parameter
Calculation
16 Overhead Line and Cable Parameter Calculation
DIgSILENT PowerFactory incorporates the automatic calculation of the electrical parameters of any cable/overhead line configuration starting from layout and geometric characteristics which are typically available in manufacture’s datasheets. The calculation is applicable over a wide range of frequencies and supports the stepup process of highly accurate line and cable models for harmonic analysis, frequency sweep and EMT simulation among others. The supported options are described below.
16.1 Overhead Line Parameter Calculation
Any combination of line circuits (1, 2 and 3ph), neutral conductors and earth wires, with/without automatic reduction of earth wires
A flexible definition of tower types and tower geometries, including conductor sags, allowing a multiple combination of tower geometries and conductor types that avoids entry of redundant data
Circuitwise, symmetrical and perfect transposition and userdefined phasing for the definition of any nonstandard transposition scheme
Solid and tubular conductor types, including subconductors for phase circuits and earth wires
Skin effect
Equivalent impedance and admittance matrices in natural, reduced and symmetrical components
16.2 Cable Parameter Calculation
Multiphase single core and pipe type cable systems
Flexible definition of cable layouts, including conducting, semiconducting and insulating layers
Compact and hollow core shapes, filling factor for stranded conductors
Consideration of skin effect
Calculation of layer impedances and admittances in natural, reduced and symmetrical components, including sheath and armour reduction, crossbonding
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Distribution
Network
Analysis
17 Distribution Network Analysis
17.1 Feeder Analysis
Feeder Plots: Graphical display feature (Virtual Instrument, VI) to increase transparency in grid loading and voltage profile analysis along the feeder. Displayed result variables are freely configurable. Full interactivity is given via the VI to access all relevant data of the components belonging to the feeder.
Schematic Visualization of Feeder: Automatic generation of single line diagram to visualize components of the feeder with distance/index view.
Feeder Load Scaling: A load flow calculation feature that allows the automatic adjustment of individual bus loads to match a specified total feeder load. The selection of loads which are to participate in the feeder scaling procedure is userdefined. This method allows for complex scaling scenarios with nested and parallel feeders.
17.2 LowVoltage Network Analysis
PowerFactory integrates enhanced features designed especially for the analysis of LV networks. These functions enable the user to:
Define loads in terms of numbers of customers connected to a line
Consider load diversity
Perform a load flow analysis that considers load diversity for calculating maximum voltage drops and maximum branch current
Perform cable reinforcement optimization to either automatically reinforce selected cables, or to provide a report of recommendations
Perform voltage drop and cable loading analysis
Perform statistical calculations of neutral currents caused by unbalanced singlephase loading and load diversity, to represent a realistic network
17.3 Stochastic Load Modelling
On the basis of defined ‘customer units’ the user may specify a number of customers connected to a line. Load flow options are provided to define the load per unit customer according to:
Power per customer unit
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Power factor
Coincidence factor for an infinite number of loads (i.e. ‘simultaneity factor’)
In addition, the user may select one of two methods for considering the stochastic nature of loads:
Stochastic evaluation (theoretical approach, also applicable to meshed networks)
Maximum current estimation (application of stochastic rules for estimating maximum branch flow and maximum voltage drops)
The Load Flow with stochastic load modelling then provides maximum currents for each branch component, maximum voltage drops, and minimum voltages at every bus bar
The usual variables for currents and voltages in this case represent average values of voltages and currents.
Losses are calculated based on average values; the maximum circuit loading is calculated using maximum currents.
17.4 Cable Reinforcement Optimization
PowerFactory’s Cable Reinforcement Optimization determines the most costeffective option for upgrading overloaded cables. The objective function is to minimize annual costs for reinforcing lines (i.e. investment, operational costs and insurance fees). Constraints for the optimization are the admissible voltage band and cable loading limits for the planned network.
