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Geotech Geol Eng (2008) 26:431441 DOI 10.

1007/s10706-008-9179-2

ORIGINAL PAPER

Characteristics of Singapore Marine Clay at Changi


A. Arulrajah M. W. Bo

Received: 22 August 2006 / Accepted: 24 February 2008 / Published online: 15 March 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Abstract Singapore marine clay at Changi is a quartenary deposit that lies within valleys cut in the Old Alluvium. It is locally known as Kallang formation. The pre-reclamation site characterization and laboratory testing was carried out by conducting marine sampling boreholes, in situ dissipation tests and eld vane test. In situ dissipation tests were conducted with the piezocone, at dilatometer, selfboring pressuremeter and BAT permeameter. The purpose of the site characterization was to determine the consolidation characteristics, strength characteristics, stratigraphy, and mineralogy of Singapore marine clay. The consolidation properties of marine clay are required prior to land reclamation activities in order to predict the magnitude and rates of settlement with the expected ll load and future service load as well as for the design of soil improvement works. The shear strength properties are required for slope stability analyses during reclamation and for the stability analyses of shore protection works. Clay mineralogy tests and photographic identication of the marine clay was carried

out to determine the mineralogical properties and to visually record the marine clay colour and texture. Keywords Dissipation testing Laboratory testing Mineralogy Shear strength Site investigation List of Symbols Cc Compression index ch Coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow ckv Vertical hydraulic conductivity change index Cc Recompression index cu Undrained shear strength cv Coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow Ca Secondary compression index eo Initial void ratio Gs Specic gravity kh Horizontal hydraulic conductivity kv Vertical hydraulic conductivity mv Coefcient of volume compressibility OCR Overconsolidation ratio St Degree of sensitivity of marine clay z Depth below seabed in meters cbulk Bulk density cw Unit weight of water 0 rvo Vertical effective stress 1 Introduction The research site is located in the Changi East Reclamation site in the Republic of Singapore. The

A. Arulrajah (&) Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences (H38) Hawthorn, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia e-mail: aarulrajah@swin.edu.au M. W. Bo DST Consulting Engineers Inc., Thunder Bay, ON, Canada

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project comprised the land reclamation and ground improvement works for the future expansion of Changi International Airport comprising the runway, taxiways, turn-offs and associated airport facilities. The area was submerged underwater with seabed elevation varying from -2 mCD to -8 mCD (Admiralty Chart Datum, where mean sea level is +1.6 mCD). The Northern Area of the project is underlain by marine clay up to 40 m thickness in certain areas and it is this portion of the project area that was investigated in this research study. A large numbers of boreholes were carried out in the project site prior to reclamation to obtain general characteristics and mineralogy of

the marine clay. Figure 1 indicates the project site plan. Physical and compressibility parameters of the marine clay at Changi were characterized from the laboratory tests while the shear strength parameters were evaluated from the eld vane shear tests data obtained. Clay mineralogy tests and photographic identication of the marine clay was carried out to determine the mineralogical properties and to visually record the marine clay texture. The objective of this paper is to report on the characteristics of the consolidation, strength and mineralogy of Singapore marine clay at Changi, as determined from laboratory and in situ tests.

Fig. 1 Project site plan (Choa et al. 2001)

