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'37' NEHRU THE PEOPLES PRIME MINISTER

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the greatest men, the mother India ever produced. His life
and work left a deep impress on peoples mind, social structure and intellectual landscapes. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889 at Allahabad. It was because of his love and yearning for children that the day is celebrated as Childrens Day every year. The day is marked by children rallies, flag hoisting ceremonies, sport events, distribution of milk, fruit and toys among children, physical training displays, singing and dancing programmes. Nehru came from a family of migrant Kashmiri Pandits. Jawahar was the eldest of four children born to Pandit Motilal Nehru a practicing Lawyer, and Smt. Swarup Rani a house-wife mother. Until the age of 16 Nehru was mostly educated at home by English tutors. He was taught interalia Hindi and Sanskrit to enable him to comprehend the Indias composite culture. In 1905, he was sent to Harrow in England for further education. He spent three years in Cambridge to get an Honours Degree in Natural Sciences. He qualified to become a Barrister after two years of higher studies in London. His marriage with Kamla Kaul in 1916, blessed him with a daughter Indira Priyadarshini, who later rose to the position of Prime Minister, a few years after his demise. Nehrus passion to practice law was however, short-lived. Mahatama Gandhis ideology of fighting British imperialism without fear or hate attracted him. His affiliation to Indian National Council in 1919 saw a wave of nationalist search and imperialistic repression. He was first imprisoned in 1929, though he was detained several times, during which period he lost his parents and the ailing wife. So strong was his passion to see India as an independent country. Nehru blended a fine sensitivity of mind, a rare understanding of serious issues at home and abroad. His sincerity to the ideals cherished gave him the direction to his thoughts and mind his struggle for higher causes of human life and mobilized ideas to give them shape of freedom movement. He created, moulded, inspired and kindled a whole generation of Indians. Pandit jis mind always roved vast horizons. He nurtured scholastic influence, love for nature and fellow-beings particularly, for children. His intensive love for masses was all too obvious, when once he said, "I like to open my heart before my people. I draw inspiration from them that is why I want to be amidst them again and again". Nehrus love for children has become proverbial. He said, "I may not have time for adults, but I have enough time for children." In Shankars Weekly, a New Delhi periodical, Nehru says (Dec.26, 1950), "the vat army of children across the world, outwardly different kinds of clothes, and yet so very like another. If you bring them together, they play or quarrel, but even their quarrel is some kind of play. They do not think of differences amongst themselves, difference of class or caste or colour or status. They are wise than their father(s) or mother(s). As they grow

up, unfortunately, their natural freedom is often eclipsed by teaching and behaviour of elders. At school, they learn many things, which are no doubt useful, but they gradually forget that essential thing to be human and kind, playful and make life richer for ourselves and others". On being asked why Nehru was fond of children, irrespective of their innocence and mischievous nature, Panditji curtly replied, "It is a difficult question. I have no cut and dry answer". He added "the children of today will make the India of tomorrow. The way we bring them up will determine the future of the country." Whether corporal punishment of mischievous ones is punishment of mischievous ones is a must, Nehru disapproved and said, "there may be even some soft of penalty, but I totally abhor thrashing (hitting) without any motive. The only way to reform them is to win them over with love. So long as a child is unfriendly, you cant mend his ways. He can be disciplined, if his attention is drawn to some other activity, like a voluntary body in Delhi (1960s) "Bal Sahyog" used to do. They learn many things there during vocations, without any compulsion of sort and then their minds get diverted to constructive channels". On his birthday, during his office tenure as the Prime Minister, Nehru used to appear dressed in spotless white coloured achkan with churidar, a Gandhi cap, and a smiling rose deckling left pocket of achkan. He used to move in a cavalcade from Teen Murti, the official residence up to National Stadium in Delhi. Flowers, bouquets, garlands were showered on him. Cries of "Chacha Nehru Zindabad" rent the air. Even now, Shankars Weekly arranges drawing and on-the-spot painting competitions for children in two age groups. The Indian Council of Cultural Relations awards two medals to two deserving children in each State, one of the outstanding courage shown by a child in practical life, saving fellow members of the society. Let us pledge to emulate his philosophy, concepts and solutions to problems galore, which would be a fitting tribute to the noble spirit.

Essay Introduction: There is hardly any one who has not heard the name of Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru. Most of us had seen him with our own eyes. He was our first Prime Minister. He was an international figure. He was known all over the world. He was the maker of modern India. His Birth and Parentage: Pandit Nehru was born at Allahabad in 1889 on 14 th November. His father Motilala Nehru was a successful lawyer. He was a rich man. He brought up his son as a prince. He kept most efficient teacher to coach him. His Education: He passed his boyhood under the care of the best teachers. At the age of 15 he was sent to England for higher studies. There he joined the public school at Harrow. From this school he went to the Cambridge University. He took his degree in 1910. The he joined law. He was called to the bar in 1912. He returned to India. He began to practice at the Allahabad High Court. He was married at the age of 27. Work in the Political Field: In those days India was not a free country. The British ruled over it. The English treated Indians badly. This pained the patriotic heart of Jawahar Lal very much. He gave up his practice and his life of luxury. He joined the Non-cooperation Movement started by Mahatma Gandhi. He was sent to jail several times. He suffered punishment cheerfully. The hardships of jail could not crush his spirit. He continued the struggle bravely. He acted as Congress President in four different years. When India became free on August 15, 1947, he was selected as the first Prime Minister. His Work as the Prime Minister: Pt. Nehru was a successful Prime Minister. India made great progress under his guidance. Dr. Rajendra Prasad our late President, acknowledge his services when he said The country is marching forward on the road of progress in the leadership of Panditiji. He did a lot for the good of the World. Had Pt. Nehru lived some years more, the country would have reached its old height of glory. He solved some very difficult problems of the country as well as the world. His Death: China attacked India in 1962. This attack told upon his health. He never expected that China would prove treacherous. He had heart attack on 27 May 1964 and he passed away from this world. The entire world wept over his death. His Character: Pt. Jawahar Lal was a great statesman. He was a very good writer and speaker. He wrote many famous books. His speeches were very impressive. He was a great friend of the poor. He was the servant of the people in real sense. He worked day and night for the good of the country. He loved justice and truth. Conclusion: Nehru was a true lover of peace. He laid down five principles called punch shila. He declared that peace could be maintained in the world if all the nations followed these principles. May his should find abode in Paradise!