Optimization along predefinable feeder
Userdefinable library of available cable/OHL types with costs that can be used for reinforcement
Consideration of:
 Admissible voltage band limits
 Maximum voltage drop limit at the end of the feeder
 Maximum admissible Cable/OHL overloading
Various plausibility checks for final solution
Calculated results: report of the recommended new cable/overhead types for lines and cost evaluation for the recommended upgrading
Report mode to propose cable/OHL type changes or automatic type replacement
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Distribution
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17.5 Feeder Tools
The PowerFactory Feeder Tools comprise a set of tools for radial systems to change voltage levels, phase technology or to optimize phasing from a particular point downwards.
Voltage and Phase Technology Change Tool
Automatic change of the voltage level and/or phase technology inside a predefined feeder
Automatic replacement of type data (for transformers, lines, loads and motors) according to pre configurable type mapping tables – including automatic creation of new compatible types if necessary
AutoBalancing Tool
Automatic balancing of feeders such that voltage unbalance at terminals is minimized
Reconfiguration of phasing of loads, lines, or transformers and combinations thereof
Supports fixed phasing elements
Colouring modes to visualize phase technology before and after change
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Protection
Functions
18 Protection Functions
The basic functional model library of DIgSILENT PowerFactory’s protection analysis tool has been extended to include additional devices such as CTs, VTs, relays, fuses and more complex protection schemes including user defined modelling capabilities. Additionally, there are specially designed interactive VIs (Virtual Instruments) for displaying system quantities and, more importantly, for modifying protection settings in the graphical environment. This last feature is especially useful, as coordinated settings between different protection schemes can be modified via the cursor in the graphical environment, following which the settings in both the database and the simulation environment are also updated.
All protective devices are fullyfunctional under steadystate and transient conditions, allowing device response assessment under all possible simulation modes, including load flow calculation, fault analysis, RMS and Instantaneous Values (EMT) simulation.
PowerFactory’s main protection features are:
Extensive relay database
Accurate steadystate relay checking via shortcircuit and load flow (balanced & unbalanced)
Precise dynamic relay checking with RMS and EMT simulations
Consideration of current transformer saturation
Diagrams for overcurrent and distance coordination:
o 
Timeovercurrent diagrams 
o 
RX characteristic diagrams 
o 
Time distance diagrams 
Automatic Protection Coordination Wizard for timeovercurrent protection schemes
18.1 Protection Model Library and Functionality
The DIgSILENT PowerFactory protection analysis tool contains a comprehensive protection device model library. All relays are modelled for steadystate calculations (shortcircuit, load flow), RMS and EMT simulation modes. The definition of relay types is highly flexible via block diagrams. For RMS and EMT simulation purposes, relays may be extended and adopted to cope with user specific requirements via the PowerFactory DSL language The features of the protection model library are listed below.
Fuses are represented by their melting curves. It is possible to take minimum and maximum melting curves into account.
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Protection
Functions
TimeOvercurrent Relays for 1phase, 3phase, ground and negative sequence time overcurrents. Additionally, the relay characteristics can incorporate the following standards and solution methods:
IEC 2553, ANSI/IEEE and ANSI/IEEE squared
ABB/Westinghouse CO (Mdar)
Linear approximation, Hermitespline approximation
Analytical expressions via builtin formula editor and analyzer (DSL)
Instantaneous Overcurrent Relays for 1 phase, 3phase, ground and negative sequence time overcurrents.
Directional Relays for overcurrent, power, ground current, and any combination of time and instantaneous overcurrent relays. Additionally, voltage and current polarization is used for the detection of negative and zero sequence components considering also dual polarization. Optional: with voltage memory.
Distance Relays for phase, ground and zone distance protection. Provision is available for incorporating overcurrent and underimpedance starting units (UI or Z) as well as angle underimpedance.
Different characteristics are available for distance relay zones including:
MHO, offset MHO
Polygonal, offset polygonal
Tomatoes, lens and circle
R/X Blinders and quadrilateral
Support of various polarizations such as:
Selfpolarized
Cross polarized (90ø connection)
Positive, negative sequence polarized
Optional: voltage memory
Zero sequence and parallel line compensation
Voltage Relays for undervoltage, instantaneous voltage, voltage balance and unbalance.