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2 Materials and Methods 2.1 Marine Site Investigation Extensive soil investigation works consisting of marine boreholes, in situ tests and laboratory tests were carried out for the preliminary site investigation. Undisturbed samples taken from boreholes were tested in the laboratory to determine the physical, mineralogical, strength and consolidation characteristics of the marine clay. Marine soil investigation works were planned with the aid of the geophysical seismic reection survey. Boreholes were drilled at locations with thick marine clay and other locations for determination of the marine clay prole. Due to the large extent of the project area and variations in the underlying soil prole, a large number of marine boreholes were carried out with the use of offshore jack-up pontoons. Continuous undisturbed sampling was carried out throughout the marine clay layer for all boreholes. 2.2 Bathymetric and Seismic Reection Surveys Marine bathymetric surveys together with marine geophysical seismic reection surveys of the project area were carried out with the help of a water surfacetowed boomer proling system. The elevations of the bases of the compressible layers and the distribution of soft marine clay pockets deposited in submarine valley cuts were determined from the marine bathymetric and seismic reection surveys. The seismic survey vessel was tted with a Del Norte DDMU 540 trisponder, Atlas Deso 20 echo sounder and a boomer proling system. The survey operation was run at lines of 50 m spacing in alternate directions. Cross lines were run at 50 m spacing in alternate directions. For horizontal control of the survey, a trisponder positioning system was used to control the location of the survey vessel along pre-computed lines. A total of four shore stations were used at any one time. For vertical control of the survey, the tidal reduction of the survey area was carried out using tides observed at a tide gauge. Tidal data was obtained from the Port of Singapore Authority (Hydrographical Department). The echo sounder enabled the contouring of the seabed elevation prole while the boomer enabled the isoline of the base elevation of the marine clay to be

plotted. Hence the geological sequence description could be obtained based on the interpretation of the boomer data and this could be correlated with the existing marine boreholes data provided over the survey area. Figure 2 shows the typical geological prole of the project site. 2.3 Laboratory Testing of Singapore Marine Clay Laboratory tests to determine the physical and consolidation characteristics of the marine clay such as liquid limit, moisture content and consolidation tests were carried out on the retrieved soils samples. The objective of these tests was to establish the characteristics of the foundation soil and to obtain the soil parameters needed for the design. 2.3.1 Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity To determine the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the Singapore marine clay at Changi, oedometer consolidation tests were conducted. The oedometer specimens were 63.5 mm in diameter and 19 mm in height. The samples were conventionally trimmed horizontally (i.e., the loading surface is perpendicular to the axis of the sampling tube) so that the compressibility and coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow could be measured. The consolidation load was applied in 24 h loading stages with a load increment ratio of unity. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (kv) was obtained from e-log k relation and taken at the natural void ratio. kv values were generally calculated from coefcient of consolidation results: kv cv mv cw 1

where cv is the coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow; mv is the coefcient of volume compressibility and cw is the unit weight of water. 2.3.2 Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity As the oedometer test does not permit horizontal drainage, Rowe cell tests (Rowe 1966) which have provisions for horizontal drainage were used to determine coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch) and horizontal hydraulic conductivity (kh) of the marine clay. The Rowe cell used was 75 mm in diameter and 30 mm in thickness. The

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434 Fig. 2 Typical geological prole at the project site

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prepared samples were 72.5 mm in diameter and as such the thickness of the side drain was 2.5 mm. The consolidation load was applied in 24 hours stages with a load increment ratio of unity. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity, kh was taken from values at the natural void ratio and calculated from coefcient of consolidation. 2.4 In situ Dissipation Testing of Singapore Marine Clay In situ dissipation tests provide a means of evaluating the in situ coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow and horizontal hydraulic conductivity of marine clays. Dissipation tests by using piezocone (CPTU), dilatometer (DMT), self-boring

pressuremeter (SBPT) and BAT permeameter (BAT) were utilised in the characterization of the coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow and horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the marine clay. The method of carrying out the in situ dissipation tests using the various equipment has been discussed by Arulrajah et al. (2004, 2006a, b) and Bo et al. (1998). 2.5 Field Vane Shear Strength Testing of Singapore Marine Clay Following the completion of each marine sampling borehole, the rig on the offshore jack-up pontoon was shifted about 1 m and a eld vane shear test (FVT) was next carried at 1 m depth intervals. A Geonor