Born:November14,1889 Died:May27,1964 Achievements: Took active part in Non-Cooperation Movement; elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, and served for two years as the city's chief executive; Presided over Congress' annual session in Lahore in 1929 and passed a resolution demanding India's independence; elected as Congress President in 1936, 1937, and 1946; became first Prime Minister of independent India; was one of the main architects of Non Aligned Movement. Jawaharlal Nehru, also known as Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, was one of the foremost leaders of Indian freedom struggle. He was the favourite disciple of Mahatma Gandhi and later on went on to become the first Prime Minister of India. Jawahar Lal Nehru is widely regarded as the architect of modern India. He was very fond of children and children used to affectionately call him Chacha Nehru. Jawahar Lal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889. His father Motilal Nehru was a famous Allahabad based barrister. Jawaharlal Nehru's mother's name was Swaroop Rani. Jawaharlal Nehru was the only son of Motilal Nehru. Motilal Nehru has three daughters apart from Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehrus were Saraswat Brahmin of Kashmiri lineage. Jawaharlal Nehru received education in some of the finest schools and universities of the world. He did his schooling from Harrow and completed his Law degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. The seven years he spent in England widened his horizons and he acquired a rational and skeptical outlook and sampled Fabian socialism and Irish nationalism, which added to his own patriotic dedication. Jawaharlal Nehru returned to India in 1912 and started legal practice. He married Kamala Nehru in 1916. Jawahar Lal Nehru joined Home Rule League in 1917. His real initiation into politics came two years later when he came in contact with Mahatma Gandhi in 1919. At that time Mahatma Gandhi had launched a campaign against Rowlatt Act. Nehru was instantly attracted to Gandhi's commitment for active but peaceful, civil disobedience. Gandhi himself saw promise and India's future in the young Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru family changed its family according to Mahatma Gandhi's teachings. Jawaharlal and Motilal Nehru abandoned western clothes and tastes for expensive possessions and pastimes. They now wore a Khadi Kurta and Gandhi cap. Jawaharlal Nehru took active part in the Non- Cooperation Movement 1920-1922) and was arrested for the first time during the movement. He was released after few months. Jawaharlal Nehru was elected President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, and served for two years as the city's chief executive. This proved to be a valuable administrative experience for stood him in good stead later on when he became the prime minister of the country. He used his tenure to expand public education, health care and sanitation. He resigned in 1926 citing lack of cooperation from civil servants and obstruction from British authorities. From 1926 to 1928, Jawaharlal served as the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee. In 1928-29, the Congress's annual session under President Motilal Nehru was held. During that session Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose backed a call for full political independence, while Motilal Nehru and others wanted dominion status within the British Empire. To resolve the point, Gandhi said that the British would be given two years to grant India dominion status. If they did not, the Congress would launch a national struggle for full, political independence. Nehru and Bose reduced the time of opportunity to one year. The British did not respond. In December 1929, Congress's annual session was held in Lahore and Jawaharlal Nehru was elected as the President of the Congress Party. During that sessions a resolution demanding India's independence was passed and on January 26, 1930 in Lahore, Jawaharlal Nehru unfurled free India's flag. Gandhiji gave a call for Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. The movement was a great success and forced British Government to acknowledge the need for major political reforms. When the British promulgated the Government of India Act 1935, the Congress Party decided to contest elections. Nehru stayed out of the elections, but campaigned vigorously nationwide for the party. The Congress formed governments in almost every province, and won the largest number of seats in the Central Assembly. Nehru was elected to the Congress presidency in 1936, 1937, and 1946, and came to occupy a position in the nationalist movement second only to that of Gandhi. Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested in 1942 during Quit India Movement. Released in 1945, he took a leading part in the negotiations that culminated in the emergence of the dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947.

In 1947, he becamethe first Prime Minister of independent India. He effectively coped with the formidable challenges of those times: the disorders and mass exodus of minorities across the new border with Pakistan, the integration of 500-odd princely states into the Indian Union, the framing of a new constitution, and the establishment of the political and administrative infrastructure for a parliamentary democracy. Jawaharlal Nehru played a key role in building modern India. He set up a Planning Commission, encouraged development of science and technology, and launched three successive five-year plans. His policies led to a sizable growth in agricultural and industrial production. Nehru also played a major role in developing independent India's foreign policy. He called for liquidation of colonialism in Asia and Africa and along with Tito and Nasser, was one of the chief architects of the nonaligned movement. He played a constructive, mediatory role in bringing the Korean War to an end and in resolving other international crises, such as those over the Suez Canal and the Congo, offering India's services for conciliation and international policing. He contributed behind the scenes toward the solution of several other explosive issues, such as those of West Berlin, Austria, and Laos. But Jawahar Lal Nehru couldn't improve India's relations with Pakistan and China. The Kashmir issue proved a stumbling block in reaching an accord with Pakistan, and the border dispute prevented a resolution with China. The Chinese invasion in 1962, which Nehru failed to anticipate, came as a great blow to him and probably hastened his death. Jawaharlal Nehru died of a heart attack on May 27, 1964.