Additional devices such as: Breaker Fail, Motor Protection, Generator Protection, Differential Protection, Reclosing Relays, Low Voltage Circuit Breakers, and OutofStep Relays.
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Protection
Functions
In addition to these protection functions and relays, DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides further devices and characteristics for more detailed protection system modelling, such as:
Current and voltage transformers that include saturation effects
Conductor, cable damage curves, cable overload curves and inrush peak current modelling
Transformer damage curves (ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.1091985) and inrush peak current modelling
Motor starting curves, cold and hot stall, inrush peak current modelling, and any userdefined curves
All protection device models are implemented within the composite model frame environment. This allows users to easily design and implement their own models, by utilizing the graphical user interface for constructing block diagrams.
18.2 Output & Graphical Representation
TimeOvercurrent Diagrams
 Overcurrent curve adjustment using drag & drop
 Display of tripping curve tolerances during drag & drop
 Userdefined labels
 Tripping times are automatically displayed for calculated currents in timeovercurrent diagrams
 Display of an unlimited number of overcurrent curves in diagrams
 Simple creation and addition of diagrams via single line graphics
 Display of motor starting curves, conductor/cable and transformer damage curves
 Balloon help showing name of relay, etc.
 Doubleclick on curves to change relay settings
 Additional axis for voltage levels
RX Characteristic Diagrams
 Display branch impedances with several options
 Automatic display of calculated impedances
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Protection
Functions
 Adding relays with offset
 Flexible display of zones (starting zones, etc.)
Time Distance Diagrams
 Different methods for calculating curves: kilometrical or shortcircuit sweep method
 Forward and/or reverse diagram
 Selectivity check of distance and overcurrent relays/fuses in same diagram
 Separate overreach zone representation
 Additional axis showing relay locations and busbars/terminals
 Selectable xaxis scaling (length, impedance, reactance, 1/conductance)
Single Line Diagram
 Colouring of switches according to relay locations, relay tripping times
 Display of relay tripping times in result boxes
 Additional text boxes for relay settings
Relay Setting Report
Relay Tripping Report
18.3 OvercurrentTime Protection
The coordination of overcurrenttime protection is performed graphically using the currenttime diagram as the basis. Relay settings are modified using drag & drop to move characteristics. Shortcircuit currents calculated by the shortcircuit command, are shown in the diagram as a vertical line. In addition, the corresponding tripping times of the relays are displayed. Coordination between relays at different voltage levels is available. Therefore, currents are automatically based on the leading voltage level, which can be selected by the user.
18.4 Distance Protection
For distance protection coordination, two powerful graphical features are integrated. The first of these features is the RX diagram for displaying the tripping zone of distance relays and the line impedances. Several relays can be visualized in the same RX diagram. This can be useful for the comparison of two relays that are located at different ends of the same line. The relay characteristics and the impedance characteristic of the connecting line
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Protection
Functions
will be shown in the same RX diagram. Following shortcircuit calculations, the measured impedances are visualized with a marker in the shape of a small arrow or cross. From the location of the marker the user can see the tripped zone and its associated tripping time. For dynamic simulation, measured impedances of the relays can be displayed, thereby visualizing the functioning of power swing blocking or outofstep tripping relays.
The second powerful graphical feature is the timedistance diagram, which is used for checking the selectivity between relays along a coordination path. The relays on a coordination path can be displayed in diagrams for forward, reverse or for both directions. Consequently, it is very easy to check the selectivity of the relays along a coordination path. Two different methods for calculation of the tripping curves are provided. These are the kilometric and the shortcircuit method.
Kilometric method: The reach of the zones is calculated from the intersection of the given positive sequence impedance of the lines, and the impedance characteristic of the relays.
Shortcircuit method: This is the main method for checking the selectivity. Shortcircuits (userdefined fault type) are calculated along the coordination path. The tripping times for the timedistance curve are determined using the calculated impedances. The starting signal of a relay is also considered.