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eld vane was used in the testing and both undisturbed and remoulded shear strength were obtained from the tests. The method of conducting and analysing the eld vane shear test has been described by Flaate (1966) and Norwegian Geotechnical Society (1979). Field vane shear testing in Singapore marine clay at Changi has previously been reported by Bo et al. (2000, 2003a, b) and Arulrajah et al. (2004, 2006b). For many naturally deposited clay soils, the undrained shear strength is much less when the soils are tested after remoulding without any change in the moisture content. This property of clay is called the sensitivity. The degree of sensitivity (St) is the ratio of the undrained shear strength (cu ) in an undisturbed state to that in a remoulded state: St cu undistrubed=cu remoulded 2

3 Results 3.1 Laboratory Testing of Singapore Marine Clay The characterization study involved the execution of about 50 marine soil investigation boreholes. The soil investigation results indicated the presence of two distinct layers of marine clay which are the upper marine clay layer and the lower marine clay layer. The intermediate stiff clay layer which is also present is in reality the desiccated layer of the lower marine clay, which separates these two distinct marine clay layers. A typical soil prole and geotechnical parameters of a soil investigation borehole carried out in the project site is shown in Fig. 3. The range of physical and consolidation characteristics of the upper, lower and intermediate marine clay is tabulated in Table 1. Typically the upper

PRIOR TO RECLAMATION BOREHOLE PB-39 SEABED -3.29 m CD

W ATER CONTENT (%)

CLAY FRACTION (%)

FIELD VANE SHEAR 2 STRENGTH( kN/m )

COMPRESSION INDEX

PRECONSOLIDATION PRESSURE( kN/m )


2

50

100

20

40

60

50

100

0.5

1.5

100

200

300

FINE TO MEDIUM SAND

-5

-10

VERY SOFT MARINE CLAY WITH SOME SEA SHELL FRAGMENTS

-15

SOFT SILTY CLAY

Elevation (m CD)

FIRM SILTY CLAY

-20

SOFT MARINE CLAY

-25

-30

SOFT TO FIRM SILTY CLAY WITH TRACES OF ORGANIC MATTERS

CLAYEY SILTY SAND

-35

STIFF CLAYEY SAND DENSE SILTY SAND EFFECTIVE OVERBURDEN PRESSURE

DENSE CLAYEY SAND

-40

PL

M/C

LL

Fig. 3 Typical soil prole and geotechnical parameters of a soil investigation borehole (Bo et al. 2000)

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436 Table 1 Range of physical and consolidation characteristics of Singapore marine clay Parameters cbulk (kN/m3) WC (%) LL (%) PL (%) eo Gs Cc Ca Cr cv (m /yr) cvr (m2/yr) ch (m2/yr) OCR
2

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Upper marine clay 14.2315.7 7088 8095 2028 1.82.2 2.62.72 0.61.5 0.0120.025 0.090.16 0.470.6 37 23 1.52.5

Intermediate stiff clay 18.6419.6 1035 50 1820 0.70.9 2.682.76 0.20.3 0.00430.023 0.080.15 14.5 1030 510 34

Lower marine clay 15.716.67 4060 6590 2030 1.11.5 2.72.75 0.61.0 0.0120.023 0.140.2 0.81.5 410 35 2

marine clay ranges between 0 and 5.5 m to about 1025 m below the seabed. The upper marine clay has a liquid limit of between 80% and 95%, plastic limit of between 20% and 28% and water content of 7088%. The upper marine clay is generally overconsolidated with OCR of about 1.52.5. The upper marine clay has a compression index (Cc) of 0.61.5 and secondary compression index (Ca) of 0.0120.025. The coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow (cv) of the upper marine clay is between 0.47 and
Fig. 4 Vertical hydraulic conductivity versus depth plot from laboratory testing

