Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

Seismic Retrofit Design with the Steel Frames Integrated Structural Element and Facade Design

Yoshiharu Kanebako 1; Shigeru Aoki 2; Kiwako Kamo 3; Masashi Sogabe 4; Masayoshi Takeuchi 5; and Manuel Tardits 6 Summary Retrofit design has been recognized not only for improving the seismic resistant capacity but for enhancing the quality of the space and its capacity for creating a new facade. In this paper we introduce two practices of seismic retrofit using steel frames, which integrates earthquake resistant strengthening and designing facade. Keywords seismic resistant facade, seismic retrofit, steel frame, buildings, facade design Theme buildings design earthquake steel 1. Introduction Earthquakes which cause serious damage have occured frequently in Japan. The seismic-proof design code has been reexamined by progress of earthquake engineering and structure engineering, and the buildings constructed in recent years are given sufficient earthquake resistance performance. The building with an old structural design code lacks earthquake resistance capacity, and many serious damages are predictable when an earthquake occurs. The seismic diagnosis method has developed in the 1980s to evaluate the seismic resistance capacity of buildings designed by the old structural design code. The evaluation of seismic resistant capacity and the seismic retrofit of buildings are widespread after the Hyogo Prefecture Nanbu Earthquake in1995. A lot of seismic retrofit method have been developed and applied to improve seismic resistant capacity of existing buildings. As the general method of seismic retrofit, steel frames and braces are installed outside of the building, but the problem is that the facade appearance of the buildings are spoiled by the reinforce component. It is a big problem for commercial buildings in particular. Therefore rebuilding is preferred to repairing in many cases. However environmental problems are taken into account in the present age. From the standpoint of sustainability, reconstructing numerous buildings leads to an enormous loss of resources, it is necessary to consider extending the life span of buildings. To obtain values equal to the rebuilding, a retrofit with a better design enhancing the space quality and the new facade, besides increasing the seismic resistance capacity, is desired.
Dr.Eng., professor of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanebako Structural Engineers kanebako@kanebako-se.co.jp Dr.Eng., professor of Tokyo Metropolitan University, Shigeru Aoki Architect & Associate shigeruaoki@aokou.jp 3 principal architect, Mikan iyokan@mikan.co.jp 4 principal architect, Mikan ponkan@mikan.co.jp 5 principal architect, Mikan amanatsu@mikan.co.jp 6 principal architect, Mikan kinkan@mikan.co.jp
1 2

Table 1 Outline of two buildings


Building Name Location Building Area Total Floor Area Scale Completion (the existing) Ueno Building Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 733 m2 8,001 m2 B2F,9F 1965 Building Name Location Building Area Total Floor Area Scale Completion (the existing) Hamamatsu SALA Hamamatsu-City, Shizuoka 2,418 m2 14,637 m2 B1F,7F 1981

This paper is introduced our two practices of seismic retrofit using the steel frame, which integrates earthquake resistant strengthening and facade design (Table 1). The seismic resistant capacity of the existing building and retrofitted one were evaluated by Seismic Diagnosis method, which is a verification method to clarify damaged or broken portion by the structural seismic index IS on the basis of strength index to express strength against horizontal force and ductility index to express ductility possessed by the building. 2. Seismic Retrofit of Ueno Building 2.1 Outline of the Building The existing building is an office building located in front of Kanda station in Tokyo and completed in 1965. It has 9 stories above the ground and 2 underground stories. The northern and western sides of the building faced roads and had pre-cast concrete curtain walls while the southern side and the eastern side faced the next building and the back street respectively with RC exterior wall. The structure of the building is steel framed reinforced concrete with grid-type reinforcing steel members embedded in the columns and lattice-type reinforcing steel members embedded in the beams. The steel members are using angle shape bar for flange and flat bar for web. According to the result of the Seismic Secondary Diagnosis, seismic indexes of structure (IS value) were 0.28 to 0.41 in the X-direction (narrow side) and 0.33 to 0.77 in the Y-direction. The IS values are less than the standard necessity value (0.6) in most floors. The building was composed of columns with small ductility and shear walls, and had a seismic weak point in that the bearing walls are placed eccentrically in the both directions. From this aspect, it was a relevant idea that some seismic resistant frames called the Seismic Resistant Facade were fixed to the two facades facing on the roads in order to integrate the structural element and facade design.