A special feature of the distance protection is the consideration of blocking signals or POTT (permissive over
reach transfer tripping), PUTT (permissive underreach transfer tripping), which are also taken into account. In addition to tripping curves of distance relays, the curves of overcurrent relays can be displayed and coordinated
in the same diagram using the shortcircuit method.
Both the kilometric and the shortcircuit method consider breaker opening times in the calculation of tripping times. The breaker opening time can be optionally ignored.
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Distribution
Network
Optimization
19 Distribution Network Optimization
In order to reduce network unbalance and improve quality of supply, DIgSILENT PowerFactory incorporates features to assist the user in distribution network optimization:
Optimal capacitor placement
Open tie optimization
Cable reinforcement optimization
Feeder tools for voltage/technology change
Autobalancing to minimize voltage unbalance
19.1 Optimal Capacitor Placement
PowerFactory’s Optimal Capacitor Placement determines the optimal locations, types and sizes of capacitors to be installed in radial distribution networks. The economic benefits due to energy loss reduction are weighted against the installation costs of the capacitors while keeping the voltage profile within defined limits. This feature includes:
Userdefinable library of proposed capacitor candidates together with annual installation costs
Consideration of:
 Benefits due to loss reduction
 Voltage limits
 Maximum total investment costs
Support of load profiles
Calculated results: set of locations where capacitors should be installed, which type of capacitor(s) should be installed at each site, and whether or not a switched capacitor is proposed.
Userfriendly presentation of results with fullyintegrated postprocessing features
19.2 Open Tie Optimization
PowerFactory’s Open Tie Optimization finds a lossminimal switch configuration of the network, which results in a radial topology while maintaining all thermal limits. This feature includes:
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Distribution
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Optimization
Heuristic algorithm which explores all potential meshes in the grid to evaluate the optimal tiepoints to open
Consideration of loading limits
Userdefinable section of the network where optimal open tiepoints should be determined
Report mode to propose switch status changes or automatic switch reconfiguration
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Harmonic
Analysis
Functions
20 Harmonic Analysis Functions
The harmonic analysis functionality is ideal for applications in transmission, distribution and industrial networks for filter design, ripple control signal simulation or for the determination of network resonance frequencies.
For analyzing the impact of harmonics in power systems, DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides two harmonic analysis functions.
20.1 Harmonic Load Flow
The DIgSILENT PowerFactory harmonic load flow features the calculation of harmonic voltage and current distributions based on defined harmonic sources and grid characteristics. It allows the modelling of any user defined harmonic voltage or current source, both in magnitude and phase including interharmonics. The harmonic sources can be located at any busbar in the power system and may be implemented within any network topology.
Harmonic current sources can be associated with any load, SVC (TCR injection), rectifier or inverter. Harmonic voltage sources can be modelled using the AC voltage source model or the PWM AC/DC converter model. The builtin rectifier models inject the spectrum of ideal 6pulse rectifiers if no other injection has been defined.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory supports any type of characteristic harmonic, uncharacteristic harmonic (even harmonics etc.) and noninteger (inter) harmonics. Unbalanced harmonic sources (e.g. singlephase rectifiers) are also fullysupported. The analysis of interharmonics or unbalanced harmonic sources is based on a complete abcphase network model.
Because of the phase correct representation of harmonic sources and network elements, the superposition of harmonic currents injected by 6pulse rectifiers (via YY and YD transformers leading to a reduction in 5 ^{t}^{h} , 7 ^{t}^{h} , 17 ^{t}^{h} , 19 ^{t}^{h} etc. harmonic currents) is modelled correctly.