0.6 m2/year while the coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch) is between 2 and 3 m2/year. The lower marine clay ranges to a depth of 3050 m below the seabed. The lower marine clay has a liquid limit of 6590%, plastic limit of 2030% and water content of 4060%. The lower marine clay is lightly overconsolidated with OCR of 2. The lower marine clay has a compression index (Cc) of 0.61.0 and secondary compression index (Ca) of 0.0120.023. The coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow (cv) of the lower marine clay is between 0.8 and 1.5 m2/year while the coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch) is between 3 and 5 m2/year. The intermediate stiff clay is sandwiched between the upper marine clay and lower marine clay. This 35-m thick layer comprises of predominantly stiff sandy silt or sandy clay. The intermediate stiff clay has a liquid limit of about 50%, plastic limit of 1820% and water content of 1035%. The intermediate stiff clay is moderately overconsolidated due to dessication, with OCR of 34. The intermediate stiff clay has a compression index (Cc) of 0.20.3 and secondary compression index (Ca) of 0.00430.023. The coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow (cv) of the intermediate marine clay is between 1 and 4.5 m2/year while the coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch) is between 5 and 10 m2/year. Figure 4 shows the vertical hydraulic conductivity versus depth plots for the marine clay. Vertical

Location 2 Location 3 Location 4 Location 5

10

15

Depth (m)

20

25

30

35

40 1.00E-10

1.00E-09

1.00E-08

1.00E-07

Vertical Hydraulic Conductivity, kv(m/s)

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1.75

437

1.50

Ckv Marine Canadian Clays Ckh Marine Canadian Clays Ckv Varved Canadian Clays Ckh Varved Canadian Clays

1.25

Ckv Other Clays Ckh Other Clays Ckv Bothkennar Ckh Bothkennar Ckv Singapore Marine Clays Ckh Singapore Marine Clays

1.00

Ckv
0.75

0.50

0.25

0.00

for Singapore marine clay at Changi. This has been compared to other clays in the gure and differences are apparent due to the different formation and deposition histories of these soft soils. Consolidation tests were carried out with Rowe cell and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity (kh) values were calculated from coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch). kh from laboratory tests versus depth plots are shown in Fig. 6. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity values were found to range between 3 9 10-9 and 8 9 10-8 m/s, which is much higher than the laboratory vertical hydraulic conductivity. The kh/kv ratio for the Singapore marine clay at Changi is about 1.5 and as such, the hydraulic conductivity anisotropy is not signicant for the Singapore marine clay at Changi.
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

0.0

0.5

1.0

eO

Fig. 5 Relationship comparison with ckv to eo of various clays from laboratory testing (Bo et al. 1998)

3.2 In situ Dissipation Testing of Singapore Marine Clay The coefcients of consolidation due to horizontal ow, ch as obtained from various in situ tests prior to reclamation is shown in Fig. 7. The pre-reclamation CPTU dissipation test indicates the ch values in the marine clay vary between 2 and 4 m2/year. All the in situ tests indicate large ch values in the intermediate stiff clay layer. The coefcients of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, kh as obtained from the various in situ dissipation tests are shown in Fig. 8. Based on the

hydraulic conductivity values, (kv) from laboratory tests were found to range between 2 9 10-10 and 1.5 9 10-8 m/s for the Singapore marine clay. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values from laboratory tests do not show a systematic decrease with increasing depth. The relationship between in situ initial void ratio and vertical hydraulic conductivity change index (ckv) as shown in Fig. 5, is found to be ckv = 0.3eo
Fig. 6 Horizontal hydraulic conductivity versus depth plot from laboratory testing
0
Location 1 Location 2

Location 3 Location 4

10

Depth (m)

15

20

25

30 1.00E-10

1.00E-09

1.00E-08

1.00E-07

Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity, kh (m/s)

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438 Fig. 7 Coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow from various in situ dissipation tests
0

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CPTU2: Prior to reclamation DMT2 (A and C readings): Prior to reclamation SBPT2 (pore pressure cell): Prior to reclamation

-5
Laboratory results: Prior to reclamation

-10

Elevation (mCD)

-15

-20

-25

-30 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
2

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

c h (m /yr)

Fig. 8 Coefcient of horizontal hydraulic conductivity from various in situ dissipation tests

-5

-10

Elevation (mCD)