Figure 1: appearance of the existing building

Figure 2: standard floor plan of the existing building

Figure 3: appearance of the retrofitted building

1) intensive brace

2) dedicate brace

3) dogleg brace

4) circler brace

5) random panel

6) random panel

7) dedicate frame

8) intensive frame

Figure 4: ideas of steel frame work for retrofitting 2.2 Ideas of Seismic Resistant Steel Frames Integrated Facade Design Several requirements, freshness of the design, dynamic efficiency, steel process ability and field workability and cost must be considered in designing the Seismic Facade. These requirements were partially inconsistent with one another and it was necessary to consider their balance. Figure 4 shows ideas of the steel frames for facade discussed by our design team. These ideas are roughly classified into three types: schemes of using braces (1 to 4), using panels (5, 6), and using frames (7, 8). Although breaking the repetitive patterns of member arrangement enhances the freshness of the design, it decreases dynamic and economic efficiency. As the result of our discussion, the scheme of dogleg brace, which has an impressive design despite the simple structure, was adopted. This brace is reasonable in terms of dynamics, and excellent in economic efficiency and workability, providing a sense of streaming motion by its design. 2.3 Outline of Seismic Retrofit Design Our policy for the building retrofit was to perform maximum earthquake strengthening under the three conditions: the retrofit should not affect the space of the office spaces, the retrofit should be done while people could stay in the building, and the retrofit should not require the foundation reinforcement of the existing building. The target IS value was determined to be 0.6 or higher. The following four seismic strengthening items including the Seismic Resistant Facade were implemented.

Figure 5: planning of seismic retrofit

Figure 6: feature of the seismic retrofit steel frame

The strengthening method and places are shown in the figure 5 and 6. 1) Set up the steel frame with the brace to the exterior walls of the western and northern sides. Lower the steel column down to the underground and integrate it with the existing underground RC building frame. 2) Reinforce the RC seismic wall of the existing wall to increase the thickness. 3) Wind carbon fiber sheets around the existing independent column to increase ductility of the column 4) Set up a reinforcing steel frame to the border area between the interior elevator hall and a tenant room. 2.4 Design of the Outer Steel Frames The columns of the existing building facing the two roads were located towards the inside of the building rather than the external wall, the cantilevered slab was removed by 40 cm and the steel frame was set there. Box-sections with 300 mm 300 mm were used for the columns and the braces were, and H-shaped sections with a depth of 300 mm (H-300 300, H-300150) were used for the beam and intermediate post. The dogleg pattern braces were set above the 2nd floor and could not be formed on the 1st floor as the entrance and exit needed to be ensured. A type of an eccentric brace was used for the longitudinal facade and the beam on the 2nd floor was enlarged. On the crosswise facade, a V-shaped brace was set in the center with an image of successive dogleg braces. The steel frames are needed to be connected with the beam of the existing building (Figure 6). The clearance between the exterior surface of the beams of the existent buildings and the interior surface of the steel frames was 1.4m and 0.76 m respectively in the western side and the north side of the building. A horizontal steel truss was set to the western side and a full-web horizontal beam was set to the north side. The stud bolts placed at the steel truss and beam and the reinforcing anchor placed at the existing RC beam were integrated by grout mortars (Figure 7, 8). These horizontal members transmit the shear force from the main structure of the building to the steel frame. However, the distance between the existing RC girder and the steel frame generates an eccentric moment. This moment becomes push-pull force into the orthogonal direction of the frame at the both ends of the frame. Thus, pull-resistant bolts were attached to the frame ends. When the brace is attached within the framework of the existing frame, axial force due to overturning moment rests on the existing frame, but this steel frame is independent and requires a foundation structure to transmit the overturning moment to the ground.

Figure 7: steel frames and connection detail


F F

Figure 8: connection detail of outer steel frame

X-direction Is

Y-direction Is

Figure9: seismic index

Figure 10: appearance at night time

The underground parts of the building extended across the border of the site from the exterior of the columns. Utilizing this situation, the steels were extended to the interior of the underground external wall and integrated with the underground columns and walls (Figure 6). By adding the stud bolts to the steel columns and the anchors to the existing RC column in the 2nd basement, and integrating these columns, the compressing force was applied to the existing foundation and the tension force was resisted by using the weight of the building frame. 2.5 Effect of Reinforcement Arrangement Figure 9 shows the change of the seismic index (IS) before and after the reinforcement. The strength was improved by structural reinforcement of the outer frame, interior steel frame, and strengthening the existing wall and increasing the ductility of the column by winding the carbon fiber. Another improvement is to correct the eccentricity of the horizontal stiffness of the structure. In this facade, the braces are visible through the glass with the background of the blinds during the daytime, while they are impressively expressed with blue LED lights during nighttime, giving a new expression to the surrounding streets (Figure 10).

