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in the magnetic field through a loop of wire. This process is called electromagnetic induction. In this POGIL, we will learn about the mathematical relationship, called Faraday's Law, that describes electromagnetic induction. Magnetic Flux The picture below shows a circular loop of wire with area A. A magnetic field B penetrates through the loop at an angle to the loops normal. Recall that a normal is an imaginary line perpendicular to a surface. loop of wire, area A normal

The flux of a magnetic field B is a quantity that describes the flow of the magnetic field through the area of the loop. In fact, the term flux comes from the Latin word for flow. The mathematical definition of magnetic flux is B= BAcos . The SI unit of measurement of magnetic flux is a T-m2. Suppose in the diagram above, the magnetic field is 0.5 T, the area of the loop is 0.01 m2, and the angle is 30. The flux through the loop of wire is then B = BAcos = (0.5 T)(0.01 m2) cos 30 = 4.33x103 T-m2. 1. In the picture below, a 2 T magnetic field penetrates through a circular loop of wire with a radius of 0.25 m. The angle between the plane of the loop and the magnetic field is 30. Calculate the magnetic flux through the loop.

0.25 m

B=2T 30

2. List the following loops of wire from least magnetic flux to greatest magnetic flux. Justify your answer. B=1T B=1T

B=1T

B A

3. List the following loops of wire from least magnetic flux to greatest magnetic flux. Justify your answer. B=1T B=2T B=3T

4. List the following loops of wire from least magnetic flux to greatest magnetic flux. Justify your answer. B=1T B=1T 25 B=1T A B C

5. Suppose the area of each loop in question 4 is 1 m2. Calculate the magnetic flux through each loop.

Faradays Law of Induction The diagram below shows a magnetic field penetrating through a coil of wire. In other words, there is a magnetic flux through the coil. B

Suppose the magnetic flux through the coil of wire changes with time, thereby inducing a voltage in the coil. Faradays Law of Induction describes how much voltage is induced in the coil of wire when the flux changes. It is written as E=N B , t

where E is the average induced voltage, N is the number of turns of wire in the coil (i.e. how many B times the wire was wrapped around the loop), and is the average rate of change of magnetic t flux. The amount of induced voltage is sometimes referred to as the electromotive force, hence the algebraic symbol E. This is an unfortunate name since electromotive force is not a force at all; it is a voltage, measured in volts. 6. In the diagram below, there is a magnetic flux through a coil of wire of 5 T-m2. The coil has 10 turns of wire. If the magnetic flux falls to 1 T-m2 in 2 s, what is the electromotive force in the coil of wire? B

7. In the diagram below, a 0.1 T perpendicular magnetic field penetrates through a coil of wire. The coil has 50 turns of wire and a radius of 10 cm. If the magnetic field increases to 1 T in 10 s, what is the electromotive force in the coil of wire? B = 0.1 T

8. In the diagram below, a 0.1 T perpendicular magnetic field penetrates through a coil of wire. The coil has 50 turns of wire and a radius of 10 cm. Suppose we rotate the coil in the direction shown so that 5 s later the plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic field. What is the average electromotive force induced in the coil? B = 0.1 T 5 s later B = 0.1 T

9. In a previous experiment, we observed that we can use a magnet to induce an electric current in a loop of wire by moving the magnet through the loop. Explain how Faradays Law of Induction predicts this result.

10. Also in the previous experiment, we observed that the faster the magnet moves, the greater the amount of electric current induced. Explain how Faradays Law of Induction predicts this result.

11. Suppose we have a coil of wire in a magnetic field. Describe three ways a voltage can be induced in the wire.

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