DIgSILENT PowerFactory calculates all symmetrical and asymmetrical harmonic indices for currents and voltages, as defined by relevant IEEE standards, including harmonic current indices and harmonic losses, such as:
THD and HD ((Total) Harmonic Distortion)
TAD (Total Arithmetic Distortion)
IT product
Harmonic losses
Active and reactive power at any frequency
Total active and reactive power, displacement and power factor
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Network impedances at selected buses
RMS values
Unbalance factors
Integer and noninteger harmonic order values
Flicker Assessment:
 Pst, Plt (Short, and longterm Flicker Disturbance Factors; continuous and switching operation)  Relative voltage change value
Results can be represented:
In the single line diagram (total harmonic indices)
As histograms (frequency domain)
As waveform (transformation into the time domain)
As profile (e.g. THD versus busbars)
The frequency dependent representation of network elements such as lines, cables, two and threewinding transformers, machines, loads, filter banks etc. for considering skin effects is fullysupported.
20.2 Frequency Sweep
The frequency sweep performs a continuous analysis in the frequency domain. The most common application is the calculation of self and mutual network impedances for identifying the resonance points of the network and for supporting filter design.
All impedances are calculated simultaneously in the same run. Since DIgSILENT PowerFactory uses a variable stepsize algorithm, the calculation time of frequency sweeps is very low while the resolution around resonance points remains very high (typically 0.1 Hz).
Frequency sweeps can either be performed with the positivesequence network model (very fast) or the complete threephase abcnetwork model.
Calculation of self and mutual network impedances
Calculation of voltage amplification factors
Impedance plots may be created in either Bode, Nyquist or magnitude/phase forms.
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In addition to common applications relating to harmonic distortion, PowerFactory’s Frequency Sweep function can also be used for subsynchronous resonance studies. The calculation of damping and undamping torques is supported by special scripts.
Network Modelling
The skin effect is considered by associating frequency characteristics with line or transformer resistances and inductances. These characteristics can be specified by either setting the parameters of a polynomial expression or by entering the characteristic point by point using tables. DIgSILENT PowerFactory uses cubic splines or hermite polynoms for appropriate interpolation.
Lines are modelled either by approximate PI sections or by the highlyaccurate distributed parameter line model that should always be used for long lines or high frequency applications. The skin effect can be included in both line models.
Filters can be specified by either ‘layout’ parameters or ‘design’ parameters. ‘Layout’ parameters are typically the rated reactive power, the resonance frequency and the quality factor. ‘Design’ parameters are the actual R, L, and C values.
In addition to the explicit specification of frequency dependent resistance or inductance via parameter characteristics, overhead lines can be modelled by defining the tower geometry and cables can be modelled by specifying the cable layout. In such cases, frequency dependent effects, such as the skin effect or frequency dependent earth return, are automatically calculated and considered by the model.
20.3 Ripple Control Signals
DIgSILENT PowerFactory provides full support for analyzing and dimensioning ripple control systems. Series and parallel coupling of ripple control systems can be modelled including all necessary filter elements.
The level of the ripple control signal in the entire network is calculated and reported in the single line diagram, the output window or the browser.
20.4 Filter Rating
DIgSILENT PowerFactory features a special, easytouse function for calculating the rating of all components of a filter. All relevant voltages across all components are calculated and made available in the ‘Filter Sizing’ report.
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21 Optimal Power Flow
The PowerFactory Optimal Power Flow (OPF) serves as the ideal complement to the existing load flow functions. Where the standard load flow calculates branch flows and busbar voltages based on specified “set points” (active/reactive power generation, generator voltage, transformer tap positions, etc.), the OPF also calculates the “best possible” values for optimizing a userspecified objective function and a number of userdefined constraints. In this way, the OPF adds intelligence and consequently improves efficiency and throughput of power system studies significantly.
Building on the load flow calculation, PowerFactory offers two calculation methods:
AC optimization based on a stateoftheart interiorpoint algorithm
DC optimization based on linear programming using simplex methods, also supporting contingency constrained optimization.
OPF in PowerFactory allows easy configuration of the optimization task via the simple selection of an objective function, controls (i.e. system variables to be optimized), and constraints. The optimal solution for the selected objective function is calculated under the consideration of a number of possible constraints with which the final solution must comply. All controls and constraints can be flexiblydefined on a component level.
21.1 AC Optimization
Supported Objective Functions:
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