3. Seismic Retrofit of Hamamatsu SALA 3.1 Outline of the Building The building is a complex building which was designed by Kisho Kurokawa in 1981, located in Hamamatsu city that is the region with a large possibility of occurrence of a great eathquake in near future (Figure11). Because the existent building became decrepit and had some problems in equipment, a refinement project started. It is a 7 stories building above the ground with 1 basement. The plan shape of the building is rectanglular under the 4th floor and is divided into two parts above the 5th floor. The structure of the building is a combined steel framed reinforced concrete frame (SRC) which is composed with full web steel member under the 3rd floor, and reinforced concrete frame (RC) above the 4th floor. The RC seismic resistant walls were placed in the perimeter of the building and around EV/staircase core. The Seismic Secondary Diagnosis of the existing building was done in both assumptions that the upper part of the building is unified and separated. According to the result of the diagnosis the seismic index of structure (IS value) was among 0.5 to 0.9. The target IS value was determined to be 0.72 or higher considered to seismic zoning. 3.2 Outline of Seismic Retrofit Design This retrofit project has improved the overall durability of the building, its convenience, amenity, openness, and energy conservation performance, etc. Seismic retrofit was to perform maximum earthquake strengthening under the following conditions: the retrofit should be done while people could stay in the building, and the retrofit should not require the foundation reinforcement of the existing building. Three sorts of seismic strengthening items were implemented. The main strengthening structural system called spiral braced belt reinforcement is the bracing frames placed around the building like a spiral (Figure 12). These bracing frames are covered with glass gradually colored. As another strengthening method, steel braces are attached to the existing RC/SRC column-beam, and RC seismic walls are additionally placed inside the building. The strengthening method and places are shown in the figure 13-14. Construction went on while people were staying in the building. The offices were moved to the part where construction had been successively completed.

Figure 11: appearance of the existing building

Figure 12: appearance of the retrofitted building

STEEL BRACING FRAME(OUTSIDE) STEEL BRACING FRAME(INSIDE) SEISMIC WALL

STEEL BRACING FRAME(OUTSIDE) STEEL BRACING FRAME(INSIDE) SEISMIC WALL

Figure 13: 1st floor plan and strengthen point

Figure 14:

5th

floor plan and strengthen point

NB
N0
NB

NC

NB

NC

N0

NB

NB=N0cos NC=N0sin
Steel bracing frame Glass package for Steel bracing

Figure 15: seismic retrofit diagram

Figure 16: force equilibrium of brace

3.3 Design of the Outer Steel Frames The main reinforcement method in the building is to place the steel brace to around the circumference of the building in spiral continually. As almost all of the columns and the beams are placed on the outer side of the existing building, the external brace reinforcement can be easily done in such condition. But because there are balconies and an atrium in the lower floors, it is difficult to place the outer steel frames in these portions. Considering these conditions and the quantity of necessary reinforcement, which varies in relation with floor and direction, the arrangement of the brace is planned. The braced frame is extended to distant portion from the building at the south-west corner. Although a rigid rectangle steel frame is placed around the brace in the normal structural system, it is the characteristic of this system that the diagonal edge line is formed by the brace (Figure 15). Two kinds of arrangement of the brace are used according to the direction. One is the arrangement of diagonal shape as the longitudinal facade; another is reverse-V or V pattern. The equilibrium of the force among braces, columns and beams in this system is different from normal strengthening frame with brace. As shown Figure 16, horizontal component and vertical component of the brace axial forces is in equilibrium to the force of columns and beams around the brace respectively in the normal structure. But in this system the force of the horizontal component and the vertical component of the brace axial forces is in equilibrium to the member of adjoining grid. The members of columns, beams and braces are used the same sized H-section members, 300 mm 300 mm

NC

NC

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0.0

X-direction
Before Retrofit

8
After Retrofit

Y-direction
Before Retrofit

After Retrofit

7 6 5 4 3

Floor

Unified Model EAST Block WEST BLock

Floor

2 1

Unified Model EAST Block WEST BLock

0.2

0.4

Is

0.6

0.8

1.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

Is

0.6

0.8

1.0

Figure 17: attachment of steel frame

Figure 18: seismic index

or 350 mm 350 mm in the same portion. The H-section brace members are attached cover plate because of avoiding buckling by pressure force. Anchor bolt was placed outside in the existing column and beam, and stud bolt was placed steel columns and beams, which were integrated by grout mortars (Figure 17). The overturning moment caused by the axial force in the brace is distributed through the whole frame; therefore the foundation of the existent building does not need to be stiffened. The new foundation of reinforced concrete is placed only at the south-west corner, where the brace is placed in extent to distant portion from the building. It is not only the foundation of the pressure force but also the counter weight of the tensile force to the amount of about 2000 kN. 3.4 Effect of Reinforcement Arrangement Figure 18 shows the change of IS index before and after the retrofit and to secure the target IS index (0.72). The strength was improved by the structural reinforcement of the outer steel frame, interior steel frame, and the reinforcement of the existing wall. The building with characteristic facade appearance became the new landmark of the city. As another retrofit, the concrete deterioration is prevented by the package of the steel panel. While improving the existing closed interior space, the new void is situated near the main entrance and the deck terrace is integrated to the interior. Conclusions The methods used in these projects were applied technologies that have been conventionally used, and an individual solution. These projects show the possibility that the role of seismic retrofit is not only the improvement of seismic resistance but also the enhancement of the interior space and renewal of the facade design. The scope of seismic retrofit design is proven to be wide. These methods shall be familiarized in the seismic retrofit of the urban area in the future. References [1] Japan Construction Disaster Prevention Association, the Seismic-capacity-evaluation basis and improvement design guide of the existing reinforced-concrete building, 2001 [2] Japan Construction Disaster Prevention Association, the Seismic-capacity-evaluation basis and improvement design guide of the existing steel reinforced-concrete building, 1997