-15

-20

-25

CPTU2: Prior to reclamation DMT2 (A and C readings): Prior to reclamation SBPT2 (pore pressure cell): Prior to reclamation BAT2: Prior to reclamation Laboratory Result: Prior to reclamation

-30 1.00E-11

1.00E-10

1.00E-09

1.00E-08

1.00E-07

k h (m/s)

results obtained, the BAT was found to give the lowest values whereas the dilatometer and CPTU gave the highest values. The same observation has been reported by Bo et al. (1998) and Chu et al. (2002) in the reclamation site for tests carried out prior to land reclamation. The laboratory results are also close to that of the BAT results. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of in situ tests was found to range between 10-8 and 10-10 m/s for the marine clay. Dilatometer and CPTU values range between

10-9 and 10-10 m/s while the BAT and SBPT are in the 10-910-10 m/s range. 3.3 In situ Shear Strength of Singapore Marine Clay The undrained shear strength of the upper marine clay is between 10 and 30 kPa while that of the lower marine clay is between 30 and 60 kPa. The sensitivity of the marine clay at Changi varies from 3 to 8 which

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Geotech Geol Eng (2008) 26:431441 Fig. 9 Variation of eld vane sensitivity with depth
0

439

-5

-10

-15

DEPTH (m)

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

-45 0 5 10 15 20 25

FIELD VANE SENSITIVITY

can be described as highly sensitive. Figure 9 indicates the sensitivity of the marine clay at the Northern Area of the project site. The undrained shear strength obtained from the eld vane tests was analysed to obtain empirical correlations of the undrained shear strength (cu) and the normalized shear strength ratios of the marine clay. The empirical correlations obtained from the eld vane tests were reported by Bo et al (2003b) as follows:  cu 10 1:6z kN m2 for upper marine clay 3 cu 10 2z cu r0vo 0:37   kN m2 for upper marine clay 4 5

0 where z is the depth below seabed in meters and rvo is the vertical effective stress. The empirical correlations obtained indicate that the marine clay is soft and slightly overconsolidated. Details discussion on undrained shear strength can be found in Bo et.al (2003b).

4 Discussion 4.1 Laboratory Testing Tavenas et al. (1983) stated that permeability anisotropy is not a signicant parameter in most massive

marine clays. Larsson (1981) stated that isotropy of Swedish clay with the difference between kh and kv is in the range of measurement error. Rowe (1966) stated that oedometer consolidation tests carried out on a small diameter Rowe cell should give lower value of ch and kh if the fabric effect is signicant. This may not be the case for Singapore marine clay at Changi, which is of recent Quaternary age, where the type of clay is homogeneous with less frequent siltsand lamination. Tavenas et al. (1983) has explained that in the oedometer test there is a non-homogeneous condition and coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow, cv is much faster near the drainage boundary than in the middle of the specimen. However cv values are taken as an intermediate value and it would be difcult to transform into hydraulic conductivity values using the suggested equation. This is because proper quantication of corresponding mv, void ratio and effective stress is difcult. This could thus be the reason for the non-systematic variation of the hydraulic conductivity values. However, vertical hydraulic conductivities were evaluated from cv values derived from Taylors method (Taylor 1948) which is likely to give a closer estimation to the actual in situ hydraulic conductivity. Leroueil et al. (1992) stated that ckv deduced from oedometer tests under-estimates the real values. Tavenas et al. (1983) explained that the underestimation of void ratio versus log hydraulic conductivity

