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Conversational class: main point of this class is to ensure variation and delay of information between transmitter and receiver

must be different. Services of this class include: voice, video conference, video game Streaming class: this class doesnt require different delay but variation of information must be the same. Services belong to this class include: Streaming multimedia, Video on Demand Interactive class: Services in this class must ensure the interactiveness of data application. Those are web browsing, network game Background: the integrity of data must be ensured but not interactive. These services are files downloading, emails

UE handles the following tasks towards the core network:

Mobility management Call control Session management Identity management

Node B is Base Transceiver Station in UMTS, similar to BTS in GSM. Main function of Node B is related to radio frequencies processing such as modulation, coding, spreading... RNC (Radio Network Controller) is similar to BSC in GSM. Its function is to manage and control radio resources between all NodeBs. CN (Core Network): is the central part of a telecom network that provides various services to customers who are connected by the access network. One of the main functions is to route calls across the PSTN

This Figure shows the messages sequences for handover from WCDMA to GSM. When the UE has a circuit-switched service and the signal strength falls below a given threshold, the WCDMA network orders the UE to perform GSM measurements. Typically, the UE is instructed to send a measurement report when the quality of a neighboring GSM cell exceeds a given threshold and the quality from WCDMA is unsatisfactory. When UTRAN receives the measurement report message, it initiates the handover, given that all the criteria for handover have been fulfilled---for example, provided the UE is not involved in services that require WCDMA. UTRAN then asks the target BSS to reserve resources. The target BSS prepares a handover command message, which includes the

details of the allocated resources. This GSM message, which is sent to the UE via the WCDMA radio interface, is transferred within a container that is transparently passed on by the different network nodes. When the UE receives the handover command, it moves to the target GSM cell and established the radio connection in accordance with the parameters included in the handover command message. The UE indicates successful completion of the handover by sending a handover complete message to the BSS, after which the GSM network initiates the release of the WCDMA radio connection.

2G to 3G At present Metfone hasnt allowed HO from 2G to 3G. 3G to 2G - UE uses 2D event to measure 2G signal when the following conditions are met: + Ec/No of serving cell=<Threshold used frequency Ec/No2D-HystEc/No2D + RSCP of serving cell=<Threshold used frequency RSCP2D-HystRSCP2D Two conditions above happen after TTT (Time to trigger of 2D event). UE uses 2F to stop measure 2G signal when the following conditions are met:

+ Ec/No of serving cell>= Thresholod used frequency Ec/No2F+HystEc/No2F + RSCP of serving cell>= Thresholod used frequency RSCP2F+HystRSCP2F Two conditions above happen after the TTT (Time toTrigger of 2F). Parameters meaning: Threshold used frequency Ec/No, threshold used frequency RSCP are thresholds for making all events of serving cell. HystEc/No, HystRSCP are delay to inform events. TTT (Time to Trigger) is period between detection of Event X and sending of Measurement

UE uses 3A to decide to make Inter-RAT handover when the following conditions are met:

+ RSCP of serving cell =< Threshold own SystemRSCP3A-HystRSCP3A.

+ Ec/No of serving cell =< Threshold own SystemEc/No3A-HystEcNo3A. + RSSI of strongest GSM neighbor cell>=Threshold other system3A+HystRSSI 3A Three conditions above happen after the TTT duration (Time to Trigger of 3A event). Parameters meaning: Threshold own system Ec/No, threshold own system RSCP are thresholds to make 3A event of serving cell. HystEc/No, HystRSCP are delay to infrom 3A event. TTT: Time to Trigger is delay when all events are satisfied after this duration, 3A event will happen.