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relationship at small void ratios could be associated with the use of mean values instead of void ratio at the upper boundary where hydraulic conductivity is measured. 4.2 In situ Testing Among the in situ tests the ch values in the marine clay layers from SBPT are the highest overall while that from the CPTU test indicate the least variations with depth. It is observed that all the methods indicate large ch values in the intermediate stiff clay layer. It can be said that the in situ tests results vary from one test method to another and the results are relatively higher overall as compared to the laboratory testing results. Based on the results of the in situ horizontal hydraulic conductivity obtained, the BAT was found to give the lowest values whereas the dilatometer and CPTU gave the highest values. The results from the BAT tests can be used as the baseline data since the system measures horizontal hydraulic conductivity directly whereas the other in situ tests required the introduction of additional parameters to evaluate the hydraulic conductivity indirectly from ch values. 4.3 Geology and Formation History of Singapore Marine Clay The marine clay found in the project site belongs to the marine member of the Kallang Formation (Public Works Department Singapore 1976). This formation is underlain by Old Alluvium. The preliminary site investigation and geophysical survey of the project site revealed that the Singapore marine clay at Changi consists of two marine members locally known as the upper and the lower marine clays. These soft to medium stiff clay members are recent deposits of estuarine origin. The upper and lower marine clays are separated by a layer of medium stiff to stiff clay 25 m in thickness. This layer locally termed as intermediate clay is reddish in colour and is believed to be the desiccated crust of the lower marine clay resulting from the exposure of the seabed to the atmosphere during the rise and fall of the sea levels in the geological past. It is the onset of the Wurm/Wisconsin glacial period approximately 75,000 years ago which brought on an extremely rapid drop of sea level to

about 140 m below the present sea level about 18,000 years ago. There has been a tremendous transgression of the sea over the land in the last 10,00020,000 years. With further uplift of land and regression of the seas, more erosion and deposition took place. These cycles of aggregation and erosion had occurred many times throughout the geological ages before giving rise to the present marine clay formation in Eastern Singapore (Yong et al. 1990). This is evident in the geological prole of the project site, in which three successive layers of marine clay are observed, suggesting that at least three cycles must have taken place.

5 Conclusions The characterization study indicated the presence of two distinct layers of marine clay which are the upper marine clay layer and the lower marine clay layer. The intermediate stiff clay layer which is also present is in reality the desiccated layer of the lower marine clay, which separates these two distinct marine clay layers. Singapore marine clay can be described as highly plastic silty clay, except for the intermediate stiff clay. The upper marine clay has a liquid limit (LL) of between 80% and 95%, plastic limit (PL) of between 20% and 28% and water content (WC) of 7088%. The upper marine clay is generally overconsolidated with OCR of about 1.52.5. The upper marine clay has a compression index (Cc) of 0.61.5 and secondary compression index (Ca) of 0.0120.025. The laboratory testing results indicate that the coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow (cv) of the upper marine clay is between 0.47% and 0.6 m2/year while the coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch) is between 2 and 3 m2/year. The lower marine clay has a liquid limit of 6590%, plastic limit of 2030% and water content of 4060%. The lower marine clay is lightly overconsolidated with OCR of 2. The lower marine clay has a compression index (Cc) of 0.61.0 and secondary compression index (Ca) of 0.0120.023.The laboratory testing results indicate that the coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow (cv) of the lower marine clay is between 0.8 and 1.5 m2/year while the coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch) is between 3 and 5 m2/year.

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The intermediate stiff clay is sandwiched between the upper marine clay and lower marine clay. The intermediate stiff clay has a liquid limit of about 50%, plastic limit of 1820% and water content of 1035%. The intermediate stiff clay is moderately overconsolidated due to dessication, with OCR of 34. The intermediate stiff clay has a compression index (Cc) of 0.20.3 and secondary compression index (Ca) of 0.00430.023.The laboratory testing results indicate that the coefcient of consolidation due to vertical ow (cv) of the intermediate marine clay is between 1 and 4.5 m2/year while the coefcient of consolidation due to horizontal ow (ch) is between 5 and 10 m2/year. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values, (kv) from laboratory tests was found to range between 2 9 1010 and 1.5 9 10-8 m/s for the Singapore marine clay. The relationship between in situ initial void ratio and vertical hydraulic conductivity change index, ckv is found to be ckv = 0.3eo for the Singapore marine clay at Changi. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity values were found to range between 3 9 10-9 and 8 9 10-8 m/s, which is slightly higher than the laboratory vertical hydraulic conductivity. The kh/kv ratio for the Singapore marine clay at Changi is about 1.5 and as such, the hydraulic conductivity anisotropy is not signicant for the Singapore marine clay at Changi. The pre-reclamation in situ CPTU dissipation test indicates the ch values in the marine clay vary between 2 and 4 m2/year. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity of in situ tests was found to range between 10-8 and 10-10 m/s for the marine clay. Dilatometer and CPTU values range between 10-9 and 10-10 m/s while the BAT and SBPT are in the 10-910-10 m/s range. The results from the BAT tests can be used as the baseline data since the system measures horizontal hydraulic conductivity directly. The BAT results are also in good agreement with the laboratory testing results. 0 The cu/rvo ratio of the marine clay was found to be 0.37. The sensitivity of the marine clay at Changi varies from 3 to 8, which can be described as highly sensitive. Photographic identication of Singapore marine clay indicated that upper- and lower-marine clay layers is brownish-blue and consisted of organic deposits and ne sand particles. The intermediate stiff clay layer is reddish due to oxidation of the layer as a result of exposure of the seabed to the atmosphere

during the rise and fall of the sea levels in the geological past.
Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Dr. A. Vijiaratnam the Former Chairman of SPECS Consultants (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. for his support in the submission of these research ndings.

References
Arulrajah A, Nikraz H, Bo MW (2004) In situ testing of Singapore Marine Clay at Changi. Geotech Geol Eng 23(2):111130 Arulrajah A, Nikraz H, Bo MW (2006a) In situ pore water pressure dissipation testing of marine clay under reclamation lls. Geotech Geol Eng 24:2943 Arulrajah A, Nikraz H, Bo MW (2006b) Assessment of marine clay improvement under reclamation lls by in situ testing methods. Geotech Geol Eng 24:219226 Bo Myint Win, Arulrajah A, Choa V (1998) Hydraulic conductivity of Singapore marine clay. Q J Eng Geol 31(4):291299 Bo Myint Win, Chang MF, Arulrajah A, Choa V (2000) Undrained shear strength of the Singapore marine clay at Changi from in situ tests. Geotech Eng J Southeast Asian Geotech Soc 31(2):91107 Bo MW, Chu J, Low BK, Choa V (2003a) Soil improvement Prefabricated vertical drain techniques. Thomson Learning, Singapore 068808 Bo MW, Choa V, Hong KH (2003b) Material characteristic of Singapore marine clay at Changi. Q J Eng Geol Hydroge 36(4):305321 Choa V, Bo MW, Chu J (2001) Soil Improvement Works for the Changi East Reclamation Project. Ground Improv 5(4):141153 Chu J, Bo MW, Chang MF, Choa V (2002) Consolidation and permeability properties of Singapore marine clay. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 128(9):724732 Flaate K (1966) Factors inuencing the results of vane tests. Can Geotech J 3(1):1831 Larsson R (1981) Drained behaviour of Swedish clays. Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Report No. 12, Sweden Leroueil S, Lerat P, Hight DW, Powell JJM (1992) Hydraulic conductivity of a recent estuarine silty clay at Bothkennar. Geotechnique 42:275288 Norwegian Geotechnical Society (1979) Recommended procedures for vane borings. August, Norway Public Works Department Singapore (PWD) (1976) The geology of Singapore. Publication by the Public Works Department, Singapore Rowe RW, Barden L (1966) A new consolidation cell. Geotechnique 26(2):162170 Tavenas F, Leblond P, Jean P, Leroueil S (1983) The permeability of natural clays. Part 1: methods of laboratory measurement. Can Geotech J 20:629644 Taylor DW (1948) Fundamentals of soil mechanics. Wiley, New York Yong KY, Karunaratne GP, Lee SL (1990) Recent developments in soft clay engineering in Singapore. Kansai International Geotech Forum 90, Osaka, Japan, pp 18

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